SECTION 465 The Laws [Governing] Bran on Pesach (1-6)

סימן תסה דִּין מֻרְסָן בְּפֶסַח וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 Bran should not be soaked in water {[to make it edible] for chickens} from the beginning of the sixth hour [on the day before Pesach] onward.1 Even if [a person] stands over [the chickens] to ensure that the bran will not remain before them for the amount of time [it takes to walk] a mil2– and in any [amount of] time less than this [amount of time, grain] will not become chametz – [leaving soaked grain for chickens] is forbidden.

[The basis for this ruling is that] as an initial preference, it is forbidden to leave dough without manipulating it for even a moment, as explained in sec. 459[:9].

א אֵין שׁוֹרִין מֻרְסָן בְּמַיִם [לַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים]א מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ.ב,1 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא עוֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם לִרְאוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁהֶה הַמֻּרְסָן לִפְנֵיהֶם כְּשִׁעוּר מִיל,2 וְכָל פָּחוֹת מִכַּשִּׁעוּר אֵינוֹ בָּא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסְרוּ לְהָנִיחַ עִסָּה בְּלֹא עֵסֶק לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֲפִלּוּ רֶגַע אֶחָד,ג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ט:ד

2 However, it is permitted to blanch bran in boiling water and afterwards place it before chickens.1 Even though there may be an interval of several days [until the blanched bran is placed before them], it is of no consequence, since [grain] that has been blanched will never become chametz at all.1 Nevertheless, the Geonim forbade all blanching [of grain or flour], as explained in sec. 454[:7].

ב אֲבָל מֻתָּר לַחְלֹט אֶת הַמֻּרְסָןה בְּרוֹתְחִיןו וְאַחַר כָּךְ נוֹתְנָן לִפְנֵי הַתַּרְנְגוֹלִים.1 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשּׁוֹהֶה כַּמָּה יָמִים – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁהֶחָלוּט אֵינוֹ בָּא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ כְּלָל,ז,1 אֲבָל הַגְּאוֹנִים אָסְרוּ כָּל חֲלִיטָה,ח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ד:ט

3 When one places [kernels of] barley or wheat before [chickens] from the sixth hour [on the day before Pesach] onward, he must be careful not to cast [the kernels] in a moist place where they could possibly become chametz.

However, before [the onset of] the sixth [hour on the day preceding Pesach], it is permitted even to place actual chametz before [chickens]. However, [when doing so] from the beginning of the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan] after [conducting] the search [for chametz], it is necessary to stand over [the chickens] from the time [they begin] eating until after they finish eating, as stated in sec. 433[:27].3 What remains after [the chickens] eat may not be left before them. Instead, it should be placed in a guarded place until the time of the obliteration, as explained in that source.

It is desirable to be careful from 30 days before Pesach onward4 not to [scatter] barley before [chickens] in a moist place (unless one stands over [the chickens] from the time [they begin] eating until after they finish eating and [is careful] not to leave what remains [of the grain] before [the chickens]). [The rationale is that] there are grounds for concern that when the time to search [for chametz] arrives, [the owner] will not have in mind that the place where he left the barley was moist, and he will not search there.5 [Moreover,] even if [the person] does search there, he will [only] find [kernels of] barley that remained after [the chickens] ate, and he will not [think it necessary] to obliterate [these kernels] because [the kernels] will have already dried and [the fact that they] became chametz will not be apparent.

It is desirable for one to be careful and not give [chickens] water to drink while barley [kernels] are still placed before them. Instead, he should first thoroughly sweep the area [where he placed the barley. Only] afterwards should he place water there.

ג וּכְשֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן לִפְנֵיהֶם שְׂעוֹרִים אוֹ חִטִּים מִשֵּׁשׁ וָאֵילָךְ – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַשְׁלִיכָם בְּמָקוֹם לַח שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ.י

אֲבָל קֹדֶם שֵׁשׁ מֻתָּר לִתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם אֲפִלּוּ חָמֵץ גָּמוּר, רַק שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר מִתְּחִלַּת לֵיל י"ד אַחַר הַבְּדִיקָה וָאֵילָךְ לַעֲמֹד עֲלֵיהֶם מִשְּׁעַת אֲכִילָתָם עַד שֶׁיִּגְמְרוּ לֶאֱכֹל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ג.יא,3 וּמַה שֶּׁמִּשְׁתַּיֵּר מֵאֲכִילָתָם לֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ מוּטָל לִפְנֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ בְּמָקוֹם מְשֻׁמָּר עַד זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.

וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וָאֵילָךְיב שֶׁלֹּא לְהַשְׁלִיךְ לִפְנֵיהֶם שְׂעוֹרִים בְּמָקוֹם לַחיג,4 (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עוֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָתָם עַד שֶׁיִּגְמְרוּ לֶאֱכֹל, וּמַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁתַּיֵּר לֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ מוּטָל לִפְנֵיהֶם), כִּי יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁיד שֶׁמָּא כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבְּדִיקָה לֹא יַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִשְׁלִיךְ שָׁם שְׂעוֹרִים הָיָה לַח וְלֹא יִבְדֹּק שָׁם,5 וְאַף אִם יִבְדֹּק שָׁם יִמְצָא שְׂעוֹרִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּיְּרוּ מֵאֲכִילָתָם וְלֹא יַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתּוֹ לְבַעֲרָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְנַגְּבוּ וְאֵין חִמּוּצָן נִכָּר.

וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם מַיִם לִשְׁתּוֹת בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַשְּׂעוֹרִים מֻנָּחִין לִפְנֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא יְכַבֵּד מִתְּחִלָּה אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם הֵיטֵב וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתֵּן שָׁם מַיִם:טו

4 A woman should not soak bran in water from the sixth [hour on the day preceding Pesach] onward [with the intention] to rub her skin with it in a bathhouse.6 She is, however, permitted to apply dry bran to her skin and rub with it. [This license applies] even when there is moist sweat on the woman’s skin. [The rationale is that] human sweat is not considered as water with regard to causing grain to leaven, provided the individual is not sweating as a result of the heat of [bathhouse] water, but because of the heat of the fire, as will be explained in sec. 466[:1, 7].

Nevertheless, [in such an instance, a woman] must be careful to remove all the bran from her skin before she washes her skin with water. [This applies] whether [she washes herself] with hot water or cold water. Since women are not currently knowledgeable about this, [at present,] it is forbidden for them to [apply] bran to their skin and rub with it7 even when [the bran] is dry.8

ד לֹא תַּשְׁרֶה הָאִשָּׁה אֶת הַמֻּרְסָן בְּמַיִם מִשֵּׁשׁ וָאֵילָךְ לָשׁוּף בּוֹ אֶת בְּשָׂרָהּ בַּמֶּרְחָץ.6 אֲבָל מֻתֶּרֶת לָשׁוּף עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ מֻרְסָן יָבֵשׁטז אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹד שֶׁמֵּי הַזֵּעָה טוֹפְחִין עַל בְּשָׂרָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁזֵּעַת הָאָדָם אֵינוֹ כְּמַיִם לְהָבִיא לִידֵי חִמּוּץיז אִם אֵינוֹ מַזִּיעַ מֵחֲמַת חֹם הַמַּיִם אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת חֹם הָאוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ו.יח

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צְרִיכָה הִיא לִזָּהֵר לְהַעֲבִיר כָּל הַמֻּרְסָן מֵעַל כָּל בְּשָׂרָהּ קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּרְחַץ גּוּפָהּ בְּמַיִם בֵּין בְּחַמִּים בֵּין בְּצוֹנְנִין.יט וּלְפִי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין הַנָּשִׁים בְּקִיאוֹת בְּכָךְ, לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לָהֶם לָשׁוּף מֻרְסָן עַל בְּשָׂרָן7 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא יָבֵשׁ:כ,8

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5 If one rubbed bran on [the skin of] a [slaughtered] goose that was wet, even though [the goose] was cold, it is forbidden to partake of the goose on Pesach. [This restriction applies] whether [one rubbed the bran on the goose] when [the goose’s] skin was still upon it or whether [he did so after] the skin had been removed. [The rationale for the prohibition is that] the bran enters the pores of the [goose’s] skin.9 And the meat [of a goose] also has [portions] that are cracked open on all of its sides.10 [The Rabbis feared that] the flavor of the bran would be absorbed [in the meat of] the goose through these holes and cracks.

True, [such a stringency is not applied] with regard to other prohibitions when a [severe] financial loss [is involved] or in a pressing situation. For example, [if] cold meat fell into cold milk, it is customary to permit the meat once it has been rinsed and washed thoroughly, even though the meat has many cracks, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 91.11 Nevertheless, there are grounds for stringency with regard to chametz on Pesach, since even the slightest trace of chametz causes a substance to be forbidden.12 Hence, [the goose] should be forbidden.

If, however, one rubbed [the goose with bran] before Pesach, even on the day preceding Pesach after the sixth hour of the day and onward,13 there are grounds to permit [the goose] to be eaten, even during Pesach, when a severe [financial] loss is involved or in a pressing situation,14 provided one washes [the goose] very thoroughly and rubs it effectively with water during Pesach [to remove any trace of the bran].

ה אִם שִׁפְשְׁפוּ מֻרְסָן בְּאַוָּזכא לַח מִמַּיִםכב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא צוֹנֵן, בֵּין בְּעוֹדוֹ בְּעוֹרוֹ בֵּין כְּשֶׁהֻפְשַׁט מֵעוֹרוֹ – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמֻּרְסָן נִכְנַס בַּנְּקָבִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּעוֹרוֹ,כג,9 וְגַם בַּבָּשָׂרכד יֵשׁ בְּקָעִים בְּכָל צַד,10 וְדֶרֶךְ הַנְּקָבִים וְהַבְּקָעִים נִבְלָע טַעַם הַמֻּרְסָן בָּאַוָּז.כה

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִים, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר צוֹנֵן שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ חָלָב צוֹנֵן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּבָּשָׂר בְּקָעִים הַרְבֵּה נוֹהֲגִין לְהַתִּיר הַבָּשָׂר עַל יְדֵי שְׁטִיפָה וַהֲדָחָה בְּהֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"א,כו,11 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח שֶׁאוֹסֵר אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ12 – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וְלֶאֱסֹרכז בַּאֲכִילָה.

אֲבָל אִם שִׁפְשְׁפוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אַחַר שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירכח בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק14 אַף לְאָכְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,כט וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לַהֲדִיחוֹ וּלְשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ בְּמַיִם יָפֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח:ל

6 As an initial preference, one should be careful not to singe fowl15 on Pesach with the stubble at the ends of [wheat] stalks, for perhaps there is a kernel of grain that became chametz among the stalks, and it will flavor the fowl while it is being singed. Nevertheless, after the fact, the fowl should not be forbidden. [This leniency applies] even if many kernels [of grain] that became chametz were found among the stalks that remained after the singeing. [Even so,] it is not assumed that a forbidden substance exists merely because there is such a possibility.16 [Accordingly, it is not said that] kernels of grain that became chametz also existed among the stalks used to singe [the fowl]. Instead, it is assumed that all the kernels fell from [those stalks] during the threshing process.

(If, however, it is known that a kernel [of grain] that became chametz existed among the stalks used to singe [the fowl], the fowl should be prohibited to be eaten,17 since on Pesach even the slightest trace of chametz [causes a substance to be forbidden].)

Similarly,18 if one found an empty stalk in a dish of cooked food that had dissolved, there is no concern that the stalk contained a kernel of grain that became chametz, and which fell into the cooked dish and dissolved there.

ו יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא יְהַבְהֲבוּ הָעוֹפוֹת15 בְּפֶסַח בְּקַשִּׁין,לא דְּהַיְנוּ זַנְבוֹת הַשִּׁבֳּלִים,לב כִּי שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ גַּרְגִּיר דָּגָן חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַשִּׁבֳּלִין וְיִתֵּן טַעַם בָּעוֹפוֹת בִּשְׁעַת הַהִבְהוּב.לג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּדִיעֲבַד אֵין לֶאֱסֹר הָעוֹפוֹת.לד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מָצָא הַרְבֵּה גַּרְגְּרִים הַמְחֻמָּצִים בַּשִּׁבֳּלִים הַנּוֹתָרִים לְאַחַר הַהִבְהוּב – אֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵקלה,16 לוֹמַר שֶׁגַּם בַּשִּׁבֳּלִים שֶׁהִבְהֵב בָּהֶם הָיָה בָּהֶם גַּרְגְּרִים מְחֻמָּצִים, אֶלָּא תּוֹלִין לוֹמַר שֶׁכָּל הַגַּרְגְּרִים נָפְלוּ מֵהֶם בִּשְׁעַת הַדִּישָׁה.

(אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁהָיָה גַּרְגִּיר מְחֻמָּץ בַּשִּׁבֳּלִים שֶׁהִבְהֵב בָּהֶם – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר הָעוֹפוֹתלו בַּאֲכִילָה,לז,17 שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ).

וְכֵן18 אִם נִמְצָא שִׁבֹּלֶת רֵקָנִית בְּתַבְשִׁיל נִמּוֹחַ – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא הָיָה דָּגָן מְחֻמָּץ בַּשִּׁבֹּלֶת וְנָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל וְנִמּוֹחַ שָׁם:לח