1 1. In future time, the King Mashiach2 will arise and renew the Davidic dynasty, restoring it to its initial sovereignty. He will rebuild the [Beis Ha]Mikdash and gather in the dispersed remnant of Israel. Then, in his days, all the statutes will be reinstituted as in former times. Sacrifices will be offered and the Sabbatical and Jubilee years will be observed according to all their particulars as commanded in the Torah.

Whoever does not believe in him, or does not await his coming, denies not only [the statements of] the other prophets, but also [those of] the Torah and of Moshe, our teacher, for the Torah attests to his coming, stating:3

And the L‑rd your G‑d will bring back your captivity and have compassion upon you. He will return and gather you [from among all the nations].... Even if your dispersed ones are in the furthest reaches of the heavens, [from there will G‑d gather you in].... G‑d will bring you [to the land]....

These explicit words of the Torah include all that was said [on the subject] by all the prophets.

There is also a reference [to Mashiach] in the passage concerning Bilaam, who prophesied about the two anointed [kings]: the first anointed [king],4 David, who saved Israel from her oppressors, and the final anointed [king] who will arise from among his descendants and save Israel [at the End of Days].5 The following [quoted] phrases are from that passage:6

“I see it, but not now” – This refers to David; “I perceive it, but not in the near future” – This refers to King Mashiach.

“A star shall go forth from Yaakov” – This refers to David; “and a staff shall arise in Yisrael” – This refers to King Mashiach.

“He shall crush all of Moab’s princes” – This refers to David, (as it is written,7 “He smote Moab and measured them with a line”); “he shall break down all of Seth’s descendants” – This refers to King Mashiach, (about whom it is written,8 “He will rule from sea to sea”).

Edom will be demolished” – This refers to David, (as it is written,9Edom became the servants of David”); “his enemies, Seir, will be destroyed” – This refers to King Mashiach, (as it is written,10 “Saviors will ascend Mount Zion [to judge the mountain of Esau....]”).

2. Similarly, in regard to the Cities of Refuge, it is stated,11 “When G‑d will expand your borders... you shall add three more cities.” This command has never been fulfilled. [Surely,] G‑d did not give this command in vain, [and thus the intent was that it be fulfilled after the coming of Mashiach]. There is no need to cite prooftexts on the concept [of the Mashiach] from the words of the prophets, for all [their] books are filled with it.

3. One should not entertain the notion that the King Mashiach must work miracles and wonders, bring about new phenomena within the world, resurrect the dead, or perform other similar deeds. This is [definitely] not true.

[A proof can be brought from the fact that] Rabbi Akiva, one of the greatest Sages of the Mishnah, was a supporter [lit., “an arms-bearer”] of King Ben Koziva, and would describe him as the King Mashiach. He and all the Sages of his generation considered him to be the King Mashiach until he was killed because of [his] sins. Once he was killed, they realized that he was not [the Mashiach]. The Sages did not ask him for any signs or wonders.

[Rather,] this is the main thrust of the matter: This Torah, with its statutes and laws, is everlasting. We may neither add to them nor detract from them.12

4. If a king will arise from the House of David, who, like David his ancestor, delves deeply into the study of the Torah and engages in the mitzvos as prescribed by the Written Law and the Oral Law; if he will compel all of Israel to walk in [the way of the Torah] and repair the breaches [in its observance]; and if he will fight the wars of G‑d; – we may, with assurance, consider him Mashiach.

If he succeeds in the above, defeats all the nations around him, builds the [Beis Ha]Mikdash on its site, and gathers in the dispersed remnant of Israel, he is definitely the Mashiach.13

He will perfect the entire world, [motivating all the nations] to serve G‑d together, as it is written,14 “For I shall then make the peoples pure of speech so that they will all call upon the Name of G‑d and serve Him with one purpose.”