SECTION 468 Not to Perform Work on the Day Before Pesach After Midday (1-23)

סימן תסח שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אַחַר חֲצוֹת וּבוֹ כ"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 In the era of the Beis HaMikdash, the Sages prohibited every Jewish person from performing work on the day before Pesach after midday and onwards because this was the time when the Pesach sacrifice was offered.1 [The Sages] ordained that, throughout the year, the day on which any person offered a sacrifice is an [individual] festival for him.2 It is forbidden for him to perform work on that day, [as on] a festival.

Accordingly, the day before Pesach from midday onwards, which is the time that all Jews offer their Pesach sacrifices, is deemed a festival for [all Jews]. It is forbidden to perform work [at this time.3This restriction applies] even to one who is exempt from offering a Pesach sacrifice, for example, one who lives in the Diaspora,4 since the day is a festival for the majority of the Jewish [people] who offer the Pesach sacrifice [on that day].5

א בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הָיָה קַיָּם אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מֵחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם וּלְמַעְלָה, לְפִי שֶׁמֵּחֲצוֹת וָאֵילָךְ הוּא זְמַן הַקְרָבַת הַפֶּסַח,1 וְכָל אָדָם שֶׁמַּקְרִיב קָרְבָּן בְּכָל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה אוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם הוּא יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלּוֹא מִדִּבְרֵיהֶם,ב,2 וְאָסוּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּאוֹתוֹ הַיּוֹם כְּעֵין יוֹם טוֹב,ג לְפִיכָךְ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מֵחֲצוֹת וָאֵילָךְ שֶׁהוּא זְמַן הַקְרָבַת הַפֶּסַח לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי הוּא יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלָּהֶם,ד וְאָסוּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה3 אַף לְמִי שֶׁפָּטוּר מֵהַקְרָבַת הַפֶּסַח, כְּגוֹן שֶׁדָּר בְּחוּץ לָאָרֶץ,ה,4 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹם טוֹב לְרֹב יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמַּקְרִיבִים בּוֹ פֶּסַח:ו,5

2 Even after the destruction of the Beis HaMikdash and the nullification of the Pesach sacrifice, the prohibition against performing work at this [time] was not nullified. [The rationale is that] a quorum of Sages forbade the entire Jewish people [from performing work at this time]. Whenever a quorum of Sages voted to enact a prohibition for the entire Jewish people, the prohibition is not nullified even if the reason for which the prohibition was enacted was nullified6 unless a quorum [of Sages] equal to the first quorum gather to explicitly permit [the forbidden practice].7

ב וְאַף לְאַחַר שֶׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ וּבָטַל קָרְבָּן פֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל אִסּוּר עֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה,ז כֵּיוָן שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר בְּמִנְיַן חֲכָמִיםח עַל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל,ט וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר בְּמִנְיַן חֲכָמִים עַל כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְבַּטֵּל הַטַּעַם שֶׁבִּגְלָלוֹ אֲסָרוּהוּ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל הָאִסּוּר,6 עַד שֶׁנִּתְוַעֲדוּ בְּמִנְיָןי כַּמִּנְיָן הָרִאשׁוֹןיא לְהַתִּירוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ:יב,7

3 Therefore, a person who performs labor on [the day before Pesach] from midday onwards in the present age is placed under a ban of ostracism,8 as is the law regarding one who violates the ordinances of the Sages.9 Moreover, he will never realize any blessing from that work.10 Whatever [the person] gains through this work, he will lose by some other means.

ג וּלְפִיכָךְ, הָעוֹשֶׂה מְלָאכָה בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה מֵחֲצוֹת וָאֵילָךְ – מְשַׁמְּתִין אוֹתוֹ,יג,8 כְּדִין הָעוֹבֵר עַל דִּבְרֵי חֲכָמִים,יד,9 וְגַם אֵינוֹ רוֹאֶה סִימַן בְּרָכָה מֵאוֹתָהּ מְלָאכָה לְעוֹלָם,טו,10 שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁהוּא מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בִּמְלָאכָה זוֹ יִהְיֶה לוֹ הֶפְסֵד כְּנֶגְדָּהּ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר:טז

4 It is forbidden [to perform labor at this time] even if [the person] does not do so for profit, but does so free of charge, whether for his benefit or for [the benefit of] others, and even [if the work he performs is] for the sake of the festival. For this reason, it is forbidden to cut a Jew’s hair from midday onwards,11 even if one does so without charge, with the intent of honoring the festival. It is even forbidden to cut one’s own hair.

It is, however, permitted to have one’s hair cut by a non-Jew. [It is] even [permitted for] the Jew to bend his head towards [the barber]. It is of no consequence that [by doing so the Jew] is assisting [the barber] somewhat, because in this context, offering assistance is not considered significant.12

ד וְאַף אִם אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּדֵי לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר אֶלָּא עוֹשֶׂה בְּחִנָּם,יז בֵּין לְעַצְמוֹ בֵּין לַאֲחֵרִים, אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹביח – הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר. לְפִיכָךְ, אָסוּר לְסַפֵּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מֵחֲצוֹת וָאֵילָךְ,יט,11 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה בְּחִנָּםכ וּמִתְכַּוֵּן לִכְבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב.כא וַאֲפִלּוּ לְסַפֵּר אֶת עַצְמוֹ אָסוּר. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהִסְתַּפֵּר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי.כב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַטֶּה רֹאשׁוֹ אֵלָיו, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְסַיֵּעַ קְצָת – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁמְּסַיֵּעַ אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁכג לְעִנְיָן זֶה:כד,12

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5 Similarly, it is customary to permit other tasks to be performed by a non-Jew even when they are not [being performed] for the sake of the festival. [The rationale is that the Sages’] decree that [a Jew’s] instructing a non-Jew [to perform a task on his behalf] is [forbidden as] a shvus13applies only on Shabbos, the festivals, and Chol HaMoed.14By contrast, the day before Pesach after midday is not characterized by the holiness of the festival at all and [therefore, the laws that apply to] it are [even] more lenient than [those that apply to] Chol HaMoed.15

Accordingly, all activities that [a Jew] is permitted to perform on Chol HaMoed – e.g., [a)] work that [were it not performed] would lead to a [severe financial] loss,16 [b)] the performance of an activity that does not require professional expertise, but could be performed by an ordinary person,17 [provided the task] is necessary for the sake of the festival, and [c)] [all] similar activities permitted on Chol HaMoed – are certainly permitted to be performed after midday on the day before Pesach.

Similarly, all those who are permitted to have their hair cut and do laundry on Chol HaMoed, e.g., one who arrives from an overseas journey or one who is freed from prison,18 may do so after midday on the day before Pesach.

ה וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת נוֹהֲגִין לְהַתִּיר לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,כה אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ אֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי שְׁבוּת,13 אֶלָּא בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב וְחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,כו,14 אֲבָל עֶרֶב פֶּסַח אַחַר חֲצוֹת – אֵין בּוֹ קְדֻשַּׁת יוֹם טוֹב כְּלָל,כז וְקַל הוּא יוֹתֵר מֵחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד.כח,15

לְפִיכָךְ, כָּל מַה שֶּׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,כט כְּגוֹן דָּבָר הָאָבֵד,ל,16 אוֹ שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט וְלֹא מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּןלא,17 וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד,לב וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם מִשְּׁאָר דְּבָרִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד – כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אַחַר חֲצוֹת.

וְכֵן כָּל אוֹתָן שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְסַפֵּרלג וּלְכַבֵּס בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, כְּגוֹן הַבָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִיםלד,18 – מֻתָּרִין גַּם כֵּן בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אַחַר חֲצוֹת:

6 There are authorities who forbid cutting one’s nails after midday [on the day before Pesach]. Other authorities permit this since there are authorities who permit doing so even on Chol HaMoed, as will be explained in sec. 532.19 [These authorities] are worthy of being relied upon at least with regard to the day before Pesach, for [the laws that apply to this day] are more lenient than [those applying to] Chol Ha­Moed. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should give weight to the first opinion and cut [his nails] before midday [on the day before Pesach]. Nevertheless, if one forgot and did not cut [his nails] before midday, he may rely on the second opinion and cut them after midday.

ו יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןלה לִטֹּל הַצִּפָּרְנַיִם מֵחֲצוֹת וָאֵילָךְ. וְיֵשׁ מְקִלִּין,לו הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקל"ב,לז,19 וּכְדַאי הֵם לִסְמֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם עַל כָּל פָּנִים בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, שֶׁהוּא קַל יוֹתֵר מֵחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד.לח

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְיִטְּלֵם קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת. אֲבָל אִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא נְטָלָם קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, וְיָכוֹל לִטְּלָם אַחַר חֲצוֹת:לט

7 On the day before Pesach, [the Sages] only forbade [performing activities that constitute] work in a complete sense, for example, to fashion new utensils or sew new garments. One is, however, permitted to fix an old utensil that became somewhat defective if doing so is necessary for the sake of the festival.

Similarly, if garments are torn slightly, one may sew them and fix them for the sake of the festival even when professional expertise [is required. One may make such alterations] for one’s own sake as well as for the sake of others, [provided he does] not charge [a fee]. However, it is forbidden [to mend clothes] for a fee even if one does so for the sake of the festival, even when [the repair] could be performed by an ordinary person.20

ז לֹא אָסְרוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אֶלָּא מְלָאכָה גְּמוּרָה,מ כְּגוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים, אוֹ לִתְפֹּר בְּגָדִיםמא חֲדָשִׁים.מב אֲבָל רַשַּׁאי הוּא לְתַקֵּןמג כְּלִי יָשָׁן שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקֵל קְצָת אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד. וְכֵן בְּגָדִים שֶׁנִּקְרְעוּ קְצָת – רַשַּׁאי לְתָפְרָם וּלְתַקְּנָן לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד, אֲפִלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן, בֵּין לְעַצְמוֹ בֵּין לַאֲחֵרִים בְּחִנָּם.

אֲבָל בְּשָׂכָר – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד,מד אֲפִלּוּ מַעֲשֵׂה הֶדְיוֹט:20

8 [On the day before Pesach,] it is forbidden to write scrolls for others even without charge.21 [The rationale is that] writing [is considered] work in a complete sense, and was not permitted even for the sake of a mitzvah except in the [circumstances] where it is permitted on Chol HaMoed.22 It is, however, permitted to write scrolls for oneself in the context of one’s studies. Since [the person] is writing in the context of his studies, for his own sake, it does not appear that he is performing work in a complete sense, for certainly, he is not intending to write in a consummate and superior manner.23 [Thus, his actions are governed by] the laws applying to fixing things, which was permitted for the sake of the festival.24 The same law applies [when one is acting] for the sake of the mitzvah of writing words of the Torah [that he commits to paper] so that he will remember them.

ח לִכְתֹּב סְפָרִים לַאֲחֵרִים אֲפִלּוּ בְּחִנָּם אָסוּר,מה,21 שֶׁהַכְּתִיבָה הִיא מְלָאכָה גְּמוּרָה, וְלֹא הִתִּירוּהָ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה,מו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁמֻּתָּר בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד.מז,22

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִכְתֹּב סְפָרִים לְעַצְמוֹ דֶּרֶךְ לִמּוּדוֹ,מח דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִמּוּדוֹ וּלְעַצְמוֹ הוּא כּוֹתֵב – אֵינוֹ נִרְאֵית כִּמְלָאכָהמט גְּמוּרָה, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי אֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לִכְתִיבָה גְּמוּרָה וַהֲגוּנָה,23 וַהֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּתִקּוּן בְּעָלְמָאנ שֶׁהִתִּירוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד,24 וְהוּא הַדִּין צֹרֶךְ מִצְוַת כְּתִיבַת דִּבְרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁיִּהְיוּ לוֹ לְזִכָּרוֹן:נא

9 [How to conduct oneself regarding labor] on the day before Pesach before midday is dependent on [local] custom.25 In a place where it is customary [to perform work], one may perform all [types of] labor, even [work] that is not for the sake of the festival. In a place where it is customary not [to perform work], one may not perform [work.26 Moreover,] even the descendants [of the original residents of such a place] for all time who live in that place are not permitted to deviate from their ancestral custom,27 as [implied by] the verse:28 “Do not abandon the teachings of your mother.”

Even a person who moved from a place where it was customary to [perform work before midday] and came to live in a place where it is customary not to [perform work before midday], is immediately considered as one of the residents of this place, provided his intent is never to return [and resettle] in the place from which he departed, but instead to settle permanently in the place to which he moved. He is bound by all of the stringencies observed in that place29 and he is forbidden to act leniently even in private and even outside the boundaries of that city.

ט בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת תָּלוּי בְּמִנְהָג,25 מָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת – עוֹשִׂיןנב כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד. וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת – אֵין עוֹשִׂין.נג,26 וְאַף בְּנֵיהֶם אַחֲרֵיהֶםנד עַד סוֹף כָּל הַדּוֹרוֹת הַדָּרִים בָּעִיר הַזֹּאתנה – אֵינָן רַשָּׁאִין לְשַׁנּוֹת מִמִּנְהַג אֲבוֹתֵיהֶן,27 מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרנו,28 "וְאַל תִּטֹּשׁ תּוֹרַת אִמֶּךָ".

וְאַף מִי שֶׁיָּצָא מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת וּבָא לָגוּר בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת, אִם אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְהַחֲזִיר דִּירָתוֹ לְעוֹלָם לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם, אֶלָּא דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָלַךְ לְשָׁם – הֲרֵי הוּא נַעֲשֶׂה מִיָּד כְּאַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם, וְחָלוּ עָלָיו כָּל הַחֻמְרוֹת שֶׁמַּחֲמִירִין בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם,נז,29 וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ בְּצִנְעָה,נח וַאֲפִלּוּ חוּץ לִתְחוּמָהּ שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר:נט

10 Nevertheless, as long as [a person] has yet to arrive within the boundaries of that city, he is not yet bound by the stringencies that apply in that city.30 However, once he arrives within the boundaries of the city in which he intends to settle permanently, even though he afterwards journeyed to another place, [since] he intends to return to that city, he is not released from its stringencies.

If, however, [the person] does not ever intend to settle permanently in that city but instead, intends to return to the place from which he departed or [to move] to another place where it is customary to permit [work on the morning of the fourteenth of Nissan], even if he does not intend to return [to his permanent place of residence] for a long time, he is not bound by the stringencies of that place [where he currently resides], since he does not intend to ever settle in that city permanently. He is permitted to perform work [on the morning of the day before Pesach] in a field, outside the boundaries of that city.

In the boundaries [of the city] itself, however, [the person] is forbidden to deviate from the custom [of the residents], lest [his actions lead to] strife.31 It is even forbidden for [the person] to perform [such work] privately, for it is impossible to perform work so privately that no one will ever find out about it. [Thus, eventually it will become public knowledge.]

י וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִגִּיעַ לְתוֹךְ תְּחוּמָהּ שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר – לֹא חָלוּ עָלָיו עֲדַיִן חֻמְרֵי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר.ס,30 אֲבָל מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ לְתוֹךְ תְּחוּמָהּ שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם, אַף שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ הָלַךְ מִשָּׁם לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר וְדַעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר לְאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר – לֹא נִפְקְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ חֻמְרוֹתֶיהָ.סא

וְאִם אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ לְעוֹלָם בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר, אֶלָּא דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם,סב אוֹ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ הֶתֵּר, אֲפִלּוּ דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לַחֲזֹר עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה,סג מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ בְּאוֹתָהּ הָעִיר לְעוֹלָם – לֹא חָלוּ עָלָיו חֻמְרֵי אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם, וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בַּשָּׂדֶה חוּץ לִתְחוּמָהּ שֶׁל עִיר.סד אֲבָל בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם – אָסוּר לְשַׁנּוֹת מִנְהָגָם, מִפְּנֵי הַמַּחֲלֹקֶת.סה,31 וַאֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּצִנְעָה – אָסוּר, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְלָאכָה לִהְיוֹת כָּל כָּךְ בְּצִנְעָה שֶׁלֹּא יִוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לְשׁוּם אָדָם:סו

11 [Different rules apply,] however, with regard to all other stringencies that are observed in the place to which [the person] moved that do not involve the performance of forbidden work.32 If [the person] does not intend to settle permanently in [the place to which he moved], he is permitted to act leniently even within the city itself, provided he does so privately, in a manner where people at large will not find out about the matter so that [his conduct] will [not] lead to strife.

It is not of consequence if a Torah scholar will become aware of [the person’s deviation from local custom], because a Torah scholar knows that the matter is dependent on [local] custom and thus this will not cause strife. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should not take leniencies [even] in the presence of a Torah scholar. It is only that if [a person] followed the custom of taking leniencies in the privacy of his own home and, in the midst [of his activity], a Torah scholar entered his home, he is not required to cease [his activity] in [the scholar’s] presence. Instead, he may continue the lenient act while in the presence of the Torah scholar. [The rationale is that] since [the person] began [the activity] in private, the Torah scholar will not initiate an argument with him, since the scholar knows that [the person] is permitted to take leniencies in private.

If, by contrast, a person who is not a Torah scholar comes into a person’s home [when that person is in the midst of taking leniencies that deviate from local custom, the householder] must cease [the activity while] in the presence [of the visitor] so [the visitor] will not become aware [of his lenient activity, for if the visitor will become aware] strife may arise.31

יא אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל חֻמְרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן בְּאִסּוּר מְלָאכָה שֶׁמַּחֲמִירִין בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁהָלַךְ לְשָׁם,32 אִם אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם – רַשַּׁאי לְהָקֵל בָּהֶן אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר, רַק שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּצִנְעָה,סז שֶׁלֹּא יִוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לַהֲמוֹן עַם וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת.

אֲבָל אִם יִוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לְתַלְמִיד חָכָם – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,סח שֶׁהַתַּלְמִיד חָכָם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַדָּבָר תָּלוּי בְּמִנְהָגסט וְלֹא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לוֹ לְהָקֵל בִּפְנֵי הַתַּלְמִיד חָכָם,ע אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל בְּצִנְעָה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וּבָאֶמְצַע בָּא הַתַּלְמִיד חָכָם לְבֵיתוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק מִפָּנָיו, אֶלָּא יָכוֹל לִגְמֹר הַדָּבָר שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ לְהָקֵל בִּפְנֵי הַתַּלְמִיד חָכָם, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִתְחִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּצִנְעָה – לֹא יָבֹא הַתַּלְמִיד חָכָם עִמּוֹ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת, שֶׁהַתַּלְמִיד חָכָם יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לְהָקֵל בְּצִנְעָה.עא אֲבָל אִם אָדָם אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ תַּלְמִיד חָכָם בָּא לְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְהַפְסִיק מִפָּנָיו, שֶׁלֹּא יִוָּדַע לוֹ הַדָּבָר וְיָבֹא לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת:עב,31

12 [The following rules apply when a person] departs from a place where it is customary to forbid [working on the morning of the day before Pesach] and comes to a place where leniency is practiced. If he intends to permanently settle there, he is released from the stringencies of his former place as soon as he arrives within the boundaries of the city in which he desires to settle.33 He may even perform work in public.

יב הַהוֹלֵךְ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים בּוֹ אִסּוּר וּבָא לְמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ הֶתֵּר וְדַעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם לְעוֹלָם,עג כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְתוֹךְ תְּחוּמָהּ שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ בָּהּ – נִפְקְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ חֻמְרֵי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם,33 וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא:

13 If, however, [such a person] does not intend to permanently settle in [the city where he is currently located], but instead, intends to return to his original place or [go] to another place where the prohibition is observed, he [remains bound] by the stringencies of the place from which he departed.34 It is forbidden for [this person] to perform work [on the morning of the day before Pesach] both in private and in public.

Nevertheless, he should not display [his behavior] in the presence of the people in the city [to which he came, making it obvious to them] that he is not working because of the prohibition practiced in his [former] place, lest strife arise. Instead, he should create the impression that he is not working because he has no work to do.35

יג וְאִם אֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם לְעוֹלָם, אֶלָּא דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹעד אוֹ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ אִסּוּר – נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו חֻמְרֵי מָקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם,34 וְאָסוּר לוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בֵּין בְּצִנְעָה בֵּין בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא.עה וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יִתְרָאֶה בִּפְנֵי אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא בָּטֵל מִמְּלָאכָה מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר כְּמִנְהַג מְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹא לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת,עו אֶלָּא יְהֵא נִדְמֶה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁהוּא בָּטֵל מֵחֲמַת שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מְלָאכָה לַעֲשׂוֹת:עז,35

14 Similar [laws apply] with regard to all other stringencies observed [in a person’s] former place that are not observed in the place to which he moved. Even though [the person] intends to return to his [former] place and thus is not released from the stringencies [observed there], he should not appear before [the people in his new locale] as acting stringently in matters where they rule leniently so that strife not arise. Instead, he should act stringently in private so that the matter will not become known to people at large.

If the situation is such that it is impossible for [the person] to act stringently without the matter becoming known to people at large, he should not act stringently at all. Instead, he should conduct himself according to the leniency [practiced in this place] because peace is [of] great [importance].36 [The person] should violate the custom of his [former] place for the sake of peace, since [by acting in a lenient manner] he is not violating a Scriptural (or Rabbinic) prohibition, [but] merely a custom.37

יד וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר כָּל חֻמְרוֹת שֶׁמַּחֲמִירִין בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנּוּ וּמְקִלִּין בָּהֶם בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָלַךְ לְשָׁם, שֶׁאַף שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר לִמְקוֹמוֹ וְלֹא נִפְקְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ חֻמְרֵי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא יִתְרָאֶה בִּפְנֵיהֶםעח שֶׁהוּא מַחֲמִיר בְּמַה שֶּׁהֵם מְקִלִּין, שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת, אֶלָּא יַחֲמִיר בְּצִנְעָה, שֶׁלֹּא יִוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לַהֲמוֹן עַם.

וְאִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִוָּדַע הַדָּבָר לַהֲמוֹן עַם – לֹא יַחֲמִיר כְּלָל, אֶלָּא יִנְהַג הֶתֵּר כְּמוֹתָם, שֶׁגָּדוֹל הַשָּׁלוֹם,36 וְיֵשׁ לוֹ לַעֲבֹר עַל מִנְהַג מְקוֹמוֹ מִפְּנֵי הַשָּׁלוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה (וְלֹא עַל דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםעט) אֶלָּא עַל מִנְהָג בִּלְבַד:פ,37

15 All the above applies when [the person] comes to a city that has an established custom of acting leniently. If, however, [the city] does not have an established custom of leniency – even though it also does not have an established custom of stringency – even [if the newcomer] plans on settling there permanently, he is not released from the stringencies of his former place until [his new city formally] establishes a custom of leniency.

טו וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁבָּא לְעִיר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מִנְהָג קָבוּעַ לְהָקֵל, אֲבָל אִם אֵין בָּהּ מִנְהָג קָבוּעַ לְהָקֵל, אַף שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ גַּם כֵּן מִנְהָג קָבוּעַ לְהַחֲמִיר, אַף אִם דַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ בָּהּ לְעוֹלָם – לֹא נִפְקְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ חֻמְרֵי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁיָּצָא מִשָּׁם, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא נִקְבָּע בָּעִיר מִנְהָג קָבוּעַ לְהָקֵל:פא

16 Even in a place where the custom is not to [perform work], it can be assumed that the custom applies only from sunrise and onward. Before then, [work] is permitted.38

If there is a place that clearly has an established custom to forbid [work] even before sunrise, this is not an important custom at all. Anyone who comes to that place from another place39 – even if he intends to settle in that place – is not bound by this stringency, or by others like it, which are not [based on] a proper custom and were not established in the city by a Torah scholar but were [merely] stringencies adopted by [unlearned] people at large on their own initiative.

Nevertheless, one must be careful not to act leniently in the presence of people at large,40 so that they will not learn from [this person] to treat prohibitions [of this nature] disdainfully and, as a result, they will come to treat other prohibitions disdainfully, including prohibitions mandated by law.40 However, one is permitted to act leniently in the presence of a Torah scholar.41

The Torah scholar himself, however, is forbidden to follow [such] leniencies even in private, since he is one of the residents of this city. [The rationale is that] since the residents of this city know that this [more lenient] practice is permitted by Torah Law and yet, they accepted this stringency [upon themselves, the stringency] is like a vow whose [observance] is incumbent upon all the residents of the city.42 [Such a vow] can only be released by making a [formal] request [of the Rabbinic Court] and [expressing] regret [to the judges],43 as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 214.44

טז אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת – לֹא נָהֲגוּ מִן הַסְּתָם אֶלָּא מֵהָנֵץ הַחַמָּה וָאֵילָךְ, אֲבָל קֹדֶם לָכֵן – מֻתָּר.פב,38

וְאִם יֵשׁ מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִנְהָג קָבוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר לֶאֱסֹר אַף קֹדֶם הָנֵץ הַחַמָּה – אֵין זֶה מִנְהָג חָשׁוּב כְּלָל,פג וְכָל מִי שֶׁבָּא לְשָׁם מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר39 אַף שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּקֵּעַ שָׁם – לֹא חָלָה עָלָיו חֻמְרָא זוֹ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ מֵחֻמְרוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם מִנְהָג הָגוּן, וְלֹא נִקְבְּעוּ בָּעִיר עַל פִּי תַּלְמִיד חָכָם, אֶלָּא הָעָם הֶחֱמִירוּ כֵּן מֵעַצְמָם.פד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהָקֵל בִּפְנֵי הֲמוֹן עַם,פה,40 שֶׁלֹּא יִלְמְדוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לְזַלְזֵל בְּאִסּוּרִיןפו וְיָבוֹאוּ עַל יְדֵי כֵן לְזַלְזֵל בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין מִן הַדִּין.פז,40 אֲבָל בִּפְנֵי תַּלְמִיד חָכָם – רַשַּׁאי לְהָקֵל.פח,41

אֲבָל הַתַּלְמִיד חָכָם עַצְמוֹפט כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מֵאַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר – אָסוּר לוֹ לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ בֵּינוֹ לְבֵין עַצְמוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבְּנֵי הָעִיר יוֹדְעִים שֶׁדָּבָר זֶה מֻתָּר הוּא מִן הַדִּין וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר – הֲרֵי חֻמְרָא זוֹ כְּנֶדֶר עַל כָּל אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר,42 וְאֵינָהּ נִתֶּרֶת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁאֵלָה וַחֲרָטָה,צ,43 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רי"ד:צא,44

17 To whom does the above45 apply? To [the people of] that generation who accepted this stringency upon themselves, and similarly, to their children who observed this stringency three times during the lifetime of their parents or after their passing. It also applies even if [the children] only followed this custom once, but it was their intent at that time to follow it forever. [In such instances,] this stringency is incumbent upon them like a vow.46

If, however, [the children] did not have this intent, nor did they observe this custom three times, even though their parents accepted this practice with a vow and observed it throughout their lives, their children are not obligated to carry out the custom of their parents. [The rationale is that this practice] is an inferior custom that was not ordained by a Torah sage, but rather was put in practice by people at large on their own initiative, without there being a valid reason for their custom.

Even in a place where it is customary not to [perform work on the morning of the day before Pesach], it can be assumed that the custom was only not to begin a task on the morning of the fourteenth [of Nissan]. However, any task that a person began before the fourteenth [of Nissan] may be finished on the fourteenth [of Nissan,47 as long as it is finished] by midday, [and] provided it is being performed for the sake of the festival.48

The [practitioners of] three crafts – tailors, barbers, and launderers – are exceptions [to the above rule]. They may even begin [a task] on the morning of the fourteenth [of Nissan] if they are able to complete it by midday.47 [This leniency was granted] so that people could benefit from the work [of these practitioners] on the festival.

Why was leniency granted to [practice] these three crafts? Because leniency was granted regarding them [even] on Chol HaMoed. [With regard to] sewing, an ordinary person who is not a professional is permitted to sew clothes on Chol HaMoed. And a person who arrives from an overseas journey or who is released from prison is permitted to have his hair cut and his laundry washed on Chol HaMoed. Since [the restrictions of] the day [before Pesach] are more lenient than [those of] Chol HaMoed,49 leniency may be granted for even a professional to sew, and for even one who did not arrive from an overseas journey or who was not released from prison to have his hair cut and laundry washed. Furthermore, these three crafts are greatly necessary for people to honor the festival. Therefore, greater leniency was shown regarding them than other [types of] work that are not as necessary for honoring the festival.50

יז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?45 בְּאוֹתוֹ הַדּוֹר עַצְמוֹ שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ חֻמְרָא זוֹ,צב וְכֵן בְּנֵיהֶם אַחֲרֵיהֶם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ חֻמְרָא זוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בְּחַיֵּי אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם אוֹ לְאַחַר מִיתָתָם, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָהֲגוּ אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה בְּדַעְתָּם אָז לִנְהֹג כֵּן לְעוֹלָם – הֲרֵי נַעֲשֵׂית חֻמְרָא זוֹ עֲלֵיהֶם כְּנֶדֶר.צג,46

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתָּם כֵּן, וְלֹא נָהֲגוּ כֵּן שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֲבוֹתֵיהֶם קִבְּלוּהָ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּנֶדֶר וְנָהֲגוּ בָּהּ כָּל יְמֵיהֶם – אֵין בְּנֵיהֶם חַיָּבִים לְקַיֵּם מִנְהַג אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מִנְהָג גָּרוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה עַל פִּי תַּלְמִיד חָכָם, אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ כֵּן הֶהָמוֹן מֵעַצְמָם, וְאֵין טַעַם נָכוֹן לְמִנְהָגָם.

אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹתצד – לֹא נָהֲגוּ מִן הַסְּתָם אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לְהַתְחִיל מְלָאכָה בְּי"ד שַׁחֲרִית,צה,47 אֲבָל כָּל מְלָאכָה שֶׁהִתְחִיל בָּהּ קֹדֶם י"ד – יָכוֹל לְגָמְרָהּ בְּי"דצו עַד חֲצוֹתצז אִם הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד.צח,48

חוּץ מִשָּׁלֹשׁ אֻמָּנִיּוֹת, שֶׁהֵן: הַחַיָּטִין, וְהַסַּפָּרִין, וְהַכּוֹבְסִין, שֶׁהֵן יְכוֹלִים אֲפִלּוּ לְהַתְחִיל בִּתְחִלָּה בְּי"ד שַׁחֲרִיתצט אִם יְכוֹלִים לִגְמֹר עַד חֲצוֹת,ק,46 כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לֵהָנוֹת מִמְּלַאכְתּוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד.קא

וְלָמָּה הֵקֵלּוּ בְּשָׁלֹשׁ אֻמָּנִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ? לְפִי שֶׁמָּצִינוּ שֶׁהֵקֵלּוּ בָּהֶן בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, שֶׁמְּלֶאכֶת הַתְּפִירָה הִתִּירוּ לְהֶדְיוֹט שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֻמָּן, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לִתְפֹּר בְּגָדִים בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, וְהַגִּלּוּחַ וְהַכִּבּוּס הִתִּירוּ לְמִי שֶׁבָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם וּלְיוֹצֵא מִבֵּית הָאֲסוּרִים בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,קב וְיוֹם זֶה הוּא קַל יוֹתֵר מֵחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,קג,49 לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַתְּפִירָה אֲפִלּוּ לְאֻמָּן,קד וְהַגִּלּוּחַ וְהַכִּבּוּס אֲפִלּוּ לְמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּא מִמְּדִינַת הַיָּם.קה וְעוֹד, שֶׁשָּׁלֹשׁ אֻמָּנִיּוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן צְרִיכוֹת אֶל הָעָם צֹרֶךְ גָּדוֹל לִכְבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב, לְפִיכָךְ הֵקֵלּוּ בָּהֶן יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁאָר מְלָאכוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכִין כָּל כָּךְ לִכְבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב:קו,50

18 All the above51 applies in a place where it is customary not to [perform work on the morning of the fourteenth of Nissan]. By contrast, in a place where it is customary to [perform work], it is permitted to begin any task before midday [on the fourteenth of Nissan], even if [the work] is not at all necessary for the sake of the festival.

יח וְכָל זֶה51 בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת, אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת – מֻתָּר לְהַתְחִיל כָּל הַמְּלָאכוֹת עַד חֲצוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן צֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד כְּלָל:קז

19 One may arrange dovecotes for doves throughout the entire day48 [of the fourteenth of Nissan]. Similarly, arranging a place for roosters and hens to stand is permitted the entire day, even after midday. It is, however, forbidden to have hens sit on eggs to raise chicks [for the first time] after midday52 on the fourteenth [of Nissan], or before midday [on the fourteenth of Nissan] in a place where it is customary not to perform [work in the morning of that day].

If, however, [a hen] already sat on the eggs for three days or more, but then died, it is permitted to have another [hen] sit [on the eggs] instead of her on the fourteenth48 even after midday. [The rationale is that] this is a matter involving a [financial] loss. If [the person] will not have a hen sit on the eggs, [the eggs] will no longer be of any value, because they will already have become unfit for human consumption after being warmed under a hen for three days.53 See sec. 536.54

יט מוֹשִׁיבִין שׁוֹבָכִיןקח לְיוֹנִיםקט כָּל הַיּוֹם.קי,47 וְכֵן לְתַקֵּן מָקוֹם שֶׁיַּעַמְדוּ שָׁם הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים וְהַתַּרְנְגוֹלוֹתקיא – מֻתָּר כָּל הַיּוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר חֲצוֹת.

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהוֹשִׁיב הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת עַל הַבֵּיצִים בִּתְחִלָּה בְּי"דקיב אַחַר חֲצוֹת52 כְּדֵי לְגַדֵּל אֶפְרוֹחִים, אוֹ קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת. אֲבָל אִם יָשְׁבָה כְּבָר עַל הַבֵּיצִים שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים אוֹ יוֹתֵרקיג וּמֵתָה – מֻתָּר לְהוֹשִׁיב אַחֶרֶת תַּחְתֶּיהָ בְּי"דקיד,47 אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר חֲצוֹת,קטו לְפִי שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר הָאָבֵד,קטז שֶׁאִם לֹא יוֹשִׁיב תַּרְנְגֹלֶת עַל הַבֵּיצִים – שׁוּב אֵינָן רְאוּיִים לִכְלוּם, שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְסְלוּ מֵאֲכִילַת אָדָם כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַמְּמוּ תַּחַת הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים,קיז,53 עַיֵּן סִימָן תקל"ו:קיח,54

20 Waste may be raked away from under the feet of a domesticated animal and [then] cast outside the barn throughout the entire day of the fourteenth [of Nissan].48 [This license is granted] even if the barn is large and there is [only] a small amount of waste, which could be moved to the sides within the barn. Nevertheless, it is permitted to take [the waste] outside the barn, because the filth of a barn is difficult [to bear], even if there is only a small amount of waste.55 By contrast, one should not take waste out of a courtyard [to a dung heap] when there is only a small amount of waste, and one could move it to the sides [of the courtyard. The rationale is that] the filth of a courtyard is not that difficult [to bear] if there is only a small amount of waste in it that was moved to the sides.

If, however, the [amount of] waste in the courtyard increased (to the extent that the [waste in the] courtyard resembled [the waste in] a barn), [a person] is permitted to take the waste outside to a dung heap in the public domain.48

כ גּוֹרְפִין זֶבֶל מִתַּחַת רַגְלֵי הַבְּהֵמָה בְּי"דקיט כָּל הַיּוֹם וּמַשְׁלִיכִין אוֹתוֹ חוּץ לָרֶפֶת,קכ,47 אֲפִלּוּ הָרֶפֶת גְּדוֹלָה וְהַזֶּבֶל מְעַט וְיָכוֹל לְסַלֵּק לִצְדָדִין בְּתוֹךְ הָרֶפֶת, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן רַשַּׁאי לְהוֹצִיאָהּ חוּץ לָרֶפֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָרֶפֶת נִוּוּלָהּ קָשֶׁהקכא אֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא מְעַט זֶבֶל.קכב,55

אֲבָל הַזֶּבֶל שֶׁבְּחָצֵר – לֹא יוֹצִיאֶנָּה לַחוּץקכג אִם אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא מְעַט זֶבֶל שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְסַלְּקוֹ לִצְדָדִים, שֶׁהֶחָצֵר אֵין נִוּוּלָהּ קָשֶׁה כָּל כָּךְ כְּשֶׁאֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא מְעַט זֶבֶל מְסֻלָּק לִצְדָדֶיהָ. אֲבָל אִם נִתְרַבָּה הַזֶּבֶל בֶּחָצֵרקכד (כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית הֶחָצֵר כְּרֶפֶתקכה) – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהוֹצִיא הַזֶּבֶל לָאַשְׁפָּהקכו לַחוּץ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:47

21 It is permitted to bring articles to a craftsman’s shop the entire day on the fourteenth [of Nissan] even though [the craftsman] will not fix them until after the festival. Similarly, it is permitted to take articles from a craftsman’s shop [throughout the day of the fourteenth of Nissan] even though [the articles] are not needed for the festival at all.50 See sec. 534.56

כא מֻתָּר לְהוֹלִיךְ כֵּלִים לְבֵית הָאֻמָּן בְּי"דקכז כָּל הַיּוֹםקכח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יְתַקְּנֵם עַד לְאַחַר הַמּוֹעֵד. וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהָבִיא כֵּלִים מִבֵּית הָאֻמָּן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם צֹרֶךְ הַמּוֹעֵד כְּלָל.קכט,47 עַיֵּן סִימָן תקל"ד:קל,56

22 It has become universal Jewish custom not to let blood on the day before any festival. One should not deviate from this practice. [This practice stems from a Talmudic narrative57 that relates] that on the day of Shavuos58 before the Giving of the Torah, a spirit whose name was Tavoach59 emerged, [saying] that if the Jews did not accept the Torah, he would butcher their blood and flesh. Therefore, it [has been considered] dangerous in all generations to let blood on that day, i.e., on the day before Shavuos. The Sages [added a safeguard and] decreed [that it is forbidden to let blood] on the day before any festival, lest [one do so] on the day before Shavuos.

Nevertheless, it is permitted to let blood on the day before the final festive day[s]60 of Pesach, because all [the days of Pesach] are one festival.61 Hence, [that day] is not [considered as] the day before a festival, but rather as [a day] in the midst of the festive days. By contrast, it is forbidden to let blood on the day before the final festival of [Sukkos],62 i.e., on Hoshaanah Rabbah, because [Hoshaanah Rabbah] is actually the day before the festival [of Shemini Atzeres. The rationale is that] Shemini Atzeres is [considered] a festival in its own right with regard to several matters.63

[The above restriction applies only with regard to the daytime hours.] On the night of the day before the festival,64 it is permitted to let blood except on the night of Hoshaanah Rabbah because [Hoshaanah Rabbah] is a time of judgment.65

כב נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא לְהַקִּיז דָּם בְּשׁוּם עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.קלא,57 לְפִי שֶׁבְּיוֹם שָׁבוּעוֹת58 קֹדֶם מַתַּן תּוֹרָה יָצָא רוּחַ שֶׁשְּׁמוֹ "טְבוֹחַ",59 שֶׁאִם לֹא יְקַבְּלוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַתּוֹרָה הָיָה טוֹבֵחַ לְדָמָם וּבְשָׂרָם, לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ סַכָּנָה לְדוֹרוֹת לְהַקִּיז דָּם בְּאוֹתוֹ יוֹם, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּעֶרֶב שָׁבוּעוֹת. וְגָזְרוּ חֲכָמִים עַל כָּל עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב מִשּׁוּם עֶרֶב שָׁבוּעוֹת.קלב

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן60 שֶׁל פֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לְהַקִּיז,קלג שֶׁהַכֹּל רֶגֶל אֶחָד הוּא61 וְאֵינוֹ עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא אֶמְצַע יָמִים טוֹבִים.קלד אֲבָל בְּעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל חַג,62 דְּהַיְנוּ בְּהוֹשַׁעְנָא רַבָּה – אָסוּר לְהַקִּיז,קלה שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁשְּׁמִינִי עֲצֶרֶת רֶגֶל בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ לְעִנְיַן כַּמָּה דְּבָרִים.קלו,63

וּבְלֵיל עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב64 – מֻתָּר לְהַקִּיז, חוּץ מִלֵּיל הוֹשַׁעְנָא רַבָּה,קלז שֶׁהוּא לֵיל דִּין:65

23 The form of blood therapy known as cupping therapy66 may be permitted on the day before Pesach and the day before Sukkos because it does not resemble actual bloodletting. Hence, [license can be granted] because [in any case, bloodletting on these days] was forbidden only as a decree [and a safeguard. However,] on the day before Shavuos, when bloodletting was forbidden because of [actual] danger, one should take care [not to undergo this procedure]. The same [restriction applies] on Hoshaanah Rabbah, for it is a day of judgment.

כג הַקָּזָה שֶׁקּוֹרִין קע"פ זעצי"ן,66 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה לְהַקָּזַת דָּם מַמָּשׁ – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירקלח בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וּבְעֶרֶב סֻכּוֹת, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרָן אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה בְּעָלְמָא. אֲבָל בְּעֶרֶב שָׁבוּעוֹת שֶׁאִסּוּרוֹ מִשּׁוּם סַכָּנָה – יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר.קלט וְכֵן בְּהוֹשַׁעְנָא רַבָּה, שֶׁהוּא יוֹם דִּין:קמ