SECTION 462 The Laws Pertaining to Whether Mei Peiros [Causes Dough] to Become Chametz (1-22)

סימן תסב דִּין מֵי פֵּרוֹת אִם מַחְמִיצִין וּבוֹ כ"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 In the Torah’s terminology, the term chametz refers only to dough that was kneaded with water. [Such dough] may leaven [a)] because of yeast,1 [b)] because no one manipulated it and it was left alone until it leavened on its own accord, or [c)] due to [the addition of] a leavening agent of a different nature,2 e.g., due to wine dregs that were dried in an oven.3 [In all these instances, the dough] is chametz in a complete sense and one is liable for kareis [for partaking of a product made from it], as it is written, “For everyone who eats [food that] leavened shall be cut off.” The verse does not say, “For everyone who eats chametz.” Instead, [the wording used] includes [dough] that became chametz due to another agent.

When, by contrast, dough was kneaded [solely] with mei peiros,4 it will not leaven even if it was left for the entire day without being worked and it rose.5 It is permitted to eat [products made from such dough] on Pesach.6 One may not, however, fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] with [matzah baked from such a dough], neither on the first night [of Pesach]7 nor on the night of the second festive day [of Pesach celebrated] in the Diaspora,8 because [matzah from such a dough] is “rich matzah” and the Torah describes [matzah as] “the bread of affliction.”9 Moreover, one may only fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] with matzah that could have become chametz were one not to have guarded against its leavening, as explained in sec. 453[:1].10

א אֵין נִקְרָא חָמֵץ בִּלְשׁוֹן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם וְנִתְחַמְּצָהא עַל יְדֵי שְׂאוֹר,ב,1 אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוּהָ בְּלֹא עֵסֶק עַד שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה מֵאֵלֶיהָ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ נִתְחַמְּצָה עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵרג שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִינָהּ,2 כְּגוֹן עַל יְדֵי שִׁמְרֵי יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ הַשְּׁמָרִים בַּתַּנּוּרד,3 – הֲרֵי זֶה חָמֵץ גָּמוּר, וְחַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרה "כִּי כָּל אֹכֵל מַחְמֶצֶת וְנִכְרְתָה וְגוֹ'", וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר "כִּי כָּל אֹכֵל חָמֵץ" [אֶלָּא] לְרַבּוֹת נִתְחַמְּצָה מֵחֲמַת דָּבָר אַחֵר.

אֲבָל עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹתו,4 אֲפִלּוּ שָׁהֲתָה כָּל הַיּוֹםז בְּלֹא עֵסֶק עַד שֶׁנִּתְפְּחָהח – אֵין זֶה חָמֵץ5 וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּפֶסַח,ט,6 אֲבָל אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,י בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹןיא,7 בֵּין בְּלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת,יב,8 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָהיג וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה "לֶחֶם עֹנִי",יד,9 וְעוֹד שֶׁאֵין יוֹצְאִין אֶלָּא בְּמַצָּה שֶׁהָיְתָה יְכוֹלָה לָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ אִם לֹא הָיָה מְשַׁמְּרָהּ מֵחִמּוּץ,טו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ג:טז,10

2 Any and all liquids that are not among the derivatives of water11 [as will] be explained in sec. 466[:1],12 are considered as mei peiros, for example, wine, wine dregs,13 oil,14 and the juice of berries, pomegranates, and all other fruits.

Even liquids that do not come from fruit, e.g., milk, [bee] honey,15 the fluid of eggs, and the like, are considered as mei peiros in this context. Even fermented liquids, like apple juice that fermented16 and the like [are considered as mei peiros].

If one kneaded dough with [such liquids] and it leavened as a result of them, [the products] are, nevertheless, permitted [to be eaten on Pesach], because this is not the chametz that the Torah prohibited.

ב וְכָל הַמַּשְׁקִיןיז שֶׁבָּעוֹלָם שֶׁאֵינָן מִתּוֹלְדוֹת הַמַּיִם11 שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ויח,12 הֵם נִקְרָאִים מֵי פֵּרוֹת, כְּגוֹן הַיַּיִןיט וְשִׁמְרֵי הַיַּיִןכ,13 וְהַשֶּׁמֶןכא,14 וּמֵי תּוּתִים וְרִמּוֹנִיםכב וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ מַשְׁקִין שֶׁאֵינָם בָּאִים מִפֵּרוֹת, כְּגוֹן הֶחָלָבכג וְהַדְּבַשׁכד,15 וּמֵי בֵּיצִיםכה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם, הֵם בִּכְלַל מֵי פֵּרוֹת לְעִנְיָן זֶה. וַאֲפִלּוּ מַשְׁקִים חֲמוּצִים, כְּגוֹן מֵי תַּפּוּחִים חֲמוּצִיםכו,16 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם, אִם לָשׁ בָּהֶן עִסָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה מֵהֶם – מֻתֶּרֶת, שֶׁאֵין זֶה חָמֵץ שֶׁאָסְרָה תּוֹרָה:

3 All the above17 applies when no water at all was ever mixed into [the mei peiros]. If, however, even the slightest amount of water was mixed with the mei peiros, the water in [the mei peiros] causes [the dough] to become chametz in a complete sense18 and one is liable for kareis for [partaking of such chametz].

Moreover, [such a mixture] causes the dough [kneaded with it] to become chametz faster than water alone does.19 For dough kneaded with water alone only becomes chametz when it rests for the time it takes to walk a mil20without someone manipulating it. When, by contrast, dough was kneaded with mei peiros and water, [the dough] becomes chametz faster, [and will leaven] even when it rests for less time than it takes to walk a mil without being worked. Therefore, the Sages prohibited kneading dough for Pesach with [a mixture of mei peiros and water]21 since it is difficult to keep [such dough] from becoming chametz.22

If one violated [these instructions] and kneaded dough with [a mixture of mei peiros and water, the dough] must be baked immediately23 (after [one] finishes kneading and arranging it). True, dough that was kneaded with water alone could be left [without being baked] for the entire day, for [leaving it] will not cause it to become chametz as long as one [continually] manipulates it actively.24 However, dough [kneaded with a mixture of mei peiros and water] becomes chametz quickly. Therefore, one is not allowed to let it rest at all (after he finished kneading it. Instead, he must arrange it) and bake it immediately.

If one violated [these instructions] and did not bake [the dough] immediately, even though he [continually] manipulated it actively, it is [nonetheless] forbidden to eat [matzah baked from this dough]. It is, however, permitted to benefit from [the dough] or to leave it [in one’s possession] until after Pesach,25 provided it did not rest for the time it takes to walk a mil without being manipulated.

ג וְכָל זֶה17 כְּשֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם שׁוּם מַיִם בָּעוֹלָם,כז אֲבָל מֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם מַיִם אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּאכח – הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מַחְמִיצִים עַל יְדֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁבָּהֶם חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר18 שֶׁחַיָּבִים עָלָיו כָּרֵת.כט וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵם מְמַהֲרִים לְהַחְמִיץ הָעִסָּה יוֹתֵר מִמַּיִם לְבַדָּם,ל,19 שֶׁהַמַּיִם לְבַדָּם אֵין מַחְמִיצִין אֶת הָעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בָּהֶם אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שָׁהֲתָה שִׁעוּר מִיל20 בְּלֹא עֵסֶק,לא אֲבָל עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת עִם מַיִם מְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ אַף אִם לֹא שָׁהֲתָה שִׁעוּר מִיל בְּלֹא עֵסֶק.לב לְפִיכָךְ אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִיםלג לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם עִסָּה לְפֶסַח,21 שֶׁקָּשֶׁה לְשָׁמְרָהּ מֵחִמּוּץ.22

וְאִם עָבַר וְלָשׁ בָּהֶם – צָרִיךְ לֶאֱפוֹתָהּ מִיָּדלד,23 (אַחַר גְּמַר הַלִּישָׁה וְהָעֲרִיכָה), שֶׁאַף שֶׁעִסָּה הַנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם לְבַד יָכוֹל לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ כָּל הַיּוֹם שֶׁאֵינָהּ בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ עַל יְדֵי כֵּן אִם עוֹסֵק בָּהּ עֵסֶק גָּמוּר,לה,24 אֲבָל עִסָּה זוֹ שֶׁמְּמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ – אֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ כְּלָל (אַחַר גְּמַר הַלִּישָׁה, אֶלָּא יַעֲרִיכֶנָּה) וְיֹאפֶנָּה מִיָּד.

וְאִם עָבַר וְלֹא אָפָה מִיָּד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָסַק בָּהּ עֵסֶק גָּמוּר – אֲסוּרָה בַּאֲכִילָה, אֲבָל מֻתֶּרֶת בַּהֲנָאָה אוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָהּ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַחלו,25 כָּל שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהֲתָה שִׁעוּר מִיל בְּלֹא עֵסֶק:

4 There is no difference [in practice] whether one kneaded [dough] with mei peiros that was mixed with water before the kneading or at the time of the kneading, whether [the dough] was kneaded only with mei peiros and then water was mixed into it before baking, or whether [the dough] was kneaded with water alone and then mei peiros was mixed into it before baking.26

For this reason, a dough for matzah should not be cooked,27 even in mei peiros, for there are grounds for concern that it will leaven quickly before it is cooked, since [the dough was] kneaded with water. (A person is, however, permitted to baste matzos with mei peiros23 before baking them, even though [the matzos] were kneaded with water. [The rationale is that] basting involves only a minimal amount [of mei peiros] and [this small amount] will not cause [the matzah] to become chametz quickly. For this same reason, a dough that was kneaded with water may be permitted if a minute amount of mei peiros fell into it [even though] it was not baked immediately.)

ד אֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אִם לָשׁ עִסָּה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בָּהֶם מַיִם קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַלִּישָׁה, וּבֵין אִם הָעִסָּה נִלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְעָרְבוּ בָּהֶם מַיִם קֹדֶם הָאֲפִיָּה,לז אוֹ שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם לְבַד וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְעָרְבוּ בָּהּ מֵי פֵּרוֹת קֹדֶם הָאֲפִיָּה.לח,26 לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין מְבַשְּׁלִין עִסַּת מַצּוֹת27 אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא תְּמַהֵר לְהַחְמִיץ קֹדֶם שֶׁתִּתְבַּשֵּׁל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא נִלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם.לט

(אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִקְטֹף הַמַּצּוֹת בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת23 קֹדֶם הָאֲפִיָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם,מ לְפִי שֶׁהַקִּטּוּף הוּא דָּבָר מוּעָט וְאֵינָהּ מְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץמא עַל יְדֵי כֵן. וּמִטַּעַם זֶה יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אִם נָפְלוּ מְעַט מֵי פֵּרוֹת לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם וְלֹא אֲפָאָהּ מִיָּדמב):

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5 Although [dough] should not be kneaded with mei peiros that was mixed with water, it is permitted to knead [dough] with wine. True, it is impossible that a drop of water did not mix with [the wine] at the time of the grape harvest. [Indeed,] it is common practice to mix water [with wine] at the time of the harvest for the reason explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 126.28 [Nevertheless,] there is no concern regarding this water [in the present context].

[The rationale is that] the water mixed with the wine while it was still juice, [before it fermented, and in] the fermentation process, any [water] becomes nullified and is transformed into wine.29 Thus, the flavor of the water that was mixed into [the juice] was transformed and became wine, just like the juice [itself] was transformed and became wine. However, before the juice [ferments], it is forbidden to knead [dough] with it [if water was mixed with it].

ה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בָּהֶם מַיִם אֵין לָשִׁין בָּהֶם – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בְּיַיִן. אַף שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרְבָה בּוֹ טִפָּה מַיִם בִּשְׁעַת הַבָּצִיר, וְגַם לְכַתְּחִלָּה רְגִילִין לְעָרֵב בּוֹ מַיִם בִּשְׁעַת הַבָּצִיר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קכ"ומג,28 – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לַמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ,מד דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בּוֹ בְּעוֹדוֹ תִּירוֹשׁ שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה עֲדַיִן יַיִן, וְכָל שֶׁהוּא תּוֹסֵס הוּא נִתְבַּטֵּל וְנַעֲשֶׂה יַיִן,29 אִם כֵּן גַּם הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בּוֹ הוּפַג טַעְמָן וְנִשְׁתַּנּוּ לִהְיוֹת יַיִן כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה הַתִּירוֹשׁ וְנֶהְפַּךְ לְיַיִן.מה אֲבָל בְּעוֹדוֹ תִּירוֹשׁ אָסוּר לָלוּשׁ בּוֹ:מו

6 Although dough that was kneaded with water and mei peiros could become chametz, nevertheless, one may not fulfill his obligation [of eating matzah with it,30 even] if one guarded against it becoming chametz and baked it immediately. [The rationale is that] it is rich matzah.23

[This ruling applies] even if [the dough] was kneaded with a large amount of water and only a small amount of mei peiros. Even so, since [the resulting matzah] has the flavor of mei peiros, it is considered as rich matzah.

[A different rule applies] if [the matzah] does not have the flavor of mei peiros, i.e., [the dough] contained 60 times [as much flour and water as the amount] of the mei peiros that was mixed into it.31 It is permitted to fulfill one’s obligation with [such matzah], provided it was baked immediately [after the mei peiros was kneaded into the dough].

It is, however, forbidden to fulfill one’s obligation [to eat matzah] with matzos that were basted with mei peiros even though [the matzah] contains 60 times the volume of the basting applied to them. [The rationale is that] since the basting is not mixed into the matzah, its presence is not nullified in it. [Such matzah] is considered rich matzah.32

ו עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם עִם מֵי פֵּרוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא יְכוֹלָה לָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץמז – אֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָה30 אִם שְׁמָרָהּ מֵחִמּוּץ וַאֲפָאָהּ מִיָּד,מח מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה.מט,23 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם רַבִּים וּמְעַט מֵי פֵּרוֹת,נ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם מֵי פֵּרוֹת – הֲרֵי הִיא נִקְרֵאת מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה. אֲבָל אִם אֵין בָּהּ טַעַם מֵי פֵּרוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַמֵּי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁעֵרֵב בָּהּנא,31 – מֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אִם אֲפָאָהּ מִיָּד.

אֲבָל אָסוּר לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַצּוֹת הַקְּטוּפוֹת בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹתנב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַקִּטּוּף שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּיהֶן, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַקִּטּוּף אֵינוֹ מְעֹרָב בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּצָּה – אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל בָּהּ, וְהִיא נִקְרֵאת מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה:נג,32

7 All the above33 applies according to the fundamentals of the law. Nevertheless, it has already become customary in these regions34 to be stringent and not to knead dough even with mei peiros alone because of the concern that even the slightest amount of water became mixed with it.35 If one violated [the above custom] and kneaded [dough with mei peiros], the matzos baked from this dough may not be eaten on Pesach, even if [the dough] was baked immediately.36 [The rationale is that] there is concern that if [a person] would be permitted to partake of [the products of this dough], it is possible that he will [make such a dough] on another occasion and fail to bake it immediately. He might not think [it necessary] to be concerned that perhaps some water became mixed with the mei peiros.37

One should not deviate from this custom. [An exception may only be made for] a person who is infirm or elderly38 and requires [matzah made with mei peiros. The reason for this stringency is that] there is an authority who maintains that mei peiros causes [dough] to become chametz39 according to the fundamentals of the law.40 Moreover, [this authority maintains that mei peiros] causes [dough] to become chametz quicker than water does. [According to this authority,] dough kneaded with [mei peiros] is governed by the same rules as those that apply to dough kneaded with [a mixture of] mei peiros and water according to the first perspective.41 Nevertheless, [even according to this authority, mei peiros does not cause dough] to become chametz in a complete sense, but rather to become chametz nukshah,42[which is nevertheless] forbidden by Rabbinic Law.43

ז וְכָל זֶה33 מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ34 לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לָלוּשׁ אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד,נד לְפִי שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נִתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם מַיִם כָּל שֶׁהוּא.נה,35 וְאִם עָבַר וְלָשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ אֲפָאָהּ מִיָּדנו – אֵין אוֹכְלִין אוֹתָהּ בְּפֶסַח,נז,36 שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין אִם נַתִּיר לוֹ לְאָכְלָהּ שֶׁמָּא פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת לֹא יֹאפֶה מִיָּד, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲלֶה עַל דַּעְתּוֹ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם מְעַט מַיִם.37 וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַמִּנְהָג, אִם לֹא לְחוֹלֶה אוֹ לְזָקֵן הַצְּרִיכִים לְכָךְ,נח,38 כִּי יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרנט שֶׁמֵּעִקַּר הַדִּין40 מֵי פֵּרוֹת הֵן מַחְמִיצִין,39 וְלֹא עוֹד אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵן מְמַהֲרִין לְהַחְמִיץ יוֹתֵר מִמַּיִם, וְעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בָּהֶן דִּינָהּ כְּדִין עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת עִם מַיִם לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,41 אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין חִמּוּצָן חָמֵץ גָּמוּר אֶלָּא חָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה,ס,42 וְאִסּוּרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:סא,43

8 It is even customary to refrain from basting the matzos untilafter they are baked, while they are still hot. There are those who follow the custom of not basting [matzos] on the first two days [of Pesach], even after they were baked. [This is] a decree[initiated as a safeguard] lest one take [these basted matzos] for the matzos [to be used to fulfill] the mitzvah [of eating matzah].

[Basted matzos] are unacceptable [for that purpose], because [the taste of] the matzah with which a person fulfills his obligation [to eat matzah on the night of Pesach] must not be mixed with any other flavor, [and must] only [have] the flavor of matzah. For were [the flavor of the matzah] to be mixed with any other flavor, that flavor diminishes the flavor of the matzah. See sec. 461:12.

ח וַאֲפִלּוּ לְקַטֵּף הַמַּצּוֹת אֵין נוֹהֲגִין רַק לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּתָן בְּעוֹדָן חַמִּין.סב וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְקַטֵּף בִּשְׁנֵי יָמִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּתָן, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִקַּח אוֹתָהּ לְמַצּוֹת מִצְוָהסג וְהֵן פְּסוּלוֹת,סד לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּצָּה שֶׁאָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בָּהּ תַּעֲרֹבֶת שׁוּם טַעַם אַחֵר אֶלָּא טַעַם מַצָּה בִּלְבַד, שֶׁאִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ תַּעֲרֹבֶת טַעַם אַחֵר, אוֹתוֹ טַעַם הוּא מֵפִיג אֶת טַעַם הַמַּצָּה, עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"א סְעִיף י"ב:

9 When [a kernel of] wheat was discovered in mei peiros into which no water was ever mixed, there is no concern that the [kernel of] wheat became chametz even though [the kernel] had softened.44 [The rationale is that] mei peiros does not cause [grain] to become chametz. Therefore, if the [kernel of] wheat was cooked in the mei peiros during Pesach, and [the wheat] imparted flavor to [the mei peiros, the wheat] does not cause [the mei peiros] to become forbidden.

[This ruling applies] even if the [kernel of] wheat cracked open. [True, the fact that a kernel of wheat] cracks open is a sign that it leavened.45 Nevertheless, [in this instance,] we presume that because [the kernel] soaked for a long time in the mei peiros, it swelled and cracked open [but did not become chametz], for even dough that was kneaded with mei peiros alone rises and leavens when it is left for an extended period; it is only that this leavening is not the leavening that the Torah prohibited [as chametz. The Sages] only stated that a cracked-open [kernel] is a sign that [the kernel] became chametz in a complete sense46 when [a kernel of] wheat was discovered in water or in mei peiros into which water was mixed. Alternatively, even [when there was a kernel of] wheat that had [no sign of being exposed to water] and was dry, but was discovered to have cracked open, it [was considered by the Sages] as an established fact that [the kernel] had previously [soaked] in water and cracked open there. [The rationale is that] it can be assumed that whenever [a kernel cracks open, it] cracks open because of water.

When, however, [a kernel that cracked open] is discovered in mei peiros, we presume that it cracked open [only] after it fell into [the mei peiros]. We do not suspect that it cracked open before it fell into [the mei peiros], since we do not presume that a prohibition exists merely because of a possibility [of such].47

ט חִטָּה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם שׁוּם מַיִם בָּעוֹלָם,סה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה הַחִטָּה – אֵין לָחֹשׁ בָּהּ שֶׁמָּא הֶחְמִיצָה,44 שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵי פֵּרוֹת אֵין מַחְמִיצִין, לְפִיכָךְ אִם נִתְבַּשְּׁלָה הַחִטָּה עִם הַמֵּי פֵּרוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וְנָתְנָה בָּהֶם טַעַם – אֵינָהּ אוֹסַרְתָּן.סו וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַחִטָּה הִיא מְבֻקַּעַתסז וְהַבִּקּוּעַ הוּא סִימַן חִמּוּץ,סח,45 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָנוּ תּוֹלִין שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת שֶׁנִּשְׁרֵית הַרְבֵּה בְּתוֹךְ הַמֵּי פֵּרוֹת נִתְפְּחָה וְנִתְבַּקְּעָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף עִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד הִיא נִתְפַּחַתסט וּמִתְחַמֶּצֶת כְּשֶׁהִיא שׁוֹהָה הַרְבֵּה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין זֶה חָמֵץ שֶׁאָסְרָה תּוֹרָה.

וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַבִּקּוּעַ הוּא סִימַן חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר46 אֶלָּא בְּחִטָּה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בְּמַיִם, אוֹ בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם מַיִם, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ חִטָּה נְגוּבָה וִיבֵשָׁה שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בְּקוּעָה, בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהָיְתָה כְּבָר בַּמַּיִם וְנִתְבַּקְּעָה שָׁם, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם כָּל בִּקּוּעַ הוּא מֵחֲמַת מַיִם, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁנִּמְצֵאת בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת תּוֹלִין שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעָה לְאַחַר שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹכָם, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא כְּבָר הָיְתָה בְּקוּעָה קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹכָם, שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵק:ע,47

10 Even according to our custom, [which is] to be concerned about the possibility of water being mixed into mei peiros,48 it is unnecessary to rule stringently when [a kernel of] wheat is discovered in [mei peiros.49 The rationale is that] the concern [raised] is only significant enough to initially forbid kneading dough with [mei peiros] or cooking a dish containing flour in [mei peiros]. However, the concern is not significant enough to forbid [matzah or food] after the fact. Stringency is required after the fact48 only because were one permitted to eat [the matzah or the food] on Pesach, he might [mix mei peiros, flour, and water] a second time [not only after the fact, but also] initially. However, with regard to something that happened as a matter of course, i.e., [with regards to the matter at hand, where a kernel of] grain fell into mei peiros, stringency should not be required after the fact.50

י אֲפִלּוּ לְמִנְהָגֵנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין בְּכָל מֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁמָּא נִתְעָרֵב בָּהֶם מַיִם,עא,48 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּחִטָּה הַנִּמְצֵאת בְּתוֹכָם,עב,49 כִּי חֲשָׁשָׁא זוֹ אֵינָהּ כְּדַאי אֶלָּא לֶאֱסֹר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם עִסָּה וְשֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶם תַּבְשִׁיל עִם קֶמַח, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד לֹא הָיָה כְּדַאי לֶאֱסֹר בִּשְׁבִיל חֲשָׁשָׁא זוֹ.עג וְאֵין אָנוּ מַחֲמִירִין אַף בְּדִיעֲבַדעד אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵן פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם נַתִּירֵם לוֹ לְאָכְלָם בְּפֶסַח,עה,48 אֲבָל בְּדָבָר הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מֵאֵלָיו, כְּגוֹן חִטָּה שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ מֵי פֵּרוֹת – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּדִיעֲבַד:עו,50

11 Raisin wine is governed by the laws pertaining to mei peiros with regard to chametz. [Although such wine is made by letting raisins soak in water,] the water in which the raisins soaked underwent a fundamental change after the raisins imparted the flavor of wine to it, [i.e., that water itself] was transformed into wine.51 For this reason, it is permitted to recite Kiddush over [such wine], as stated in sec. 272[:7].52

יא יֵין צִמּוּקִים דִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת לְעִנְיַן חָמֵץ, כִּי הַמַּיִם שֶׁשָּׁרוּ בָּהֶן הַצִּמּוּקִים נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מִבְּרִיָּתָן לְאַחַר שֶׁנָּתְנוּ בָּהֶן הַצִּמּוּקִין טַעַם יַיִן וְנִתְהַפְּכוּ לִהְיוֹת הֵן עַצְמָן יַיִן,עז,51 וּלְכָךְ מֻתָּר לוֹמַר עֲלֵיהֶן קִדּוּשׁ הַיּוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ער"ב:עח,52

12 When does the above apply? When the raisins are whole, [uncrushed] grapes, that were only dried out and thus, they still retain their entire power since they were never crushed.53 Therefore, they have sufficient power to transform the water in which they were soaked to actually become like wine.

In contrast, when grapes were collected in a wine press and crushed by a beam,53 [the grape juice was then removed,] and afterwards, water was mixed with the grape pits [and peels,54 the water] is not considered to have been transformed to actual wine. [This law applies] even in an instance where it is permitted to recite Kiddush on [the resulting beverage, for that beverage] is considered as wine mixed with water.

[The above categorization is apparent from the law that] Kiddush may not be recited over [this beverage] unless one mixed three measures of water [with the crushed pits and the peels] and then discovered four measures.55 The fourth measure is the wine that was released into the water from the pits [and the peels]. Thus, [the beverage resembles] wine which is not drunk when it is undiluted. Instead, [the wine] is diluted, three parts water and one part wine. Neither the power of the wine nor the power of the pits [and the peels] is strong enough to transform the water to become like actual wine. Thus, the laws pertaining to [this mixture] are the same as wine mixed with water with regard to chametz.

יב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּצִמּוּקִים שֶׁהֵם עֲנָבִים שְׁלֵמִים, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּכְמְשׁוּ וַעֲדַיִן כָּל כֹּחָם בָּהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִדְרְכוּ53 מֵעוֹלָם, לְפִיכָךְ כֹּחָם חָזָק לְהַפֵּךְ אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ בָּהֶם לִהְיוֹת כְּמוֹ יַיִן מַמָּשׁ. אֲבָל עֲנָבִים שֶׁנִּדְרְכוּ וְנֶעֶצְרוּ בַּגַּת עַל יְדֵי קוֹרָה53 וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָתַן מַיִם עַל הַחַרְצַנִּים,54 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְקַדֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִתְהַפְּכוּ לִהְיוֹת יַיִן מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵן כְּיַיִן מָזוּג בְּמַיִם, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין מְקַדְּשִׁין עֲלֵיהֶן אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָתַן עֲלֵיהֶם שָׁלֹשׁ מִדּוֹת מַיִם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָצָא אַרְבַּע,55 שֶׁהָרְבִיעִית הִיא יַיִן שֶׁיָּצָא מִן הַחַרְצַנִּין לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ מְזִיגַת הַיַּיִן שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹתִין אוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי, אֶלָּא מוֹזְגִין אוֹתוֹ ג' חֲלָקִים מַיִם וְאֶחָד יַיִן, וְאֵין כֹּחַ הַיַּיִן וְלֹא כֹּחַ הַחַרְצַנִּים חָזָק כָּל כָּךְ לְהַפֵּךְ אֶת הַמַּיִם לִהְיוֹת כְּמוֹ יַיִן מַמָּשׁ, וַהֲרֵי דִּינָם כְּיַיִן מְעֹרָב בְּמַיִם לְעִנְיַן חָמֵץ:עט

13 [Different laws apply when] all fruit other than grapes [are soaked in water]. Even when [the other fruit] is whole and no [juice] has been squeezed from it, its power is not sufficient to cause the water in which it is soaked to be governed by the laws that apply to mei peiros [that was not mixed with water].56 Instead, [such water] is governed by the laws that apply when mei peiros is mixed with water, [just as these laws apply] if fruit juice was squeezed into [the water].57 Similarly, the laws that apply to mead are the same as those that apply to a mixture of mei peiros and water, since [mead] is primarily water.58

יג וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת חוּץ מִן הָעֲנָבִים, אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹדָן שְׁלֵמִים שֶׁלֹּא נִסְחַט מֵהֶם כְּלוּם – אֵין כֹּחָם חָזָק לְהַפֵּךְ אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁרוּ בָּהֶם לִהְיוֹת דִּינָם כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד,56 אֶלָּא דִּינָם כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת עִם מַיִם אִם נִסְחַט לְתוֹכָם מֹהַל מֵהַפֵּרוֹת.57 וְכֵן מַשְׁקֶה הֶעָשׂוּי מִדְּבַשׁ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין מע"ד) דִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת עִם מַיִם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקָּרוֹ מַיִם:פ,58

14 [Different rules apply to the] honey[-like substance] that is made from raisins, i.e., [the raisins] are soaked in water and then squeezed. The [concentrated fruit] they contain is released with the water that was absorbed in [the raisins]. Afterwards, that [concentrated fruit] is cooked [together with the] water [that was squeezed out of the raisins] until a honey-like substance is produced.

[This substance] is governed by the laws that apply to fruit juice [that was not mixed with water. The rationale is that] the nature of the water was transformed by [the heat of] the fire to become a honey[-like substance].

יד אֲבָל דְּבַשׁ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מִצִּמּוּקִין שֶׁשּׁוֹרִין אוֹתָן בְּמַיִם תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ סוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָם וְיוֹצֵא מֵהֶם דֻּבְשָׁם עִם הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּבְלְעוּ בָּהֶם וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְבַשְּׁלִים אֶת הַמַּיִם הַנִּסְחָטִין מֵהֶם עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה דְּבַשׁ – הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד, לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁבּוֹ נִשְׁתַּנּוּ מִבְּרִיָּתָן עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר לִהְיוֹת דְּבַשׁ:פא

15 Molten fat is governed by the laws that apply to fruit juice [that was not mixed with water.59 This ruling applies] even if [the fat] was placed in a pot to liquefy it immediately after it was washed [after the process of] kashering [it to remove] its blood,60 while [the fat] was still moist with water. Thus, [a certain amount of] water had [inevitably] mixed with it. Nevertheless, this is not [a cause of] concern, since when the fat is cooked thoroughly in a pot {or} broiling pan, the water will be vaporized in the cooking process and will have evaporated entirely.

[The above applies when the kernel of wheat was discovered in the fat before Pesach.] Nevertheless, if [a kernel of] wheat was discovered in the fat while [the fat] was still in the broiling pan in which it was liquefied when it was liquefied during Pesach – whether [the fat] was still liquid and clear or whether it had already hardened in the broiling pan – [the fat] should be forbidden.61 [The rationale is that] there are grounds for concern that the [kernel of] wheat fell into the broiling pan before [the fat] was cooked thoroughly, while there were still remnants of the water with which [the fat] was washed, and [the kernel of] wheat became chametz rapidly before it was cooked. [Thus,] all the fat in the pan became forbidden because on Pesach even the slightest trace of chametz [causes a mixture] to become forbidden.62

טו שֻׁמָּן מְהֻתָּךְ דִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד,פב,59 אֲפִלּוּ אִם מִיָּד לְאַחַר שֶׁהֱדִיחוּהוּ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ מִדָּמוֹ בְּעוֹדוֹ מְלֻ[חְ]לָ[ח] בַּמַּיִם שָׂמוּהוּ בִּקְדֵרָה לְהַתִּיכוֹ60 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּעֲרֹבֶת מַיִם – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לָחֹשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל שֻׁמָּן בַּקְּדֵרָה [אוֹ] בָּאִלְפָּס בִּשּׁוּל יָפֶה נִשְׂרְפוּ הַמַּיִם בַּבִּשּׁוּל וְהָלְכוּ לָהֶם לְגַמְרֵי.פג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בַּשֻּׁמָּן כְּשֶׁעוֹדֶנּוּ בָּאִלְפָּס שֶׁהִתִּיכוּהוּ בּוֹ,פד בֵּין שֶׁעֲדַיִן הוּא לַח וְצָלוּל, בֵּין שֶׁכְּבָר קָרוּשׁ שָׁם בְּתוֹךְ הָאִלְפָּס, אִם הִתִּיכוּהוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יֵשׁ לְאָסְרוֹ,61 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נָפְלָה הַחִטָּה לְתוֹכוֹ בָּאִלְפָּס כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּשּׁוּל יָפֶה בְּעוֹד שֶׁהָיוּ בּוֹ צִחְצוּחֵי מַיִם מֵהַמַּיִם שֶׁהוּדַח בָּהֶם, וְאָז נִתְחַמְּצָה הַחִטָּה בִּמְהֵרָה קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה שָׁם, וְנֶאֱסַר כָּל הַשֻּׁמָּן שֶׁבָּאִלְפָּס, שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ:פה,62

16 [A different law applies,] however, if the fat was poured from the broiling pan into another container and [then a kernel of] wheat was discovered in the fat. The fat is permitted even if it was poured into [the container] while it was boiling and even if [the fat] was still boiling [when the kernel of wheat was discovered in it and thus,] the flavor of the wheat was released into [the fat].

[The rationale is that] it is assumed that “[an entity that] was discovered in a particular place existed in that place previously.”61 [To apply that maxim to the present situation:] It is assumed that the [kernel of] wheat that was discovered in this container was present in it before the oil was poured there, and [this kernel] was never together with the fat in the broiling pan while [the fat] had remnants of water on it. Thus, this [kernel of] wheat had never become chametz previously, nor will it now become chametz because of the fat, because the remnants of the water [already evaporated] entirely when [the fat] was cooked thoroughly in the broiling pan.

טז אֲבָל אִם הוֹרִיקוּ הַשֻּׁמָּן מֵהָאִלְפָּס לִכְלִי אַחֵר וּבְאוֹתוֹ כְּלִי נִמְצֵאת חִטָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַשֻּׁמָּן, אֲפִלּוּ הוֹרִיקוּהוּ לְתוֹכוֹ כְּשֶׁהָיָה רוֹתֵחַ, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם עֲדַיִן הוּא רוֹתֵחַ וְנִפְלַט לְתוֹכוֹ טַעַם הַחִטָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר, לְפִי שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִים: כָּאן נִמְצָא – כָּאן הָיָה,פו,61 דְּהַיְנוּ חִטָּה זוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצֵאת עַכְשָׁו בִּכְלִי זֶה – כְּבָר הָיְתָה בְּתוֹכוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁשָּׂמוּ הַשֻּׁמָּן לְתוֹכוֹ, וְלֹא הָיְתָה מֵעוֹלָם עִם הַשֻּׁמָּן בְּתוֹךְ הָאִלְפָּס כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן הָיָה בּוֹ צִחְצוּחֵי מַיִם, וְלֹא נִתְחַמְּצָה חִטָּה זוֹ מֵעוֹלָם, וְעַכְשָׁו אֵינָהּ בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ עַל יְדֵי הַשֻּׁמָּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הָלְכוּ מִמֶּנּוּ צִחְצוּחֵי מַיִם לְגַמְרֵי כְּשֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּשּׁוּל יָפֶה בָּאִלְפָּס:פז

17 All the above63 applies when the water with which the fat was washed was not dried off from [the fat] before it was placed in the broiling pan. If, however, the water with which [the fat] was washed was dried off from it entirely, and then [the fat] was placed in the broiling pan, [the fat] is permitted [even though a kernel of] wheat was discovered there, [and] even if it was discovered before [the fat] was cooked thoroughly. [The rationale is that] all that is present is mei peiros, and [thus] the wheat will not become chametz.

[This ruling applies] even if [the fat] soaked in water for several days to the extent that [the fat] absorbed [some of the water in which it soaked], and afterwards the moisture that was on [the fat] was dried off before it was liquefied. Even so, [the kernel of wheat discovered in this fat] is governed by the laws pertaining to [a kernel discovered in] mei peiros [that was not mixed with water] because the water absorbed in [the fat] is not considered [a separate entity] until it is released and surfaces outside of [the fat; it is] like dried meat that releases [moisture] in the rainy season because of the water in which it was washed, as will be explained in sec. 466[:7]. Consult that source.64

[Different laws apply] when, by contrast, matzah was soaked in water after it was baked,65 [the water] was squeezed out of it, and then [the soft matzah] was kneaded with oil [to produce a dough for a pastry]. If [a kernel of] wheat fell into [that dough], one should be stringent and forbid [the dough[ because it is impossible to squeeze [the water out of the matzah] to the extent that no water at all remains visibly present in it.

יז וְכָל זֶה63 כְּשֶׁלֹּא נִתְנַגֵּב הַשֻּׁמָּן מִמֵּי הַהֲדָחָה קֹדֶם שֶׁשָּׂמוּהוּ בָּאִלְפָּס, אֲבָל אִם נִתְנַגֵּב לְגַמְרֵי מִמֵּי הַהֲדָחָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׂמוּהוּ בָּאִלְפָּס וְנִמְצֵאת שָׁם חִטָּה, אֲפִלּוּ נִמְצֵאת קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּשּׁוּל יָפֶה – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר, שֶׁאֵין כָּאן אֶלָּא מֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד, וְאֵין הַחִטָּה בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ.פח

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִשְׁרָה כַּמָּה יָמִים בַּמַּיִם עַד שֶׁנִּבְלְעוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ, וְאַף שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְנַגֵּב מִלַּחְלוּחִית מַיִם שֶׁעָלָיו קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתִּיכוּהוּ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַמַּיִם שֶׁהָיוּ בְּלוּעִים בְּתוֹכוֹ נִתְעָרְבוּ בּוֹ כְּשֶׁהֻתַּךְ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן דִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד בְּלֹא מַיִם, לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַבְּלוּעִים אֵין שֵׁם מַיִם עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלָל עַד שֶׁיִּתְגַּלּוּ וְיֵצְאוּ לַחוּץ, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר יָבֵשׁ שֶׁמַּזִּיעַ בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים מֵחֲמַת הַמַּיִם שֶׁהוּדַח בָּהֶם, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ופט עַיֵּן שָׁם.64

אֲבָל הַמַּצָּה שֶׁשּׁוֹרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּמַיִם לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּתָהּ65 וְסוֹחֲטִין אוֹתָהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ לָשִׁין אוֹתָהּ בְּשֻׁמָּן, אִם נָפְלָה חִטָּה לְתוֹכָהּ – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְאָסְרָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְסָחֳטָהּ כָּל כָּךְ, וְנִשְׁאֲרָה בְּתוֹכָהּ מַיִם בְּעֵין:צ

18 Water released by salt is governed by the laws pertaining to mei peiros, for salt is not a product of water.66

To what does the above apply? To [water released by] salt that is mined from the ground. However, [water released by] our salt that is obtained by evaporating [sea-]water is governed by the laws pertaining to water. Other authorities maintain that water released from sea salt is governed by the laws pertaining to mei peiros. Fundamentally, [the halachah] follows the first opinion. Nevertheless, weight should also be given to the latter opinion, as explained in sec. 455[:29].67

יח לַחְלוּחִית הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַמֶּלַח דִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת,צא שֶׁהַמֶּלַח אֵינוֹ מִתּוֹלְדוֹת הַמַּיִם.צב,66 בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמֶלַח שֶׁחוֹפְרִין מֵהַקַּרְקַע,צג אֲבָל מֶלַח שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִין אוֹתָהּ מִמַּיִםצד דִּינוֹ כְּמַיִם.צה וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצו שֶׁדִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת. וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,צז וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ גַּם לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ה:צח,67

19 Every person should check his spices and salt before he adds them to a pot on Pesach, lest there be [a kernel of] wheat in them and it will become chametz in the pot.68

[The following laws apply] if one checked the spices and discovered [a kernel of] wheat in them from the sixth hour [of the fourteenth of Nissan] onward: Even if [the kernel] was moist and had softened and cracked open,69 [it is only necessary] to burn [the kernel by itself].70 The spices are permitted. [This ruling applies] even during Pesach.71 Since [the spices] are dry, [it is assumed that] they did not absorb any [chametz] from the [kernel of] wheat, even if [the kernel] remained in [the spices] for several days.

יט כָּל אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ לִבְדֹּק הַתַּבְלִיןצט וְהַמֶּלַחק קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתֵּן מֵהֶם לַקְּדֵרָה בְּפֶסַח,קא שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ חִטָּה בְּתוֹכָם וְתִתְחַמֵּץ בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה.68 וְאִם כְּשֶׁבָּדַק הַתַּבְלִין מָצָא בָּהֶם חִטָּה, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא מְלֻחְלֶחֶת וְנִתְרַכְּכָה וְנִתְבַּקְּעָה69 – שׂוֹרְפָהּ,קב,70 אִם הוּא מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ, וְהַתַּבְלִין מֻתָּרִין אֲפִלּוּ הוּא תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,71 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהֵם יְבֵשִׁים לֹא נִבְלַע בָּהֶם כְּלוּם מִן הַחִטָּהקג אֲפִלּוּ שָׁהֲתָה בְּתוֹכָהּ כַּמָּה יָמִים:

20 If, however, one discovered [a kernel of] wheat in salt, there are grounds for concern that [the kernel] absorbed some of the moisture of the salt, a small amount at a time, until it became chametz.72 Afterwards, some of the moisture [absorbed by the kernel] was released into the salt, because salt generally absorbs [moisture] from the food resting in it.73 Therefore, a thumbbreadth of salt around the place where it came in contact with the wheat74 should be taken and removed. The remainder [of the salt] is permitted, provided [the kernel was removed] before Pesach. [Whatever chametz might have been absorbed in the remainder of the salt] does not become significant again on Pesach.75

Nevertheless, if [the kernel was removed] during Pesach, as an initial preference, it is desirable to be stringent and leave all the salt until after Pesach.76 Even if one [kernel of] wheat was discovered in a barrel full of salt, as an initial and preferred option, one should not use salt from [that barrel] on Pesach.77 Therefore, a person should be careful to check all the salt he needs for Pesach before Pesach. [The rationale is that] during Pesach, i.e., from the night of the fifteenth [of Nissan] onward, if he finds even one [kernel of] wheat in [the salt], he will forfeit [use of] all [the salt during the festival].78

כ אֲבָל אִם מָצָא חִטָּה בַּמֶּלַח – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ בָּהּ שֶׁמָּא נִכְנַס בָּהּ לַחְלוּחִית הַמֶּלַח מְעַט מְעַט עַד שֶׁהֶחְמִיצָה,72 וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִפְלַט מִמֶּנָּה לַחְלוּחִית לְתוֹךְ הַמֶּלַח,קד שֶׁכֵּן דֶּרֶךְ הַמֶּלַח לִבְלֹעַ מִמַּאֲכָל הַמֻּנָּח אֶצְלוֹ.קה,73 לְפִיכָךְ, צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל וּלְהָסִיר מֵהַמֶּלַח מְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ שֶׁל הַחִטָּה, דְּהַיְנוּ כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל סָבִיב לָהּ,קו,74 וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר אִם הוּא קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,קז וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח.קח,75

אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה לְהַשְׁהוֹת כָּל הַמֶּלַחקט עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח. אֲפִלּוּ מָצָא חִטָּה אַחַת בְּחָבִית מְלֵאָה מֶלַח – אֵין לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנָּה76 בְּפֶסַח לְכַתְּחִלָּה.77 לְפִיכָךְ, יִזָּהֵר אָדָם לִבְדֹּק קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחקי כָּל הַמֶּלַח הַצָּרִיךְ לוֹ לְכָל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, דְּהַיְנוּ מִלֵּיל ט"ו וָאֵילָךְ, אִם יִמְצָא בּוֹ חִטָּה אַחַת – יַפְסִיד אֶת כֻּלּוֹ:78

21 After the fact, [i.e.,] if one added some of this salt79 in which [a kernel of] wheat was discovered on Pesach, to [food in] a pot, the food in the pot should not be forbidden. [The rationale is that] there is no fat or sauce to spread the flavor of the chametz throughout all the salt.80 If, by contrast, one took salt from the place which came in contact with the wheat and added it to [food in] a pot, [the food in the pot] should be forbidden even after the fact.81

כא וּבְדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה מִמֶּלַח זֶה שֶׁנִּמְצָא בָּהּ חִטָּה בְּפֶסַח79 – אֵין לֶאֱסֹר הַמַּאֲכָל שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין שָׁם שַׁמְנוּנִית וְלֹא רֹטֶב שֶׁיּוֹלִיךְ טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בְּכָל הַמֶּלַח.קיא,80 אֲבָל אִם נָטַל מֶלַח מִמְּקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ שֶׁל הַחִטָּה וְנָתַן לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר אַף בְּדִיעֲבַד:קיב,81

22 All the above82 applies when the [kernel of] wheat became moist, i.e., it softened [due to moisture]. In such an instance, it is possible that [the kernel of wheat] will release some of the moisture into the salt. If, however, the [kernel of] wheat did not become moist, it is not necessary to remove [the salt[ even from the place that came in contact [with the wheat] even if [the kernel was discovered in the salt] during Pesach.83 [The rationale is that the kernel] cannot release anything.84

כב וְכָל זֶה82 כְּשֶׁנִּתְלַחְלְחָה הַחִטָּה,קיג דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּתְרַכְּכָה, שֶׁאָז יוּכַל לִפְלֹט מִמֶּנָּה קְצָת לַחְלוּחִית לְתוֹךְ הַמֶּלַח. אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְלַחְלְחָה הַחִטָּה – אֲפִלּוּ מְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,83 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לִפְלֹט כְּלוּם:קיד,84