SECTION 494 The Order of Prayers on the Festival of Shavuos (1-20)

סימן תצד סֵדֶר תְּפִלַּת חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת וּבוֹ כ' סְעִיפִים:

1 The fiftieth day of the counting of the omer is the festival of Shavuos,1 which the Sages2 referred to as Atzeres, as it is written,3 “You shall count 50 days4 and you shall offer… and you shall proclaim that very day as [one] declared holy.”

According to the fixed reckoning of the months that is observed at present,5 Nissan is always a full month6 and the month of Iyar is always lacking.7 [Hence,] the festival [of Shavuos] will always be [celebrated] on the sixth of Sivan, for the days of the counting [of the omer]begin on the sixteenth of Nissan.8 Thus, the 50 days will include the fifteen days from the sixteenth [of Nissan] until the end of that month, 29 days of Iyar, and six days of Sivan. Therefore, we refer to Shavuos as “the season of the Giving of our Torah,” because the Torah was given to the Jews on the sixth of Sivan.

By contrast, in the era when the new moon was consecrated based on the testimony of witnesses sighting [the new moon], it was possible that the month of Nissan would also be lacking,9 and the festival of Shavuos, which is the fiftieth day of the omer, would be[celebrated] on the seventh of Sivan. And [similarly,] if [not only Nissan, but] Iyar was also a full month,10 the festival of Shavuos, which is the fiftieth day of the omer, would be[celebrated] on the fifth of Sivan.11 Although [these dates] are not the anniversary of the Giving of Torah, that is not of consequence. [The rationale is that] Scripture did not designate this festival as the anniversary of the Giving of Torah, nor [did it] establish [the festival] on a specific day of the month. Rather, [the festival] was ordained [to be celebrated] on the fiftieth day of the omer. It is only that according to the fixed [calendar] followed at present, the fiftieth [day] of the omer will always be on the sixth of Sivan, which is the day the Torah was given.12

True, the sixth of Sivan is the fifty-first day from the fifteenth of Nissan, the date the Jews left Egypt, and the Torah was given on the fifty-second day after the Exodus from Egypt.13 [This calculation is arrived at in the following manner:] The Jews left Egypt on a Thursday, as explained in sec. 430[:1].14 The Torah was given “in the third month” on Shabbos, on the sixth of Sivan.12 [That is possible because, that year,] both Nissan and Iyar were full months.15 Since the fifteenth of Nissan was on Thursday, the first day of Iyar was on Shabbos, sixteen days after [the Jews] left Egypt. The first day of Sivan was on Monday,16 46 days after they left Egypt. The sixth of Sivan, which fell on Shabbos, was thus 52 days after the Exodus from Egypt, which [would correspond to] the fifty-first day of the omer.17Nevertheless, [in our prayers and Kiddush,]we refer to the fiftieth [day] of the omer [i.e., the day we celebrate Shavuos] as “the season of the Giving of our Torah,” since our [fiftieth day of the omer] is the sixth of Sivan, and the Torah was given on that day.

א בְּיוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים לִסְפִירַת הָעֹמֶר הוּא חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹתא,1 הַנִּקְרָא עֲצֶרֶתב,3 בִּלְשׁוֹן חֲכָמִים,ג,2 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "תִּסְפְּרוּ חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם4 וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם וְגוֹ'ד וּקְרָאתֶם בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה מִקְרָא קֹדֶשׁ וְגוֹ'".ה

וּלְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן קְבִיעוּת הֶחֳדָשִׁים הַמָּסוּר בְּיָדֵינוּ5 שֶׁחֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן הוּא מָלֵא לְעוֹלָם6 וְחֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר הוּא חָסֵר לְעוֹלָםו,7 – יִהְיֶה חַג זֶה בְּשִׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן, שֶׁהֲרֵי יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה מַתְחִילִין מִט"ז בְּנִיסָן,ז,8 אִם כֵּן ט"ו יוֹם שֶׁמִּט"ז עַד סוֹף הַחֹדֶשׁ וְכ"ט יוֹם שֶׁל אִיָּר וְשִׁשָּׁה יָמִים בְּסִיוָן הֵם חֲמִשִּׁים יוֹם. לְפִיכָךְ אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים בְּשָׁבוּעוֹת: "זְמַן מַתַּן תּוֹרָתֵנוּ",ח שֶׁבְּשִׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן נִתְּנָה הַתּוֹרָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל.ט

אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיוּ מְקַדְּשִׁין הֶחֳדָשִׁים עַל פִּי הָרְאִיָּה הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לִהְיוֹת גַּם חֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן חָסֵר,9 וְהָיָה חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת, שֶׁהוּא יוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים לָעֹמֶר, בְּשִׁבְעָה בְּסִיוָן. וְאִם הָיָה גַּם חֹדֶשׁ אִיָּר מָלֵא,10 הָיָה חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת, שֶׁהוּא יוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים לָעֹמֶר, בַּחֲמִשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן.י,11 אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּיוֹם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁהַכָּתוּב לֹא תָּלָה חַג הַזֶּה בְּיוֹם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, וְלֹא בְּכַמָּה יָמִים לַחֹדֶשׁ, רַק בַּחֲמִשִּׁים לָעֹמֶר, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן הַמָּסוּר בְּיָדֵינוּ לְעוֹלָם יִהְיֶה יוֹם חֲמִשִּׁים לָעֹמֶר בְּשִׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה.יא,12

וְאַף שֶׁשִּׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן שֶׁלָּנוּ הוּא יוֹם נ"א מִט"ו בְּנִיסָן שֶׁבּוֹ יָצְאוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְהַתּוֹרָה נִתְּנָה בְּיוֹם נ"ב לְצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם,13 שֶׁהֲרֵי בַּחֲמִשָּׁה בְּשַׁבָּת יָצְאוּ מִמִּצְרַיִםיב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"ל,יג,14 וְהַתּוֹרָה נִתְּנָה "בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי" בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת,יד שֶׁהוּא שִׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן,12 שֶׁחֹדֶשׁ נִיסָן וְאִיָּר הָיוּ אָז שְׁנֵיהֶם מְלֵאִים,15 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁט"ו בְּנִיסָן הָיָה חֲמִישִׁי בַּשַּׁבָּת הָיָה יוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל אִיָּר בְּשַׁבָּת, דְּהַיְנוּ [י"ז] יוֹם לְצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְיוֹם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל סִיוָן הָיָה בְּיוֹם ב',16 דְּהַיְנוּ [מ"ז] יוֹם לְצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם, וְשַׁבָּת הוּא שִׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן, דְּהַיְנוּ נ"ב יוֹם לְצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם, שֶׁהוּא יוֹם נ"א לָעֹמֶר17 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים: "זְמַן מַתַּן תּוֹרָתֵנוּ" בַּחֲמִשִּׁים לָעֹמֶר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לָנוּ בְּשִׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן, וּבְשִׁשָּׁה בְּסִיוָן נִתְּנָה הַתּוֹרָה:

2 On the eve of all the other festivals, it is customary to recite the Evening Service of the festival early,18 while it is still day, for the reason explained in sec. 267[:2].19 Nevertheless, on the night of Shavuos, the Evening Service must be delayed until the appearance of the stars. [The rationale is that] if [the prayers] were recited early and [the congregation] would accept the sanctity of the festival in the Shemoneh Esreh while it was still day, it would be as if they subtracted a slight amount [of time] from the 49 days of the counting [of the omer]that [must] precede this festival, and the Torah stated,20 “They shall be seven complete weeks.”21

For this reason, one should also not recite the festive Kiddush while it is still day, even if he recites it before the Evening Service.22

ב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל עַרְבֵי יוֹם טוֹב נוֹהֲגִין לְהַקְדִּים תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית שֶׁל יוֹם טוֹב18 מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רס"ז,טו,19 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלֵיל שָׁבוּעוֹת מְאַחֲרִין לְהִתְפַּלֵּלטז לְאַחַר צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים, שֶׁאִם יַקְדִּימוּ וִיקַבְּלוּ קְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב בִּתְפִלָּה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁחִסְּרוּ מְעַט מִמ"ט יְמֵי הַסְּפִירָה שֶׁלִּפְנֵי חַג הַזֶּה, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה:יז,20 "שֶׁבַע שַׁבָּתוֹת תְּמִימֹת תִּהְיֶינָה".יח,21 וּמִזֶּה הַטַּעַם אֵין לְקַדֵּשׁ גַּם כֵּן קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםיט אַף קֹדֶם תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית:כ,22

3 There are many who follow the custom of remaining awake the entire night [of Shavuos] and occupying themselves in Torah [study].23 [Those who study all night] should occupy themselves primarily with [the study of] the Oral Law.24 (If, however, [the time for one’s wife to] immerse25 is [Shavuos] night, one should be intimate [with her].26 See sec. 240.)27

Those [who remain awake all night] should be careful not to recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim [which is recited upon ritually washing one’s hands] in the morning – see sec. 4[:13]28 – and not to recite the blessing over the tzitzis they wore [all] night – see sec. 8[:27].29 Whether one should recite the blessings over Torah [study] in the morning is explained in sec. 47[:7]; consult that source.30

ג נוֹהֲגִין הַרְבֵּה לִהְיוֹת נֵעוֹרִים כָּל הַלַּיְלָה לַעֲסֹק בַּתּוֹרָהכא,23 (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא לֵיל טְבִילָה25 – יְשַׁמֵּשׁ מִטָּתוֹ,כב,26 עַיֵּן סִימָן ר"מכג,27), וְעִקַּר הָעֵסֶק יִהְיֶה בְּתוֹרָה שֶׁבְּעַל פֶּה.כד,24

וּצְרִיכִים הֵם לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדַיִם" בַּבֹּקֶר"כה עַיֵּן סִימָן ד',כו,28 וְשֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַטַּלִּית קָטָן שֶׁהָיָה לָבוּשׁ בּוֹ בַּלַּיְלָהכז עַיֵּן סִימָן ח'.כח,29 וְאִם יְבָרְכוּ בִּרְכַּת הַתּוֹרָה בַּבֹּקֶר – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן מ"ז,כט עַיֵּן שָׁם:30

4 On the first day of Shavuos, after completing Hallel (all the laws of Hallel that apply on this day are explained in sec. 488[:2-4]31 –) two Torah scrolls are taken out, for the reason mentioned in sec. 488[:6].32 From the first scroll, five men read33 from [the passage beginning],”34 “In the third month after the Exodus” in Parshas Yisro until the end of that parshah, because it reflects the theme of the festival, for the Torah was given on this day.35

The maftir reads the passage [beginning],”36 “On the day [of the offering] of the first [fruits]” from the second scroll. As the Haftarah, he recites Yechezkel’s [vision of] the [Divine] chariot,37 because at Sinai, the Holy One, blessed be He, was revealed with “myriads upon myriads of angels.”38 It is customary to conclude with the verse,39 “And a wind bore me,” even though it is not written in proximity to the [vision of] the [Divine] chariot.40

ד בְּיוֹם א' שֶׁל שָׁבוּעוֹת אַחַר גְּמַר הַהַלֵּל (וְכָל דִּינֵי הַהַלֵּל בְּיוֹם זֶה נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"חל,31) מוֹצִיאִין ב' סִפְרֵי תּוֹרָהלא מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"ח.לב,32 וְקוֹרִין בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה א' חֲמִשָּׁה גַּבְרֵילג,33 בְּפָרָשַׁת יִתְרוֹ:34 "בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת"לד עַד סוֹף הַסִּדְרָה,לה שֶׁהוּא עִנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל יוֹם שֶׁבּוֹ נִתְּנָה הַתּוֹרָה.לו,35 וְהַמַּפְטִיר קוֹרֵא בְּסֵפֶר תּוֹרָה ב' בְּפָרָשַׁת פִּנְחָס:36 "וּבְיוֹם הַבִּכּוּרִים וְגוֹ'".לז וּמַפְטִיר בַּנָּבִיא בְּמֶרְכָּבָה דִּיחֶזְקֵאל,לח,37 עַל שֵׁם שֶׁנִּגְלָה הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּסִינַי בְּרִבּוֹא רְבָבוֹת "אַלְפֵי שִׁנְאָן".לט,38 וְנוֹהֲגִין לְסַיֵּם בַּפָּסוּק39 "וַתִּשָּׂאֵנִי רוּחַ",מ אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ כָּתוּב כְּלָל אֵצֶל הַמֶּרְכָּבָה:40

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

5 It is customary in some places that this Haftarah is read by a wise man of great stature.41 An allusion to this [practice can be derived from the teaching],42 “The [vision of] the Divine chariot should not [be expounded upon]… except to a wise man, who can comprehend [such matters] through his understanding.”

ה וְנוֹהֲגִין בְּמִקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁגָּדוֹל וְחָכָם קוֹרֵא זֹאת הַהַפְטָרָה.מא,41 וְסֶמֶךְ לַדָּבָר:42 "וְלֹא בְּמַעֲשֵׂה מֶרְכָּבָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ":מב

6 Some follow the custom of [reading this Haftarah]while standing. [The intent is] not that only the reader [stands] – for, as initial preference, the reader should always stand when reciting the Haftarah as a measure of respect for the congregation – but rather that all of those who read in a hushed tone together with the reader43 should read [this passage] while standing, as a measure of respect for this [reading].44

ו יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְאָמְרָהּ מְעֻמָּד,מג וְלֹא הַמַּפְטִיר בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לַעֲמֹד לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּכָל הַהַפְטָרוֹת מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹד הַצִּבּוּר,מד אֶלָּא אַף כָּל מִי שֶׁקּוֹרֵא אוֹתָהּ בְּלַחַשׁ עִם הַמַּפְטִירמה,43 קוֹרְאָהּ מְעֻמָּד, מִפְּנֵי כְּבוֹדָהּ:44

7 Those who follow the custom of chanting [the hymn] Akdamus45after reading the first verse of the Torah reading, should not be admonished. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who support their practice even though they are making an interruption in the midst of the Torah reading regarding a matter that is not necessary for the Torah reading. Nevertheless, in places where there is no [established] custom, it is preferable to chant Akdamus before [the person called up to the Torah as] kohen begins to recite the blessing before the Torah reading.

Similarly, on the second day, it is preferable to begin [the hymn] Yatziv Pisgam before the maftir recites the blessings before the Haftarah. This is the practice currently observed in many places.46

ז הַנּוֹהֲגִין לְשׁוֹרֵר "אַקְדָּמוּת"מו,45 אַחַר שֶׁקָּרְאוּ בַּתּוֹרָה פָּסוּק רִאשׁוֹן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּפְסִיקִין בְּאֶמְצַע הַקְּרִיאָה בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ צֹרֶךְ הַקְּרִיאָה – אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם, כִּי יֵשׁ שֶׁמְּיַשְּׁבִין מִנְהָגָם.מז אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִנְהָג, יוֹתֵר טוֹב לְשׁוֹרֵר "אַקְדָּמוּת" קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִיל הַכֹּהֵן לְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵי קְרִיאַת הַתּוֹרָה. וְכֵן "יַצִּיב פִּתְגָּם"מח בְּיוֹם שֵׁנִי, יוֹתֵר טוֹב לוֹמַר קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִיל הַמַּפְטִיר לְבָרֵךְ לִפְנֵי הַהַפְטָרָה.מט וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ עַכְשָׁו בְּהַרְבֵּה מְקוֹמוֹת:46

8 There are two types of melodies with which the Ten Commandments are read:47 In the first [melody], each of the commandments is read as one verse, whether it is very long or very short. For example, [the verses], Anochi, “I am [G‑d]…,” “You shall not have [other gods…],” “You shall not make [other gods…],” “Do not bow down [to them]…,” “And performing kindness…,” are all [read as] one verse. [The rationale is that] “Anochi, ‘I am G‑d…,’ and ‘You shall not have [other gods…],’ were related as one utterance.”48 Therefore, the letter nun (נ) of the word panai is vocalized with a patach (ַ ) and not with a kamatz ( ָ )because there is no esnachta49 or sof passuk50[after it].

Similarly, the verses Zachor, “Remember [the day of Shabbos]…,” “Six days [shall you work…],” “The seventh [day]…,” and “For six days…,” are all [read as] one verse. Therefore, the chaf of the word chol that follows the word ve’asisa has a soft sound51 [i.e., it is not read as kol]. The two words Lo tirtzoch are [read as] one verse. Therefore, the tzadi (צ)should be vocalized with a kamatz, for it is the end of a verse. The taf has a hard sound because the word lo is read with the cantillation note tipcha, which creates an interruption.

Similarly, lo tinaf is [read as] one verse. [Hence,] the taf has a hard sound and the alef is vocalized with a kamatz. Similarly, the taf of lo tignov has a hard sound.

ח בַּעֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹתנ יֵשׁ ב' מִינֵי נְגִינוֹת:נא,47 הָאֶחָד עוֹשֶׂה מִכָּל דִּבּוּר פָּסוּק אֶחָד, אַף שֶׁהוּא אָרֹךְ אוֹ קָצָר מְאֹד, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁ"אָנֹכִי", וְ"לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ", וְ"לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה לְךָ", וְ"לֹא תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה", "וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד", הֵם פָּסוּק אֶחָד, שֶׁ"אָנֹכִי" וְ"לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ" בְּדִבּוּר אֶחָד נֶאֶמְרוּ.נב,48 וּלְפִיכָךְ תֵּבַת "פָּנַי" הַנּוּ"ן נְקוּדָה פַּתָּ"ח וְלֹא קָמַ"ץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שָׁם אֶתְנַחְתָּא49 וְלֹא סוֹף פָּסוּק.50

וְכֵן "זָכוֹר", וְ"שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים", "וְיוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי", וְ"כִי שֵׁשֶׁת", הֵם פָּסוּק אֶחָד. וּלְפִיכָךְ הַכָּ"ף שֶׁל תֵּבַת "כָל" הַסְּמוּכָה לְתֵבַת "וְעָשִׂיתָ" הִיא רְפוּיָה וְלֹא דְּגוּשָׁה.51

וּב' תֵּבוֹת "לֹא תִּרְצָח" הֵם פָּסוּק אֶחָד שָׁלֵם. וּלְפִיכָךְ הַצָּדִ"י הִיא נְקוּדָה קָמַ"ץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם סוֹף פָּסוּק, וְהַתָּי"ו דְּגוּשָׁה, לְפִי שֶׁתֵּבַת "לֹא" הִיא מֻטְעֶמֶת בְּטַעַם מַפְסִיק, דְּהַיְנוּ טִפְּחָא.

וְכֵן "לֹא תִּנְאָף" הוּא פָּסוּק אֶחָד שָׁלֵם, וְהַתָּי"ו דְּגוּשָׁה וְהָאָלֶ"ף נְקוּדָה קָמַ"ץ.

וְכֵן "לֹא תִּגְנֹב", הַתָּי"ו דְּגוּשָׁה:

9 In the second [melody, the commandment beginning], Anochi, “I am [G‑d],” is read as one verse. [The words,] “You shall not have [other gods…]” begins a second verse. According to this approach, the nun of panai should be read with a kamatz because the cantillation note on this word, sof passuk, [indicates the end of a verse].

Similarly, [the commandment] Zachor, “Remember [the Shabbos]…,” is one verse, and [the words,] “Six days [shall you work…,] is a second verse. Therefore, the kaf of the word kol [that follows the word ve’asisa] has a hard sound [because it follows a pausal cantillation].

[The commandments] Lo sirtzach, lo sinaf, lo signov, and lo saaneh are all [read as] one verse. Therefore, the tafs, [which begins these verbs] all have soft sounds [because they follow open syllables with no pause intervening]. The tzadi of sirtzach should be vocalized with a patach [because its cantillation does not denote a strong pause], and the alef of sinof should be vocalized with a kametz because its cantillation note, esnachta,[indicates a pause].

ט וְהַשֵּׁנִי עוֹשֶׂה מֵ"אָנֹכִי" פָּסוּק אֶחָד, וּמִ"לֹּא יִהְיֶה לְךָ" פָּסוּק שֵׁנִי. וּלְפִי זֶה הַנּוּ"ן שֶׁל "פָּנָי" הוּא בְּקָמַ"ץ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם סוֹף פָּסוּק.

וְכֵן "זָכוֹר" הוּא פָּסוּק אֶחָד, וְ"שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים" הוּא פָּסוּק שֵׁנִי. וּלְפִי זֶה הַכָּ"ף שֶׁל תֵּבַת "כָּל" הִיא דְּגוּשָׁה.

"לֹא תִרְצַח", וְ"לֹא תִנְאָף", וְ"לֹא תִגְנֹב", וְ"לֹא תַעֲנֶה", הַכֹּל פָּסוּק אֶחָד. וּלְפִי זֶה כָּל תָּי"ו מֵהֶם רְפוּיָה, וְהַצָּדִ"י שֶׁל "תִרְצַח" הִיא בְּפַתָּח, וְהָאָלֶף שֶׁל "תִנְאָף" הִיא בְּקָמַץ, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם אֶתְנַחְתָּא:

10 The reason for the two melodies is that the first is structured according to the manner [in which the commandments] are written [in the Torah]. For each commandment is a separatesection.52 From [the verse beginning] Anochi, “I am [G‑d],” until [the words] “Do not take [G‑d’s name in vain],” is one closed section53 and one commandment.54 Therefore, it should be read as one verse. The same applies [for the verses beginning with the word] Zachor, “Remember the Shabbos…” until Lo tirtzoch.55 However, [the four verses] from Lo tirtzoch until lo sachmod are written as four closed sections, and they are four commandments. Therefore, they are read as four verses.

י וְטַעַם ב' נְגִינוֹת הוּא, שֶׁהָרִאשׁוֹן הוּא מְסֻדָּר לְפִי הַכָּתוּב, שֶׁנִּכְתַּב כָּל דִּבּוּר וְדִבּוּר בְּפָרָשָׁה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ,52 שֶׁמֵּ"אָנֹכִי" עַד "לֹא תִשָּׂא" הִיא פָּרָשָׁה אַחַת סְתוּמָה53 וְדִבּוּר אֶחָד,54 לְכָךְ נַעֲשָׂה מִמֶּנּוּ פָּסוּק אֶחָד. וְכֵן מִ"זָּכוֹר" עַד "לֹא תִּרְצָח".55 אֲבָל מִ"לֹּא תִּרְצָח" עַד "לֹא תַחְמֹד" נִכְתַּב בְּד' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת סְתוּמוֹת, וְהֵם ד' דִּבּוּרִים, לְכָךְ נַעֲשָׂה מֵהֶם ד' פְּסוּקִים:


Fig. 1



11 The second melody is structured according to the way [the Torah] is read, [i.e., according to the way the Torah is generally read, in which instance, the four commandments] from lo sirtzach until lo sachmod are [considered as] only one verse.56 [Thus,] it is [always] forbidden to fully interrupt one’s reading in the middle of this verse, even if one is reading [it] only as an individual.57 [The rationale is that] the division [of the] entire [Torah] into separate verses is a halachah transmitted to Moshe at [Mount] Sinai. It is forbidden to interrupt in a place where Moshe did not make an interruption at Sinai.58

Since it is forbidden to fully interrupt the reading between these four short sections, therefore even when they are read together,59 they should be read in a melody that joins them, making them a single verse. For in truth, they are a single verse, since there is no verse in the Torah that is shorter than three words.60

Similarly, [the reading from the words] Anochi to [the words] Lo sisa,61and [the reading] from [the word] Zachor until [the words] Lo sirtzach are divided into several verses when they are read. The intent is that an individual is permitted to make a full pause in the midst of the passages [beginning] Anochi and Zachor, only[when he reaches] the end of a verse. When [reading] communally as well, it is only forbidden to stop [in middle of those passages] because of people who enter or leave [in the middle of the reading], as stated in sec. 138.62 [Otherwise, one may stop in the middle of a section.] Therefore, [these passages] are read in a melody that breaks [them] into several verses, for in fact, they are several verses when counting the [total] number of verses [in the Torah].63

On Shavuos, however, it is customary to read [the Ten Commandments] communally using the first melody, [i.e.,] to read each commandment as a single verse, [even when the commandment contains several verses or only part of a verse. The rationale is that since] the Ten Commandments were given on that day, we read them in the same manner they were given, each commandment constituting a distinct verse.

There are some who follow the custom of always using the first melody when reading [the Ten Commandments] communally, even on Shabbos Parshas Yisro and Shabbos Parshas Va’eschanan.64[According to this custom,] the second melody is only used when a person reads [the commandments] privately.

יא וְהַשֵּׁנִי הוּא מְסֻדָּר לְפִי הַקְּרִי, שֶׁלְּעִנְיַן הַקְּרִיאָה אֵין מִ"לֹּא תִרְצַח" עַד "לֹא תַחְמֹד" אֶלָּא פָּסוּק אֶחָד בִּלְבַד,56 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק קְרִיאָתוֹנג לְגַמְרֵינד בְּתוֹךְ אֶמְצַע פָּסוּק זֶה אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁקּוֹרֵא בְּיָחִיד,נה,57 שֶׁכָּל הַפְסָקוֹת הַפְּסוּקִים הֵם הֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, וְאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא פָּסַק לָנוּ מֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַי,נו,58 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק הַקְּרִיאָה לְגַמְרֵי בְּאֶמְצַע ד' פָּרָשִׁיּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת הַלָּלוּ, אִם כֵּן גַּם כְּשֶׁקּוֹרְאִין בְּפַעַם אֶחָד59 – הֵם נִקְרָאִים בִּנְגִינָה הַמְחַבֶּרֶת אוֹתָן לַעֲשׂוֹת מִכֻּלָּן פָּסוּק אֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵם בֶּאֱמֶת פָּסוּק אֶחָד, שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ בְּכָל הַתּוֹרָה פָּסוּק פָּחוֹת מִג' תֵּבוֹת.נז,60

וְכֵן מֵ"אָנֹכִי" עַד "לֹא תִשָּׂא",61 וּמִ"זָּכוֹר" עַד "לֹא תִרְצַח", הֵן מֻפְסָקִים לְכַמָּה פְּסוּקִים לְעִנְיַן הַקְּרִיאָה, דְּהַיְנוּ לְעִנְיַן שֶׁהַיָּחִיד מֻתָּר לְהַפְסִיק קְרִיאָתוֹ לְגַמְרֵינח בְּאֶמְצַע פָּרָשַׁת "אָנֹכִי" וְ"זָכוֹר", רַק שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּסוֹף פָּסוּק. וְאַף בְּצִבּוּר אֵין אִסּוּר לְהַפְסִיק שָׁם אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם הַנִּכְנָסִין וְיוֹצְאִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קל"ח,נט,62 לְכָךְ הֵם נִקְרָאִים בִּנְגִינָה הַמַּפְסֶקֶת אוֹתָן לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן כַּמָּה פְּסוּקִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵן בֶּאֱמֶת כַּמָּה פְּסוּקִים לְעִנְיַן מִנְיַן הַפְּסוּקִים.ס,63

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בַּעֲצֶרֶת נוֹהֲגִין לִקְרוֹת בְּצִבּוּר בְּהָרִאשׁוֹן, לַעֲשׂוֹת מִכָּל דִּבּוּר פָּסוּק אֶחָד, לְפִי שֶׁבּוֹ בַּיּוֹם נִתְּנוּ עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, לְכָךְ קוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְּנוּ כָּל דִּבּוּר בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד.סא

וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִיןסב לִקְרוֹת בְּצִבּוּר בְּהָרִאשׁוֹן לְעוֹלָם, אַף בְּשַׁבָּת פָּרָשַׁת יִתְרוֹ וּבְשַׁבָּת פָּרָשַׁת וָאֶתְחַנַּן,64 רַק הַיָּחִיד הַקּוֹרֵא לְעַצְמוֹ – קוֹרֵא בַּשֵּׁנִי:

12 On the second day [of the festival observed in the Diaspora], five men read from the passage Kol habechor.65The maftir reads from the Torah passage beginning, “On the day [of the offering] of the first fruits,” as on the first day [of the holiday]. From the Prophets, he reads [the passage]:66 “A prayer of Chabakuk,” until [the verse]:67 “To the conductor [to play] with my melodies.” In some places, [the Haftarah is begun] from “G‑d is in His holy Temple.”68

יב בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי קוֹרִין חֲמִשָּׁה גַּבְרֵי בְּפָרָשַׁת "כָּל הַבְּכוֹר",סג,65 וְהַמַּפְטִיר קוֹרֵא בַּתּוֹרָה "וּבְיוֹם הַבִּכּוּרִים" כְּמוֹ בָּרִאשׁוֹן,סד וּמַפְטִיר בַּנָּבִיאסה,66 "תְּפִלָּה לַחֲבַקּוּק"סו עַד67 "לַמְנַצֵּחַ בִּנְגִינוֹתָי".סז וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּתְחִילִין מִן "וְה' בְּהֵיכַל קָדְשׁוֹ":סח,68

13 It is customary to read Megillas Rus [i.e., the Book of Ruth]on Shavuos, since it is “the season of the Giving of the Torah.” [The intent is] to teach that the Torah is given only through hardship and deprivation, just as Ruth [suffered] when she converted.69 A blessing is not recited over the reading of this scroll, as explained in sec. 490[:17].70

יג נוֹהֲגִין לִקְרוֹת מְגִלַּת רוּת בְּשָׁבוּעוֹתסט שֶׁהוּא זְמַן מַתַּן תּוֹרָה, כְּדֵי לִלְמֹד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנָה תּוֹרָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי יִסּוּרִין וְעֹנִיע כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה לְרוּת כְּשֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרָה.69 וְאֵין מְבָרְכִין כְּלוּם עַל קְרִיאַת מְגִלָּה זוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"צ:עא,70

14 On Shavuos, it is customary to spread [fragrant] grasses71 in the synagogue and in homes as a remembrance of the joy of the Giving of the Torah.

It is permitted to spread [these grasses] even on the festival itself. Even if the grasses are not fit to be eaten. They are not considered as muktzeh, since on the day before the festival the person thought about spreading them out on the festival. See sec. 308[:50, 55].72 Nevertheless, if Shavuos falls [directly] after Shabbos, one should not spread [these grasses] out on Shabbos. True, it is permitted to carry them. However, spreading out [the grasses] on Shabbos for the sake of the festival resembles preparing for a festival on Shabbos, and it is forbidden to prepare anything for a festival on Shabbos even if the matter does not at all involve forbidden labor, as will be explained in sec. 503[:3].73

יד וְנוֹהֲגִין לִשְׁטֹחַ עֲשָׂבִים71 בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתעב וּבַבָּתִּיםעג בְּשָׁבוּעוֹת, זֵכֶר לְשִׂמְחַת מַתַּן תּוֹרָה.עד וְאַף בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ מֻתָּר לְשָׁטְחָן אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינָן רְאוּיִין לְמַאֲכָל, וְאֵין בָּהֶם אִסּוּר מֻקְצֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָשַׁב עֲלֵיהֶן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב לְשָׁטְחָן בְּיוֹם טוֹב,עה עַיֵּן סִימָן ש"ח.עו,72

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם חָל שָׁבוּעוֹת אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת – לֹא יִשְׁטְחֵם בְּשַׁבָּת.עז אַף שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹטְחָן בְּשַׁבָּת לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹ מֵכִין מִשַּׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב, וְאָסוּר לְהָכִין כְּלוּם מִשַּׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹבעח אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם סֶרֶךְ מְלָאכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"ג:עט,73

15 It is customary to place trees in the synagogue and in homes74 to recall that we are judged with regard to the fruits of trees on Shavuos,75 and [thus,] people will pray for them [to flourish].

טו נוֹהֲגִין לְהַעֲמִיד אִילָנוֹת בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּבַבָּתִּים,פ,74 כְּדֵי לְהַזְכִּיר שֶׁבַּעֲצֶרֶת נִדּוֹנִין עַל פֵּרוֹת הָאִילָןפא,75 וְיִתְפַּלְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם:פב

16 It is customary in all places to eat dairy foods on the first day of Shavuos.76 [This custom should be observed, for] the customs observed by our ancestors have [the power of] Torah Law,77 [particularly so,] because many reasons were given for it.78 [Nevertheless,] it is also a mitzvah to eat meat on all festivals, as will be explained in sec. 529[:4, 7].79 Therefore, one must be careful not to violate the prohibition against [eating] meat and milk [during the same time period]. One should follow [the guidelines] stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 88 and sec. 89.80

Those who are accustomed to baking bread kneaded with milk or butter should be careful that when the oven is heated before they bake [this bread in it], it should be heated thoroughly to the extent that sparks emerge81 from it. [This will] purge any sauce from meat that might have been spilled on [the oven’s floor] at times and been absorbed in it. ([When heating the oven,] the coals must be passed over the entire surface; see sec. 461[:1].)

Similarly, one should be careful to use a new baker’s peel to remove this bread from the oven. One should not remove it with the same peel used to remove other breads that were not [kneaded with] milk [or other dairy ingredients. This restriction applies] even if one desires to turn [the peel] over to its other side. [The rationale is that] when one uses it to remove the bread kneaded with milk from [the oven], the flavor of milk will be absorbed throughout [the peel].82 Afterwards, when [the person] will bake another [loaf of] bread to eat with meat, and he will remove it [from the oven] with this peel, the flavor of milk will be released from [the peel] and absorbed in the bread’s (surface, as stated in sec. 451[:56]).

True, if the person violated [these instructions and removed both a bread kneaded with milk and an ordinary bread with the same peel], it is permitted to eat the [ordinary] bread with meat. [The rationale for leniency is that the flavor of the milk absorbed in the ordinary bread is] a secondary flavor that is permitted (nat bar nat diheteira),83 as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 94.84 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is forbidden to create [a situation involving] a secondary flavor [that is permitted], as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 95.85

(The laws that apply to milk that was milked on a festival will be explained in sec. 505[:5-6]. Consult that source.)86

טז נוֹהֲגִין בְּכָל הַמְּקוֹמוֹת לֶאֱכֹל מַאַכְלֵי חָלָב בְּיוֹם א' שֶׁל שָׁבוּעוֹת,פג,76 וּמִנְהַג אֲבוֹתֵינוּ תּוֹרָה הִיא,פד,77 כִּי הַרְבֵּה טְעָמִים נֶאֶמְרוּ עָלָיו.פה,78

וּלְפִי שֶׁמִּצְוָה לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר בְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקכ"ט,פו,79 לְפִיכָךְ צְרִיכִין לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי אִסּוּרפז בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב, וְיַעֲשׂוּ כַּכָּתוּב בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן פ"ח ופ"ט.פח,80

וְהַנּוֹהֲגִים לֶאֱפוֹת לֶחֶם נִלּוֹשׁ בְּחָלָב אוֹ בְּחֶמְאָה – יִזָּהֲרוּ כְּשֶׁמַּסִּיקִין הַתַּנּוּר קֹדֶם הָאֲפִיָּה שֶׁיַּסִּיקוּהוּ יָפֶהפט בְּעִנְיַן שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִצּוֹצוֹת נִתָּזִין מִמֶּנּוּ,צ,81 כְּדֵי לְהַפְלִיט מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת רֹטֶב שֶׁל בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּשְׁפַּךְ עָלָיו לִפְעָמִים וְנִבְלַע בְּתוֹכוֹ (וְשֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַגֶּחָלִים מְהַלְּכִים עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלּוֹ, עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"אצא).

וְכֵן יִזָּהֲרוּ לִקַּח מִרְדֶּה חֲדָשָׁהצב לְהוֹצִיא בָּהּ לֶחֶם זֶה מִן הַתַּנּוּר. וְלֹא יוֹצִיאוּהוּ בְּמִרְדֶּה שֶׁמּוֹצִיאִין בָּהּ שְׁאָר כָּל הַלְּחָמִים שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁל חָלָב, אֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצִים לְהָפְכָהּ עַל צִדָּהּ הַשֵּׁנִי,צג לְפִי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו יְהֵא נִבְלָע בָּהּ טַעַם הֶחָלָב בְּכָל עָבְיָהּצד כְּשֶׁיּוֹצִיאוּ בָּהּ לֶחֶם נִלּוֹשׁ בְּחָלָב,82 וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיֹּאפוּ לֶחֶם אַחֵר לְאָכְלוֹ עִם בָּשָׂר וְיוֹצִיאוּהוּ בְּמִרְדֶּה זוֹ – יְהֵא נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ טַעַם הֶחָלָב וְיִבָּלַע בַּלֶּחֶם (כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"אצה).

וְאַף שֶׁאִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה כֵּן מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל לֶחֶם הַהוּא עִם בָּשָׂר, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם בַּר נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר,83 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ד,צו,84 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת נוֹתֵן טַעַם בַּר נוֹתֵן טַעַם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ה.צז,85

(וְדִין הֶחָלָב שֶׁנֶּחֱלַב בְּיוֹם טוֹב – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"הצח עַיֵּן שָׁם86):

17 One who distributes fragrant herbs to the congregation in the synagogue should be careful not to distribute [the herbs] to [the congregants] from Baruch She’amar until after Shemoneh Esreh. [The rationale is that] before Baruch She’amar or after Shemoneh Esreh, [the congregants] may recite the [required] blessing over the fragrance that reaches them. However, from Baruch She’amar until after Shemoneh Esreh, [the blessing may not be recited because] it is forbidden to interrupt [one’s prayers] through speech [to recite the blessing at this time].87 Thus, [those receiving the herbs] will be deriving benefit from the fragrance without first reciting a blessing.88

True, it is permitted to make an interruption between the [different] sections of [this part of the service] even for the honor of another person.89 Nevertheless, it is forbidden to make an interruption to recite a blessing over the fragrance. [The rationale is that] this blessing is not an obligation at all, for a blessing must be recited over a fragrance only when one has the intent to smell it. If, however, a fragrance reaches a person and he does not intend to [smell it] but benefits from it by force [of circumstance], he should not recite a blessing, as stated in sec. 217.90 If so, a person who is in [the midst of prayer] in a place where he is forbidden to interrupt, should not intend to smell the fragrance, and [therefore] should not interrupt [his prayers] to recite a blessing [over it].

יז הַמְחַלֵּק עִשְׂבֵי בְּשָׂמִים לְהַצִּבּוּר בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת – יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְחַלֵּק לָהֶם מִ"בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר" עַד לְאַחַר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה,צט שֶׁקֹּדֶם "בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר" אוֹ לְאַחַר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה יְכוֹלִין הֵן לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרֵיחַ הַמַּגִּיעַ לָהֶם, אֲבָל מִ"בָּרוּךְ שֶׁאָמַר" עַד לְאַחַר שְׁמוֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה אָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק בְּדִבּוּרק,87 וְיֵהָנֶה מֵהָרֵיחַ בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,88 שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בֵּין פֶּרֶק לְפֶרֶק שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַפְסִיק אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁבִיל כְּבוֹד בָּשָׂר וָדָםקא,89 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרֵיחַ,קב לְפִי שֶׁבְּרָכָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ חוֹבָה כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרֵיחַ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמִּתְכַּוֵּן לְהָרִיחַ, אֲבָל אִם הָרֵיחַ מַגִּיעַ לוֹ מֵאֵלָיו וְהוּא אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן אֵלָיו אַף שֶׁבְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ נֶהֱנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רי"ז,קג,90 אִם כֵּן זֶה שֶׁעוֹמֵד בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַפְסִיק – לֹא יִתְכַּוֵּן לְהָרִיחַ וְלֹא יַפְסִיק לְבָרֵךְ עַל הָרֵיחַ:

18 It is forbidden to fast [because of] a [disturbing] dream on the festival of Shavuos.91 [The rationale is that] it is the anniversary of the Giving of the Torah, and one must eat and rejoice on it to show that the Jews are at ease and appreciative of the day when the Torah was given.92 Therefore, it does not resemble other festivals and Shabbasos, on which it is permitted to fast [because of] a [disturbing] dream, as stated in sec. 288[:3].

יח אָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם בְּחַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת,קד,91 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא יוֹם שֶׁנִּתְּנָה בּוֹ הַתּוֹרָה,קה וְצָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׂמֹחַ בּוֹ,קו לְהַרְאוֹת שֶׁנּוֹחַ וּמְקֻבָּל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל יוֹם שֶׁנִּתְּנָה בּוֹ הַתּוֹרָה,קז,92 לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לִשְׁאָר יָמִים טוֹבִים וְשַׁבָּתוֹת שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת בָּהֶם תַּעֲנִית חֲלוֹם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רפ"ח:קח

19 It is forbidden to fast on the day following Shavuos according to the fundamentals of the law. [The rationale is that] it was a day [when sacrificial animals] were slaughtered during the era of the Beis HaMikdash.93 On this day, the burnt-offerings brought by the pilgrims [for the festival]94 were offered, i.e., [sacrifices] that could not be offered on the festival itself. [The reason these sacrifices were not offered on the festival] is that they were not necessary for the preparation of food.95 [Forbidden labors were not performed on] the festival in order to offer [these sacrifices], because it was possible to offer them after the festival, since one may compensate for [failing to offer them] on Shavuos for a seven [day period beginning with Shavuos].96

True, the above follows the rulings of the School of Shammai, while according to the School of Hillel, it is permitted to offer [these sacrifices] even on the festival itself.97 Nevertheless, concerning this matter the School of Hillel followed the rulings [of the School of Shammai]. Many Jews followed [this practice] and offered [these sacrifices] after the festival.98 For them, this day that followed the festival became like a festival itself with regard to forbidding eulogizing [the dead] and fasting [on this day].99 Accordingly, even now, when the Beis HaMikdash is destroyed, eulogies and fasting were not permitted on this day.100

By contrast, the day after the last days of Pesach and Sukkos were not days [when sacrificial animals] were slaughtered, even according to the School of Shammai. [The rationale is that] the burnt-offerings brought by the pilgrims were offered on the day after the first day of the festival, which was Chol HaMoed. Therefore, the prohibition against fasting on [these days] stems merely from custom and not from the fundamentals of the law, as explained in sec. 429[:17].101

יט בְּמוֹצָאֵי חַג הַשָּׁבוּעוֹת אָסוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹתקט מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,קי לְפִי שֶׁהָיָה "יוֹם טְבוֹחַ"קיא בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם,93 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁבּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הָיוּ מַקְרִיבִין עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה94 שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ יְכוֹלִין לְהַקְרִיב בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם שׁוּם צֹרֶךְ אֹכֶל נֶפֶשׁ,95 וְאֵין מְחַלְּלִין יוֹם טוֹב בִּשְׁבִילָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַקְרִיבָן אַחַר יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁהָעֲצֶרֶת יֵשׁ לָהּ תַּשְׁלוּמִין כָּל שִׁבְעָה.96

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה הוּא לְדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, אֲבָל לְדִבְרֵי בֵּית הִלֵּל מֻתָּר לְהַקְרִיבָן אַף בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ,קיב,97 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּדָבָר זֶה עָשׂוּ בֵּית הִלֵּלקיג כְּדִבְרֵיהֶם, וְהַרְבֵּה מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל נָהֲגוּ כְּמוֹתָם לְהַקְרִיבָן אַחַר יוֹם טוֹב,98 וְנַעֲשָׂה לָהֶם יוֹם זֶה שֶׁהוּא מוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב כְּמוֹ יוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ לְהֵאָסֵר בּוֹ בְּהֶסְפֵּדקיד וְתַעֲנִית,99 אִם כֵּן אַף עַתָּה מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ – לֹא הֻתְּרָה הַהֶסְפֵּד וְהַתַּעֲנִית בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם.100

אֲבָל בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְשֶׁל סֻכּוֹת לֹא הָיָה "יוֹם טְבוֹחַ" אַף לְדִבְרֵי בֵּית שַׁמַּאי, שֶׁכָּל עוֹלוֹת רְאִיָּה הָיוּ נִקְרָבוֹת בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהוּא חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,קטו לְפִיכָךְ אֵין בָּהֶם אִסּוּר לְהִתְעַנּוֹת מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת מִנְהָג בְּעָלְמָא, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תכ"ט:קטז,101

20 It is customary in these regions not to fast and not to recite Tachanun from Rosh Chodesh [Sivan]102 until – and including – the eighth of [the month],103 i.e., including the day following the festival [as celebrated in the Diaspora] that is referred to as Isru Chag.

[The rationale is that] directly after Rosh Chodesh, Moshe began to prepare [the people] to receive the Torah. [That year,] Rosh Chodesh [Sivan] fell on Monday.104 On Tuesday, [Moshe] conveyed to them [G‑d’s words],105 “You will be a kingdom of priests for Me.” On Wednesday, [Moshe] related to them the [Divine] commandment to observe a boundary [around Mount Sinai, saying],106 “Guard yourselves lest you ascend the mountain....” On Thursday, [Moshe] conveyed to them the mitzvah of chastity, that they should separate from their wives that day and the following day, and “be prepared for the third day,”107 i.e., Shabbos, on which the Torah was given.108

This concludes sec. 494 and the Laws of Pesach in their entirety.

כ וְנוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְהִתְעַנּוֹתקיז וְשֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר תַּחֲנוּןקיח מֵרֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁקיט,102 עַד ח' בּוֹקכ וְעַד בִּכְלָל,103 דְּהַיְנוּ עַד אַחַר מוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב הַנִּקְרָא "אִסְרוּ חַג",קכא לְפִי שֶׁמִּיָּד אַחַר רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ הִתְחִיל מֹשֶׁה לְהִתְעַסֵּק עִמָּהֶם בְּעִנְיַן קַבָּלַת הַתּוֹרָה,קכב שֶׁבַּשֵּׁנִי בַּשַּׁבָּת הָיָה רֹאשׁ חֹדֶשׁ,קכג,104 וּבַשְּׁלִישִׁי בַּשַּׁבָּת אָמַר לָהֶם:105 "וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹ'",קכד וּבָרְבִיעִי אָמַר לָהֶם מִצְוַת הַגְבָּלָה:106 "הִשָּׁמְרוּ לָכֶם עֲלוֹת בָּהָר וְגוֹ'",קכה וּבַחֲמִישִׁי אָמַר לָהֶם מִצְוַת פְּרִישָׁה, שֶׁיִּפְרְשׁוּ מִנְּשׁוֹתֵיהֶן "הַיּוֹם וּמָחָר", וְיִהְיוּ נְכוֹנִים107 "לַיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי"קכו שֶׁהוּא שַׁבָּת, שֶׁבּוֹ נִתְּנָה הַתּוֹרָה:קכז,108

סְלִיק סִימָן תצ"ד וּסְלִיק כָּל הִלְכוֹת פֶּסַח: