SECTION 461 The Laws Pertaining to the Baking of Matzah; With which Matzah may [a Person] Fulfill his Obligation [to Eat Matzah] (1-29)

סימן תסא דִּינֵי אֲפִיַּת הַמַּצָּה וּבְאֵיזֶה מַצָּה יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ וּבוֹ כ"ט סְעִיפִים:

1 When one desires to bake matzos in an oven in which chametz had been baked, he must kasher[the oven] through libbun1with fire according to the laws pertaining to an earthenware utensil, which can only be kashered through libbun.2Therefore, the oven must be heated to the extent that sparks emerge from it,3 for anything less than that is not considered as libbun in a complete sense,as stated in sec. 451[:7].

One must be careful that the coals cover the entire surface [of the oven’s floor] (in order to kasherthe entire [oven]). (Kashering it) with a flame alone is insufficient. [The rationale is that] just as during the entire year, when chametz is baked in it, [the oven] actually absorbs [the chametz] via coals (that are spread over the oven’s [floor] before baking), so too, [the oven only] releases [the chametz it absorbed] via coals [that cover the oven’s entire floor].4 Accordingly, even if [the oven] was heated several times before Pesach, that is not sufficient [to kasher it] to permit matzos to be baked in it as an initial preference5 unless [the person] had the intent [to kasher the oven] to permit [it to be used] on Pesach. [The rationale is that] it is possible that coals were not spread over the entire surface [of the oven floor], as long as one did not have that intent.

Nevertheless, after the fact, if one [violated these instructions] and baked matzos in [such an oven], there are grounds to permit [these matzos] to be eaten. [The rationale is that] since [the oven] was heated several times, it is very likely that coals were spread over the entire surface [of its floor], some on one portion [of the floor] at one time and some on another portion [of the floor] at another time. If, however, [the oven] was heated only once and [the person] did not have the intent [to kasher it] to permit [it to be used] on Pesach when heating it, [matzos baked in it] should be forbidden even after the fact if there is a doubt whether coals were spread over the entire surface [of its floor].

א תַּנּוּר שֶׁאָפוּ בּוֹ חָמֵץ, כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ מַצָּה – צָרִיךְ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ עַל יְדֵי לִבּוּן1 בָּאוּר, כְּדִין כְּלִי חֶרֶסא שֶׁאֵין לוֹ הֶכְשֵׁר אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי לִבּוּן.ב,2 לְפִיכָךְ, צָרִיךְ לְהַסִּיקוֹ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִיצוֹצוֹת נִתָּזִין מִמֶּנָּה,ג,3 שֶׁבְּפָחוֹת מִכֵּן אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא לִבּוּן גָּמוּר,ד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א.ה

וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיֵּלְכוּ הַגֶּחָלִים עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלּוֹ (כְּדֵי לְהַכְשִׁיר אֶת כֻּלּוֹ), וְאֵין דַּי לוֹ (לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ) בְּלֶהָבָה בִּלְבַד, לְפִי שֶׁכְּמוֹ שֶׁבְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה כְּשֶׁנֶּאֱפָה חָמֵץ בְּתוֹכוֹ בּוֹלֵעַ מַמָּשׁ עַל יְדֵי גֶּחָלִים (שֶׁמְּפַזְּרִים אוֹתָם עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּנּוּר קֹדֶם הָאֲפִיָּה) – כָּךְ הוּא פּוֹלְטוֹ עַל יְדֵי גֶּחָלִים. לְפִיכָךְ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הִסִּיקוּהוּ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אֵינוֹ מַסְפִּיק לְהַתִּיר לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ מַצָּה לְכַתְּחִלָּה,4 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כִּוֵּן לְהַתִּירוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַפֶּסַח, כִּי שֶׁמָּא לֹא הָלְכוּ הַגֶּחָלִים עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלּוֹ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ.ו

אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וְאָפָה בּוֹ מַצּוֹת – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירָם בַּאֲכִילָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהֻסַּק כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים קָרוֹב הַדָּבָר שֶׁהָיוּ גֶּחָלִים עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלּוֹ, פַּעַם בְּמִקְצָת זֶה וּפַעַם בְּמִקְצָת זֶה. אֲבָל אִם לֹא הֻסַּק אֶלָּא פַּעַם אַחַת וְלֹא כִּוֵּן לְהַתִּירוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ הַפֶּסַח עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק זֶה וְסָפֵק לָנוּ אִם הָלְכוּ הַגֶּחָלִים עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלּוֹ – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד:ז

2 Some people are accustomed to making a new floor for an oven [for Pesach] so that it will not be necessary to kasher [the floor of the oven] through heating it. [That would be sufficient because] the chametz that was absorbed in the roof and walls [of the oven] will be released by libbun through [the oven’s] flames when it is heated to bake matzos.

This is a desirable custom provided one places a base whose thickness is a thumbbreadth6 or more over the entire surface [of the floor].7 However, placing a thin coating [over the existing floor] is not at all effective. [Such a coating will] not intervene [and will not prevent] the chametz absorbed in [the oven’s] old floor from [re]emerging.

ב יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַטִּיל בַּתַּנּוּר קַרְקַע חֲדָשָׁה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרְכוּ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק,ח שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בְּגַגּוֹ וּבְקִירוֹתָיו הוּא נִפְלָט עַל יְדֵי לִבּוּן הַשַּׁלְהֶבֶת כְּשֶׁמַּסִּיקִין אוֹתוֹ לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ הַמַּצּוֹת.ט וּמִנְהָג יָפֶה הוּא.י,5 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיַּטִּילוּ בּוֹ קַרְקַע עָבָה בִּכְדֵי אֶצְבַּעיא,6 אוֹ יוֹתֵר עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלּוֹ,7 אֲבָל הֲטָחָה מוּעֶטֶת אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַפְסֶקֶת בִּפְנֵי גִּעוּל חָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בְּקַרְקָעִיתוֹ הַיְשָׁנָה שֶׁלֹּא יֵצֵא לַחוּץ:יב

3 When one kashers [an oven] by heating it, it is desirable and proper to rake out and thoroughly clean out [any waste material] after heating [the oven], and then wait until it cools somewhat. Only afterwards should one heat it again to bake matzos in it.

[The rationale is that] if one does not reheat [the oven], but [instead] bakes [the matzos]in it immediately after raking out the coals after the first time it was heated, and so too, if [the person] does not wait until [the oven] cools somewhat between heating [it the first time] and heating [it again], there is room for concern that he will not heat [the oven] that thoroughly the first time, when he heats it to kasher it. [He might be lax] because he is afraid lest he burn the matzos to be baked in [the oven] after the first time it was heated or after heating it the second time.8

ג כְּשֶׁמַּכְשִׁירוֹ עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק – טוֹב וְיָשָׁר הוּא לְגָרְפוֹ וּלְנַקּוֹתוֹ הֵיטֵב אַחַר הַהֶסֵּקיג וּלְהַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיִּצְטַנֵּן קְצָתיד וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַחֲזֹר וְיַסִּיקוּהוּ שֵׁנִית לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ הַמַּצּוֹת, שֶׁאִם לֹא יַסִּיקוּהוּ שֵׁנִית אֶלָּא יֹאפֶה בּוֹ מִיָּד לְאַחַר שֶׁגָּרַף הַגֶּחָלִים אַחַר הַהֶסֵּק הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְכֵן אִם לֹא יַמְתִּין בֵּין הֶסֵּק לְהֶסֵּק עַד שֶׁיִּצְטַנֵּן קְצָת – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא לֹא יַסִּיקֶנּוּ הֵיטֵב כָּל כָּךְ בַּהֶסֵּק הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁמַּסִּיקוֹ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁיִּתְיָרֵא שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׂרְפוּ הַמַּצּוֹת שֶׁיֹּאפֶה בּוֹ אַחַר הֶסֵּק הָרִאשׁוֹן אוֹ אַחַר הֶסֵּק הַשֵּׁנִי:טו,8

4 It is permitted to bake matzos on a new9 earthenware tapka, i.e., a [cooking tile] under which a fire is kindled and on whose surface [foods] are baked. Since the fire burns forcefully under it, [the upper surface] becomes thoroughly hot even though the flames do not ascend over its upper surface. [Therefore,] the loaf [of matzah] will be baked immediately and will not become chametz.

One must, however, be careful to kindle a fire under [the cooking tile] first [and wait] until it is very hot, and then attach the loaf [of matzah] to it. Similarly, when one bakes in a closed roasting pan without liquid,10 he must be careful to first kindle a fire under [the roasting pan, wait] until it is very hot, and then attach the loaf [of matzah] to it. Were one to attach [the matzah] first and then heat [the cooking tile or the roasting pan], there are grounds for concern that the loaf [of matzah] might become chametz before [the surface of the cooking tile or roasting pan] becomes thoroughly hot.11 Even after the fact, [i.e.,] one violated [these instructions] and attached [the matzah first and only] afterwards heated [the cooking tile or the roasting pan], it is proper to be stringent on Pesach and refrain from eating [a matzah baked in thismanner], if possible.

ד טַפְּקָא שֶׁל חֶרֶס חֲדָשָׁה,9 דְּהַיְנוּ כְּלִי שֶׁמַּסִּיקִין תַּחְתָּיו מִלְּמַטָּה וְאוֹפִין עַל גַּבָּהּ מִלְמַעְלָה – מֻתָּר לֶאֱפוֹת עָלָיו מַצּוֹת, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהָאוּר שׁוֹלֵט תַּחְתָּיו הוּא נִרְתָּח יָפֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַשַּׁלְהֶבֶת עוֹלָה עַל גַּבָּיו, וְהַפַּת נֶאֱפֵית מִיָּד וְאֵינָהּ בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ.טז

אֲבָל יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְהַסִּיק תַּחְתָּיו תְּחִלָּה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻרְתָּח הֵיטֵב וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַדְבִּיק הַפַּת עַל גַּבָּיו.יז וְכֵן כְּשֶׁאוֹפֶה בְּאִלְפָּס בְּלֹא מַשְׁקֶהיח,10 [יִזָּהֵר] לְהַסִּיק תַּחְתָּיו תְּחִלָּה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻרְתָּח הֵיטֵב וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַדְבִּיק הַפַּת בְּתוֹכָהּ, שֶׁאִם יַדְבִּיק הַפַּת מִתְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַרְתִּיחֶנּוּ – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מֻרְתָּח הֵיטֵב תַּחְמִיץ הַפַּת.יט,11 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וְהִדְבִּיק וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִרְתִּיחַ – נָכוֹן לְהַחֲמִירכ שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלָהּ בְּפֶסַח אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ:

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5 If one placed a matzah on a piece of paper in the oven to bake [the matzah] with the paper,12 one should not rule stringently regarding [such matzah] after the fact, since the heat of the [oven’s] fire certainly had an effect on [the dough] via the paper, and it baked [there] rapidly before it could become chametz. However, as an initial preference, it is desirable to be careful not to [bake matzah in this manner].13

ה אִם שָׂמוּ מַצָּה עַל הַנְּיָר בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר לֶאֱפוֹתָהּ עִם הַנְּיָר12 – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בָּהּ בְּדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי שָׁלַט בָּהּ חֹם הָאוּר דֶּרֶךְ הַנְּיָר וְנֶאֱפֵית בִּמְהֵרָה קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּסְפִּיק לְהִתְחַמֵּץ, אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן:כא,13

6 It is desirable to be stringent and to admonish [people] not to bake cakes [of matzah] in a mixture of smoldering coals and ash.14 Similarly, one should [admonish people] not to bake [dough for matzah] in the sun. [The rationale for these stringencies is that] there are grounds for concern that [in both instances, the dough] will become chametz before it begins to bake.

If one violated [these instructions] and baked [matzah] in a mixture of smoldering coals and ash, [the matzah] is permitted to be eaten. [Indeed,] one is [even] permitted to fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah on Pesach night] with it. However, if one violated [these instructions] and baked [dough] in the sun, even though [the cakes of matzah] are permitted to be eaten because the heat is [sufficiently] intense for the [the dough] to bake15 and the heat will not allow [the dough] to become chametz, but instead, [the matzah] will bake immediately, [nevertheless, a person] may not fulfill his obligation with [these matzos], even after the fact.

[The rationale is that dough] baked in the sun is not called bread at all,16 and the Torah specified that [matzah must be] “poor man’s bread.”17 By contrast, [dough] baked by the heat of fire is called “bread” even when it is not baked in an oven but in a closed roasting pan without liquid.18

ו טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וְלִמְחוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יֹאפֶה חֲרָרוֹת בְּרֶמֶץ,כב,14 וְכֵן שֶׁלֹּא יֹאפֶה בַּחַמָּה,כג שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחְמִיצוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּתְחִילוּ לֶאֱפוֹת.כד וְאִם עָבַר וְאָפָה בְּרֶמֶץ – מֻתָּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה, וּמֻתָּר לָצֵאת בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.כה

אֲבָל אִם עָבַר וְאָפָה בַּחַמָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַחֹם גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיּוּכַל לֶאֱפוֹת15 אֵין הַחֹם מַנִּיחָן לְהִתְחַמֵּץ אֶלָּא מִיָּד הֵן מַתְחִילִין לְהֵאָפוֹת,כו מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד, לְפִי שֶׁהָאָפוּי בַּחַמָּה אֵינוֹ קָרוּי לֶחֶם כְּלָל,כז,16 וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה:17 "לֶחֶם עֹנִי".

אֲבָל הָאָפוּי בְּחֹם הָאוּר קָרוּי לֶחֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱפֶה בַּתַּנּוּר אֶלָּא בָּאִלְפָּסכח בְּלֹא מַשְׁקֶה:כט,18

7 Similar [laws apply] if [a loaf of matzah] is baked in the ground, e.g., t’ruknin – [a baked product produced by] making a hollow in the ground [beneath] a cooking range. A mixture of flour and water is placed there and it bakes there. Even though the consistency [of this dough] is very loose and it does not have the form of bread – therefore, the blessing HaMotzi is not recited over it unless one uses it as the basis for a meal,19 as stated in sec. 168[:13]20 – a person may nevertheless fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] on Pesach with it,21 even as an initial and preferred option. [The rationale is that] this is “poor man’s bread,” for a poor man does not have an oven and bakes his bread in the ground [in this manner].

ז וְכֵן אִם נֶאֱפָה בַּקַּרְקַע,ל כְּגוֹן טְרוֹקָנִין,לא וְהוּא שֶׁעוֹשִׂין גּוּמָא בְּקַרְקַע הַכִּירָה וְנוֹתְנִין שָׁם קֶמַח וּמַיִם מְעֹרָבִין וְנֶאֱפֶה שָׁם.לב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּלִילָתָהּ רַכָּה מְאֹדלג וְאֵין עָלָיו צוּרַת פַּתלד וּלְכָךְ אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "הַמּוֹצִיא" אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָבַע עָלָיו סְעוּדָתוֹ19 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"חלה,20 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָדָם יוֹצֵא בּוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּפֶסַחלו,21 אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה, לְפִי שֶׁזֶּהוּ "לֶחֶם עֹנִי",לז שֶׁאֵין לֶעָנִי תַּנּוּר וְאוֹפֶה לַחְמוֹ בַּקַּרְקַע:לח

8 When matzah is baked to the extent that, if it is sliced, strands of dough will not extend from it, one may fulfill his obligation with it16 even as an initial and preferred option despite the fact that it will come apart when it is moved.22 Before [dough] is baked to this extent, however, it is not called “bread,” but “dough,” and one who eats it does not fulfill his obligation.

As an initial and preferred option, one must be careful not to take [matzah] out of the oven until it is baked to this extent, even if he returns it [to the oven] immediately. [The rationale is that] since [at this stage, the matzah] is still considered as “dough,” it is possible that it will become chametz when it is outside of the oven.23 If [a person] violated [these instructions] and removed [the matz­ah before it reached this stage, the matzah] is permitted to be eaten, whether or not he returned it [to the oven].

There are, [however,] authorities who forbid [eating such matzah] even if one returned it [to the oven] immediately. [Their rationale is that] since the matzah is hot, there is concern that it became chametz in the one moment when it was outside the oven, for it becomes chametz faster – even in less than the amount [of time it takes to walk] a mil24– due to its heat, as explained in sec. 459[:11]. Moreover, even the baker’s peel with which [the matzah] was removed from the oven is forbidden25 because [the matzah] might have become chametz while it was on the baker’s peel outside the oven.

ח מַצָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית עַד שֶׁאִם פּוֹרְסִין אוֹתָהּ אֵין חוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה,לט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא נִפְרֶכֶת כְּשֶׁמְּטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָהּמ,22 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יוֹצְאִין בָּהּ16 אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה,מא אֲבָל קֹדֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית כַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה – אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת לֶחֶם אֶלָּא עִסָּה,מב וְהָאוֹכְלָהּ לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ.

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר קֹדֶם שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית כַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה אַף שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנָּה מִיָּד,מג דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִיא נִקְרֵאת עִסָּה יְכוֹלָה הִיא לָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץמד כְּשֶׁהִיא חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר.מה,23

וְאִם עָבַר וְהוֹצִיאָהּ, בֵּין שֶׁהֶחֱזִירָהּ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱזִירָהּ כְּלָל – מֻתֶּרֶת בַּאֲכִילָה.מו

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןמז אֲפִלּוּ הֶחֱזִירָהּ מִיָּד, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַמַּצָּה הִיא חַמָּה יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְחַמְּצָה בְּרֶגַע אֶחָד זוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר, כִּי עַל יְדֵי הַחֲמִימוּת מְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר מִיל,24 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ט.מח וְאַף הַמִּרְדֶּה שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהָ בָּהּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר אֲסוּרָה,25 כִּי שֶׁמָּא נִתְחַמְּצָה בְּעוֹדָהּ עַל הַמִּרְדֶּה חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר:מט

9 With regard to the halachah, one should be stringent as dictated by the latter opinion. Similarly, it has become widespread custom to forbid matzah from which strands [of dough] extend. If one cannot determine whether strands [of dough] extend from [a matzah] or not, it is desirable to be stringent and to forbid [the matzah] because of the doubt. Nevertheless, if one [can] stick his finger into [the matzah] and dough will not become attached to it, there is no room for doubt, [for then certainly] strands [of dough] will [not] extend from it. If the surface [of the matzah] has yet to [form a] crust, it is certain that strands [of dough] will extend from it.

ט וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.נ וְכֵן נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג לֶאֱסֹר מַצָּה שֶׁחוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה.נא וְאִם אֵין יְכוֹלִין לַעֲמֹד עָלֶיהָ אִם חוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה אִם לָאו – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְאָסְרָהּ מִסָּפֵק.נב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם תּוֹחֵב אֶצְבָּעוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ וְאֵין בָּצֵק נִדְבָּק בּוֹ – אֵין לְהִסְתַּפֵּק כְּלָל אִם חוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה.נג וְאִם עֲדַיִן לֹא קָרְמוּ פָּנֶיהָ – בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁחוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה:נד

10 [The following law applies] if one returned [a matzah] to the oven when it was whole without slicing it to see if strands [of dough] extend from it: [The matzah] should be permitted provided its surface had crusted slightly when it was taken out, [for] in this regard the first perspective can be relied upon so as not to presume that [the matzah] becomes prohibited merely because of a doubt26 whether strands [of dough] would have extended from it.

י וְאִם הֶחֱזִירָהּ לַתַּנּוּר כְּשֶׁהִיא שְׁלֵמָה שֶׁלֹּא פְּרָסָהּ לִרְאוֹת אִם חוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירָהּ אִם קָרְמוּ פָּנֶיהָ קְצָת כְּשֶׁהוֹצִיאָהּ, וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ בָּזֶה עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁלֹּא לְהַחֲזִיק אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵק26 לוֹמַר שֶׁמָּא הָיָה חוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה:נה

11 [The status of] the baker’s peel [is as follows]: If one [used it] to remove a matzah from which strands [of dough] extended, it should not be prohibited. However, as an initial preference, one should not use it to take out other matzos. Nevertheless, [if the baker’s peel was used to take other matzos out of the oven,] after the fact, one may rely on the first opinion and not forbid any matzos which were taken out with it afterwards.27

יא וְהַמִּרְדֶּה אִם הוֹצִיאוּ בָּהּ מַצָּה שֶׁהָיוּ חוּטִין נִמְשָׁכִין מִמֶּנָּה – אֵין לְאָסְרָהּ אֶלָּא לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁאֵין לְהוֹצִיא בָּהּ עוֹד מַצּוֹת, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱסֹר הַמַּצּוֹת שֶׁהוֹצִיא בָּהּ אַחַר כָּךְ:נו,27

12 A person may fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] with matzah that was soaked in water after it was baked,28 provided [the matz­ah] did not dissolve. Even if [the matzah] softens in the water, it is not removed from the category of bread as long as it has not dissolved entirely.29 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is preferable not to fulfill one’s obligation with matzah that was soaked [in water] unless one is elderly or ill and has difficulty eating dry matz­ah. Matzah may then be soaked in water for [such a person].

One must be careful not to [allow matzah] to soak in water for 24 hours. [The rationale is that] all [foods] that soak [in liquid] for 24 hours are considered as kavush, “pickled,” and [substances that are] kavush are considered as “cooked.”30 [Thus, the matzah is disqualified, for] one may not fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] with matzah that is cooked, as will be explained.31

[When one must soak the matzah before eating it,] one must take care to soak an entire olive-sized portion [at once]. If, however, one soaks pieces smaller than an olive-sized portion, he may not fulfill his obligation with them if they soaked so long that the water turned white because of them. [In that instance, the pieces of matzah] have already ceased being [included] in the category of bread,32 as explained in sec. 168[:18].33

[Matzah with which one desires to fulfill the mitzvah of eating matzah] may only be soaked in water, but not in other liquids or mei peiros,34nor in soup.35 [The rationale is that these liquids] diminish the flavor of matz­ah, for they add their own flavor. True, it is not necessary to taste the flavor of matzah in one’s mouth, [as reflected by the law] to be explained in sec. 475[:25], that even one who swallows matzah and does not chew it fulfills his obligation. Nevertheless, the matzah itself must have the flavor of matzah and not have its flavor diminished by another flavor.36

יב יוֹצֵא אָדָם יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַצָּה שְׁרוּיָה בְּמַיִם לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּתָהּ,נז,28 וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא נִמּוֹחָה.נח וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְמַסְמְסָה בַּמַּיִםנט – לֹא יָצְאָ(ת)ה מִכְּלַל לֶחֶם כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נִמּוֹחָה לְגַמְרֵי.29

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת בְּמַצָּה שְׁרוּיָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה וְקָשֶׁה לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה יְבֵשָׁה – אָז שׁוֹרִין לוֹ בְּמַיִם.ס

וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא תְּהֵא נִשְׁרֵית בַּמַּיִם כ"ד שָׁעוֹת,סא שֶׁכָּל הַנִּשְׁרֶה מֵעֵת לְעֵת נִקְרָא כָּבוּשׁ, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל,סב,30 וְאֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּמַצָּה מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.סג,31

וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לִשְׁרוֹת כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם בְּיַחַד, אֲבָל אִם יַשְׁרֶה פְּרוּסוֹת פְּחוּתוֹת מִכְּזַיִת – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אִם נִשְׁרוּ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנִּתְלַבְּנוּ הַמַּיִם מֵחֲמָתָן, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטְּלוּ מִתּוֹרַת לֶחֶם,סד,32 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ח.סה,33

וְלֹא יַשְׁרֶה אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם,סו אֲבָל לֹא בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִיןסז וּמֵי פֵּרוֹת,34 וְלֹא בְּמָרָק,סח,35 לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מְפִיגִין אֶת טַעַם הַמַּצָּה, שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בָּהּ טַעַם שֶׁלָּהֶם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּטְעֹם טַעַם מַצָּה בְּפִיו, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בָּלַע מַצָּה וְלֹא לְעָסָהּ – יָצָא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ה,סט מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַמַּצָּה עַצְמָהּ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּהּ טַעַם מַצָּה, וְלֹא שֶׁיּוּפַג טַעְמָהּ עַל יְדֵי טַעַם אַחֵר:ע,36

13 Nevertheless, if one who is elderly or ill cannot eat matzah soaked in water, [matzah] should be soaked for him in wine or other liquids so that he will not fail to observe the mitzvah of [eating] matzah. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that even wine and other liquids do not nullify the flavor of matzah since [the matzah] was [merely] soaked in them, not cooked in them.

By contrast, any other persons who ate matzah that was soaked in a liquid other than water do not fulfill their obligation [to eat matzah on Pesach night].37 They must eat matzah again. [This law applies] both with regard to the olive-sized portion [required to be eaten after reciting] the blessing [al achilas] matzah38 and with regard to the olive-sized portion [required to be eaten] for the afikoman,39for fundamentally, [the halachah] follows the first opinion.

יג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הַזָּקֵן אוֹ הַחוֹלֶה אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה הַשְּׁרוּיָה בְּמַיִם – שׁוֹרִין לוֹ בְּיַיִן אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּטֵּל מִמִּצְוַת מַצָּה,עא כִּי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעב שֶׁאַף הַיַּיִן וּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין אֵינָן מְפִיגִין טַעַם הַמַּצָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּשְּׁלָה בָּהֶן אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּשְׁרֵית בָּהֶן.

אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם שֶׁאָכַל מַצָּה הַשְּׁרוּיָה בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין חוּץ מִמַּיִם – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,37 וְצָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה אַחֶרֶת, בֵּין הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל בִּרְכַּת מַצָּה38 בֵּין הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל אֲפִיקוֹמָן,עג,39 כִּי הָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:

14 One may not fulfill his obligation with a matzah that was cooked after being baked.40 [This law] applies even after the fact, and even for one who is elderly or ill. [The rationale is that] cooking nullifies the flavor of the matzah. [The above law] applies even if [the matzah] was not cooked in boiling water, but [merely] fell into water that was yad soledes bo, [i.e., so hot that a hand would recoil from touching it,]41 and it was removed immediately. [The matzah] is [nevertheless] considered as cooked and one may not fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] with it.

When does the above apply? When [the matz­ah] fell into a k’li rishon.42If, by contrast, it fell into a k’li sheni,43one [may] fulfill his obligation [with it], because a k’li sheni does not cook. Nevertheless, as an initial and preferred option, one should be stringent [and not fulfill his obligation with such matzah] except out of necessity. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who are in doubt [concerning the matter], and are concerned that bread [i.e., matzah] will cook even in a k’li sheni, as explained in sec. 318[:12].44

יד אֵין יוֹצְאִין בְּמַצָּה הַמְּבֻשֶּׁלֶת לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּתָהּעד,40 אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד, אֲפִלּוּ לְזָקֵן אוֹ לְחוֹלֶה, לְפִי שֶׁהַבִּשּׁוּל מְבַטֵּל אֶת טַעַם הַמַּצָּה.עה וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְבַּשְּׁלָה בְּרוֹתְחִין אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ מַיִם חַמִּיןעו שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹעז,41 וֶהֱסִירָהּ מִיָּד – הֲרֵי הִיא נִקְרֵאת מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת, וְאֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהּ.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,42 אֲבָל אִם נָפְלָה לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֵׁנִי43 – יוֹצְאִין בָּהּ, שֶׁכְּלִי שֵׁנִי אֵינוֹ מְבַשֵּׁל.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם לֹא לְצֹרֶךְ, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִסְתַּפְּקִיןעח וְחוֹשְׁשִׁין עַל הַפַּת שֶׁמָּא הִיא מִתְבַּשֶּׁלֶת אַף בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי,עט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"ח:פ,44

15 The laws that apply to matzah that was baked together with chametz in one oven or [that apply] when [matzah and chametz] touched one another are explained in sec. 447[:5, 9].45 Consult that source.

טו דִּין מַצָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית עִם חָמֵץ בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד אוֹ אִם נָגְעוּ זֶה בָּזֶה – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,פא,45 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

16 [The following laws apply to] matzah that became folded over in an oven and [the portions that] folded over became attached [to each other]:46 If [the matzah was baked] before Pesach – even on the day before Pesach from the sixth hour onward47 – one should remove the place where [the matzah] folded over, for there is concern that [some of the dough] there became chametz. [The rationale is that] it is possible that the heat of the [oven’s] fire was not effective where [the folded-over portions of the doughfor matzah] are attached [to each other to the extent that] it would begin to bake immediately. [Thus, it is possible] that [the dough] became chametz in [that place] before it began to bake there.

In addition, [the person] should remove the portion [of the matzah that the folded over portion of dough] touched, i.e., the width of a thumbbreadth6 around the folded-over portion, as is the law applying to chametz that touched matzah. As stated in sec. 447[:5, in such an instance,] the width and depth of a thumbbreadth around the place of contact are forbidden. The remainder of the matzah is permitted to be eaten, even if it is not 60 times the size of the folded-over portion.

In contrast, when matzah was baked during Pesach and became folded over in the oven – even if only the slightest portion of it became folded over – stringency [is required] and the entire [matzah] is forbidden.48 [The rationale is that] since the chametz49is joined to the matzah in one piece, there is concern that perhaps the flavor of the chametz spread throughout the entire matzah. Even though [the remainder of] the matzah is 60 times larger than [the flavor of chametz that spread within it, the flavor of chametz] is not nullified [in this far larger amount], because on Pesach, even the slightest trace of chametz brings about a prohibition.

If, however, this portion that is folded over becomes joined [while] in the oven with another matzah, the other matzah does not become forbidden in its entirety – even if [the two matzos become] attached to each other (see sec. 457[:2]).50 [Instead,] it is sufficient to remove a thumbbreadth [of matzah from] around the point of contact.51 [The rationale is that] becoming attached does not cause [the two matzos] to be considered as actually [being] a single entity.

טז מַצָּה שֶׁנִּתְכַּפְּלָה בַּתַּנּוּרפב וְנִתְדַּבְּקָהפג שָׁם בִּמְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל, אִם הוּא קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשֵּׁשׁ שָׁעוֹת וּלְמַעְלָה47 – מֵסִיר מְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ,פד כִּי שֶׁמָּא לֹא הָיָה חֹם הָאֵשׁ יָכוֹל לִשְׁלֹט בְּכֹחַ בֵּין הַדְּבָקִים לְהַתְחִיל לֶאֱפוֹת שָׁם מִיָּד וְנִתְחַמֵּץ שָׁם קֹדֶם שֶׁהִתְחִיל לֶאֱפוֹת שָׁם,פה וּמֵסִיר עוֹד מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ,פו דְּהַיְנוּ כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל6 סָמוּךְ לִמְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל, כְּדִין חָמֵץ שֶׁנָּגַע בְּמַצָּה שֶׁאוֹסֵר מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ בְּעֹמֶק כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,פז וּשְׁאָר הַמַּצָּה מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ שִׁשִּׁים נֶגֶד מְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל.פח

אֲבָל מַצָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וְנִתְכַּפְּלָה בַּתַּנּוּר, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְכַּפֵּל אֶלָּא מַשֶּׁהוּ מִמֶּנָּה – מַחֲמִירִין לְאָסְרָהּ כֻּלָּהּ,פט,48 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ49 מְחֻבָּר בַּמַּצָּה בַּחֲתִיכָה אַחַת – חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נִתְפַּשֵּׁט טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בְּכָל הַמַּצָּה.צ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּמַּצָּה שִׁשִּׁים נֶגְדּוֹ – אֵינָהּ מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכָהּ, שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ.

אֲבָל אִם מְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל הַזֶּה נִתְחַבֵּר בַּתַּנּוּר בְּמַצָּה אַחֶרֶת אֲפִלּוּ הֵן נוֹשְׁכִין (עַיֵּן סִימָן תנ"זצא) – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר אֶת כֻּלָּהּ,50 וְדַי בִּנְטִילַת מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל,51 לְפִי שֶׁהַנְּשִׁיכָה אֵינָהּ מְחַבֶּרֶת אוֹתָן לִהְיוֹת כַּחֲתִיכָה אַחַת מַמָּשׁ:צב

17 If a) the folded over portion of [the matzah] had been glazed with fat and it came in contact with another matzah that was so hot that a hand would recoil from it52 or, similarly, b) if the other matzah with which [the folded over portion of matzah] came in contact was glazed with fat at the place of contact even when the portion [of the matzah] that was folded over was not glazed, [both matzos] become forbidden entirely. [The relevant laws parallel] the laws that apply when a loaf of chametz comes in contact with a loaf that is matzah and one of them is glazed with fat, which were explained in sec. 447[:6]. See the rationale [stated] in that [source].53

יז וְאִם מְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל הוּא מָשׁוּחַ בְּשֻׁמָּן וְנָגַע בְּמַצָּה אַחֶרֶת חַמָּה שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,צג,52 וְכֵן אִם אוֹתָהּ מַצָּה שֶׁנָּגְעָה בָּהּ הִיא מְשׁוּחָה בְּשֻׁמָּן בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ,צד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל אֵינוֹ מָשׁוּחַ – הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹסֵר אֶת כֻּלָּהּ, כְּדִין כִּכָּר חָמֵץ שֶׁנָּגַע בְּכִכַּר מַצָּה וְאֶחָד מֵהֶן מָשׁוּחַ בְּשֻׁמָּן שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,צה עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם:53

18 However, [different laws apply] if the matzah that became folded over came in contact with another matzah at a place other than the folded-over portion, [i.e.,] the part of [the matzah] that did not fold over came in contact with another matzah. Even if they are both glazed with fat, it is only necessary to remove the outer surface at the place of contact.54 [The rationale is that] the flavor [of chametz] that is absorbed [in the matzah] is not transmitted from one piece [of matzah] to the other without [intervening] liquid55 even if both [matzos] were fatty,56 unless the forbidden substance itself is fatty, as explained in sec. 447.57 See the rationale [explained] there.

Even if the two matzos become joined to each other in the oven to the extent that they are attached, the attachment does not join them to [the extent that they are considered] as actually one entity. Instead, [they are considered as] two entities that came in contact with each other, and a forbidden substance absorbed in one piece [of matzah] is not transmitted to the other without [intervening] liquid.

יח אֲבָל אִם מַצָּה זוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּפְּלָה נָגְעָה בְּמַצָּה אַחֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל, אֶלָּא מִקְצָתָהּ הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּפְּלָה נָגְעָה בְּמַצָּה אַחֶרֶת, אֲפִלּוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן מְשׁוּחוֹת בְּשֻׁמָּן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעָהּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי קְלִפָּה בִּלְבַד,צו,54 לְפִי שֶׁטַּעַם הַבָּלוּעַ אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מֵחֲתִיכָה לַחֲתִיכָה בְּלֹא רֹטֶב,55 אֲפִלּוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן שְׁמֵנוֹת,56 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָאִסּוּר עַצְמוֹ הוּא שָׁמֵן,צז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,צח עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם.57

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שְׁתֵּי מַצּוֹת הַלָּלוּ נִתְחַבְּרוּ בַּתַּנּוּר עַד שֶׁנָּשְׁכוּ זוֹ בְּזוֹ – אֵין הַנְּשִׁיכָה מְחַבַּרְתָּן לִהְיוֹת כַּחֲתִיכָה אַחַת מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא כִּשְׁתֵּי חֲתִיכוֹת שֶׁנָּגְעוּ זוֹ בְּזוֹ, וְאֵין אִסּוּר הַבָּלוּעַ יוֹצֵא מֵחֲתִיכָה לַחֲתִיכָה בְּלֹא רֹטֶב:צט

19 When does the above apply? When [the two matzos] became joined side to side, i.e., the thick portion of one matzah became joined to the thick portion of the other matzah. If, however, a portion of one matzah was lying on top of a portion of another matzah in the oven, they are both forbidden. [This ruling applies] even if they were not joined to each other, [but] they were merely in contact with each other, i.e., they were placed one on top of the other in the oven without any open space intervening between them.

[The rationale is that] the place where [the two matzos] are [touching each other] is governed by the same laws as a matzah that became folded over, for the [oven’s] fire does not have a [powerful] effect [on those portions. Therefore, those portions] cause both entire matzos to be forbidden because [the point of contact] joins [them both] together.

[The above applies only when the matzos are baked during Pesach.] If [they are baked] before Pesach, one [need only] remove the portion [of both matzos]that are in contact [with each other] and [an additional] thumbbreadth around [those portions] from both matzos.58

יט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַבְּרוּ זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁעֳבִי מַצָּה זוֹ נִתְחַבֵּר לָעֳבִי מַצָּה זוֹ, אֲבָל אִם מִקְצָת מַצָּה זוֹ הָיָה מֻנָּח בַּתַּנּוּר עַל מִקְצָת מַצָּה זוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַבְּרוּ זוֹ לְזוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ דְּבוּקִין זוֹ לְזוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהָיוּ מֻנָּחִין בַּתַּנּוּר זוֹ עַל גַּב זוֹ מַמָּשׁ בְּלִי שׁוּם הֶפְסֵק אֲוִיר בֵּינְתַיִם – שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת,ק לְפִי שֶׁמְּקוֹם הַדִּבּוּק יֵשׁ לוֹ דִּין מַצָּה כְּפוּלָה,קא שֶׁאֵין הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט שָׁם, וְהוּא אוֹסֵר אֶת כָּל מַצָּה זוֹ וְאֶת כָּל מַצָּה זוֹ, שֶׁהוּא מְחַבֵּר לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן. וְאִם הוּא קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – מֵסִיר מְקוֹם הַדִּבּוּק עִם רֹחַב גּוּדָלקב מִמַּצָּה זוֹ וְרֹחַב גּוּדָל מִמַּצָּה זוֹ:58

20 As an initial preference, one should be careful that matzos do not touch [each other while] in the oven, even at their edges, for the [oven’s] fire does not have a [powerful] effect [on the portions of the matzos that touch each other]. After the fact, however, [such matzos] are permitted even when [two matzos] became attached.59 [The rationale is that] since the heat of the [oven’s] fire has a [powerful] effect on the entire upper and lower surface of the matzah, [the matzah] will bake thoroughly and will not become chametz.60

כ וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִגְּעוּ הַמַּצּוֹת בַּתַּנּוּר אֲפִלּוּ זוֹ בְּצַד זוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם נְגִיעָתָן אֵין חֹם הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט שָׁם.קג אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד מֻתֶּרֶת אֲפִלּוּ נָשְׁכוּ59 זוֹ בְּזוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁחֹם הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט בְּכָל שֶׁטַח הַמַּצָּה מִלְּמַטָּה וּמִלְמַעְלָה – הִיא נֶאֱפֵית יָפֶה וְאֵינָהּ בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ:קד,60

21 When one removes the folded over portion and the portions that came in contact with it from a matzah that is folded over during Pesach or on the day before Pesach from the sixth hour onward,61 it is desirable to be stringent and burn62 [these pieces of matzah] if possible. [This stringency is imposed] even though it is not certain that chametz is present; there is merely a concern [that a portion of the matzah that folded over became chametz].

כא כְּשֶׁמֵּסִיר מְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל עִם מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ מִמַּצָּה כְּפוּלָה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וּלְמַעְלָה61 – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְשָׂרְפָםקה,62 אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין חָמֵץ בָּרוּר אֶלָּא חֲשָׁשׁ בְּעָלְמָא:קו

22 A matzah that is folded over is not forbidden unless both sides of the fold are touching each other, i.e., they are lying on each other without any empty space between them. In such an instance, there is concern that perhaps the heat of the [oven’s] fire did not have a [powerful] effect [in the place where the folds of the matzah are touching each other].

If, however, [the folds] are not actually in contact, but they are [only] close to each other – even if they are almost in contact – [the matzah] should not be forbidden even [when one is baking] during Pesach.63 [The rationale is that] since there is a small space intervening [between the matzos], the heat of the [oven’s] fire will have a [powerful] effect there and [the dough] will begin to bake before it has the opportunity to become chametz. Nevertheless, if the surface [of the matzah] did not crust in the place where it was folded over, [the matzah] is forbidden64 according to the latter opinion mentioned above.65

כב אֵין אוֹסְרִין מַצָּה כְּפוּלָה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁשְּׁנֵי צִדֵּי הַכֵּפֶל הֵם דְּבוּקִין זֶה לָזֶה, דְּהַיְנוּ מֻנָּחִין זֶה עַל גַּב זֶה מַמָּשׁ בְּלִי שׁוּם הֶפְסֵק אֲוִיר בֵּינְתַיִם, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא אֵין חֹם הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט שָׁם. אֲבָל אִם אֵינָן דְּבוּקִין מַמָּשׁ אֶלָּא שֶׁהֵן סְמוּכִין זֶה לָזֶה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכִּמְעַט הֵן דְּבוּקִין – אֵין לְאָסְרָהּ אֲפִלּוּ הֵן בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,63 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מְעַט הֶפְסֵק בֵּינֵיהֶם – חֹם הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט שָׁם יָפֶה וּמַתְחִיל לֶאֱפוֹת שָׁם קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּסְפִּיק לְהַתְחִיל לְהַחְמִיץ.קז

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם שָׁם בִּמְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל לֹא קָרְמוּ פָּנֶיהָ – אֲסוּרָהקח,64 לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קט,65

23 It is customary in these regions to be stringent and to forbid a matzah that swelled in its center,66 i.e., the substance of the matzah swelled and rose like a mountain in its center when baking, in the same manner as does [bread that is] chametz, which leavens and rises upward in its center.

כג נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לְהַחֲמִיר [וְלֶאֱסֹר] מַצָּה שֶׁהִיא נְפוּחָה בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ,קי,66 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁתָּפַח גּוּף הַמַּצָּה וְנַעֲשֵׂית כְּהַר בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ עַל יְדֵי הָאֲפִיָּה, כְּדֶרֶךְ הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמִּתְחַמֵּץ וּמִתְנַשֵּׂא לְמַעְלָה בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ:קיא

24 When a crust forms on top of a matz­ah as it forms on bread when it bakes, [the matzah] is permitted. If, however, the breadth of the matzah divides, [as it were,] into two, and its upper portion rises upward and [a bubble of] empty space is [formed] in its midst, it is also considered as “swollen.” The custom is to forbid [the matzah] if the empty space [in its midst] also ascends, i.e., the upper portion [of the matzah] also ascends upward to the extent that the empty space under [that upper portion] is also higher than the surface of the matzah around it.67

כד מַצָּה שֶׁעָלָה עָלֶיהָ קְרוּם כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁעוֹלֶה עַל הַפַּת בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּה – מֻתֶּרֶת.קיב אֲבָל אִם עֳבִי הַמַּצָּה נֶחְלַק לִשְׁנַיִם וְצַד הָעֶלְיוֹן עָלָה לְמַעְלָה וְיֵשׁ חָלָל בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּקיג – הֲרֵי זוֹ נִקְרֵאת גַּם כֵּן נְפוּחָה, וְנוֹהֲגִים לְאָסְרָהּ אִם הֶחָלָל עָלָה לְמַעְלָה,קיד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהַצַּד הָעֶלְיוֹן עָלָה גַּם כֵּן לְמַעְלָה, עַד שֶׁהֶחָלָל שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה תַּחְתָּיו גַּם כֵּן הוּא גָּבוֹהַּ מִשֶּׁטַח פְּנֵי הַמַּצָּה אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבָיו:67

25 [The matzah] is not forbidden unless the empty space is the size of a hazel nut [which is] about the size of an ordinary thumb.6 [If a matzah swells to such an extent,] the entire matzah is forbidden, even if it is before Pesach and the matzah is 60 times the size of the swollen portion.

[The rationale is that the fact that the matzah] swelled in one place [to such a size] reveals that the entire matzah was [in the midst of] leavening [and] that [those working with the dough] did not occupy themselves with it in a thorough enough manner to counteract the beginning of the leavening process.68 Accordingly, when [the matzah] was placed in the oven, the heat of the oven caused the leavening process to be activated and the defect69 [of the matzah] was revealed. Therefore, it swelled.70

כה וְאֵין אוֹסְרִין אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֶחָלָל הוּא גָּדוֹל כָּל כָּךְ, כְּמוֹ אֱגוֹז לוּז (שֶׁקּוֹרִין האזיל נוס), אוֹ כְּמוֹ אֶצְבַּע גּוּדָל בֵּינוֹנִי,קטו,6 אָז נֶאֶסְרָה כָּל הַמַּצָּה אֲפִלּוּ הוּא קֹדֶם פֶּסַח, וְיֵשׁ בַּמַּצָּה שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד מָקוֹם הַנָּפוּחַ,קטז לְפִי שֶׁהַנָּפוּחַ שֶׁבְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד מְגַלֶּה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁל כָּל הַמַּצָּה, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעַסְּקוּ בָּהּ עֵסֶק גָּמוּר לְבַטֵּל הַתְחָלַת הַחִמּוּץ,68 וּלְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁהוֹשִׁיבוּהָ בַּתַּנּוּר עַל יְדֵי חֹם הַתַּנּוּר – יָצָא בָּהּ חִמּוּץ לַפֹּעַל וְנִתְגַּלָּה בָּשְׁתָּהּ,69 וּלְפִיכָךְ נִתְפְּחָה:קיז,70

26 If the empty space did not rise upward, but it is only that there is an abscess of the size mentioned,71 only the space of the abscess is forbidden. That space resembles a folded over matzah, [i.e., it contains a place where] the heat of the [oven’s] fire did not have a [powerful] effect. The remainder of [the matz­ah] is permitted even [if this situation occurs] during Pesach.72

Even when there is such an abscess, [the matzah] is not forbidden unless it contains air bubbles that are called blezlech, for they are signs that [the dough] has leavened. If, however, [the matzah] is flat, it is permitted. If the matz­ah has two abscesses, one inside the other, the entire [matzah] is forbidden out of concern [that it became chametz].

כו וְאִם לֹא עָלָה הֶחָלָל לְמַעְלָה אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ עֳבִי הַמַּצָּה יֵשׁ נֶקֶב חָלָל כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר71 – אוֹסְרִין מְקוֹם הַנֶּקֶב בִּלְבַד, שֶׁאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם דּוֹמֶה לְמַצָּה כְּפוּלָה שֶׁאֵין חֹם הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט שָׁם, וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ הוּא תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח.72 וְאֵין אוֹסְרִין אֲפִלּוּ מְקוֹם הַנֶּקֶב אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ אֲבַעְבּוּעוֹת שֶׁקּוֹרִין בלעזלי"ך שֶׁהֵם סִימָן לְחִמּוּץ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא חָלָק מֻתָּר. וְאִם יֵשׁ בַּמַּצָּה שְׁנֵי נְקָבִים כְּאַחַת נֶקֶב בְּתוֹךְ נֶקֶב – חוֹשְׁשִׁין לֶאֱסֹר כֻּלָּהּ:קיח

27 All these prohibitions that were explained with regard to a matzah that contains a folded over portion or an abscess do not have a source in the Talmud. Instead, they are customs that were adopted in the later generations.73 [Nevertheless,] we should not rule leniently regarding matters concerning which our ancestors were accustomed to prohibit, because it is written:74 “Do not abandon the teachings of your mother.”

Even so, one should not rule as stringently concerning [such matzos] as one does with regard to actual chametz, in which instance even a trace causes an [entire] mixture to be forbidden on Pesach.75 Instead, it is sufficient to forbid the matzah that contains a folded over portion or an abscess itself, but not substances into which it becomes mixed.

כז וְכָל אִסּוּרִין אֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּמַצָּה כְּפוּלָה וּנְפוּחָה אֵין לָהֶם עִקָּר בַּגְּמָרָא,קיט וְאֵינָן אֶלָּא מִנְהָג שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ בַּדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים.73 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ לְהָקֵל בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֲבוֹתֵינוּ נָהֲגוּ בּוֹ אִסּוּר,קכ מִשּׁוּם שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקכא,74 "וְאַל תִּטֹּשׁ תּוֹרַת אִמֶּךָ", מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בָּהֶם כְּמוֹ בְּחָמֵץ גָּמוּר שֶׁאוֹסֵר תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,75 וְדַי לְהַחֲמִיר לֶאֱסֹר אוֹתָהּ מַצָּה עַצְמָהּ שֶׁנִּתְכַּפְּלָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְפְּחָה אֲבָל לֹא תַּעֲרָבְתָּהּ:קכב

28 Similarly, it is not necessary to reheat and kasher the oven in a place where [such] a matzah had rested. Similarly, the baker’s peel used to remove [such a matzah] from the oven should not be forbidden except as an initial preference, if there is an alternative available, as stated in sec. 451[:57].76 The same [ruling] applies with regard to all the other utensils used [in making this matzah] and that [possibly] absorbed [chametz] from it.

כח וְכֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַסִּיק וּלְהַכְשִׁיר אֶת הַתַּנּוּר בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁיָּשְׁבָה עָלָיו הַמַּצָּה,קכג וְכֵן הַמִּרְדֶּה שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהָ בָּהּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר אֵין לֶאֱסֹר אוֹתָהּקכד אֶלָּא לְכַתְּחִלָּה אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּאַחֶרֶת,קכה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א.קכו,76 וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהּ וּבָלְעוּ מִמֶּנָּה:קכז

29 Similarly, if [such a matzah] remained [in a Jew’s possession] until after Pesach, it is permitted to be eaten. [The rationale is that] there is only a suspicion that [the matzah] became chametz, and when there is a doubt regarding [the permissibility of a substance that] remained [in a Jew’s possession] until after Pesach, [that substance] is permitted, as explained in sec. 448[:30].77

כט וְכֵן אִם עָבַר עָלֶיהָ הַפֶּסַח מֻתֶּרֶת בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ, וּסְפֵק חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר,קכח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ח:קכט,77