SECTION 467 The Laws that Apply When Water Falls upon Wheat and [those that Apply When a Kernel] of Wheat is Discovered [in Matzah or in Other Cooked] Foods (1-65)

סימן תסז דִּין חִטִּים שֶׁנָּפַל עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם וְתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּמְצָא בְּתוֹכוֹ חִטָּה וּבוֹ ס"ה סְעִיפִים:

1 It was already explained in sec. 453[:20] that, according to Talmudic Law, it is permitted to [soak and stir] wheat [kernels].1 The rationale is that it can be assumed that as long as [the kernels are soaked and stirred] in water, they will not become chametz provided they have not cracked open. We assume that the activity of [stirring] the mixture prevents [the kernels] from becoming chametz.2 If, however, one sees that [the kernels] have cracked open while they are being stirred, they are forbidden according to Scriptural Law,3 since [the fact they are] cracked open is a sign that they are close to becoming chametz.4 Certainly, [the kernels] will very shortly reach a stage where they are absolutely chametz to the extent that one is obligated for kareis [for partaking of them on Pesach].

א כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"גא שֶׁמִּדִּין הַגְּמָרָאב מֻתָּר לִלְתֹּת אֶת הַחִטִּים,1 שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁבּוֹלֵל אוֹתָם בְּמַיִם אֵינָן בָּאִים לִידֵי חִמּוּץג מִן הַסְּתָם כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקְּעוּ, שֶׁעֵסֶק הַבְּלִילָה מִן הַסְּתָם הוּא מוֹנֵעַ אוֹתָן מִלְּהַחְמִיץ.2 אֲבָל אִם רוֹאֶה אוֹתָן שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַלְּתִיתָה – הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרוֹתד מִן הַתּוֹרָה, ה,3 שֶׁהַבִּקּוּעַ הוּא סִימָן שֶׁהֵן קְרוֹבוֹת לְהַחְמִיץ,ו,4 וּבְוַדַּאי יַחְמִיצוּ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּדז חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר שֶׁחַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת:ח

2 Once one finishes stirring [the kernels] and ceases to manipulate them by hand, if they remain in the water for the amount of time [it takes to walk] a mil,5 it is possible for them to become absolutely chametz2 even if they do not crack open.6 Therefore, [the kernels] are forbidden according to Scriptural Law, out of concern that they may have already become chametz.

Similarly, when even a small amount of water falls upon any grain – even if only a small amount of rain dripped on it – [and] the moisture of the water remained [on the grain] for the amount of time it takes [to walk] a mil, [the grain] is forbidden. [This prohibition applies] even if [the grain] did not soften in the water, but [rather] remained as firm as before. It is even forbidden to maintain possession of [the grain] until after Pesach, even if [the kernels] did not crack open.

[Rather, the person] should sell [this grain] to non-Jews in small amounts [at one time],7 in a manner that it can be assumed that the non-Jews will partake of it before Pesach. [The person] should not, however, sell a large amount [of the grain] to one non-Jew. [This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest the non-Jew sell or give [the grain] to another Jew who does not know that it came in contact with water. [Were that to happen,] that [other] Jew might eat it on Pesach.8

When, by contrast, [the Jew] sells [the grain] in small amounts, there are two possibilities that lead to leniency: [a)] perhaps the non-Jew will partake of [the grain] himself and not sell or give it to a Jew and [b)] even if the non-Jew will sell or give this small amount [of grain] to a Jew, one may presume that the Jew will eat this entire small amount before Pesach.

ב אֲבָל לְאַחַר גְּמַר הַלְּתִיתָה שֶׁשּׁוּב אֵינוֹ עוֹסֵק בָּהֶן בְּיָדַיִם, אִם הֵן שׁוֹהִין בַּמַּיִםט שִׁעוּר מִילי,5 – יְכוֹלִין הֵן לָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר2 בְּלֹא בִּקּוּעַ,6 וּלְפִיכָךְ הֵן אֲסוּרוֹת מִן הַתּוֹרָה מִסָּפֵק,יא שֶׁמָּא כְּבָר הֶחְמִיצוּ. וְכֵן כָּל דָּגָן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו מַיִםיב אֲפִלּוּ מוּעָטִים, וַאֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ גְּשָׁמִים מְזַלְּפִין עָלָיו זְלִיפָה מוּעֶטֶת,יג אִם שָׁהָה לַחְלוּחִית הַמַּיִם עָלָיו שִׁעוּר מִיל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְרַכֵּךְ בַּמַּיִם אֶלָּא הוּא קָשֶׁה כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָהיד – הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַחטו אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקֵּעַ.

אֶלָּא מוֹכְרוֹ מְעַט מְעַט לְנָכְרִים,טז,7 בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִתְלוֹת שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּהוּ הַנָּכְרִים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אֲבָל לֹא יִמְכֹּר מִמֶּנּוּ הַרְבֵּה לְנָכְרִי אֶחָד, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזֹר הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכְּרֶנּוּ אוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵריז שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּפֶסַח,8 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁמּוֹכְרוֹ מְעַט מְעַט יֵשׁ כָּאן ב' סְפֵקוֹת לְהָקֵל: שֶׁמָּא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא יִמְכֹּר וְיִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאַף אִם יַחֲזֹר הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכֹּר הַמְעַט הַזֶּה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר – יֵשׁ לִתְלוֹת שֶׁיֹּאכַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כָּל הַמְעַט הַזֶּה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח:יח

3 If [the owner] desires to sell [the kernels that came in contact with water] to Jews – even if he only sells a small amount [of grain to each of the Jews] – he must notify the purchasers that [the kernels] came in contact with water, so that [the purchasers] do not partake of [them] on Pesach.

If he does not notify [the purchasers], there are grounds for concern that one of [the purchasers] will keep aside some of that small amount and eat from it on Pesach. When, however, [the owner] notifies [a Jewish purchaser] that the grain came into contact with water, he may even sell a large amount [of grain] to one person. There is no concern that a purchaser [of the large amount of grain] will forget what the seller told him and partake of this [grain] on Pesach.

ג וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְמָכְרוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲפִלּוּ מוֹכְרוֹ מְעַט מְעַט – צָרִיךְ הוּא לְהוֹדִיעַ לְהַקּוֹנִים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וְלֹא יֹאכְלוּהוּ בְּפֶסַח,יט שֶׁאִם לֹא יוֹדִיעֵם יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יְשַׁיֵּר אֶחָד מֵהֶם מֵהַמְעַט הַזֶּה לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּפֶסַח. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמּוֹדִיעַ לְהַקּוֹנִים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו מַיִם – יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה לְאָדָם אֶחָד, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח הַלּוֹקֵחַ מַה שֶּׁהוֹדִיעוֹ הַמּוֹכֵר וְיֹאכַל מִמֶּנָּה בְּפֶסַח:כ

4 All the above applies to grain that has not cracked open, in which instance [should the kernels become chametz], the fact that they became chametz is not apparent.9 If, however, [the kernels] have cracked open and thus [the fact that they became] chametz is apparent, [the owner] may sell even a large amount [of the grain] to one non-Jew. There is no concern that the non-Jew will grind [the kernels into flour, and] it will not be apparent that [the flour is] chametz, and then sell part of that flour to a Jew, who will partake of it on Pesach. [This concern does not arise] because [the Rabbis] have already forbidden a Jew from purchasing flour for Pesach from a non-Jew, as stated in sec. 453[:19].

There are authorities who forbid selling a large amount [of these kernels] to one non-Jew. They are concerned that the non-Jew will grind [the chametz kernels into flour, in which instance] it will not be apparent that [the flour contains] chametz and then, [the non-Jew] will sell that flour to a Jew. The Jew will [without knowing] this flour [contains chametz] leave [it in his possession] until after Pesach10 and thus, violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].

Weight should be given to the words [of these authorities] if a severe [financial] loss is not involved. If, however, a severe [financial] loss is involved – for example, if on the day before Pesach [a Jew] owns a large amount of grain that cracked open, and he cannot sell it to [another] Jew, because a Jew will not buy a large amount of chametz on the day before Pesach – he may rely on the first opinion and sell all [the grain] to one non-Jew.

([This is permitted because] even if the non-Jew will grind [the kernels into flour] and sell the flour to another Jew after the time when chametz becomes forbidden, [that Jew] will not violate the prohibition against having [chametz]seen [in his domain],11 because the sale will have been conducted under false premises. [The rationale is that] had the Jew known that the flour [was made] from grain that came in contact with water, he would not have purchased it, for it can be assumed that a person has no desire to acquire something that he is forbidden to own, as explained in sec. 448[:3]. And if [the non-Jew] sold it to a Jew before chametz became forbidden, [the Jewish purchaser] will also not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] according to Scriptural Law, since it has become universal Jewish custom to nullify [one’s possession of chametz] at the end of the fifth hour [on the day preceding Pesach],12 as stated in sec. 434[:11].13 Moreover, there are authorities who maintain that a person only violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] for chametz of whose existence he is aware, but not for chametz of whose existence he is unaware.14 And the purchaser is unaware that this flour is chametz.)

If, however, [the kernels] did not crack open,15 [the owner] should not sell them to a non-Jew in an irrevocable sale.16 Instead, [the owner] should sell [the kernels] to a non-Jewish acquaintance, whom he knows will not touch his chametz, but instead, will watch it for him until after Pesach and then return it to him, as explained in sec. 448[:6]. Alternatively, [the owner] may seek out another non-Jew who will purchase [chametz] worth a maneh17for 200 [silver pieces], and promise [the non-Jew] that he will repurchase [the chametz] from him after Pesach and give him a profit [from the sale], as explained in that source.18 [In the latter instance,] there is no concern that the non-Jew will sell [the flour] to another Jew, since the non-Jew will surely not [desire to] forfeit his money. Nevertheless, one should not rely on these leniencies unless a severe [financial] loss is involved.

ד וְכָל זֶה בְּדָגָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקֵּעַ שֶׁאֵין חִמּוּצוֹ נִכָּר,כא,9 אֲבָל אִם נִתְבַּקֵּעַ שֶׁחִמּוּצוֹ נִכָּר – יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה לְנָכְרִי אֶחָד.כב וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁים שֶׁמָּא יִטְחֲנֵם הַנָּכְרִי וְלֹא יִהְיֶה חִמּוּצָם נִכָּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִמְכֹּר מֵהַקֶּמַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר אָסְרוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא לִקַּח מִנָּכְרִי קֶמַח לְפֶסַח,כג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ג.כד

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןכה לִמְכֹּר הַרְבֵּה לְנָכְרִי אֶחָד, שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִטְחֲנֵם הַנָּכְרִי וְלֹא יְהֵא חִמּוּצָם נִכָּר וְיִמְכֹּר הַקֶּמַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְיַשְׁהֶה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַקֶּמַח עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח10 וְיַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא".כו וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה.

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח דָּגָן הַרְבֵּה שֶׁנִּתְבַּקֵּעַ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קוֹנֶה חָמֵץ הַרְבֵּה בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְיָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹ כֻּלּוֹ לְנָכְרִי אֶחָד (שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף אִם יִטְחֲנוֹ הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכֹּר הַקֶּמַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחַר זְמַן אִסּוּר חָמֵץ – לֹא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה", לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מֶקַח טָעוּת,11 שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַקֶּמַח הוּא מִדָּגָן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו מַיִם – לֹא הָיָה לוֹקְחוֹ,כז שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם אֵין נוֹחַ לְאָדָם לִקְנוֹת דָּבָר הָאָסוּר לוֹ לִקְנוֹתוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ח.כח וְאִם יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם זְמַן אִסּוּר חָמֵץ גַּם כֵּן – לֹא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְבַטֵּלכט בְּסוֹף שָׁעָה ה'12 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ד.ל,13 וְעוֹד, שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלא שֶׁאֵין אָדָם עוֹבֵר בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" אֶלָּא עַל חֲמֵצוֹ הַיָּדוּעַ לוֹ אֲבָל לֹא עַל חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ לוֹ,14 וְקֶמַח זֶה אֵין הַלּוֹקְחוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא חָמֵץ).

אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְבַּקֵּעַ15 – לֹא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי מְכִירָה חֲלוּטָה,16 אֶלָּא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי הַמַּכִּירוֹ שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ בּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בַּחֲמֵצוֹ אֶלָּא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ לוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְיַחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹלב וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ח,לג אוֹ יְבַקֵּשׁ מִנָּכְרִי אַחֵר שֶׁיִּקַּח שְׁוֵה מָנֶה17 בְּמָאתַיִם וְיַבְטִיחַ לוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְיִתֵּן לוֹ רֶוַחלד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,לה,18 שֶׁמֵּעַתָּה אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יַפְסִיד הַנָּכְרִי מָעוֹתָיו. מִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לִסְמֹךְ עַל הֶתֵּרִים הַלָּלוּ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה:לו

5 All the above19 applies when the water’s moisture remained on the grain for the amount of time [it takes to walk] a mil.5 [Different rules apply if the moisture did not remain on the grain for that amount of time.] Even if a large amount of grain was soaked in water on Pesach, one may sell all [the grain] to one non-Jew, provided he sells [the grain to the non-Jew] before it remains [in the water] for the amount of time [it takes to walk] a mil. [The rationale is that the kernels] have yet to become chametz and it is [therefore] permitted to benefit from them.20

ה וְכָל זֶה19 כְּשֶׁשָּׁהָה לַחְלוּחִית הַמַּיִם עַל הַדָּגָן שִׁעוּר מִיל,5 אֲבָל קֹדֶם לָכֵן, אֲפִלּוּ דָּגָן הַרְבֵּה שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה בַּמַּיִם בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹלז כֻּלּוֹ לְנָכְרִי אֶחָד קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה שִׁעוּר מִיל, שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְחַמֵּץ וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה:לח,20

6 When a Jew purchased wheat from a non-Jew and afterwards, the non-Jew [casually] mentioned in the course of conversation21 that he washed the wheat, [the wheat] is permitted. [The rationale is that] the non-Jew’s word is not accepted [regarding the wheat] once he sold it and it left his domain.22 If, however, [the non-Jew] made such statements while [the object of] the sale is in his domain, his word is accepted even if he did not make these statements in the course of [casual] conversation.23

If [the Jew] considers the non-Jew as trustworthy, [the wheat] is forbidden even though [the non-Jew] made these statements after he sold [the wheat] and even if he did not make these statements in the course of [casual] conversation.

ו יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלָּקַח חִטִּים מִנָּכְרִי וְאַחַר כָּךְ הָיָה הַנָּכְרִי מֵסִיחַ לְפִי תֻּמּוֹ21 שֶׁרָחַץ הַחִטִּים בְּמַיִם – הֲרֵי הֵן מֻתָּרוֹת,לט שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי נֶאֱמָן בָּזֶה שֶׁאָמַר לְאַחַר שֶׁמְּכָרָם וְיָצְאוּ מִתַּחַת יָדוֹ.מ,22

אֲבָל אִם אָמַר כֵּן בִּשְׁעַת הַמֶּכֶר בְּעוֹדָן בְּיָדוֹ – נֶאֱמָן אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה מֵסִיחַ לְפִי תֻּמּוֹ.מא,23

וְאִם הַנָּכְרִי הוּא מֻחְזָק לְנֶאֱמָן בְּעֵינָיו, אַף אִם אָמַר כֵּן לְאַחַר שֶׁמְּכָרָן – אֲסוּרִיןמב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה מֵסִיחַ לְפִי תֻּמּוֹ:מג,21

7 When grain sank in a river and remained there for the amount of time [it takes to walk] a mil5 or longer, it is not [categorized as] definitely chametz; instead, its status [– whether or not it is considered chametz –] is doubtful. [This ruling applies] even if [the grain] softened in the water and is close to cracking open. Therefore, if [this grain] was wiped and dried out, and then became mixed with a far greater amount of other grain – even if it became mixed [with the other grain] during Pesach – there are authorities who permit the mixture even to be eaten.

[The rationale for this ruling is that] with regard to all Scriptural prohibitions, when a [forbidden] dry substance is mixed with a [permitted] dry substance [in a dry mixture], the presence of [the forbidden substance] is batel (nullified) when [the mixture contains] a majority [of the permitted substance]. True, [the Sages] ruled stringently with regard to chametz and forbade even [a mixture containing] the slightest trace [of chametz.24 Nevertheless,] their stringency [was applied] only to [mixtures containing] an entity that was definitely chametz, not to [a mixture containing a substance] that was [only] possibly [chametz].

There are authorities who differ with this [ruling] and forbid [the mixture] if the [grain that was moistened] had [thoroughly] softened before it became mixed [with the other grain].25 This is the custom in these countries, as will be explained.26

Nevertheless, in the event of a severe [financial] loss, e.g., one cannot find a non-Jew to whom to sell [the mixture] with the exception of the value of the forbidden [grain] it contains, (as explained in sec. 447[:2],)27 one may rely on the first opinion to permit maintaining possession of the mixture until after Pesach.28 [This ruling applies] even if the mixture came about during Pesach. If, however, a severe [financial] loss is not involved, one should not rule leniently, even if the mixture came about before Pesach. Instead, one should follow the guidelines explained in sec. 442[:16] and 453[:11] with regard to grain that became chametz in a complete sense and then became mixed [with other grain]. Consult those sources.29

ז דָּגָן שֶׁנִּטְבַּע בַּנָּהָר וְשָׁהָה שָׁם שִׁעוּר מִיל5 אוֹ יוֹתֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְרַכֵּךְ בַּמַּיִם וְקָרוֹב לְהִתְבַּקֵּעַ – אֵינוֹ חָמֵץ וַדַּאי אֶלָּא סָפֵק.מד לְפִיכָךְ, אִם נִתְנַגֵּב וְנִתְיַבֵּשׁ וְנִתְעָרֵב בְּדָגָן אַחֵרמה הַרְבֵּה מִמֶּנּוּ,מו אֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרֵב בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןמז הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּכָל אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה יָבֵשׁ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּיָבֵשׁ בָּטֵל בְּרֹב, אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח הֶחֱמִירוּ חֲכָמִיםמח לֶאֱסֹר בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ,מט,24 וְלֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ אֶלָּא בְּחָמֵץ וַדַּאי אֲבָל לֹא בִּסְפֵק חָמֵץ.נ

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהנא וְאוֹסְרִין אִם כְּבָר הָיָה מְרֻכָּךְ קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב.25 וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[יִּ]תְבָּאֵר.נב,26

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְצֹא נָכְרִי לְמָכְרוֹ לוֹ חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"זנג,27) – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְהַתִּיר לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַחנד,28 אֲפִלּוּ נַעֲשָׂה הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח.נה אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה – אֵין לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ נַעֲשָׂה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,נו אֶלָּא יַעֲשֶׂה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"בנז וְתנ"גנח בְּדָגָן שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְעָרֵב, עַיֵּן שָׁם:29

8 When grain was stored in a loft and rain fell into the loft through the roof, moistening some of the [kernels of] wheat, [on Pesach] it is even forbidden to maintain possession of [the kernels] that became moist. The remainder [of the kernels, however], are permitted, [even] to be eaten [on Pesach].

[This ruling applies] even though there is a doubt that perhaps the rain also fell on [these kernels,] and then they dried out. [Leniency is granted] because of a sefek sefeika [i.e., a compounded doubt]: Maybe rain did not fall on [these kernels], and even if [rain] did fall [on them], maybe they did not become chametz. Nevertheless, if [the owner] can easily find other wheat for Pesach, he should not rely on the compounded doubt and should not partake of [these kernels] on Pesach.30 Instead, he should leave them until after Pesach, since he will not suffer a [financial] loss by [doing so].

ח דָּגָן שֶׁהָיָה מֻנָּח בַּעֲלִיָּה וְיָרְדוּ גְּשָׁמִים דֶּרֶךְ הַגַּג לְתוֹךְ הָעֲלִיָּה וְנִתְלַחְלְחוּ מִקְצָת הַחִטִּים – אוֹתָן שֶׁנִּתְלַחְלְחוּ אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן, וְהַשְּׁאָר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בָּהֶן שֶׁמָּא יָרְדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם גְּשָׁמִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְנַגְּבוּ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הֵן מֻתָּרוֹתנט אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָהס מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא: שֶׁמָּא לֹא יָרְדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם גְּשָׁמִים, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר יָרְדוּ, שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְחַמְּצוּ.סא

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּקַל לִמְצֹא חִטִּים אֲחֵרִים לְפֶסַח – אֵין לוֹ לִסְמֹךְ עַל הַסְּפֵק סְפֵקָא לֶאֱכֹל מֵהֶם בְּפֶסַח,30 אֶלָּא יַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, מֵאַחַר שֶׁאֵין לוֹ הֶפְסֵד בִּשְׁהִיָּתָן:סב

9 When does the [requirement that if there is an alternative, one should leave the kernels until after Pesach] apply? When [the owner] saw that some of the wheat [stored] in the loft became moist, in which instance, there are grounds for concern that the remainder also became moist, but later dried out.

[Different rules apply,] however, if the [kernels] did not become moist in a loft, [but instead,] they split open [beforehand], while in the grain heap, because of the rain that descended upon them [then]. Although there are many kernels that split open, the remainder of [the kernels] that did not split open are permitted even to be eaten. [The rationale is that] it is very common that when it rains, [the kernels] on the top and on the bottom of the grain heap [will become moist], leaven, and split open, but the water will not touch those [kernels] in the center [of the grain heap] at all.

ט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁרָאָה שֶׁנִּתְלַחְלְחוּ מִקְצָת הַחִטִּים שֶׁבַּעֲלִיָּה, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְלַחְלְחוּ גַּם הַשְּׁאָר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְנַגְּבוּ. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְלַחְלְחוּ בַּעֲלִיָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן הַרְבֵּה מְבֻקָּעוֹת שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעוּ בְּעוֹדָן בַּגָּדִישׁ מֵחֲמַת הַגְּשָׁמִים שֶׁיָּרְדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַשְּׁאָר שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקְּעוּ מֻתָּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַדָּבָר מָצוּי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת הַגְּשָׁמִים עֶלְיוֹנוֹת הַגָּדִישׁ וְתַחְתּוֹנוֹת מִתְחַמֵּץ וּמִתְבַּקֵּעַ וְאֵין הַמַּיִם נוֹגְעִין בְּאֶמְצָעִיתוֹ כְּלָל:סג

10 During a year in which much rain fell on the piles [of harvested grain]31 in the fields to the extent that some of the stalks on the [grain] piles sprouted, there is nevertheless no concern regarding the bulk of the wheat from that year’s [crop] as long as it shows no signs of leavening. [The rationale is that] we follow the majority32 and the majority [of the grain] did not leaven.

A lenient assumption is made even with regard to those piles of [grain] that were seen to have rain fall upon them. [It is postulated that] perhaps the rain only [fell] upon the kernels on top of the [grain] pile, but not [on those] in its center. And even if [rain] would have [fallen] upon them, perhaps they did not become chametz.

י שָׁנָה שֶׁרַבּוּ בּוֹ הַגְּשָׁמִים וְיָרְדוּ עַל הָעֲרֵמוֹת31 שֶׁבַּשָּׂדוֹת עַד שֶׁקְּצָת מֵהַשִּׁבֳּלִים שֶׁעַל הָעֲרֵמוֹת הָיוּ מַעֲלִין צְמָחִים – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לִסְתָם חִטִּים שֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הַשָּׁנָה כָּל שֶׁאֵין רוֹאִין בָּהֶם סִימַן חִמּוּץ,סד לְפִי שֶׁאָנוּ הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב32 וְאֵין הָרֹב מַחְמִיצִין.סה וְאַף אוֹתָם עֲרֵמוֹת שֶׁרָאִינוּ שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם גְּשָׁמִים – תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל, שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִכְנְסוּ הַגְּשָׁמִים אֶלָּא בַּשִּׁבֳּלִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים אֲבָל לֹא בְּבֶטֶן הָעֲרֵמָה, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר נִכְנְסוּ, שֶׁמָּא לֹא הִסְפִּיקוּ לְהַחְמִיץ:סו

11 When wheat was transported by ship and [the kernels] are dry and firm, without their appearance changing, it is not assumed that a prohibition exists merely because such a possibility exists.33 [Thus, it is not presumed] that perhaps [the wheat kernels] came in contact with water, [became chametz, had the water] wiped off, and then dried. If, however, their appearance changed or they are moist, even though they did not soften, it is forbidden even to maintain possession of them.

יא חִטִּים שֶׁבָּאוּ בִּסְפִינָה, אִם הֵם יְבֵשׁוֹת וְקָשׁוֹת וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מַרְאִיתָן – אֵין מַחֲזִיקִין בָּהֶן אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵקסז,33 לוֹמַר: שֶׁמָּא בָּאוּ בַּמַּיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְנַגְּבוּ וְנִתְיַבְּשׁוּ.סח אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁתַּנָּה מַרְאִיתָן אוֹ שֶׁהֵן לַחוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְרַכְּכוּ – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן:סט

12 [Even when] grain is still attached to the earth, if it has already dried completely and no longer requires the nurture of the earth, it is considered as if it was harvested and stored in a container. [Hence,] it is possible for [for such grain] to become chametz if rain falls on it.34

יב דָּגָן שֶׁמְּחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, אִם נִתְיַבֵּשׁ לְגַמְרֵי וְאֵין צָרִיךְ עוֹד לִינֹק מִן הָאָרֶץ – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּתָלוּשׁ וּמֻנָּח בְּכַד, וְיָכוֹל לָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ אִם יֵרְדוּ עָלָיו גְּשָׁמִים:ע,34

13 The laws pertaining to a Jew who owns storage cisterns filled with wheat are explained in sec. 436[:17-19]. Consult that source.

יג יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בּוֹרוֹת מְלֵאִים חִטִּים – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ו,עא עַיֵּן שָׁם:

14 It is customary in these regions not to partake of honey on Pesach out of concern that perhaps flour from wheat that was washed in water before being ground was mixed into it.35 Even when a Jew took honey from his [own] beehive, and he knows [with absolute certainty] that flour was not mixed into it, the honey should not be eaten [on Pesach. Similarly, such honey] should not be included in a cooked food or used to make mead during Pesach because of the impression that might be created, for not everyone knows that [the honey came from a hive that] belonged to a Jew.

Before Pesach, however, it is permitted to make mead to drink during Pesach even from honey [purchased from] a non-Jew. [The rationale is that] even if a small amount of flour was mixed into the honey, its presence is nullified in 60 [times the volume] of the beverage before Pesach, and it will not become significant again during Pesach.36

Even when honey alone was cooked before Pesach, it is permitted to partake of it during Pesach. [The rationale is that] even if there was a small amount of chametz in [the honey], its presence is nullified in 60 [times its volume of honey], since there is only an [unspecific] concern that [the honey contained] chametz.37

There are authorities who permit [using honey] even when [the mixture might comprise] less than 60 times the [volume of the flour]. One may rely on their words in the event of a severe [financial] loss, or when [failing to use the honey] will prevent [a person] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival.

יד נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל דְּבַשׁ בְּפֶסַח,עב שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא עֵרְבוּ בּוֹ קֶמַח מֵחִטִּים שֶׁנִּרְחֲצוּ בְּמַיִם קֹדֶם הַטְּחִינָה.עג,35 וַאֲפִלּוּ דְּבַשׁ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁרָדָה אוֹתוֹ מִכַּוֶּרֶת שֶׁלּוֹ וְיָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרֵב בּוֹ קֶמַח – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לְאָכְלוֹ וְלֹא לִתְּנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל וְלֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקֶה מֵי דְּבַשׁעד (שֶׁקּוֹרִין מע"ד) בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן, שֶׁאֵינָן יוֹדְעִין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל.עה

אֲבָל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִלּוּ דְּבַשׁ שֶׁל נָכְרִי – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקֶה מֵי דְּבַשׁ לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁאַף אִם נִתְעָרֵב מְעַט קֶמַח בְּתוֹךְ הַדְּבַשׁ – הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּשְׁקֶה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,עו וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעֹר בְּפֶסַח.עז,36

וַאֲפִלּוּ דְּבַשׁ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁאַף אִם הָיָה בְּתוֹכוֹ מְעַט חָמֵץ – הֲרֵי הוּא נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ.37

וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןעח אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ בִּמְקוֹם מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב:

15 All the above applies to honey that is brought in small containers, [since the honey was placed in them] after it was already separated from the honeycomb. Therefore, there is concern that flour was mixed into [the honey] so that the flour [mixed into it] will also turn into honey. For this is the nature of honey – it transforms the substances that fall into it and causes them to become honey.38

When, by contrast, honey is brought in barrels from the hive, and [the honey] is still mixed with the honeycomb, it is not common to mix flour into it. Therefore, it is permitted to make a beverage from [such honey] on Pesach or to partake of it in its natural form.

There are authorities who rule stringently and do not partake of [such honey] in its natural form or make a beverage from it on Pesach. It is desirable to give weight to their opinion and not partake of [such honey] in its natural form unless it was cooked before Pesach.39 Nevertheless, in these countries where we do not have other beverages to drink on Pesach,40 one who acts leniently and makes beverages [from such honey] is not remiss. [On the contrary,] he is due praise for honoring the festival.41

טו וְכָל זֶה בִּדְבַשׁ שֶׁמְּבִיאִין בְּכֵלִים קְטַנִּים, שֶׁכְּבָר הֻבְדַּל מִן הַשַּׁעֲוָה, וּלְכָךְ יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא עֵרְבוּ בּוֹ קֶמַח כְּדֵי שֶׁאַף הַקֶּמַח יִתְהַפֵּךְ לִדְבַשׁ, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הַדְּבַשׁ לְהַחֲזִיר אֶת הַדָּבָר הַנּוֹפֵל לְתוֹכוֹ וּלְהָפְכוֹ לִדְבַשׁ.עט,38 אֲבָל דְּבַשׁ שֶׁמְּבִיאִין בְּחָבִיּוֹת מִן הַכַּוֶּרֶתפ שֶׁעֲדַיִן הוּא מְעֹרָב בְּתוֹךְ הַשַּׁעֲוָהפא – אֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְעָרֵב בּוֹ קֶמַח, וּלְכָךְ מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אוֹ לְאָכְלוֹ בְּעֵינוֹ.פב

וְיֵשׁ מַחֲמִירִיןפג שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלוֹ בְּעֵינוֹ, וְשֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקֶה בְּפֶסַח. וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלוֹ בְּעֵינוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְבַּשֵּׁל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.39

אֲבָל לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקֶה, הַמֵּקֵל בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ שְׁתִיָּה אַחֶרֶת בְּפֶסַח40 – לֹא הִפְסִיד, וְשֶׁבַח כְּבוֹד יוֹם טוֹב בְּיָדוֹ:פד,41

16 All the above applies in places [where the local custom is unknown]. However, in places where it is known with certainty that it is not common to mix flour into honey, it is permitted even to partake of honey that was separated from the honeycomb and is in its natural state.42

[By contrast,] in places where it is known that it is common for non-Jews to mix large amounts of flour into honey to the extent that there are grounds for concern that so much flour was mixed into the honey separated from the honeycomb that the honey [mixture] would not contain 60 [times as much honey as the volume of the flour], one should not make a beverage from [such honey] even before Pesach.

It is, nevertheless, permitted to maintain possession of [the honey] until after Pesach. If [such honey] falls into cooked food on Pesach, its presence is nullified even if [the cooked dish] contains less than 60 times the volume [of the honey]43 in the event of a severe [financial] loss, or when [failing to use the cooked food] will prevent [the person] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival. [The rationale is that] one may rely on those authorities who maintain that whenever a forbidden substance falls into honey and is transformed into honey, its forbidden quality departs from it and it is permitted entirely.

Nevertheless, one should not rely on this opinion and act leniently only when he does not know with certainty that flour that was chametz was mixed into this honey that he desires to keep [until after Pesach], or that fell into food [that he desires to eat on Pesach. In such a situation,] there are many reasons to rule leniently concerning this honey without [considering] this opinion,44 for even without considering this opinion, there are, nevertheless, several factors [that raise a doubt as to whether the honey contains chametz]: There is a possibility that flour [that was chametz] was not mixed into [the honey] at all. And if one would presume to say that [flour] was mixed into [the honey], maybe the flour came from unwashed wheat [and was not chametz]. And [even] if one would presume to say that [the wheat] was washed, maybe [the kernels] did not become chametz. For even if wheat remained in water for a long time, it is not definitely chametz; there is only a possibility of such, as explained above.45

If, by contrast, it is definitely known that flour that was chametz was mixed into [the honey] (see sec. 453[:18]),46 even if [the flour] was transformed into honey, it is forbidden to maintain possession of [such honey].47 If [such honey] fell into a cooked dish, even the slightest trace causes the entire mixture to be forbidden. [These rules apply] even in the event of a severe [financial] loss or when [failing to use the cooked food] will prevent [the person] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival.

טז וְכָל זֶה בִּסְתָם מְקוֹמוֹת, אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁיָּדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְעָרֵב בַּדְּבַשׁ שׁוּם קֶמַח – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ הַדְּבַשׁ שֶׁהֻבְדַּל מֵהַשַּׁעֲוָה אַף לְאָכְלוֹ בְּעֵינוֹ.פה,42

וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַנָּכְרִים לְעָרֵב הַרְבֵּה קֶמַח בַּדְּבַשׁפו עַד שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ בַּדְּבַשׁ שֶׁהֻבְדַּל מֵהַשַּׁעֲוָהפז שֶׁמָּא עֵרְבוֹ בּוֹ כָּל כָּךְ קֶמַח עַד שֶׁאֵין בְּהַדְּבַשׁ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹפח – אֵין לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מַשְׁקֶה אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.פט

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.צ וְאִם נָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּפֶסַח – הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים43 אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב,צא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִסְמֹךְצב עַל הָאוֹמְרִיםצג שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁנּוֹפֵל לְתוֹךְ הַדְּבַשׁ וְנִתְהַפֵּךְ לִהְיוֹת דְּבַשׁ נִפְקָע אִסּוּרוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וַהֲרֵי הוּא הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא זוֹ לְהָקֵל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין יָדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּרצד שֶׁעֵרְבוּ קֶמַח חָמֵץ בִּדְבַשׁ זֶה שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ, אוֹ בִּדְבַשׁ זֶה שֶׁנָּפַל מִמֶּנּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּדְבַשׁ זֶה הַרְבֵּה צְדָדִים לְהָקֵלצה בְּלֹא סְבָרָא זוֹ,44 שֶׁמָּא לֹא עֵרְבוּ בּוֹ קֶמַח כְּלָל, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר עֵרְבוּ, שֶׁמָּא הַקֶּמַח הוּא מֵחִטִּים שֶׁלֹּא נִרְחֲצוּ, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר נִרְחֲצוּ, שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְחַמְּצוּ, שֶׁאַף שֶׁשָּׁהוּ הַחִטִּים הַרְבֵּה בְּמַיִם אֵינָן חָמֵץ וַדַּאי אֶלָּא סָפֵק כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.צו,45

אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁעֵרְבוּ קֶמַח חָמֵץ (עַיֵּן סִימָן תנ"גצז)46 אַף שֶׁנִּתְהַפֵּךְ לִדְבַשׁ – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ.צח,47 וְאִם נָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – אוֹסֵר תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ אַף בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה וּמְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב:

17 In these regions, it is customary during Pesach not to eat any type of dried fig or raisin, and all other types of dried fruit48 until the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated] in the Diaspora.49 [The rationale is that] it is common to sprinkle flour over figs when they are being dried, and it is common to mix raisins with figs while they are being dried.50 Similarly, it is common to sprinkle flour over all other dried fruit. Also, it is common to dry [fruits] in an oven, and there are times when they are dried in [an oven] after bread that is chametz was baked there. If, however, it is known that there is no suspicion that [the dried fruit] became chametz, e.g., they were dried by a Jew [who] took care that they did not [come into contact] with chametz, there is no need to act stringently with regard to them.51

יז נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל בְּפֶסַח עַד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת49 כָּל מִינֵי גְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְצִמּוּקִין וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ,צט,48 לְפִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְפַזֵּר קֶמַח עַל הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתָן,ק וְהַצִּמּוּקִין רְגִילִין לְעָרְבָם עִם הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתָן,קא,50 וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת הַיְבֵשִׁים רְגִילִין לְפַזֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם קֶמַח, וְגַם יֵשׁ שֶׁרְגִילִין לְיַבְּשָׁם בְּתַנּוּר, וּפְעָמִים שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין בּוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁאָפוּ בּוֹ לֶחֶם חָמֵץ.קב

אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִזְהַר בָּהֶם מֵחָמֵץ – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בָּהֶם:קג,51

18 Even if [the fruits] were dried by a non-Jew, if they fell into a cooked dish, [the cooked dish] is not forbidden because of [the dried fruits] even though the cooked dish does not contain 60 times [the volume of the fruit].

[Indeed,] in some places, even as an initial preference, leniency is taken with regard to making beverages [to be drunk] on Pesach from [dried fruits,] i.e., [people] soak [the fruit] in water until its flavor is imparted to the water, and [then] drink the [flavored] water on Pesach. [The rationale for this leniency is that] since there is merely an [undefined] concern [that the fruit contained chametz], the stringency of forbidding the water in which they soaked is not [imposed]. Nevertheless, the leniency of cooking [such fruits] on Pesach52 to drink the [beverage produced] on Pesach is not granted. [The rationale is that] the flavor [of the fruit] is absorbed more [powerfully] by the water through cooking than by merely soaking it [in water].53

In a few places, it is common to act as stringently with regard to the water in which [such fruit] was soaked as one does with regard to the water in which it was cooked, unless [the fruit] was soaked or cooked before Pesach.54

יח וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְיַבְּשׁוּ בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי, אִם נָפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – אֵינָן אוֹסְרִיןקד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּהַתַּבְשִׁיל שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּם.קה

וְאַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה נוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶם מַשְׁקֶה בְּפֶסַח, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁשּׁוֹרִין אוֹתָם בְּמַיִם עַד שֶׁנִּקְלַט טַעְמָן בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וְשׁוֹתִין הַמַּיִם בְּפֶסַח, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם אֶלָּא חֲשָׁשׁ בְּעָלְמָא – אֵין מַחֲמִירִין כָּל כָּךְ לֶאֱסֹר אַף מֵי שְׁרִיָּתָן.

אֲבָל אֵין מְקִלִּין כָּל כָּךְ לְבַשֵּׁל אוֹתָם בְּפֶסַח52 כְּדֵי לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵי בִּשּׁוּלָם בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל נִקְלָט טַעְמָם בַּמַּיִם יוֹתֵר מֵעַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה.53 וּבְמִקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּמֵי שְׁרִיָּתָן כְּמוֹ בְּמֵי בִּשּׁוּלָן,קו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שְׁרָאָן וּבִשְּׁלָן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח:54

19 There is no concern that sugar that is made like a cone (and that is called “hat sugar”)55 [contains] chametz. It is permitted to maintain possession of [such sugar] on Pesach. Nevertheless, it is customary to sell [this sugar] to a non-Jew before Pesach.

After the fact, if one forgot and maintained possession of [such sugar] until after Pesach, it is even permitted to partake of it [at that time. Indeed,] one may even partake of it on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated]56 in the Diaspora.49

If one recalls [that he possesses such sugar] during Pesach, he may sell it to a non-Jew.57 If [such sugar] falls into cooked food, it does not cause [the dish] to be forbidden even if [the cooked food] contains less than 60 times [the volume of the sugar].

יט הַצּוּקֶר הֶעָשׂוּי כְּכוֹבַע (שֶׁקּוֹרִין הוט צוקר)55 – אֵין בּוֹ חֲשַׁשׁ חָמֵץ,קז וּמֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח.קח

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן נוֹהֲגִין לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח. וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְהִשְׁהָה אוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּרקט אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת49 מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ.קי,56 וְאִם נִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי.57 וְאִם נָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים:קיא

20 In contrast, there is concern that cooked sugar that is cut into pieces (known as “sugar candy”)58 and similarly, [all] types of sugar dips with which different types of fruit and spices are coated contain chametz. One should not maintain possession of [sugar candy or sugar-coated fruits and spices] during Pesach, nor should they be eaten, not even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora].

Nevertheless, [if sugar candy or such sugar-coated fruits or spices] fell into a cooked food, they do not cause [the cooked food] to be forbidden even if [the food] contains less than 60 times [the volume of the sweets or spices that fell in] if [forbidding the food would cause] a severe [financial] loss or when [failing to use the cooked food] will prevent [a person] from [properly] rejoicing on the festival. Similarly, if [a person] violated [the above directive] and maintained possession of [such candy or sugar-coated fruits or spices] until after Pesach, it is permitted to benefit from them, and if a severe [financial] loss is involved, it is even permitted to partake of them.

[The rationale is that] there are many grounds for leniency: Perhaps flour was never mixed with [the coating]. If [one would presume that flour] was mixed with [the coating], perhaps it was nullified in 60 times [its volume of permitted food]. If one would presume that [the flour] was not nullified, perhaps the flour came from unwashed wheat. And [even] if one would presume that the [wheat] was washed, perhaps [the kernels] did not become chametz.59 True, there are also grounds for concern that the sugar was cooked in utensils that were used for chametz. Nevertheless, there are authorities who even permit eating food on Pesach that was cooked before Pesach in utensils that were used for chametz, as stated in sec. 447[:45].60

כ אֲבָל הַצּוּקֶר הַמְּבֻשָּׁל הַנֶּחְתָּךְ לַחֲתִיכוֹת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין צוקר קאנדיל),קיב,58 וְכֵן מִינֵי בְּלִילוֹת צוּקֶר שֶׁמְּחַפִּין בָּהֶם מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת וּבְשָׂמִיםקיג – יֵשׁ בָּהֶם חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ, וְאֵין לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם בְּפֶסַח,קיד וְאֵין לְאָכְלָם אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נָפְלוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – אֵינָן אוֹסְרִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב.קטו וְכֵן אִם עָבַר וְהִשְׁהָה אוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירָם בַּהֲנָאָה.

וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,קטז לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן הַרְבֵּה צְדָדִים לְהָקֵל: שֶׁמָּא לֹא עֵרְבוּ בָּהֶם קֶמַח, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר עֵרְבוּ, שֶׁמָּא נִתְבַּטֵּל בָּהֶם בְּשִׁשִּׁים, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל, שֶׁמָּא הַקֶּמַח הוּא מֵחִטִּים שֶׁלֹּא נִרְחֲצוּ, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר נִרְחֲצוּ שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְחַמְּצוּ.קיז,59 וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא בִּשְּׁלוּ הַצּוּקֶר בְּכֵלִים חֲמוּצִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי יֵשׁ מַתִּירִין דָּבָר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אֲפִלּוּ לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח,קיח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז:קיט,60

21 It is customary in these regions not to eat cloves or saffron [during Pesach] because flour is mixed with water and poured over saffron when it is dried, and cloves are soaked in barley water before they are dried.61

כא נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל צִפֹּרֶן (שֶׁקּוֹרִין נעגלי"ך) וְכַרְכֹּם (שֶׁקּוֹרִין זאפרי"ן),קכ לְפִי שֶׁבּוֹחֲשִׁין קֶמַח עִם מַיִם וּמְזַלְּפִין עַל הַכַּרְכֹּם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתָם,קכא וְהַצִּפֹּרֶן שׁוֹרִין אוֹתוֹ בְּמֵי שְׂעוֹרִים קֹדֶם שֶׁמְּיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתוֹ:קכב,61

22 Even when saffron grows in the garden of [a person’s] home, and he is careful that chametz does not [come in contact] with it, it is [nevertheless] customary to forbid [using this saffron] because of the impression that might be created. Since saffron is not commonly found in these regions, [people] will think that the saffron comes from a distant place.

This is not the case regarding all fruits that were dried by Jews who were careful that chametz did not [come in contact] with them. [In these instances,] there is no concern for the impression that might be created,62 because [these fruits] are commonly found [in these regions] and it is common knowledge that sometimes they are dried by Jews.

כב וְאַף כַּרְכֹּם הַגָּדֵל בְּגִנַּת בֵּיתוֹ וְנִזְהָר בּוֹ מֵחָמֵץ – נוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ אִסּוּר, מִפְּנֵי מַרְאִית הָעַיִן,קכג שֶׁהַכַּרְכֹּם אֵינוֹ מָצוּי בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ וְיִסְבְּרוּ שֶׁהוּא כַּרְכֹּם הַבָּא מִמֶּרְחַקִּים, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן שְׁאָר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִזְהַר בָּהֶם מֵחָמֵץ שֶׁאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין בָּהֶם לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן,קכד,62 לְפִי שֶׁהֵם מְצוּיִין וְהַכֹּל יוֹדְעִים שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מְיַבְּשִׁין אוֹתָם עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:קכה

23 It is customary not to use articles63 dyed with saffron on Pesach. [Nevertheless,] if saffron or cloves fell into cooked food on Pesach, the mixture is not forbidden even if [the cooked food] contains less than 60 times [the volume of the saffron or cloves].64

כג כֵּלִים63 הַצְּבוּעִים בְּכַרְכֹּם נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בְּפֶסַח.קכו וְכַרְכֹּם וְצִפֹּרֶן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ לְתַבְשִׁיל אֵינָן אוֹסְרִין תַּעֲרָבְתָּםקכז אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים:קכח,64

24 In a few places, it is common to soak tobacco in beer [before drying it. In those places,] one must lock [his tobacco] in a room65 or construct a divider in front of it66 [before Pesach. The same laws apply to] saffron in those places where it is customarily forbidden.

כד הַטאב"ק דֶּרֶךְ לִשְׁרוֹתוֹ בְּשֵׁכָר בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת – צָרִיךְ לְסָגְרוֹ בְּחֶדֶרקכט,65 אוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה לְפָנָיו.קל,66 וְכֵן הַכַּרְכֹּם בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין בּוֹ אִסּוּר:קלא

25 [The following laws apply when a kernel of] wheat or barley was found in cooked food on Pesach. If [the kernel] is actually cracked open, it is forbidden even to benefit from all the cooked food,67 for even the slightest trace of chametz [causes a mixture to be forbidden] on Pesach.68

However, if [the kernel] has not actually split open, even if it has softened and is close to splitting open, there are authorities who permit the cooked food even to be eaten, provided [the volume of the cooked food] is 60 times [the volume of the kernel. The rationale is that] as long as [the kernel] has not cracked open, it is not definitely chametz, rather there is merely a possibility that it became chametz. The [Sages] only applied the stringency that [even] the slightest trace [of chametz causes a mixture] to be forbidden to [a substance that is] definitely chametz, as explained above.69

There are authorities who differ with this [ruling] and maintain that any grain that has softened in water to the point that it is ready to soon crack open is [considered to be] definitely chametz according to Scriptural Law, even though it has not yet cracked open,70 because it will certainly become chametz in the immediate future.

In the present era, we are not knowledgeable regarding when [a kernel] is considered as ready to crack open. Therefore, as long as a wheat kernel softened, even though it did not crack open, it is forbidden even to benefit from the entire cooked dish [in which it is found. Moreover,] if even a trace from this cooked dish became mixed with other cooked dishes, it is forbidden to benefit from all of them.71 In addition, all the utensils that were used with these foods while they were hot to the extent that a hand would recoil from touching them, [in Talmudic terminology, yad soledes bo,]72 must be stored away until after Pesach, as explained in sec. 447[:3, 17] with regard to [utensils used with substances that were] definitely chametz. Consult that source.

It is the accepted custom in these regions [to follow the latter perspective] and one should not deviate from it. Nevertheless, if a severe [financial] loss is involved, one may rely on the first perspective to permit benefitting from the mixture73 or maintaining possession of it until after Pesach, after removing the kernel from it and obliterating [the kernel].74

All the above applies when [the kernel of] wheat or barley had softened [before] it fell into the cooked food or if it softened in the cooked food. If, however, [the kernel] did not soften, it does not cause the cooked food to be forbidden at all. [The cooked food may] even be eaten.75

כה חִטָּה אוֹ שְׂעוֹרָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בְּתַבְשִׁיל בְּפֶסַח, אִם הִיא מְבֻקַּעַת מַמָּשׁ – כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּרקלב אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה,קלג,67 שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ.68 אֲבָל אִם אֵינָהּ מְבֻקַּעַת מַמָּשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה וְהִיא קְרוֹבָה לְהִתְבַּקֵּעַ – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקלד הַתַּבְשִׁיל אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּהּ,קלה דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקְּעָה עֲדַיִן אֵינָהּ חָמֵץ וַדַּאי אֶלָּא סָפֵק, וְלֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ לֶאֱסֹר בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ אֶלָּא בְּחָמֵץ וַדַּאי,קלו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קלז,69

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהקלח וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל דָּגָן שֶׁנִּתְרַכֵּךְקלט בְּמַיִם כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לְהִתְבַּקֵּעַ – הֲרֵי זֶה חָמֵץ וַדַּאי מִן הַתּוֹרָהקמ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקֵּעַ עֲדַיִן,70 לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד.קמא וּלְפִי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין מַה נִּקְרָא רָאוּי לְהִתְבַּקֵּעַ, לְפִיכָךְ כָּל שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה הַחִטָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּקְּעָה – נֶאֱסָר כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁילקמב אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה.קמג וְאִם נִתְעָרֵב מַשֶּׁהוּ מִתַּבְשִׁיל זֶה לְתַבְשִׁילִין אֲחֵרִים – כֻּלָּם נֶאֱסָרִיםקמד בַּהֲנָאָה.71 וְגַם כָּל הַכֵּלִיםקמה שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בְּתַבְשִׁילִין אֵלּוּ בְּעוֹדָן חַמִּין שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ72 – צָרִיךְ לְהַצְנִיעָן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"זקמו בְּחָמֵץ וַדַּאי, עַיֵּן שָׁם. וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג פָּשׁוּט בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ,קמז וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לְהַתִּיר הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בַּהֲנָאָה,קמח,73 אוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד אַחַר הַפֶּסַח לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּסִיר מִשָּׁם אֶת הַחִטָּה וִיבַעֲרֶנָּה.קמט,74

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל חִטָּה אוֹ שְׂעוֹרָה מְרֻכֶּכֶת, אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְרַכְּכָה – אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת כְּלָל אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה:קנ,75

26 Even when [a kernel of] wheat that split open was found in a cooked dish, in which instance, it is forbidden to benefit from the cooked dish according to all authorities,76 [the owner] may nevertheless sell [the cooked food] to a non-Jew after he removes the wheat [kernel] from it77 if this occurs on Chol HaMoed, for the reason explained in sec. 447[:1].78

There are authorities who forbid [this], and the common custom in these regions is [to follow this view]. One should not deviate [from this custom] unless a very severe [financial] loss is involved, as explained [in that source].79 Nevertheless, if the [kernel of] wheat has not split open, one may permit the sale [of the cooked food into which it fell] to a non-Jew even when a very severe [financial] loss is not involved. If, however, no serious [financial] loss is involved at all, leniency should not be taken.

כו וַאֲפִלּוּ חִטָּה מְבֻקַּעַת שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בְּתַבְשִׁיל, שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,76 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יָכוֹל לְמָכְרָהּ לְנָכְרִי לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵסִיר הַחִטָּה מִמֶּנּוּקנא,77 אִם הוּא חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,קנב מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז.קנג,78

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין.קנד וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ,קנה וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה מְאֹד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.קנו,79

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין הַחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִיקנז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה מְאֹד. אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה כְּלָל – אֵין לְהָקֵל:קנח

27 When [the owner] desires to sell [the cooked food into which a kernel of wheat that has not split open fell], he must sell it immediately upon becoming aware of [the mixture], because it is forbidden to maintain possession of [such food] on Pesach, for the reason explained in [the above] source.80 If [such a situation occurs] on Shabbos or on a festive day, [the owner] may give [the mixture] to a non-Jew as a gift,81 according to the authorities who permit selling [the mixture to a non-Jew] on Chol HaMoed.82[The rationale is that] it is permitted to give food to a non-Jew on Shabbos or on a festival, as explained in sec. 325[:1-3].83

כז כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לְמָכְרוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְמָכְרוֹ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד שֶׁנּוֹדַע הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַחקנט מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.קס,80

וְאִם הוּא שַׁבָּת אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב – יוּכַל לִתְּנוֹ לְנָכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָהקסא,81 לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין לְמָכְרוֹ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד,82 שֶׁהֲרֵי מֻתָּר לִתֵּן מְזוֹנוֹת לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ה:קסב,83

28 If one violated [the above directives] and maintained possession of [the cooked food] until the eighth day of Pesach,84 he may maintain possession of it until after Pesach, even if the [kernel of] wheat cracked open.85 Needless to say, if the mixture came about on the eighth day of Pesach, [the owner] is permitted to maintain possession of it. He need not give it to a non-Jew according to the authorities [who maintain that] it is permitted [to sell the food after removing the kernel. The rationale is that] since [the observance of] the eighth day [of Pesach] is merely [due to] a Rabbinic ordinance, [the Sages] did not rule that stringently regarding it and [did not] forbid maintaining possession of a mixture containing a mere trace of chametz.86

It is forbidden, however, to maintain possession of the trace of chametz itself even on the eighth day of Pesach.87 Instead, [if one discovers such a small amount of chametz on the eighth day,] he should follow the guidelines explained in sec. 446[:6].88 Consult that source.

כח וְאִם עָבַר וְהִשְׁהָה אוֹתָם עַד שְׁמִינִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח,קסג,84 אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה – יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.85 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם נַעֲשָׂה הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת בְּיוֹם שְׁמִינִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח, שֶׁרַשַּׁאי לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ,קסד וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִתְּנוֹ לְנָכְרִי לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּתִּירִין, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיּוֹם שְׁמִינִי אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקסה – לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ בּוֹ כָּל כָּךְ לֶאֱסֹר לְהַשְׁהוֹת תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ.86

אֲבָל הֶחָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ עַצְמוֹ – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם שְׁמִינִי,קסו,87 אֶלָּא יַעֲשֶׂה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ו,קסז,88 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

29 Although [even] the slightest trace of chametz [causes a mixture to be forbidden] on Pesach, [nevertheless], chametz does not cause cold [liquids] to become forbidden. For example, if [a kernel of] wheat that cracked open is discovered in cold water or wine on Pesach, [the water or the wine] is permitted89 if it is known that [the kernel] did not soak in [the liquid]90 for 24 hours.91 [The rationale is that cold] liquids do not cause [flavors] to be released or absorbed at all [unless they soak for 24 hours]. Thus, not even the slightest trace of [flavor of chametz] was released from the wheat into the wine or the water.

Nevertheless, if a slice of bread92 or dough fell into [these liquids] – even if [the bread or dough] fell into [it] before Pesach and [the substance] was removed before Pesach – it is forbidden to maintain possession or drink the liquid during Pesach unless one filtered it before Pesach. [The rationale is that] bread and dough are likely to crumble, and there are grounds for concern that crumbs remained in the water or wine. (See sec. 447[:24].)

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that cold liquids do cause a trace [of flavor] to be released and absorbed.93 [Therefore,] if [a kernel of] wheat that split open is discovered in water94 in which meat was soaked on Pesach, the meat is forbidden. [The rationale is that] the water causes a trace of the flavor of the wheat to be released and [then causes it] to be absorbed by the meat. [This ruling applies] even if [the meat or the kernel] did not remain in [the water for a significant amount of time]. Needless to say, the water itself becomes forbidden, and if it was used to cook food, the food becomes forbidden.

Even if the [kernel of] wheat did not crack open, but [merely] softened95 in the water into which it fell, or it fell into it when [it was already] softened, it is considered as if it cracked open96 according to the [prevailing] custom in these regions, as explained [above].97

כט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּצוֹנֵן,קסח כְּגוֹן אִם נִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה בְּפֶסַח בְּמַיִם אוֹ בְּיַיִןקסט צוֹנְנִים – הֲרֵי הֵם מֻתָּרִין89 אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהֲתָה בְּתוֹכָם90 מֵעֵת לְעֵת,91 לְפִי שֶׁהַצּוֹנֵן אֵינוֹ מַפְלִיט וּמַבְלִיעַ כְּלוּם, וְלֹא נִפְלַט מִן הַחִטָּה אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן אוֹ הַמַּיִם.קע

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נָפְלָה לְתוֹכָם פְּרוּסַת לֶחֶם92 אוֹ עִסָּה, אֲפִלּוּ נָפְלָה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וֶהֱסִירָהּ מִשָּׁם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתָם בְּפֶסַח, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן סִנְּנָם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, לְפִי שֶׁהַלֶּחֶם וְהָעִסָּה עֲשׂוּיִין לְהִתְפָּרֵר, וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאֲרוּ פֵּרוּרִין בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וְהַיַּיִןקעא (עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"זקעב).

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןקעג עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהַצּוֹנֵן מַפְלִיט וּמַבְלִיעַ מַשֶּׁהוּ,93 וְאִם נִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה בְּמַיִם94 שֶׁשָּׁרוּ בָּהֶם בָּשָׂר בְּפֶסַח – הַבָּשָׂר אָסוּר,קעד לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם מַפְלִיטִין טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ מִן הַחִטָּה וּמַבְלִיעִין בַּבָּשָׂרקעה אַף שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהָה בְּתוֹכָם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁהַמַּיִם אֲסוּרִים,קעו וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ תַּבְשִׁיל – הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר,קעז וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְבַּקְּעָה הַחִטָּה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה95 בַּמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹכָם, אוֹ שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹכָם כְּשֶׁהִיא מְרֻכֶּכֶת – הֲרֵי הִיא כְּאִלּוּ נִתְבַּקְּעָהקעח,96 לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:קעט,97

30 Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first perspective.98 Nevertheless, in a place where it is customary to rule stringently, one should not deviate [from the local practice] unless a severe financial [loss] is involved or it is a pressing situation.99 In such an instance, one may rule leniently even if the [kernel of] wheat cracked open.

Similarly, in those places, [one may rely on the first perspective] if there is another rationale for leniency.100 For example, if [a kernel of] wheat was discovered in water after meat that was soaking in it was removed, [the meat] is not forbidden. [The rationale is that] it could be presumed that there was no wheat in the water while the meat was soaking there; [only] after [the meat] was removed did the wheat fall [into the water]. Similarly, if water was removed from this [container of] water before the wheat was discovered in it and food was cooked [with that water], the cooked food is permitted even if the [kernel of] wheat had cracked open.

ל וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קפ,98 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר – אֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת,קפא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,קפב,99 שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ בְּחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה.קפג

וְכֵן אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם עוֹד צַד אֶחָד לְהָקֵל,קפד,100 כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה בַּמַּיִם לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵסִירוּ מִשָּׁם הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה בְּתוֹכָם,קפה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִתְלוֹת וְלוֹמַר שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר הָיָה שָׁרוּי בַּמַּיִם לֹא הָיְתָה שָׁם חִטָּה, וְאַחַר שֶׁהֱסִירוּהוּ מִשָּׁם נָפְלָה הַחִטָּה שָׁמָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר.

וְכֵן אִם נָטַל מַיִם מִמַּיִם [אֵלּוּ] קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בָּהֶם הַחִטָּה וּבִשֵּׁל בָּהֶם תַּבְשִׁיל – הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה:

31 [Moreover,] even when [a kernel of] wheat was found in hot water – [and] it had softened, but had not cracked open – it is possible to permit cooked food that was cooked in [this water] before the wheat was discovered there on the basis of a compounded doubt (sefek sefeika):101 Perhaps [the kernel of] wheat fell into [the water] after [the food was cooked]. And even if it is presumed that [the kernel of wheat] fell [into the pot] beforehand, perhaps it did not soften until [the moment it was discovered], and [if the kernel] did not soften, the cooked food should not be forbidden, even according to our custom, as explained [above].102

לא וַאֲפִלּוּ מַיִם חַמִּין שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בָּהֶן חִטָּה,קפו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּקוּעָה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶם קֹדֶם שֶׁמָּצְאוּ בָּהֶם חִטָּה, מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא:101 שֶׁמָּא אַחַר כָּךְ נָפְלָה שָׁמָּה הַחִטָּה, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר קֹדֶם לָכֵן נָפְלָה, שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְרַכְּכָה עַד עַתָּה.קפז וּבְלֹא נִתְרַכְּכָה – אֵין לֶאֱסֹר הַתַּבְשִׁילקפח אֲפִלּוּ לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:קפט,102

32 [More stringent rules apply,] however, when actual chametz – e.g., bread, dough, or [a kernel of] wheat that cracked open – is discovered in hot water. Even if [these substances] are [discovered in water] in a k’li sheni,103 food that was cooked in that [water], even before the chametz was discovered in it, should be forbidden. Leniency should not be taken even when [acting stringently will cause] a severe [financial] loss or will prevent [the owner] from rejoicing [adequately] on the festival. It is even forbidden to maintain possession [of this cooked food. The rationale is that] it can be assumed that the chametz existed in the [container of] water when the water [used] to cook the food was taken from it.104

[The rationale for this stringency is that we follow the principle that] whenever a forbidden substance [is discovered, the prior status of the substance in which it is found] is defined retroactively according to its status at the time [the forbidden substance] was discovered,105 i.e., when a forbidden substance is discovered in one place, we assume that the substance existed there previously, and it is said that [since] the forbidden substance exists there now, it [is presumed to have] existed there beforehand. Therefore, it is not considered doubtful [whether chametz was present in the above instance].106 Only when there is another factor that raises an uncertainty [regarding whether a substance is actually chametz, do we say that the possibility that the chametz was not present previously is considered a factor substantial enough] to create a compounded doubt (sefek sefeika).107

Nevertheless, if a trace from this cooked food becomes mixed with other cooked food, the other cooked food may be permitted even to be eaten,108 when [forbidding the mixture will cause] a severe [financial] loss or will prevent [the owner] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival.

לב אֲבָל חָמֵץ גָּמוּר, כְּגוֹן לֶחֶם אוֹ עִסָּהקצ אוֹ חִטָּהקצא בְּקוּעָהקצב שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בְּמַיִם חַמִּים, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֵׁנִיקצג,103 – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר אַף הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּהֶם הֶחָמֵץ. וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה וּמְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב – אֵין לְהָקֵל.קצד וְאַף לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ אָסוּר.קצה לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם הָיָה כְּבָר הֶחָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם כְּשֶׁנָּטְלוּ מֵהֶם לְבַשֵּׁל הַתַּבְשִׁיל,104 שֶׁכָּל הָאִסּוּרִין אָנוּ דָּנִין אוֹתָן כִּשְׁעַת מְצִיאָתָןקצו לְמַפְרֵעַ,105 דְּהַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁאָנוּ מוֹצְאִין אִסּוּר בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד – אָנוּ מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה לְמַפְרֵעַ, וְאוֹמְרִים: כָּאן נִמְצָא הָאִסּוּר עַכְשָׁו, וְכָאן הָיָהקצז כְּבָר קֹדֶם לָכֵן. וְאֵין זֶה נִקְרָא סָפֵק,106 אֶלָּא לְעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם עוֹד סָפֵק אֶחָד – הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא סְפֵק סְפֵקָא.קצח,107

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נִתְעָרֵב מַשֶּׁהוּ מִתַּבְשִׁיל זֶה בְּתַבְשִׁיל אַחֵר – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אוֹתוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה108 אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה וּמְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב:קצט

33 Similarly, it is forbidden even to maintain possession of meat that soaked in hot water [but which was removed] before chametz, [i.e., a kernel of wheat that had cracked open,] was discovered in [the water]. If, however, [the kernel of] wheat had not cracked open, the meat may be permitted even to be eaten, as explained [above].109

There are authorities who, based on the [prevailing] custom in these regions,110 differ with this ruling and prohibit meat that soaked in [such water] or food cooked in [such water] even if [the kernel of] wheat discovered in it had not cracked open, but [had merely] softened. Weight should be given to their words [and the meat or other food should be forbidden] unless a severe [financial] loss is involved or [doing so] will prevent [the owner] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival.111

Even according to [the authorities who rule stringently], it is permitted to sell the meat or the cooked food to a non-Jew. [The rationale is that] since there is a compounded doubt leading to leniency, as previously explained, stringency [so severe] as to prohibit the sale [of the meat or food] to a non-Jew should not be imposed, for [indeed,] there are authorities who permit [selling] even cooked food in which there was discovered [a kernel of] wheat that had cracked open [to a non-Jew].112

לג וְכֵן בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה בַּחַמִּין הַלָּלוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּהֶם הֶחָמֵץ – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ. וְאִם נִמְצָא בָּהֶם חִטָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּקוּעָה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַבָּשָׂר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.ר,109

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהרא וְאוֹסְרִין הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה בָּהֶםרב אוֹ הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶםרג אַף שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּהֶם חִטָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בְּקוּעָה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.רד,110 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה וְלֹא מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב.רה,111

וְאַף לְפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם מֻתָּר לִמְכֹּר הַבָּשָׂר אוֹ הַתַּבְשִׁיל לְנָכְרִי, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן סְפֵק סְפֵקָא לְהָקֵל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר – אֵין מַחֲמִירִין כָּל כָּךְ לֶאֱסֹר אַף הַמְּכִירָה לְנָכְרִי,רו כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין אַף הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּמְצָא בּוֹ חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה:רז,112

34 All the above applies regarding the meat of domesticated or non-domesticated animals and even with regard to the meat of fowl, provided the kernel of wheat discovered in the water was whole.113

However, [different rules apply] if the meat of fowl was soaked in hot water114 – even in a k’li rish­on115 – and after [the meat] was removed [from the water] a fragmented [kernel of] wheat was discovered [in the water], even if [the kernel] had cracked open. [In this instance, the meat of] the fowl may even be permitted to be eaten because of the compounded doubt involved (sefek sefeika): Perhaps [the kernel of] wheat fell into [the water] after the fowl was removed from it.116 And even if one will postulate that [the kernel] was present [in the water] beforehand, perhaps this kernel came from the fowl’s intestines and was already digested to the extent that it became fragmented. [Afterwards, the kernel] passed from [the fowl’s] intestines [and attached itself] to its meat and from its meat, it fell into the water where it was found. [Accordingly, the kernel does not present a halachic difficulty, because] once [grain is digested to this extent], it will never become forbidden as chametz, as will be explained [below].117

לד וְכָל זֶה בִּבְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׂר עוֹף אֶלָּא שֶׁהַחִטָּה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בַּמַּיִם הִיא שְׁלֵמָה,רח,113 אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁרָה בְּשַׂר עוֹף בְּמַיִם חַמִּין114 אֲפִלּוּ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן115 וּלְאַחַר שֶׁסִּלְּקוּהוּ מִשָּׁם מָצְאוּ שָׁם חִטָּה שְׁבוּרָה, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא בְּקוּעָה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הָעוֹף אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָהרט מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא:רי שֶׁמָּא עַתָּה נָפְלָה הַחִטָּה שָׁם לְאַחַר שֶׁסִּלְּקוּ הָעוֹף מִשָּׁם,116 וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר קֹדֶם לָכֵן הָיְתָה שָׁם, שֶׁמָּא הָיָה חִטָּה זוֹ כְּבָר בִּמְעֵי הָעוֹף וְנִתְעַכֵּל כְּבָר בְּמֵעָיוריא עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה, וְשׁוּב אֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר חָמֵץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,ריב,117 וּמִמֵּעָיו נָפְלָה לִבְשָׂרוֹ וּמִבְּשָׂרוֹ נָפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בָּהֶם:

35 There are authorities [who advocate ruling] leniently when, on Pesach, [a kernel of] wheat that had cracked open was discovered in a dough or in matzah that was already baked. [These authorities] desire to permit the entire matzah or dough [to be eaten based on the following reasoning: A kernel of] wheat that cracked open does not immediately become actual chametz. [Rather, its status] is that it is close to becoming chametz, and will become actual chametz in the very near future.118 [Thus, it can be concluded that] this [kernel of] wheat that was discovered in the dough or the matzah certainly did not [yet] become chametz.119

[To explain this conclusion:] It can be assumed that [the kernel of wheat] did not fall into the dough at the time [a person] was occupied with kneading or arranging it, for [if it had, the person working the dough] would have seen it and removed it. Instead, [the kernel] certainly fell into the flour before [water was added to the flour and] it was kneaded. [The kernel] certainly did not become chametz at the time [it fell into the flour], because no water was present there [at that time]. Afterwards, when the flour was kneaded with water, the [kernel of] wheat certainly did not become chametz, because wheat is firm and will not become chametz as quickly as dough does.120 Since the dough did not become chametz, [the kernel of] wheat certainly [did not].

[Moreover,] it is not suspected that [the kernel of] wheat had already cracked open before it fell into the flour,121 because it is not assumed that a prohibition exists merely because there is such a possibility.33 [Thus, it is not] said that [the kernel] was already exposed to water and cracked open before it fell into the flour. Instead, we assume that [the kernel] cracked open because of the water in the dough in which it was found. Since that dough did not become chametz, [it can be assumed] that [the kernel of] wheat also did not become chametz.

[Similarly,] it is not suspected that this [kernel of] wheat was in the water used to knead the dough, and that it cracked open there before [the water] came in contact with the dough, because the Jewish people are accustomed to carefully guard the water drawn for the kneading of [the dough for] matzah, [taking precautions] that nothing falls into it, as explained in sec. 455[:9].

לה חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בְּפֶסַח בְּעִסָּה אוֹ בְּמַצָּה אֲפוּיָה – יֵשׁ רוֹצִים לְהָקֵלריג לְהַתִּיר כָּל הַמַּצָּה וְהָעִסָּה, לְפִי שֶׁהַחִטָּה שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעָה אֵינָהּ חָמֵץ גָּמוּר מִיָּד שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעָה אֶלָּא הִיא קְרוֹבָה לְהַחְמִיץ,ריד וְתֵכֶף וּמִיָּד תָּבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר,רטו,118 וְחִטָּה זוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בָּעִסָּה אוֹ בַּמַּצָּה בְּוַדַּאי עֲדַיִן לֹא בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ,119 שֶׁהֲרֵי מִן הַסְּתָם לֹא נָפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה עוֹסֵק בָּהּ בְּלִישָׁה וַעֲרִיכָה,רטז שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיָה רוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ וּמְסִירָהּ, אֶלָּא בְּוַדַּאי נָפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הַקֶּמַחריז קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁה, וְאָז בְּוַדַּאי לֹא הֶחְמִיצָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מַיִם, וְגַם אַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁנִּלּוֹשׁ הַקֶּמַח בְּמַיִם בְּוַדַּאי גַּם כֵּן לֹא הֶחְמִיצָה הַחִטָּה, שֶׁהַחִטָּה הִיא קָשָׁה וְאֵינָהּ מְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ כְּמוֹ הָעִסָּה,120 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהָעִסָּה לֹא הֶחְמִיצָה כָּל שֶׁכֵּן הַחִטָּה.

וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה כְּבָר בְּקוּעָה קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הַקֶּמַח,121 שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵקריח,33 לוֹמַר שֶׁכְּבָר בָּאָה בַּמַּיִם וְנִתְבַּקְּעָה קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הַקֶּמַח, אֶלָּא תּוֹלִין שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעָה מֵחֲמַת הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּעִסָּה זוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בָּהּ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהָעִסָּה לֹא נִתְחַמְּצָה גַּם הַחִטָּה לֹא נִתְחַמְּצָה.120

וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה חִטָּה זוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם שֶׁלָּשׁוּ בָּהֶם הָעִסָּה וּכְבָר נִתְבַּקְּעָה שָׁם בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם קֹדֶם שֶׁבָּאָה לְעִסָּה זוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁרְגִילִין יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁמֹר יָפֶה אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ לְלִישַׁת הַמַּצָּה שֶׁלֹּא יִפֹּל לְתוֹכָם שׁוּם דָּבָר,ריט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ה:רכ

36 There are authorities who differ with [the above conclusion] and maintain that it is necessary to remove [an area the size of] k’dei netilah from the dough or the matzah, i.e., one must remove an area within a radius of a thumbbreadth122 in all directions around the point where the [kernel of] wheat came in contact [with the dough or matzah. The rationale is that] there are grounds for concern that [the kernel of] wheat had already cracked open before it fell into the dough, and thus it would have caused the dough with which it came in contact to be forbidden. [This ruling would apply] even according to those authorities who maintain that [even] on Pesach, chametz does not cause [the food that comes in contact with it] to become forbidden [when both the chametz and that food] are cold.123 [The present instance is an exception, because] the pressure generated by the kneading squeezes out [a discharge] from the wheat into the dough for an area within a radius [the length] of a thumbbreadth. According to the prevailing custom in these regions,110 this law applies even if the [kernel of] wheat did not crack open, but merely softened.

There are authorities who maintain that if [a kernel of] wheat that cracked open – and according to the prevailing custom in these regions,110 even if the [kernel of] wheat did not crack open, but merely softened – is discovered in dough, the entire dough is forbidden. [The rationale is that] the [kernel of] wheat did not merely touch one place [in the dough]. Instead, it touched many places, here and there, as the dough was being rolled. In each and every place [of the dough], there is concern that perhaps [a discharge] from the wheat was squeezed out. Therefore, the entire [dough] should be forbidden if this occurs during Pesach, for even the slightest trace of chametz on Pesach [causes a mixture to be forbidden]. Before Pesach, however, even if [the kernel] is discovered after the dough is baked, it is sufficient to remove [a portion of matzah that is equivalent to a] k’dei netilah [from] its place [around the kernel].124 Even if the [kernel of wheat] is found after [the dough was baked,] it is sufficient to remove [an area equivalent to a k’dei netilah] from that area alone. See sec. 461[:16].125

With regard to the halachah, one should follow the stringency of the latter perspective, and this is the prevailing custom. Nevertheless, if a severe [financial] loss is involved, or it is a pressing situation, one may rely on the second126 perspective and even during Pesach, it is sufficient to remove [the dough] in the place [around the point of contact. This leniency may be followed] since there are authorities who maintain that it is not even necessary to remove [this small portion of dough].

לו וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןרכא עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מִן הָעִסָּהרכב אוֹ מֵהַמַּצָּהרכג כְּדֵי נְטִילַת מָקוֹם, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיָּסִיר בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ שֶׁל הַחִטָּה בְּרֹחַב גּוּדָלרכד,122 מִכָּל סְבִיבוֹתֶיהָ, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁרכה שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה כְּבָר בְּקוּעָה כְּשֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה,רכו וְאוֹסֶרֶת אֶת הָעִסָּה בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ. וְאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםרכז שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּצוֹנֵן,123 מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל יְדֵי דֹּחַק הַלִּישָׁה מִתְמַצֶּה וְנִסְחָט מֵהַחִטָּה לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּהרכח כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל מִכָּל סְבִיבוֹתֶיהָ. וּלְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ הַדִּין כֵּן אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא נִתְבַּקְּעָה הַחִטָּה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה.רכט

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרל שֶׁאִם נִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה בָּעִסָּה, וּלְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְבַּקְּעָה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָהרלא – כָּל הָעִסָּה אֲסוּרָה,110 לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד בִּלְבַד נָגְעָה הַחִטָּה, אֶלָּא כָּאן וְכָאן בִּמְקוֹמוֹת הַרְבֵּה דֶּרֶךְ גִּלְגּוּלָהּ שֶׁל עִסָּה,רלב וּבְכָל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם יֵשׁ חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִסְחַט לְשָׁם מַשֶּׁהוּ מֵהַחִטָּה,רלג וּלְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ לְאָסְרָהּ כֻּלָּהּ אִם הוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ. אֲבָל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מִמֶּנָּה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי נְטִילַת מָקוֹם בִּלְבַד.רלד,124 וְאַף אִם נִמְצֵאת בָּהּ לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּתָהּ, דַּי בִּנְטִילַת מָקוֹם בִּלְבַדרלה (עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"ארלו,125).

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.רלז וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין.רלח וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּהֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הַשְּׁנִיָּה.רלט,126 וְאַף בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח דַּי בִּנְטִילַת מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף נְטִילַת מָקוֹם אֵין צָרִיךְ:

37 [The following laws apply if a person] cut a large dough into many matzos and [a kernel of] wheat that cracked open was discovered in one of the matzos:Whether it was discovered after [the matzos] were baked or whether it was discovered while the dough [was still unbaked, the matzah in which the kernel was found] is forbidden if the dough was kneaded during Pesach.

The remaining matzos are permitted. There is no concern that the [kernel of] wheat had been in the large dough and [hence that] entire [dough] became forbidden. Instead, a lenient assumption is made [and it is presumed] that the [kernel of] wheat fell into one of [the matzos] after the matzos were cut from [the large dough. This leniency is taken] because it is presumed that [since the kernel of] wheat was now discovered in this matz­ah, that is where it was at first, when it fell;127 it never fell into the large dough. [The rationale is that] it is not presumed that a forbidden substance [was moved] from one place to another.128

לז וְאִם חָתַךְ עִסָּה אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה לְמַצּוֹת הַרְבֵּה וְנִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה בְּאַחַת מִן הַמַּצּוֹת,רמ בֵּין שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בָּהּ לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּתָהּ, בֵּין שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בָּהּ בְּעוֹדָהּ בָּצֵקרמא – הִיא אֲסוּרָה אִם נִלּוֹשָׁה בָּהּ הַחִטָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, וּשְׁאָר הַמַּצּוֹת מֻתָּרוֹת.

וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה חִטָּה זוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה הַגְּדוֹלָה וְנֶאֶסְרָה כֻּלָּהּ, אֶלָּא תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל לוֹמַר: לְאַחַר שֶׁנֶּחְתְּכָה מִמֶּנָּה הַמַּצָּה נָפְלָה הַחִטָּה לְתוֹךְ מַצָּה אַחַת מֵהֶן,רמב לְפִי שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִים: כָּאן נִמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה עַכְשָׁו בְּמַצָּה זוֹ – כָּאן הָיְתָהרמג בַּתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁנָּפְלָה,127 וְלֹא נָפְלָה מֵעוֹלָם לְתוֹךְ עִסָּה הַגְּדוֹלָה, שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם:רמד,128

38 If, [however,] the [kernel of] wheat [that was discovered in the dough] is filled with water, and is moist from one side to the other, it would appear that [the kernel fell previously], had been [soaking] in the water, and [was poured from there into] the large dough. Therefore, [ostensibly,] all the matzos [baked from the original large batch of dough] should be forbidden. Nevertheless, if it is [more logical] to presume that [the kernel] had been in another place where there is much water [other than the large batch of dough], and fell [from there] into this matzah at the present time, such a presumption that leads to leniency is made as long as there is a basis for it. (For presumptions are always made in favor of the most likely [scenario], whether doing so leads to leniency or to stringency. A situation is considered [to be] doubtful only when there are [equally valid] presumptions to be made [both towards leniency and towards stringency], as explained in Yoreh Deah.)129

לח וְאִם הַחִטָּה הִיא מְלֵאָה מַיִם וּמְלֻחְלֶחֶת מֵעֵבֶר אֶל עֵבֶר, אִם כֵּן נִרְאֶה שֶׁהָיְתָה בַּמַּיִם וּבָעִסָּה הַגְּדוֹלָה, לָכֵן יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר כָּל הַמַּצּוֹת.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ לִתְלוֹת שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר בְּלוּעָה מִמַּיִם וְנָפְלָה עַכְשָׁו לְתוֹךְ מַצָּה זוֹ – תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל אִם יֵשׁ בְּמַה לִּתְלוֹתרמה (שֶׁלְּעוֹלָם תּוֹלִין בַּמָּצוּי, בֵּין לְהָקֵל בֵּין לְהַחֲמִיר, וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא סָפֵק אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לִתְלוֹת בָּזֶה כְּמוֹ בָּזֶה,רמו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָהרמז,129):

39 Nevertheless, we do accept the presumption that [a factor causing] a prohibition [that was later discovered] had been [in the place where it was discovered] over the course of time [provided only] one place [is involved].130 For example, [on Pesach,131 a person] cut a large dough into many [small pieces for individual] matzos, and distributed them among many people. Each of those people went to his own place to bake [those matzos. The person who made the dough] retained possession of [dough for] one matzah in the place where he cut the dough, and [a kernel of] wheat was discovered [in that dough. In that instance,] all [the dough he distributed and/or the matzos baked from it] is forbidden. [The rationale is that] we suspect that the [kernel of] wheat was in [the large batch of dough] beforehand, when [the dough for] all the matzos was joined with it, before [the pieces] were cut from it, and all [the dough] became forbidden [at that time].

Nevertheless, if the [kernel of] wheat did not crack open, even [if] it softened, there are grounds to permit the other matzos132 to be sold133 to a non-Jew, for there are many factors that lead to leniency:134 Perhaps the [kernel of] wheat did not become chametz or perhaps it fell into [the dough of the remaining matzah] after [the dough for] the other matzos were cut off. Nevertheless, [such a situation] is not considered as a sefek sefeika [i.e., a compounded doubt] in a complete sense [to the extent that] it could be permitted even to eat [the other matzos. The rationale is that] the doubt [as to] whether [the kernel] became chametz is a doubt stemming from a lack of knowledge, i.e., we are not knowledgeable [regarding whether a softened kernel] is fit to break open or not, as explained above.135 Whenever a doubt [regarding the status of a substance exists] because of a lack of knowledge, it is not considered as a doubt at all, as stated in Yoreh Deah.136[Such a factor] is only considered as significant with regard to selling [the dough in question] to a non-Jew, because there are authorities who permit [such a sale] even when [a kernel of] wheat has cracked open.112

לט אֲבָל מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד,רמח,130 כְּגוֹן131 מִי שֶׁחָתַךְ עִסָּה גְּדוֹלָה לְמַצּוֹת הַרְבֵּה וְחִלְּקָן לִבְנֵי אָדָם הַרְבֵּה וְנִתְפַּזְּרוּ אִישׁ לִמְקוֹמוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹתָן וּמַצָּה אַחַת הוֹתִיר בְּיָדוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁחָתַךְ אֶת הָעִסָּה וְנִמְצֵאת בָּהּ חִטָּה – כֻּלָּם אֲסוּרוֹת, שֶׁאָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה בָּהּ הַחִטָּה קֹדֶם לָכֵן, כְּשֶׁהָיוּ עֲדַיִן כָּל הַמַּצּוֹת מְחֻבָּרוֹת עִמָּהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁנֶּחְתְּכוּ מִמֶּנָּה, וְנֶאֶסְרוּ כֻּלָּם.רמט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין הַחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לִמְכֹּר133 שְׁאָר הַמַּצּוֹת132 לְנָכְרִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן הַרְבֵּה צְדָדִים לְהָקֵל:134 שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְחַמְּצָה הַחִטָּה, וְשֶׁמָּא נָפְלָה שָׁמָּה לְאַחַר שֶׁנֶּחְתְּכוּ שְׁאָר הַמַּצּוֹת.רנ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין זֶה סְפֵק סְפֵקָא גָּמוּר לְהַתִּירָם אַף בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַסָּפֵק שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְחַמְּצָה הוּא סָפֵק מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן יְדִיעָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה אֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין אִם הִיא רְאוּיָה לְהִתְבַּקֵּעַ אִם לָאו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,135 וְכָל סָפֵק שֶׁהוּא מֵחֲמַת חֶסְרוֹן יְדִיעָה – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא סָפֵק כְּלָלרנא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה,רנב,136 וְאֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא לְהַתִּיר הַמְּכִירָה לְנָכְרִי, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה:רנג,112

40 Similar [laws apply]137 regarding salted cabbage that was pickled in a barrel [on Pesach. If a person] took a small amount of brine from the barrel [and placed it] in a bowl and a cracked-open [kernel of] wheat was discovered in the bowl, the cabbage in the barrel is permitted [to be eaten on Pesach. The rationale is that] we presume that [the kernel] fell into the bowl and never was in the barrel, since it is not presumed that a forbidden substance [was moved] from one place to another.

If, however, a [kernel of] wheat that cracked open was discovered in the barrel after [the brine] was taken from it [and placed] in the bowl, the cabbage in the bowl is also forbidden.138 [The rationale is that] it is presumed that [a factor causing] a prohibition [that was later discovered, had been in the place where it was discovered] over the course of time.139 [Thus,] perhaps the [kernel of] wheat had been located in the barrel before [the brine was taken] from it and placed in the bowl. At that time, all the contents of the barrel were forbidden. [This ruling applies] even according to those authorities who maintain that on Pesach, chametz does not cause [a mixture] to be forbidden when [the substances are] cold,140 because there are grounds for suspicion that the [kernel of] wheat soaked in the barrel for a 24-hour period, and whenever a substance soaks for a 24-hour period, it is considered as cooked.91

[The brine and the cabbage] in the bowl should not be permitted on the basis of [the following] sefek sefeika: Perhaps the [kernel of] wheat fell into the barrel at the present time, after [some of the cabbage was taken] from it and placed in the bowl. And [even] if one would presume that [the kernel of wheat] fell into [the barrel] before that, perhaps it did not soak [in the barrel] for a 24-hour period. [The latter circumstance is not considered significant] because [when a factor that causes] a prohibition [was later discovered], it is presumed to have been [in the place where it was discovered] over the course of time.130 Accordingly, we presume that the [kernel of] wheat discovered in the barrel now was there for longer than 24 hours. As a result, all [the cabbage taken] from it and placed in the bowl during this time is also forbidden. Thus, there is no sefek sefeika at all.

מ וְכֵן137 כְּרוּב מָלִיחַ הַכָּבוּשׁ בְּחָבִית וְנָטַל מְעַט צִיר מִן הֶחָבִית לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה וְנִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה בַּקְּעָרָה – הַכְּרוּב שֶׁבֶּחָבִית מֻתָּר, שֶׁאָנוּ תּוֹלִין שֶׁלְּתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה נָפְלָה וְלֹא הָיְתָה מֵעוֹלָם בֶּחָבִית,רנד שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם.

אֲבָל אִם נִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה בֶּחָבִית לְאַחַר שֶׁנָּתַן מִמֶּנָּה לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה – גַּם הַכְּרוּב שֶׁבַּקְּעָרָה אָסוּר,138 שֶׁמַּחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן,139 וְשֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה בֶּחָבִית קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּתְנוּ מִמֶּנָּה לַקְּעָרָה, וְנֶאֱסַר אָז כָּל מַה שֶּׁבֶּחָבִיתרנה אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםרנו שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּצוֹנֵן,140 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִכְבְּשָׁה הַחִטָּה מֵעֵת לְעֵת בְּתוֹךְ הֶחָבִית, וְכָל הַכָּבוּשׁ מֵעֵת לְעֵת – הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל.רנז,91

וְאֵין לְהַתִּיר מַה שֶּׁבַּקְּעָרָה מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא, שֶׁמָּא עַתָּה נָפְלָה הַחִטָּה לְתוֹךְ הֶחָבִית לְאַחַר שֶׁכְּבָר נָתַן מִמֶּנָּה לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר קֹדֶם לָכֵן נָפְלָה שֶׁמָּא לֹא שָׁהֲתָה שָׁמָּה מֵעֵת לְעֵת, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמַּחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן,130 אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁחִטָּה זוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת עַתָּה בֶּחָבִית כְּבָר הָיְתָה שָׁם בֶּחָבִית מִזְּמַן מְרֻבֶּה יוֹתֵר מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵת, וּמִמֵּילָא נֶאֱסַר גַּם מַה שֶּׁנָּתְנוּ מִמֶּנָּה לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה בְּתוֹךְ זֶה הַזְּמַן, וְאֵין כָּאן סְפֵק סְפֵקָא כְּלָל:רנח

41 All the above141 applies when the [kernel of] wheat had cracked open. If, however, the [kernel of] wheat had not cracked open and a significant [financial] loss is involved, the contents of the barrel may be permitted on the basis of a sefek sefeika:142Perhaps [the kernel of wheat] fell into [the barrel] within a 24-hour period. And even if one would presume that [the kernel of wheat] fell [into the barrel] before that time, perhaps it did not soften until within these 24 hours.143

מא וְכָל זֶה141 כְּשֶׁהַחִטָּה מְבֻקַּעַת, אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְבַּקְּעָה הַחִטָּה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר מַה שֶּׁבֶּחָבִית אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא:142 שֶׁמָּא נָפְלָה שָׁם תּוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר נָפְלָה קֹדֶם לָכֵן, שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִתְרַכְּכָה עַד תּוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת:רנט,143

42 All the above141 applies when the [kernel of] wheat was discovered in the brine in the barrel.144 If, however, [the kernel] is discovered on a piece of cabbage and the brine does not cover it, [the kernel] is not governed by the laws applying to [substances that are] soaked at all. Instead, [the only laws that are relevant are] the laws applying to [substances that come in contact] with salted [substances],145 as will be explained.146

מב וְכָל זֶה141 כְּשֶׁנִּמְצָא הַחִטָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַצִּיר שֶׁבֶּחָבִית,144 אֲבָל אִם נִמְצָא עַל גַּבֵּי חֲתִיכַת כְּרוּב וְאֵין הַצִּיר עוֹלֶה עַל גַּבָּהּ – אֵין בָּהּ דִּין כָּבוּשׁ כְּלָל,רס אֶלָּא דִּין מָלִיחַרסא,145 שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:רסב,146

43 [The following rules apply when a person] broke off a small piece of matzah from a larger piece of matzah and put it in his mouth, and took a small piece of meat from the cold meat placed before him and also put that in his mouth, chewed [the two] together, and [while they were] in his mouth he felt that there was [a kernel of] wheat there. He [then] took the food out of his mouth and saw that there was [a kernel of] wheat that had cracked open there, and it is not apparent whether [the kernel] had been in the matzah or in the meat.

The meat remaining before [the person] may be permitted, because [even if it is presumed that the kernel originated in the meat], it can [also] be presumed that the [kernel of] wheat fell on [the meat] after it was placed before [the person]. At that time, [the meat] was cold, and all authorities agree that cold food that is dry, without sauce, does not cause a substance to become forbidden.147 It is not suspected that [the kernel] fell on [the meat] while it was [still] boiling hot while in a pot or a bowl, because [we follow the principle that]148 it is not presumed that a forbidden substance [was moved] from one place to another.

Similarly, the larger piece of matzah should [also] be permitted. True, there are grounds to suspect that the [kernel of] wheat had originated in the matzah that was in [the person’s] mouth. And [the kernel of wheat] certainly did not fall onto [the matzah] after it was baked, for then it would have rolled off and fallen from it.149 [Hence, if the kernel originated in the matz­ah,] it certainly fell into it before it was baked, while it was being kneaded. [Were that to have been the case,] the entire matzah would have been forbidden if it was baked during Pesach, because even the slightest trace of chametz on Pesach [causes a substance to be forbidden]. (See sec. 461[:16].) Nevertheless, [in this instance, there are grounds for leniency. The rationale is that] since [the principle that] even the slightest trace of chametz [on Pesach causes a substance] to be forbidden is [merely] a Rabbinic [stringency], a lenient presumption is made, [and therefore we presume that the kernel of] wheat was never in the matzah.150 Instead, [we presume that it had fallen] into the meat after it became cold. Thus, both [the meat and the matzah] are permitted.151

Nonetheless, [as a safeguard, a piece of matzah the size of] k’dei netilah122 must be removed from the larger piece of matzah in the place where the small piece was broken off. [This safeguard is necessary] because there are grounds for suspicion that perhaps the [kernel of] wheat had [originated] in that portion [of the larger piece of matzah] and [therefore,] a portion [the size of] k’dei netilah [of the larger piece of matzah] became forbidden since the flavor of the wheat [may] have been released there.152 [That would cause a portion of the larger matzah to be forbidden,] for the flavor [of a substance] is considered as the [substance itself]153 according to Scriptural Law, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 98.154

מג מִי שֶׁפָּרַס חֲתִיכַת מַצָּה קְטַנָּה מֵחֲתִיכַת מַצָּה גְּדוֹלָה וּנְתָנָהּ לְתוֹךְ פִּיו, וְנָטַל חֲתִיכַת בָּשָׂר קְטַנָּה מֵהַבָּשָׂר צוֹנֵן הַמֻּנָּח לְפָנָיו וּנְתָנָהּ גַּם כֵּן לְתוֹךְ פִּיו וּלְעָסָן יַחַד, וְהִרְגִּישׁ בְּפִיו שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם חִטָּה, וְנָטַל הַמַּאֲכָל מִפִּיו וְרָאָה שָׁם חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה, וְאֵין נִכָּר אִם הָיְתָה בַּמַּצָּה אוֹ בַּבָּשָׂר – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר מֻנָּח לְפָנָיו, שֶׁאָנוּ תּוֹלִין שֶׁנָּפְלָה הַחִטָּה עָלָיו לְאַחַר שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ לְפָנָיו, וְאָז הָיָה צוֹנֵן, וְצוֹנֵן יָבֵשׁ בְּלֹא רֹטֶב אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.רסג,147

וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נָפְלָה עָלָיו בְּעוֹדוֹ רוֹתֵחַ בַּקְּדֵרָה אוֹ בַּקְּעָרָה,148 שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם.

וְגַם חֲתִיכַת מַצָּה הַגְּדוֹלָה יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּצָּה בְּפִיו, וּבְוַדַּאי לֹא נָפְלָה עָלֶיהָ לְאַחַר הָאֲפִיָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיְתָה מִתְגַּלְגֶּלֶת וְיוֹרֶדֶת,149 אֶלָּא נָפְלָה עָלֶיהָ קֹדֶם אֲפִיָּתָהּ בִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁתָהּ, וְנֶאֱסֶרֶת כָּל הַמַּצָּה אִם נֶאֱפֵית בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּרסד (עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"ארסה). מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר מַשֶּׁהוּ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵלרסו שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה מֵעוֹלָם בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּצָּה150 אֶלָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַבָּשָׂר לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם מֻתָּרִים.151

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר כְּדֵי נְטִילַת מָקוֹם122 מֵחֲתִיכַת מַצָּה הַגְּדוֹלָה בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁפָּרַס מִמֶּנָּה הַחֲתִיכָה קְטַנָּה,רסז שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם וְנֶאֱסַר שָׁם כְּדֵי נְטִילַת מָקוֹם מִן הַמַּצָּה,רסח לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְלַט טַעַם הַחִטָּה לְשָׁם,152 וְטַעַם הוּא כְּעִקָּר153 מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ח:רסט,154

44 All the above155 applies when the meat [brought] in front of the person was already cold156 when it was placed there. If, however, [the meat] was boiling hot when it was placed before him in a bowl which is a k’li sheni,103 [the meat] is forbidden.157 ([This ruling applies] even when there was no sauce [on the meat], according to the [prevailing] custom in these countries, as will be explained.)158 [The rationale is that] it is presumed that [a factor causing] a prohibition [that was later discovered had been in the place where it was discovered] over the course of time.130

[The meat] should not be permitted on the basis of the [following] sefek sefeika: Perhaps the [kernel of] wheat was in the matzah that was in the person’s mouth. And even if one would presume that it was in the meat, perhaps it fell [on the meat] after it cooled. [This sefek sefeika is not accepted,] for if [it was accepted,] it would be necessary to deem the matzah as forbidden before one permitted the meat.159

[Were that ruling to be made, one might argue:] Why is the meat being permitted and it is being presumed that the [kernel of] wheat originated in the matzah and [hence,] the matzah is being forbidden? Perhaps [the kernel of wheat] originated in the meat and the matzah is permitted? [The rationale for permitting the matzah would be that] whenever there is a doubt concerning a Rabbinic decree, a lenient ruling is granted.160 [But] if the matzah was permitted, [it would have to be postulated that the kernel had originated in the meat, and] it would be impossible to permit the meat, because there is only one factor that raises doubt on which basis leniency could be taken: Perhaps the kernel fell on [the meat] after it cooled. [We] cannot rule leniently based on that factor alone, since it [involves the status of the meat] as it existed in one place over the course of time.161 Since it is impossible to permit both [the meat and the matz­ah] – for certainly the [kernel of] wheat was in one of them – it is necessary to forbid both of them.162

מד וְכָל זֶה155 כְּשֶׁהַבָּשָׂר הַמֻּנָּח לְפָנָיו הָיָה צוֹנֵן156 כְּבָר כְּשֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם זֶה, אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחוֹ לְפָנָיו כְּשֶׁהוּא רוֹתֵחַ בַּקְּעָרָה שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי שֵׁנִי103 – אָסוּרער,157 (אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה שָׁם רֹטֶב לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵררעא,158), שֶׁהֲרֵי מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן.ערב,130

וְאֵין לְהַתִּיר מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא: שֶׁמָּא חִטָּה זוֹ הָיְתָה בַּמַּצָּה שֶׁבְּפִיו, וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר בַּבָּשָׂר שֶׁמָּא נָפְלָה עָלָיו לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן, שֶׁאִם כֵּן, צָרִיךְ אַתָּה לֶאֱסֹר אֶת הַמַּצָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּתִּיר אֶת הַבָּשָׂר,159

וּמָה רָאִיתָ לְהַתִּיר הַבָּשָׂר וְלוֹמַר שֶׁהַחִטָּה הָיְתָה בַּמַּצָּה וְלֶאֱסֹר הַמַּצָּה? שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה בַּבָּשָׂר וְהַמַּצָּה מֻתֶּרֶת, שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.רעג,160

וְאִם תַּתִּיר אֶת הַמַּצָּה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַתִּיר אֶת הַבָּשָׂר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא סָפֵק אֶחָד לְהָקֵל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמָּא נָפְלָה עָלָיו לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן, וְאֵין מְקִלִּין מִסָּפֵק זֶה בִּלְבַד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן,161 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְךָ לְהַתִּיר שְׁנֵיהֶם, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּוַדַּאי הָיְתָה הַחִטָּה בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם – צָרִיךְ אַתָּה לֶאֱסֹר שְׁנֵיהֶם:עדר,162

45 All the above163 applies with regard to the meat of a domesticated or non-domesticated animal or even with regard to the meat of fowl, provided the kernel of wheat [discovered] was whole.164 If, however, the [kernel of wheat discovered in the] meat of a fowl was fragmented, the meat may be permitted because of a sefek sefeika: Perhaps [the kernel of wheat] fell onto [the meat] after [the meat] cooled.165 And even if one will postulate that [the kernel fell onto the meat] beforehand, perhaps this kernel came from the fowl’s intestines and had already gone through the digestive process to the extent that it became fragmented. Accordingly, [the kernel does not present a halachic difficulty, because] once [grain is digested to this extent], it will never become forbidden as chametz.166[It is assumed that] it was not [until afterwards that the kernel] become attached to the meat [of the fowl].

Since the meat [of the fowl] is permitted [because of the sefek sefeika], the matzah may also be permitted. [The rationale is that] it can be presumed that the [kernel of] wheat fell on the meat after it cooled, or [that the kernel] was already digested in [the fowl’s] intestines [to the extent that it cracked]. Therefore, both [the meat and the matzah] are permitted, for whenever there is a doubt concerning a Rabbinic decree, a lenient ruling is granted.167

Nonetheless, [it is necessary] to remove [a portion the size of] k’dei netilah from the matzah.168 By contrast, it is not required to remove any of the meat, for it [was permitted on the basis of a valid] sefek sefeika, and any [valid] sefek sefeika is effective even in obviating a Scriptural prohibition.

מה וְכָל זֶה163 בִּבְשַׂר בְּהֵמָה וְחַיָּה, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בִּבְשַׂר עוֹף אֶלָּא שֶׁהַחִטָּה הִיא שְׁלֵמָה,164 אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּשַׂר עוֹף וְהַחִטָּה הִיא שְׁבוּרָה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַבָּשָׂר מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא: שֶׁמָּא נָפְלָה עָלָיו לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן,165 וְאִם תִּמְצָא לוֹמַר קֹדֶם לָכֵן, שֶׁמָּא הָיְתָה כְּבָר בִּמְעֵי הָעוֹף וְנִתְעַכְּלָה שָׁם בְּמֵעָיו עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁבְּרָה,ערה וְשׁוּב אֵין בָּהּ אִסּוּר חָמֵץ,166 וּמִמֵּעָיו נִדְבְּקָה לִבְשָׂרוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר מֻתָּר – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר גַּם הַמַּצָּה, שֶׁאָנוּ תּוֹלִין שֶׁהַחִטָּה נָפְלָה לְתוֹךְ הַבָּשָׂר לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּצְטַנֵּן, אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְעַכְּלָה כְּבָר בְּמֵעָיו, וּלְפִיכָךְ שְׁנֵיהֶם מֻתָּרִים, שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.רעו, 167 רַק שֶׁיָּסִיר כְּדֵי נְטִילָה מֵהַמַּצָּה,168 אֲבָל מֵהַבָּשָׂר אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר כְּלוּם,רעז כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא, וְכָל סְפֵק סְפֵקָא מוֹעִיל אֲפִלּוּ בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה:רעח

46 If, before Pesach, hag’alah was performed on an urn that was chametz and the water that had [absorbed] chametz169 [through the hag’alah]was poured out and descended into a storage cistern during Pesach, the water in the storage cistern becomes forbidden.170 [This ruling applies] even according to the authorities who maintain that on Pesach, chametz does not cause a cold [mixture] to be forbidden.171 [These authorities] only ruled in this manner when the actual substance of the chametz was removed from the substance that was cold. [In that instance, the substance that was cold is permitted] because the flavor of [the chametz] is not released into that cold substance. In the instance described here, by contrast, the water that is chametz169is mixed with the water in the cistern. [The presence of the water that is chametz] is not nullified in [the cistern even when the cistern contains] 60 times [its volume of ordinary water], because [the chametz water] became mixed with [the water in the cistern] on Pesach.172

If, however, [the water used for hag’alah] descended into the cistern before Pesach, [the presence of this water] was nullified in [the water already in the cistern, provided the cistern contains] 60 times [the volume of the water used for hag’alah. Hence,] it is permitted [to use the water in the cistern on Pesach].173 Nevertheless, [a difficulty might arise] if there are grounds for concern that the water used for hag’alah did not mix thoroughly with the water [that was already] in the cistern, and instead, [the water used for hag’alah] collected and remained above [the water in the cistern. In such an instance,] it is forbidden to draw [water] from the cistern on Pesach unless water was drawn [from the cistern] many times before Pesach after the water used for hag’alah descended into it. [The rationale is that] drawing the water [many times alleviates that difficulty] because [it] will cause the water used for hag’alah to mix thoroughly with the water [that was already] in the cistern. [Thus,] before Pesach, [the water used for hag’alah] will have been nullified in [the water originally in the cistern, provided this water equals at least] 60 times [the volume of the water used for hag’alah].

If one did not draw any water at all from [the cistern] before Pesach, and then drew water from it on Pesach174 and used [that water] to cook food, the food may be permitted.175 [The rationale for permitting the food can be explained as follows:] The water [in the cistern] certainly contains 60 times the volume of the [relatively] small amount of water used for hag’alah that became mixed with it when the water was drawn.176 The water used for hag’alah does not cause [the other water] to become forbidden [even though] the slightest trace [of chametz on Pesach causes a mixture to be forbidden. The rationale is that in truth, the water used for hag’alah] is only suspected of being chametz because it was boiled in an urn that had absorbed chametz, and thus, it absorbed a secondary flavor of a permitted substance.177 (See sec. 447[:45].)178

All the above applies when the urn [on which the hag’alah was performed] had absorbed chametz within 24 hours of the time the hag’alah was performed on it. If, however, [the urn] had not [absorbed chametz] within 24 hours,179 even when the water descended into the cistern during Pesach and the cistern did not contain 60 times [the volume] of [the water used for hag’alah], it is permitted to drink [water] from the cistern on Pesach, even if the water used for hag’alah did not mix thoroughly with the water in the cistern. [The rationale is that] since the urn had not been used for 24 hours, the chametz absorbed in it releases an impaired flavor into the water used for hag’alah,180and whenever an impaired flavor is created before Pesach, it does not become significant again on Pesach.181

(Nevertheless, before the water used for hag’alah descended into the water of the cistern, it is forbidden to use the water used for hag’alah even though the chametz [absorbed in the urn] releases an impaired flavor into it, for the reason explained in sec. 452[:6].)182

מו אִם הִגְעִילוּ יוֹרָה מְחֻמֶּצֶתרעט קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחרפ וְשָׁפְכוּ מֵי הַגְעָלָה הַמְחֻמָּצִיםרפא,169 וְיָרְדוּ לְבוֹר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – נֶאֶסְרוּ הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּבּוֹר170 אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםרפב שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּצוֹנֵן,171 שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ כֵּן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהֵסִיר מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ מֵהַצּוֹנֵן, שֶׁאֵין טַעְמוֹ נִפְלָט בְּצוֹנֵן, אֲבָל כָּאן הַמַּיִם הַמְחֻמָּצִין169 הֵן מְעֹרָבִין בְּמֵימֵי הַבּוֹר,רפג וְאֵין מִתְבַּטְּלִין בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בָּהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח.172

אֲבָל אִם יָרְדוּ לַבּוֹר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְנִתְבַּטְּלוּ שָׁם בְּשִׁשִּׁים – מֻתָּרִין.רפד,173 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמֵּי הַגְעָלָה אֵינָן מִתְעָרְבִין יָפֶה בְּמֵימֵי הַבּוֹר אֶלָּא הֵם נִקְוִים וְעוֹמְדִים לְמַעְלָה – אָסוּר לִשְׁאֹב מֵהַבּוֹר בְּפֶסַח, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כְּבָר שָׁאַב מִמֶּנּוּ פְּעָמִים רַבּוֹת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּרְדוּ לְשָׁם מֵי הַגְעָלָה, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַשְּׁאִיבָה מִתְעָרְבִים יָפֶה מֵי הַגְעָלָה בְּמֵימֵי הַבּוֹר וּמִתְבַּטְּלִים בָּהֶם בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.רפה

וְאִם לֹא שָׁאַב מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלוּם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְשָׁאַב מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם בְּפֶסַח174 וּבִשֵּׁל בָּהֶם תַּבְשִׁיל – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַתַּבְשִׁיל,רפו,175 שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יֵשׁ שִׁשִּׁים בַּמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ כְּנֶגֶד מְעַט מֵי הַגְעָלָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בְּתוֹכָם עַל יְדֵי הַשְּׁאִיבָה,רפז,176 וּמֵי הַגְעָלָה אֵינָן אוֹסְרִין בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהֻרְתְּחוּ בְּיוֹרָה מְחֻמֶּצֶת, וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ בָּהֶם נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר177 (עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"זרפח,178).

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהַיּוֹרָה הָיְתָה בַּת יוֹמָא מִבְּלִיעַת חָמֵץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִגְעִילוּהָ, אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיְתָה בַּת יוֹמָא,179 אַף אִם יָרְדוּ מֵי הַגְעָלָה לַבּוֹר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וְאֵין בְּמֵי הַבּוֹר שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּם – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵהַבּוֹר בְּפֶסַח אַף אִם לֹא נִתְעָרְבוּ יָפֶה מֵי הַהַגְעָלָה בְּמֵי הַבּוֹר, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַיּוֹרָה לֹא הָיְתָה בַּת יוֹמָא – הֲרֵי הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בָּהּ נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּמֵי הַגְעָלָה,180 וְכָל נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעֹר181 בְּפֶסַח.רפט

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ מֵי הַגְעָלָה לְתוֹךְ מֵי הַבּוֹר – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּמֵי הַגְעָלָה אַף שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הָיָה נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בָּהֶם, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ברצ,182):

47 If [a kernel of] wheat94 that had cracked open was discovered in a well on Pesach,183 it is forbidden to draw water again from that well throughout the days of Pesach. [This ruling applies] even according to the authorities who maintain that chametz does not cause a cold [mixture] to be forbidden on Pesach.184 [These authorities would agree with the above ruling in this instance, because] there are grounds for concern that the [kernel of] wheat soaked in the well for a 24-hour period.185

[Leniency may,] however, [be granted] if the [kernel of] wheat had not cracked open, although it had softened. If it is a pressing situation, [e.g.,] it is only with great difficulty that one can find other water, [the water] may be permitted on the basis of a sefek sefeika.186[This ruling applies] even in places where the prevailing custom is to rule stringently regarding chametz [that mixed with permitted foods] on Pesach [when all the foods were] cold, as explained above.184

If a slice of bread92 or dough was discovered in a well – even if it is known that it did not soak there for a 24-hour period, and [even] in places where the prevailing custom is not to rule stringently regarding chametz [that mixed with other foods] on Pesach [to form a] cold [mixture] – the water in the well should only be used after being filtered. [This ruling applies] even if [the bread or dough] was discovered before Pesach, as explained above.187

מז אִם נִמְצֵאת חִטָּהרצא,94 בְּקוּעָה בִּבְאֵר בְּפֶסַח – אָסוּר לִשְׁאֹב עוֹד מַיִם מֵהַבְּאֵר כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַחרצב,183 אַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםרצג שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּצוֹנֵן,184 שֶׁמִּכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁרֵית שָׁם חִטָּה מֵעֵת לְעֵת.רצד,185

אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה, אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא מַיִם אֲחֵרִים אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר מִכֹּחַ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא186 אַף בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּצוֹנֵן בְּפֶסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רצה,172

וְאִם נִמְצֵאת פְּרוּסַת לֶחֶם92 אוֹ עִסָּה בַּבְּאֵר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּהָה שָׁם מֵעֵת לְעֵת, וְהוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּצוֹנֵן – אֵין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּמֵי הַבְּאֵר אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי סִנּוּןרצו אֲפִלּוּ נִמְצְאוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:רצז,187

48 It is desirable that [a person] who wishes to draw water during Pesach from wells belonging to non-Jews or to Jews who were not careful to [avoid] chametz [falling] into them throughout the year, filter the water [he draws] with a clean cloth188 each time he draws water [from these wells]. Nevertheless, [this is not necessary] according to the fundamentals of the law, for we do not presume that a prohibition exists merely because such a possibility exists.33

מח מִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִשְׁאֹב בְּפֶסַח מִבְּאֵרוֹת שֶׁל נָכְרִים, אוֹ מִבְּאֵרוֹת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא נִזְהַר בָּהֶן מֵחָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – טוֹב שֶׁיְּסַנֵּן הַמַּיִם בְּבֶגֶד נָקִי בְּכָל פַּעַם שֶׁשּׁוֹאֵב.רחצ,188 אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵק:רצט,33

49 [The following laws apply when a kernel of] wheat that cracked open was discovered on raw meat that was yet to be salted: If the [kernel of] wheat was dry and the meat was dry in the place where it came in contact with the [kernel of] wheat, it is not even necessary to wash [the meat]. If, however, either of them is slightly moist at their point of contact, it is necessary to wash the place where the meat came in contact with the [kernel of] wheat. [However,] the washing [that is performed on the meat] before its salting to cleanse it from its blood189 is sufficient [to satisfy this requirement].

If [a kernel of] wheat was discovered on [the meat] after it was washed [in preparation for the salting, but] before it was salted, the place where [the meat] came in contact with the wheat must be washed again before [the meat is] salted. [The person] should not rely on the washing that must be performed after the salting,190 because that trace of moisture that came in contact with the [cracked open kernel of] wheat must be removed from the meat by washing it.191 If [the moisture] was not removed before [the meat] was salted, it will be absorbed in the meat through the salting [process].192

Even in places where the prevailing custom is to rule stringently regarding chametz [that came in contact with other foods] on Pesach while cold, washing [the meat] is sufficient, since there is only a small amount of moisture at the point [where the meat came into] contact with the wheat.193 [The rationale is that the authorities who rule in this manner] applied this stringency only where there is much sauce and the chametz soaked in the sauce. In such an instance, a trace of the flavor of chametz is released into the sauce and the sauce causes that trace of flavor to be absorbed into the permitted substance, [causing it to become forbidden].193

מט בָּשָׂר חַי שֶׁנִּמְצָא עָלָיו חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה קֹדֶם מְלִיחָתוֹ, אִם הַחִטָּה הִיא מְנֻגֶּבֶת וְגַם הַבָּשָׂר הוּא מְנֻגָּב בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ הַחִטָּה – אֲפִלּוּ הֲדָחָה אֵין צָרִיךְ.ש

אֲבָל אִם אֶחָד מֵהֶם לַח קְצָת בִּמְקוֹם נְגִיעָתָן – צָרִיךְ לְהָדִיחַ הַבָּשָׂר בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ הַחִטָּה,שא וְדַי לוֹ בַּהֲדָחָה שֶׁמְּדִיחוֹ קֹדֶם הַמְּלִיחָה לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ מִדָּמוֹ.189 וְאִם נִמְצֵאת עָלָיו חִטָּה לְאַחַר שֶׁהוּדַח קֹדֶם הַמְּלִיחָה – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלַהֲדִיחוֹ קֹדֶם הַמְּלִיחָהשב בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּגְעָה בּוֹ הַחִטָּה. וְאֵין לוֹ לִסְמֹךְ עַל הַהֲדָחָה שֶׁמְּדִיחוֹ אַחַר הַמְּלִיחָה,190 לְפִי שֶׁאוֹתוֹ מַשֶּׁהוּ לַחְלוּחִית שֶׁנָּגַע בַּחִטָּה שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִירוֹ מֵהַבָּשָׂר עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה,191 אִם לֹא יַעֲבִירֶנּוּ קֹדֶם הַמְּלִיחָה – הֲרֵי הוּא נִבְלָע בַּבָּשָׂר עַל יְדֵי הַמְּלִיחָה.192

וְאַף בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּצוֹנֵן בְּפֶסַחשג – דַּי לוֹ בַּהֲדָחָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הַחִטָּה אֶלָּא קְצָת לַחְלוּחִית,דש,193 וְלֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם רֹטֶבשה הַרְבֵּה וְהֶחָמֵץ הוּא נִשְׁרֶהשו בְּתוֹךְ הָרֹטֶב, שֶׁאָז נִפְלָט טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ מֵהֶחָמֵץ לְתוֹךְ הָרֹטֶב וְהָרֹטֶב מַבְלִיעַ אוֹתוֹ טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַהֶתֵּר:188

50 If a [kernel of] wheat is discovered on [a piece of meat] after it was salted, while the salt is still on it,194 one must remove the surface195 [of the meat only] at the point of contact with the [kernel of] wheat,196 provided it is known with certainty that [the kernel] only came in contact with [the meat] in the place where [the kernel] was discovered.

If, however, there is reason to suspect that perhaps [the kernel] touched another portion [of the meat], the entire surface [of the meat] must be removed. [The rationale is that] it can be assumed that [the kernel] was already on [the meat] at the time it was salted, since it is presumed that [a factor causing] a prohibition [that was later discovered had been in the place where it was discovered] over the course of time.130 Thus, it can be assumed that some of the salt also fell on the [kernel of] wheat.197 The nature of salt is to cause brine to be released from the substance that was salted. [In this instance,] the brine released from the wheat will have been absorbed into the meat at the point of contact with the wheat,198 since [the brine] is considered as boiling hot.199

נ וְאִם נִמְצֵאת עָלָיו הַחִטָּה לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּמְלַח בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַמֶּלַח עָלָיושז,194 – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי קְלִיפָהשח,195 בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ שֶׁל הַחִטָּה196 אִם יָדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁלֹּא נָגְעָה בּוֹ אֶלָּא בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בּוֹ.

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא נָגְעָה בּוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה מִכֻּלּוֹ,שט לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם כְּבָר הָיְתָה עָלָיו הַחִטָּה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּלָחוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִזְּמַן לִזְמַן,שי,130 וּמִן הַסְּתָם נָפַל קְצָת מֶלַח גַּם עַל הַחִטָּה,שיא,197 וְדֶרֶךְ הַמֶּלַח לְהַפְלִיט צִיר מִדָּבָר הַמָּלוּחַ, וְהַצִּיר שֶׁהִפְלִיט מֵהַחִטָּה נִבְלַע בַּבָּשָׂר בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ שֶׁל הַחִטָּה198 לְפִי שֶׁהוּא כְּרוֹתֵחַ:שיב,199

51 When does the above200 apply? When the meat is lean. If, however, [the meat] is fatty in the place where it came in contact with the [kernel of] wheat, the entire piece of meat on which the [kernel of] wheat is found is forbidden. [It may not] even be left [until after Pesach] or sold to a non-Jew. [The rationale is that] the fat of the meat imparts fattiness to the brine [from the wheat] it absorbed, giving [that brine the same status] as if it were fatty itself.201 [The brine] then permeates and spreads through the entire piece of meat and is absorbed in it, for the nature of fat is to permeate [a substance] when it is boiling hot,202 and brine is considered as boiling hot.199

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that the fat of the meat is not powerful [enough] to impart fattiness to the brine [from the wheat it] absorbed, since the fat is cold. True, [the meat] was salted and a substance that was salted is considered as boiling hot. However, [the meat] is not considered as actually boiling hot to the extent that it has the power to impart fattiness to the brine absorbed in it. Fundamentally, the halachah follows [this view].

Nevertheless, if a significant [financial] loss is not involved,203 nor will [refraining from using the meat] detract from one [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival, weight should be given to the first opinion and [the meat] should not be eaten on Pesach. One may, however, maintain possession of it [until after Pesach] after removing its surface, or one may sell it to a non-Jew.

[Moreover,] in the present era, when we are not knowledgeable [enough to distinguish] between meat that is lean and [meat that is] fatty,204 as explained in sec. 447[:7, 22],205 even if the piece [of meat] on which the [kernel of] wheat was discovered [appears] entirely lean, it should not be eaten on Pesach. [This ruling should be followed] even if the [kernel of] wheat has not cracked open, but has merely softened. [An exception is made] only when a severe [financial] loss is involved,206 e.g., [the owner of the meat] is poor and the piece is large and significant, or if [refraining from using the meat] will detract from [the owner appropriately] rejoicing on the festival. In such instances, [the meat] may be permitted after its surface is removed.

נא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?200 כְּשֶׁהַבָּשָׂר הוּא כָּחוּשׁ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא שָׁמֵן בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ שֶׁל הַחִטָּהשיג – הֲרֵי כָּל אוֹתָהּ הַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה עָלֶיהָ אֲסוּרָה אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ אוֹ לְמָכְרָהּ לְנָכְרִי,שיד לְפִי שֶׁשַּׁמְנוּנִית הַבָּשָׂר מְפַטֵּםשטו אֶת הַצִּיר הַנִּבְלָע בּוֹשטז וְנַעֲשֶׂה כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עַצְמוֹ שָׁמֵן,201 וַאֲזַי הוּא מְפַעְפֵּעַ וּמִתְפַּשֵּׁט וְנִבְלָע בְּכָל אוֹתָהּ הַחֲתִיכָה, שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הַשֻּׁמָּן לְפַעְפֵּעַ כְּשֶׁהוּא רוֹתֵחַ,202 וְהַצִּיר הוּא כְּרוֹתֵחַ.199

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהשיז וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין כֹּחַ בְּשַׁמְנוּנִית הַבָּשָׂר לְפַטֵּם אֶת הַצִּיר הַנִּבְלָע, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַשַּׁמְנוּנִית הוּא צוֹנֵן, וְאַף שֶׁהוּא מָלוּחַ וְהַמָּלוּחַ דִּינוֹ כְּרוֹתֵחַ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ כְּרוֹתֵחַ מַמָּשׁ לְעִנְיָן זֶה שֶׁיְּהֵא בּוֹ כֹּחַ לְפַטֵּם אֶת הַצִּיר הַנִּבְלָע בּוֹ. וְכֵן עִקָּר.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה203 וְלֹא מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח. אֲבָל יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵסִיר מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה אוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי.שיח

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין בֵּין בָּשָׂר כָּחוּשׁ לְשָׁמֵן204 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,שיט,205 אַף אִם אוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה עָלֶיהָ הִיא כְּחוּשָׁה כֻּלָּהּ – אֵין לְאָכְלָהּ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין הַחִטָּה בְּקוּעָה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה,שכ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה,שכא,206 כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא עָנִישכב וְהִיא חֲתִיכָה גְּדוֹלָה וַחֲשׁוּבָה, אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירָהּ לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּסִיר כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה:

52 All the above207 applies with regard to the piece [of meat] on which the [kernel of] wheat was found. Nevertheless, the other pieces [of meat] that were salted together with [that piece of meat] are not forbidden at all. [This ruling applies] even if [the other pieces] were touching [the piece of meat on which the kernel was found] and the brine secreted from it208 is absorbed in them, and even if [the other pieces of meat] were fatty and [the piece of meat on which the kernel was found] was fatty. [The rationale is that] even the authorities who maintain that the fat of the meat imparts fattiness to the brine secreted by the wheat,209 nevertheless, [agree] that this brine is not strong enough to permeate from one piece [of meat] to another without sauce. [It lacks that strength] because [the brine] itself is not [inherently] fatty.210 Thus, the other pieces [of meat] will not even contain a trace of the brine secreted by the wheat.

נב וְכָל זֶה207 בְּאוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה עַצְמָהּ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה עָלֶיהָ, אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַחֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁנִּמְלְחוּ עִמָּהּ בְּיַחַד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיוּ נוֹגְעוֹת בָּהּ וְנִבְלַע בָּהֶן הַצִּיר הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנָּה208 – אֵינָן נֶאֱסָרוֹתשכג כְּלָלשכד אֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵן שְׁמֵנוֹת וְגַם אוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה הִיא שְׁמֵנָה,שכה לְפִי שֶׁאַף לְהָאוֹמְרִיםשכו שֶׁשַּׁמְנוּנִית הַבָּשָׂר מְפַטֵּם אֶת הַצִּיר הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַחִטָּה,209 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין בְּצִיר זֶה כֹּחַ לְפַעְפֵּעַ מֵחֲתִיכָה לַחֲתִיכָה בְּלֹא רֹטֶב,שכז כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁמֵן מִצַּד עַצְמוֹ,שכח,210 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין בִּשְׁאָר הַחֲתִיכוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ מִצִּיר זֶה שֶׁיָּצָא מֵהַחִטָּה:

53 There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that [more stringent rules should apply. Their rationale is that] stringency is applied whenever any other substance that is forbidden by Scriptural Law is salted together with permitted substances. Even if there are many pieces [of food] touching each other and the forbidden substance is only touching one of [the permitted pieces of food, all the other pieces] are forbidden unless they are 60 times [the volume of the forbidden substance].211 [This ruling applies] even if both the forbidden and the permitted substances are lean.

The reason [this stringency was imposed] is so that it would not be necessary to distinguish between [an instance when] the forbidden substance is lean and [one in which] the forbidden substance is fatty. For according to the letter of the law, when a forbidden substance is fatty, one should rule stringently and forbid [the permitted substances] unless they are 60 times [the volume of the forbidden substance] because the forbidden substance will spread from one piece to another since the substance is inherently fatty.210 Therefore, since [the presence of] chametz on Pesach never becomes nullified, [not] even when [it is] mixed with 60 times [its volume of a permitted substance], there are grounds to be stringent and forbid all the pieces [of meat] that were salted together with [the piece on which the wheat fell], even though the prohibited substance, [i.e., the flavor of chametz,] is lean.

Weight should be given to their words if there is absolutely no [financial] loss involved in leaving [all the pieces of meat] until after Pesach or in selling them to a non-Jew.212 If, however, there is any loss whatsoever, or if the situation is slightly pressing and the [kernel of] wheat did not crack open, rather it [only] softened, one may rely on the first opinion, for fundamentally, the halachah follows that view.

[The rationale for the leniency is that] regarding salted substances, the stringency of requiring 60 [times the volume of the forbidden substance] even when a forbidden substance is lean applies only to a forbidden substance that could in some way be considered as fatty, for example, lean meat from a treifah animal that was salted together with a permitted substance. Since there are [animals that are] treifah whose [meat] is lean and [animals that are] treifah whose [meat] is fatty, stringency is required with regard to [the meat of] all treifah [animals], even lean ones, so that a distinction need not be made between which [meat] is lean and which is fatty, since we are not knowledgeable with regard to [making such a distinction].204 Nevertheless, with regard to a forbidden substance that is always lean and can never be considered as fatty at all, like chametz on Pesach,213 there is no need to apply the stringencies associated with a fatty prohibited substance, whether with regard to salting or with regard to roasting, as will be explained.214

נג וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןשכט עַל כָּל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים: כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּכָל אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּמְלְחוּ עִם הַהֶתֵּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָאִסּוּר וְהַהֶתֵּר הֵם כְּחוּשִׁים אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָנוּ מַחֲמִירִין לֶאֱסֹר עַד שִׁשִּׁים אֲפִלּוּ הֵן חֲתִיכוֹת הַרְבֵּה נוֹגְעוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ וְהָאִסּוּר אֵינוֹ נוֹגֵעַ אֶלָּא בְּאֶחָד מֵהֶן בִּלְבַד,של,211 וְהַטַּעַם הוּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטָרֵךְ לְהַבְחִין לְחַלֵּק בֵּין אִסּוּר כָּחוּשׁ לְאִסּוּר שָׁמֵן,שלא שֶׁבְּאִסּוּר שָׁמֵן מִן הַדִּין יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר עַד שִׁשִּׁים אֲפִלּוּ הֵן חֲתִיכוֹת הַרְבֵּה, לְפִי שֶׁהָאִסּוּר עַצְמוֹ מְפַעְפֵּעַ מֵחֲתִיכָה לַחֲתִיכָה כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא שָׁמֵן מִצַּד עַצְמוֹ,שלב,210 אִם כֵּן בְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר לֶאֱסֹר כָּל חֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁנִּמְלְחוּ עִמָּהּ יַחַד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אִסּוּר כָּחוּשׁ.שלג

וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶםשלד אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד כְּלָל כְּשֶׁיַּשְׁהֶה אוֹתָן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַחשלה אוֹ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֵם לְנָכְרִי.שלו,212

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד קְצָתשלז אוֹ קְצָת שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, וְהַחִטָּה אֵינָהּ בְּקוּעָה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, כִּי כֵן עִקָּר.שלח שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מַחֲמִירִין בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין לְשַׁעֵר בְּשִׁשִּׁים בִּמְלִיחָה אֲפִלּוּ בְּאִסּוּר כָּחוּשׁ, אֶלָּא בְּאִסּוּר שֶׁשַּׁיָּךְ בּוֹ קְצָת שַׁמְנוּנִית, כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר טְרֵפָה כְּחוּשָׁה שֶׁנִּמְלַח עִם הֶתֵּר, שֶׁיֵּשׁ טְרֵפָה כְּחוּשָׁה וְיֵשׁ טְרֵפָה שְׁמֵנָה, לְפִיכָךְ אָנוּ מַחֲמִירִין בְּכָל טְרֵפָה אֲפִלּוּ כְּחוּשָׁה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא נִצְטָרֵךְ לְהַבְחִין וּלְחַלֵּק בֵּין כְּחוּשָׁה לִשְׁמֵנָה, שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין בָּזֶה,204 אֲבָל אִסּוּר שֶׁלְּעוֹלָם הוּא כָּחוּשׁ וְאֵין שַׁיָּךְ בּוֹ שַׁמְנוּנִית כְּלָל, כְּגוֹן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח213 – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בּוֹ כְּמוֹ בְּאִסּוּר שָׁמֵןשלט בֵּין לְעִנְיַן מְלִיחָה בֵּין לְעִנְיַן צָלִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:שמ,214

54 All the above215 applies when one is certain that the [cracked open kernel of] wheat only touched the piece [of meat] on which it was discovered, for example, [the kernel of wheat] was discovered inside a chicken.216 If, however, there are grounds for doubt that [the kernel of wheat] also touched other pieces, e.g., it was found on the outer surface of the chicken or on other [pieces of] meat, the surface of all [the meat] must be removed according to the fundamental requirements of the law.217

Moreover, even if it is known with absolute certainty that [the kernel] only came in contact with one of the other pieces [of meat], but [the identity of] that piece is not known, [the presence of that piece] is not nullified among [the other pieces even though they constitute] a majority,218 since this occurred during Pesach.219 Therefore, because of the doubt, the surface [of all the pieces of meat] must [be removed].220

If [the pieces of meat] are fatty, all [the pieces] are forbidden [in their entirety]221 unless a severe [financial] loss is involved or [failing to use the cooked food] will prevent [a person] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival. In the present era, we are not knowledgeable [enough to distinguish] between meat that is lean and [meat that is] fatty,204 [therefore,] even if [the meat appears] lean, it is governed by the laws [applying to] fatty [meat].222

If the person violated [the above rules] and cooked [any of this meat] without [removing] its surface, the entire cooked dish is forbidden [to be eaten] even if a severe [financial] loss is involved or [if failing to use the cooked food] will prevent [the person] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival.223 It is, however, permitted to maintain possession [of the meat until after Pesach] or to sell it to a non-Jew, even as an initial preference.224 [In such an instance, removing] the surface [of the meat] is not [necessary] since there is merely a doubt as to whether [the kernel actually] touched [the meat].

נד וְכָל זֶה215 כְּשֶׁיָּדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁלֹּא נָגְעָה הַחִטָּה אֶלָּא בְּאוֹתָהּ חֲתִיכָה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת עָלֶיהָ,שמא כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת תּוֹךְ תַּרְנְגֹלֶת,216 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא נָגְעָה גַּם בִּשְׁאָר הַחֲתִיכוֹת, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת עַל הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת מִבַּחוּץשמב אוֹ עַל שְׁאָר בָּשָׂר – הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן צְרִיכוֹת קְלִיפָה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין.שמג,217

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יָדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁלֹּא נָגְעָה אֶלָּא בְּאַחַת מִשְּׁאָר הַחֲתִיכוֹת וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אֵיזוֹ הִיאשדמ – אֵינָהּ מִתְבַּטֶּלֶת בְּתוֹכָן בְּרֹב,218 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,219 וּלְפִיכָךְ כֻּלָּן צְרִיכוֹת קְלִיפָה מִסָּפֵק.שמה,220

וְאִם הֵן שְׁמֵנוֹת – כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרוֹת,221 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב.שמו,222 וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין בֵּין כָּחוּשׁ לְשָׁמֵן,204 אַף אִם הֵם כְּחוּשׁוֹת דִּינָם כִּשְׁמֵנוֹת.שמז

וְאִם עָבַר וּבִשְּׁלָם בְּלֹא קְלִיפָה – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁיל בַּאֲכִילָה,שמח אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה וּמְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב.223

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן אוֹ לְמָכְרָן לְנָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה224 בְּלֹא קְלִיפָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן אֶלָּא סְפֵק נְגִיעָה:שמט

55 All the above225 applies when the [cracked open kernel of] wheat was discovered on the meat before it was washed after it had been salted.190 If, however, [the kernel] was discovered on [the meat] after [the meat] was washed [after it had been salted],226 it certainly fell on [the meat] at the present time and was not on it at the time it was salted. [Hence,] it is sufficient to wash [the portion of the meat] that came in contact [with the kernel. The rationale is that] if [the kernel] was on [the meat] at the time it was salted, [the kernel] would have been [rinsed] off [the meat] through the washing.227

When does the above apply? When [the kernel] was discovered on [the surface of] the [piece of] meat or on [the outer surface of] a chicken. If, however, [the kernel] was discovered inside a chicken, [it can be assumed that] it was certainly there at the time [the chicken] was salted, for it certainly did not fall inside the chicken from elsewhere. Instead, [it is assumed the wheat] had been located in [the chicken’s] intestines, and from its intestines, it fell onto [the chicken’s] meat.

נה וְכָל זֶה225 כְּשֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה עַל הַבָּשָׂר קֹדֶם שֶׁהוּדַח אַחַר הַמְּלִיחָה,190 אֲבָל אִם נִמְצֵאת עָלָיו לְאַחַר שֶׁהוּדַח226 – בְּוַדַּאי עַכְשָׁו נָפְלָה עָלָיו וְלֹא הָיְתָה עָלָיו בִּשְׁעַת מְלִיחָתוֹ, וּמֵדִיחַ מְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ וְדַי, שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה עָלָיו בִּשְׁעַת מְלִיחָתוֹ – הָיְתָה עוֹבֶרֶת מֵעָלָיו עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה.שנ,227

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנִּמְצֵאת עַל גַּבֵּי הַבָּשָׂר אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת, אֲבָל אִם נִמְצֵאת בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת – בְּוַדַּאי הָיְתָה שָׁם בִּשְׁעַת מְלִיחָה,שנא שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּוַדַּאי לֹא נָפְלָה מִמָּקוֹם אַחֵר לְתוֹךְ הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת, אֶלָּא הָיְתָה שָׁם בְּמֵעֶיהָ וּמִמֵּעֶיהָ נָפְלָה שָׁם עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ:

56 All the above228 applies when the [cracked open kernel of] wheat is found lying on [a piece of] meat or fish. If, however, [the kernel] is discovered soaking in the brine secreted by the meat or the fish at the time they were salted, all of the pieces lying in the brine – even if they are lean – are forbidden. [It is even forbidden] to retain possession of them [on Pesach] or to sell them to a non-Jew.

[The above prohibition applies if] the [kernel of] wheat soaked in the brine together with the pieces [of meat or fish] for the amount of time that it would take for the brine to begin to boil and cook if it was placed over a fire in a utensil.229 After [the kernel and the meat or fish] soaked in [the brine] for the time it would take to cook, it is considered as if they were actually cooked [together] in it.230

Nevertheless, if the [kernel of] wheat did not crack open, license may be granted to retain possession of [the meat or fish on Pesach], or to sell it to a non-Jew57 in the event of a severe [financial] loss, as explained above.231

נו וְכָל זֶה228 כְּשֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה מֻנַּחַת בַּבָּשָׂר, וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּדָגִים, אֲבָל אִם נִמְצֵאת נִשְׁרֵית בְּתוֹךְ צִיר הַיּוֹצֵא מִבָּשָׂר אוֹ דָּגִים בִּשְׁעַת מְלִיחָתָן – הֲרֵי כָּל הַחֲתִיכוֹת הַמֻּנָּחוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַצִּיר, אֲפִלּוּ הֵן כְּחוּשׁוֹת – כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן אוֹ לְמָכְרָן לְנָכְרִי, אִם שָׁהֲתָה הַחִטָּה עִם הַחֲתִיכוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַצִּיר בִּכְדֵי שֶׁאִם הָיָה נוֹתֵן הַצִּיר בִּכְלִי עַל הָאֵשׁ הָיָה מַתְחִיל לְהַרְתִּיחַ וּלְהִתְבַּשֵּׁל,שנב,229 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁשָּׁהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ כְּשִׁעוּר בִּשּׁוּל – הֲרֵי הֵן כְּאִלּוּ נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ מַמָּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ.שנג,230

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין הַחִטָּה מְבֻקַּעַת – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן אוֹ לְמָכְרָן לְנָכְרִישנד,57 אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:שנה,231

57 [The following laws apply] if [in the situation described in the previous subsection], a portion of a piece [of the meat or fish] was lying in the brine and a portion was outside the brine. [In such an instance,] the portion [of meat or fish] in the brine is forbidden.232 [It is even forbidden] to retain possession of it [on Pesach] or sell it [to a non-Jew], even in the event of a severe [financial] loss. It is, [however,] permitted to retain possession of the portion [of the meat or fish] that is outside the brine or sell it [to a non-Jew], even if a severe financial loss is not involved.233 However, [the person] must be careful to remove the surface [from that piece, in the place] where it was connected to the other portion, [i.e., the portion] that was [lying] in the brine.

In the event of a severe [financial] loss or when [failing to use the meat or fish] will prevent [a person] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival, one may even permit [the meat or fish outside the brine] to be eaten.

נז וְאִם מִקְצָת הַחֲתִיכָה בְּתוֹךְ הַצִּיר וּמִקְצָתָהּ לְמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיר – הַמִּקְצָת שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַצִּיר אָסוּר232 אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ אוֹ לְמָכְרָהּשנו אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה,שנז וְהַמִּקְצָת שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מִן הַצִּיר מֻתָּרשנח לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ אוֹ לְמָכְרָהּשנט אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה.233 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְהָסִיר מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה מְחֻבָּר לְמִקְצָת הַב' שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַצִּיר.שס וְאִם יֵשׁ שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה וּמְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה:שסא

58 According to the fundamentals of the law, [in the following situation,] the meat may be permitted [to be eaten] even when its surface is not removed: A small amount of beer remained in a container. Water was placed in the container, and meat was washed in it after being salted190 on Pesach. [The rationale is that] even though the water became forbidden because of the beer that mixed with it, the meat did not absorb any of this water because it was cold. True, there are authorities who rule stringently [when food comes in contact with chametz] on Pesach [even] when cold.123 [Nevertheless, even those authorities] ruled stringently only when a forbidden substance soaked in a permitted substance, a permitted substance soaked in a forbidden substance, or a forbidden substance and a permitted substance soaked together in cold sauce. [In the instance described] here, by contrast, the forbidden substance merely briefly passed over the permitted substance. [Hence,] all authorities would agree that [the permitted substance] does not become forbidden [because the forbidden substance] is cold.

True, the meat was still salty at the time when it was washed and a substance that is salted is considered as if it is boiling.145 Nevertheless, [it is assumed that the meat] did not absorb any of this water,234 because as soon as it came in contact with the water, its heat was nullified, because the water in which [the meat] was washed nullifies the power of the salt.235 [Thus, the salt] does not have the power to cause the water234 to be absorbed in the meat.

Even so, because of the severity of [the prohibition against] chametz on Pesach, some of the surface of the meat should be removed in the place where it came in contact with the water. This is, [however,] a mere stringency.236

נח אִם נִשְׁאַר מְעַט שֵׁכָר בִּכְלִי וְנָטְלוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ מַיִם וְהֵדִיחוּ בָּהֶן בָּשָׂר אַחַר מְלִיחָתוֹ190 בְּפֶסַח – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַבָּשָׂר אַף בְּלֹא קְלִיפָה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַמַּיִם נֶאֶסְרוּ מֵחֲמַת הַשֵּׁכָר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּתוֹכָם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַבָּשָׂר לֹא בָּלַע כְּלוּם מִמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא צוֹנֵן, שֶׁאַף הַמַּחֲמִירִין בְּפֶסַח בְּצוֹנֵןשסב,123 – לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁרָה הָאִסּוּר בְּתוֹךְ הֶתֵּר צוֹנֵן אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה הַהֶתֵּר בְּתוֹךְ אִסּוּר צוֹנֵן אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה הָאִסּוּר וְהַהֶתֵּר בְּתוֹךְ רֹטֶב צוֹנֵן, אֲבָל כָּאן שֶׁהָאִסּוּר עָבַר עַל הַהֶתֵּר דֶּרֶךְ הַעֲבָרָה בְּעָלְמָא – לֹא נֶאֱסַר כְּלָל בְּצוֹנֵן לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.שסג

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַבָּשָׂר הָיָה מָלוּחַ עֲדַיִן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֱדִיחוֹ, וְהַמָּלוּחַ הוּא כְּרוֹתֵחַ,145 מִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא בָּלַע כְּלוּם מִמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ,234 לְפִי שֶׁמִּיָּד שֶׁהִגִּיעוּ עָלָיו הַמַּיִם – נִתְבַּטֵּל רְתִיחָתוֹ, כִּי הַמַּיִם שֶׁהֵדִיחוּ בָּהֶם הֵם מְבַטְּלִים כֹּחַ הַמֶּלַח,שסד,235ּ וְאֵין לוֹ כֹּחַ לְהַבְלִיעַ הַמַּיִם233 בַּבָּשָׂר.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֵחֲמַת חֻמְרַת חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח – יֵשׁ לִקְלֹף מְעַט הַבָּשָׂר בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּגְעוּ בּוֹ הַמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ, וְהִיא חֻמְרָא בְּעָלְמָא:שסה,234

59 If a cracked open [kernel of] wheat is discovered on Pesach on a roasted chicken or on other roasted meat, [one should] estimate [the extent to] which [the flavor of the wheat] permeated [the meat and] remove [that portion]. It can be assumed that no more than the surface [of the meat] becomes forbidden,237 since the [kernel of] wheat is small and lean, and releases [only] a small [amount of flavor].238

When does the above apply? When [the meat] being roasted is lean. If, however, the place where [the meat] comes in contact with the [kernel of] wheat is fatty, all [the meat] is forbidden.221 [It is even forbidden] to maintain possession of it [on Pesach] or to sell it [to a non-Jew]. In the present era, we are not knowledgeable [enough to distinguish] between [meat that is] lean and [meat that is] fatty.204 [Hence,] even if [the meat appears] lean, it should be forbidden in its entirety. [This ruling applies] even if the [kernel of] wheat did not crack open, but merely softened.

Nevertheless, in the event of a severe [financial] loss or when [failing to use the meat] will prevent [the person] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival, it is possible to rely on the judgment of [a contemporary Rabbinic authority regarding] whether [or not the meat] is lean239 and [on that basis] to permit it even to be eaten once its surface is removed, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 105.240

נט אִם נִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּקוּעָה בְּפֶסַח בְּתַרְנְגֹלֶת צְלוּיָה אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר בָּשָׂר צָלִי – צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מְקוֹם פִּעְפּוּעָהּ לְפִי אֹמֶד הַדַּעַת.שסו וּמִן הַסְּתָם אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי קְלִיפָה,שסז,237 שֶׁהַחִטָּה הִיא קְטַנָּה וּכְחוּשָׁה וּפְלִיטָתָהּ מוּעֶטֶת.שסח,238

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּצָלִי כָּחוּשׁ,שסט אֲבָל אִם הוּא שָׁמֵן בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ שֶׁל הַחִטָּהשע – כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר221 אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ אוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ.שעא

וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין בֵּין כָּחוּשׁ לְשָׁמֵן204 – אַף אִם הוּא כָּחוּשׁ יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר כֻּלּוֹ,שעב אַף אִם לֹא נִתְבַּקְּעָה הַחִטָּה, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה.שעג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּהֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ בִּמְקוֹם מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל בְּקִיאוּתֵנוּ אִם הוּא כָּחוּשׁ239 לְהַתִּירוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּסִיר מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה,שעד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ה:שעה,240

60 All the above241 applies when [the meat] was roasted in a pot or on coals. If, however, [the meat] was roasted on a spit, even if it is entirely lean, all [the meat] is forbidden. [It is even forbidden] to retain possession of it [on Pesach] or to sell it [to a non-Jew. The rationale is that] when the spit is turned over, a trace of the flavor of the wheat will spread throughout all [the meat] that is being roasted.242

Should many chickens be roasted on one spit at the same time, and they touch each other, if [a cracked open kernel of] wheat is found on one of them, they are all forbidden, even if they are lean. [The rationale is that] when the spit is turned over, a trace of the flavor [of the wheat] will spread from one [chicken] to another. If, however, [the chickens] are not touching each other, they are permitted.243

When does the above244 apply? When the chicken on which the [kernel of] wheat was discovered is lean. If, however, [the chicken] is fatty, its fat fattens the trace of the flavor of chametz it absorbed and causes it to be absorbed throughout the entire length of the spit.245 Via the spit, [the fat causes this trace of flavor to] permeate and spread to all the chickens being roasted on the spit, causing [them] to be forbidden.246

Nevertheless, if the [kernel of] wheat is not cracked open, in the event of a significant [financial] loss, license may be granted to sell247 even the chicken on which the wheat was discovered248 to a non-Jew or to maintain possession of it [until after Pesach], as explained above.249

ס וְכָל זֶה241 כְּשֶׁנִּצְלָה בִּקְדֵרָה אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי גֶּחָלִים, אֲבָל אִם נִצְלָה בְּשַׁפּוּד, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא כָּחוּשׁ לְגַמְרֵי – כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ אוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי, לְפִי כְּשֶׁמְּהַפְּכִים הַשַּׁפּוּד מִתְפַּשֵּׁט טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּשעו מֵהַחִטָּה בְּכָל הַצָּלִי.242

וְאִם נִצְלוּ תַּרְנְגוֹלוֹת הַרְבֵּה עַל שַׁפּוּד אֶחָד בְּבַת אַחַת וְהֵן נוֹגְעוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ וְנִמְצֵאת חִטָּה עַל אַחַת מֵהֶן – כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ הֵן כְּחוּשׁוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הִפּוּךְ הַשַּׁפּוּד מִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַטַּעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ מִזּוֹ לָזוֹ וּמִזּוֹ לָזוֹ.שעז אֲבָל אִם אֵינָן נוֹגְעוֹת זוֹ בָּזוֹ – מֻתָּרוֹת.שעח,243

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?244 כְּשֶׁהַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה עָלֶיהָ הִיא כְּחוּשָׁה,שעט אֲבָל אִם הִיא שְׁמֵנָה – הֲרֵי הַשֻּׁמָּן מְפַטֵּם אֶת טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ,שפ וְעַל יְדֵי הַשַּׁפּוּד מְפַעְפֵּעַ וּמִתְפַּשֵּׁט טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה וְנִבְלָע בְּכָל אֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁפּוּד245 וְאוֹסֵר אֶת כָּל תַּרְנְגוֹלוֹת הַצְּלוּיוֹת בַּשַּׁפּוּד.שפא,246

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין הַחִטָּה מְבֻקַּעַת247 – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי אוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹת אֲפִלּוּ הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת הַחִטָּה עָלֶיהָ,שפב,248 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:שפג,249

61 If [a kernel of] wheat or barley that cracked open was discovered on Pesach in a crop250 of a fowl after [the fowl] was singed in fire to remove its feathers, [the fowl] is permitted. [The rationale is that] even were [the fowl] to have actually been roasted, the [kernel of] wheat would not have caused more than the surface [of the fowl] to become forbidden.251 Here, the crop, which is removed and cast away, is [equivalent to] the surface [of the fowl that must be cast away].

Even if the fowl is fatty, there is no need to rule stringently and forbid more than the surface [of the fowl],252 for singeing [the fowl] in fire [to remove its feathers] does not resemble roasting it at all, since [the person] does not hold one portion [of the fowl over the fire] to be singed for an extended period of time. Instead, [the person continually] moves [the fowl around] to and fro, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 68.253

סא אִם נִמְצְאָה חִטָּה אוֹ שְׂעוֹרָה בְּקוּעָה בְּפֶסַח בְּזֶפֶק250 הָעוֹף לְאַחַר שֶׁהִבְהֲבוּ אוֹתוֹ בָּאוּר לְהָסִיר נוֹצַת הָעוֹף – מֻתָּר,שפד שֶׁהֲרֵי הַחִטָּה אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת אֲפִלּוּ בְּצָלִי מַמָּשׁ יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי קְלִיפָה,שפה,251 וְכָאן הַזֶּפֶק הוּא הַקְּלִפָּה שֶׁמְּסִירִין וּמַשְׁלִיכִין אוֹתוֹ.שפו

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָעוֹף שָׁמֵן – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי קְלִיפָה,252 כִּי הַהִבְהוּב אֵינוֹ דּוֹמֶה כְּלָל לְצָלִי, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ מְהַבְהֲבוֹ הַרְבֵּה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, אֶלָּא מַעֲבִירוֹ תָּמִיד הֵנָּה וָהֵנָּה,שפז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ס"ח:שפח,253

62 The [kernel of] wheat that was discovered in the crop must be burned254 even if it did not crack open, but merely softened.

When does the above apply? When [the kernel] is whole. If, however, [the kernel] is fragmented, it is apparent that [the kernel] passed through the digestive system to the extent that it became fragmented.255 Hence, [the kernel] is deemed as waste, and the prohibition of chametz is released from it.256 [In this instance, the kernel] need not be burnt and, needless to say, it does not cause even the surface of the fowl to become forbidden.

סב וְאוֹתָהּ הַחִטָּה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בַּזֶּפֶק – צָרִיךְ לְשָׂרְפָהּשפט,254 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְבַּקְּעָה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהִיא שְׁלֵמָה, אֲבָל אִם הִיא שְׁבוּרָה – הֲרֵי נִכָּר שֶׁשָּׁלַט בָּהּ הָעִכּוּל עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּבְּרָה,255 וַהֲרֵי זוֹ כְּפֶרֶשׁ וְנִפְקָע אִסּוּר חָמֵץ מִמֶּנָּה,שצ,256 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרָהּ. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה:

63 All the above applies to [kernels of] wheat, barley, and other similar entities that the fowl could have [gulped down and] swallowed while whole without [any digestion taking place in the mouth]257 at all. Therefore, they are not considered as having been digested until they fragmented in [the fowl’s] digestive system. [A different law applies] if, however, a fowl ate bran or other similar entities that are soft, and which have certainly [undergone some digestion] in the mouth. Were [these entities] to remain in [the fowl’s] digestive system for the time it takes food to digest, i.e., for a 24-hour period, they are considered as having been digested entirely and the prohibition against chametz is released from them.258 If [fowl] eliminated [such foods] through their anal opening, the prohibition against chametz is released from [the kernels] even within a 24-hour period.259

If, however, [fowl] swallowed [kernels of] wheat, barley, or the like and eliminated them while they were whole, even if [the kernels] remained in their digestive system for more than a 24-hour period, the prohibition against chametz is not released from them. Similarly, when [living beings] swallow other forbidden substances, the relevant laws are the same as those applying to chametz on Pesach in this context.

סג וְכָל זֶה בְּחִטָּה וּשְׂעוֹרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁבְּלָעָן הָעוֹף כְּשֶׁהֵן שְׁלֵמִים וְלֹא לְעָסָן257 כְּלָל, וּלְכָךְ אֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִים כִּמְעֻכָּלִים עַד שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּבְּרוּ שָׁם בְּמֵעָיו. אֲבָל אִם אָכַל מֻרְסָן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִדְּבָרִים רַכִּים שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי נִלְעֲסוּ בְּפִיו, אִם שָׁהוּ בְּמֵעָיו כְּשִׁעוּר עִכּוּל, דְּהַיְנוּ מֵעֵת לְעֵת – הֲרֵי הֵם כִּמְעֻכָּלִים לְגַמְרֵי וְנִפְקָע מֵהֶם אִסּוּר חָמֵץ.שצא,258 וְאִם הֱקִיאָן דֶּרֶךְ בֵּית הָרְעִי, אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת – נִפְקָע מֵהֶם אִסּוּר חָמֵץ.שצב,259 אֲבָל אִם בָּלַע חִטִּים וּשְׂעוֹרִיםשצג וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן וֶהֱקִיאָן כְּשֶׁהֵן שְׁלֵמִים,שצד אַף שֶׁשָּׁהוּ בְּמֵעָיו יוֹתֵר מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵתשצה – לֹא נִפְקַע אִסּוּרָן. וְכֵן אִם בָּלַע שְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין – דִּינוֹ כְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח לְעִנְיָן זֶה:

64 In all situations where leniency is granted because of a severe [financial] loss, if [the owner] would not suffer a severe loss if he maintained possession of [the food in question] until after Pesach or if he sold it to a non-Jew, leniency [to partake of it on Pesach] should not be granted.260

סד כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּקִלִּין מֵחֲמַת הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, אִם יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁהוֹת עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אוֹ לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי בְּפֶסַח וְלֹא יִהְיֶה שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה – אֵין לְהָקֵל:שצו,260

65 In all situations where leniency is granted because [forbidding the food] will prevent [the owner] from [appropriately] rejoicing on the festival, leniency may be granted even on Chol HaMoed, for it is also included [as a festive day] with regard to [the obligation of] rejoicing [on the festivals], as explained in sec. 529[:6].261

סה כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁמְּקִלִּין מֵחֲמַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, שֶׁאַף הוּא בִּכְלַל יוֹם טוֹב לְעִנְיַן שִׂמְחָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקכ"ט:שצז,261