SECTION 460 The Laws Pertaining to the Matzah [to be Used for] the Mitzvah [of Eating Matzah] (1-12)

סימן תס דִּינֵי מַצּוֹת הַמִּצְוָה וּבוֹ י"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 It was already explained in sec. 453[:14-15] that a person does not fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah on Pesach night] except when the matzah was kneaded, arranged, and baked by a mentally competent Jew for the sake of Pesach.1 If, by contrast, one of these [stages of preparing the matzah] was performed by a non-Jew, deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual,2 or a minor, a person may not fulfill his obligation with [that matzah].

A deaf-mute [is disqualified] when he can neither hear nor speak.3 A “mentally or emotionally challenged individual” is [defined as] one who loses what is given him.4 And a minor is one who has not manifested physical signs of maturity.5

Even if a mentally competent Jewish adult stands over [one of the above individuals] and instructs them and admonishes them to perform the task for the sake of Pesach, a person may not fulfill his obligation with [matzah prepared in this fashion. The rationale is that] a non-Jew does not heed the words of the Jew who admonishes him, but rather acts on his own initiative,6 and will not [act with] Pesach in mind.7 And a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual, and a minor do not have the intellectual capacity to intend that [their actions be carried out for] the sake of Pesach.8 Even if they explicitly say that [they are performing the activity] for the sake of Pesach, their intent and their thoughts are of no consequence since they lack a [developed] intellectual capacity.

There are authorities who differ with the above [ruling] and maintain that when a mentally competent Jewish adult stands over [one of the above individuals] and supervises them so that the dough will not become chametz [while] in their hands, [it is of no consequence that] they do not [perform these activities] for the sake of Pesach. The rationale is that] it is unnecessary that the kneading be performed for the sake of [observing] the Pesach [mitzvah. All that is necessary is for the dough to] be watched from the moment [it is] kneaded so that it does not become chametz for the sake of [observing] Pesach, as explained in sec. 453[:14-15]. In this instance, a mentally competent Jew is standing over them, watching the dough that is in their hands, and safeguarding it so that it does not become chametz for the sake of Pesach.

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.9 Nevertheless, in a pressing situation where there is no other alternative, e.g., [a person] is elderly or infirm and is unable to knead and bake [the matzos] himself, and he lives among non-Jews and no other Jew is present, one may rely on the second opinion. Nevertheless, [in such an instance,] it is proper that [the Jew] teach and admonish the non-Jew to perform [these activities] for the sake of Pesach. [The Jew] should also assist somewhat in the kneading, for then the non-Jew will act according to the intent of the Jew who is assisting him and not according to his own intent, as explained in sec. 11[:4]. Consult that source.

If it is possible for [the Jew] to find another Jew [to perform these tasks], even a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual, or a minor, it is preferable that they perform these tasks rather than a non-Jew, for they will listen to his instructions and act according to his intent. [In contrast, the non-Jew] will not heed [the Jew’s instructions].10

א כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"גא שֶׁאֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמַצָּה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל בֶּן דַּעַת נִתְעַסֵּק בְּלִישָׁתָהּ וַעֲרִיכָתָהּ וַאֲפִיָּתָהּב לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח,1 אֲבָל אִם בְּאֶחָד מֵהָעֲסָקִים הַלָּלוּ נִתְעַסֵּק נָכְרִי אוֹ חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן,ג [חֵרֵשׁ] דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ וְאֵינוֹ מְדַבֵּר,ד,3 אוֹ שׁוֹטֶה2 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְּאַבֵּד מַה שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִים לוֹ,ה,4 אוֹ קָטָן דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיא שְׁתֵּי שְׂעָרוֹת,ו,5 אֲפִלּוּ אִם יִשְׂרָאֵל גָּדוֹל בֶּן דַּעַת עוֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם וּמְלַמְּדָם וּמַזְהִירָם שֶׁיִּתְעַסְּקוּ בָּהּ לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח – אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהּ,ז לְפִי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ בְּקוֹל יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמַּזְהִירוֹ וְהוּא עוֹשֶׂה עַל דַּעַת עַצְמוֹח,6 וְאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח,7 וְחֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן אֵין בָּהֶם דַּעַת לְכַוֵּן לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח.8 וְאַף אִם הֵם אוֹמְרִים בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁמִּתְכַּוְּנִים לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח – אֵין כַּוָּנָתָם וּמַחֲשַׁבְתָּם שָׁוָה כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם דַּעַת.ט

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהי וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאִם יִשְׂרָאֵל גָּדוֹל בֶּן דַּעַת עוֹמֵד וּמַשְׁגִּיחַ עֲלֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא תִּתְחַמֵּץ הָעִסָּה בִּידֵיהֶם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם אֵינָם מִתְכַּוְּנִים לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כְּלָל שֶׁתְּהֵא כַּוָּנַת הַלִּישָׁה לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח, אֶלָּא שֶׁיְּהֵא הַשִּׁמּוּר מֵחִמּוּץ מִלִּישָׁה וָאֵילָךְ לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ג, וְכָאן הֲרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּן דַּעַת עוֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם וּמַשְׁגִּיחַ עַל הָעִסָּה שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶם וּמְשַׁמְּרָהּ מֵחִמּוּץ לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח.יא

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.יב,9 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר, כְּגוֹן זָקֵן אוֹ חוֹלֶה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לָלוּשׁ וְלֶאֱפוֹת בְּעַצְמוֹ וְהוּא בֵּין הַנָּכְרִים וְאֵין שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.יג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר שֶׁיְּלַמֵּד וְיַזְהִ[י]ר אֶת הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיַּעֲסֹק בָּהּ לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח,יד וְגַם הוּא יְסַיֵּעַ קְצָת בְּלִישָׁתָהּ,טו שֶׁאָז עוֹשֶׂה הַנָּכְרִי עַל דַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הַמְסַיְּעוֹ וְלֹא עַל דַּעַת עַצְמוֹ,טז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן י"איז עַיֵּן שָׁם.

וְאִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְצֹא יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, מוּטָב שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ הֵם שֶׁהֵם שׁוֹמְעִים בְּקוֹלוֹ וְעוֹשִׂין לְדַעְתּוֹ, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹמֵעַ בְּקוֹלוֹ:יח,10

2 There is an unresolved doubt whether it is permitted to have a non-Jew or a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual, or a minor make the holes that are made in the matz­os [used for] the mitzvah [of eating matzos at the Seder].11 As an initial preference, it is desirable to be stringent [and not to have such individuals make the holes in these matzos] even when a mentally competent Jew stands over them and admonishes them to do so for the sake of Pesach.

[Different laws apply with regard to] the other matzos. Even though Jews are holy and are accustomed to prepare [all their matzos] while guarding them against becoming chametz for the sake of Pesach,12 nevertheless, they are accustomed to have the holes made by minors. [This practice was adopted] because adults are also standing over them and overseeing the matzos [the children] are handling so that they do not become chametz. This is considered as guarding [the matzos against becoming chametz] in a complete sense according to the latter opinion explained [in the previous subsection]. See sec. 477[:10].13

ב הַנִּקּוּר שֶׁמְּנַקְּרִין הַמַּצּוֹת שֶׁל מִצְוָה – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אוֹ עַל יְדֵי חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן.יט,11 וְטוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּהכ אֲפִלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּן דַּעַת עוֹמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם וּמַזְהִירָם שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח.

אֲבָל שְׁאָר הַמַּצּוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשִׁים הֵם וְנָהֲגוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לָהֶם שִׁמּוּר מֵחִמּוּץ לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח,כא,12 מִכָּל מָקוֹם נוֹהֲגִים לְנַקְּרָם עַל יְדֵי קְטַנִּים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁגַּם גְּדוֹלִים עוֹמְדִים עַל גַּבֵּיהֶםכב וּמַשְׁגִּיחִין עַל הַמַּצּוֹת שֶׁבִּידֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לִידֵי חִמּוּץ, וְזֶה נִקְרָא שִׁמּוּר גָּמוּר לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר, עַיֵּן סִימָן תע"ז:כג,13

3 Great sages themselves would be personally involved with the preparation of the matzos [used for] the mitzvah [of eating matzos at the Seder].14 They would oversee the preparation of these [matzos], encourage those involved in [the activities necessary] for them, and assist in their arrangement. So too, it is proper for all people to be personally involved in this mitzvah, for there is [a general principle applying] to all the mitzvos:15 “[It is preferable that one] perform a mitzvah himself [rather] than have it performed by his agent.”

ג גְּדוֹלֵי הַחֲכָמִים הָיוּ מִשְׁתַּדְּלִין בְּעַצְמָן בְּמַצּוֹת מִצְוָה14 וְעוֹמְדִין עַל עֲשִׂיָּתָן וּמְזָרְזִין אֶת הָעוֹסְקִין בָּהֶן וּמְסַיְּעִין בַּעֲרִיכָתָן.כד וְכֵן רָאוּי לְכָל אָדָם לַעֲשׂוֹת לְהִטַּפֵּל הוּא עַצְמוֹ בַּמִּצְוָה,כה שֶׁכֵּן הוּא בְּכָל הַמִּצְוֹת:כו,15 "מִצְוָה בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁלוּחוֹ":כז

4 At present when [the level of Torah observance of] the generations has declined and people at large are not vigilant concerning all the meticulous safeguards the sages would follow so that the matzos would not become chametz, it is appropriate for all [those who are conscientious] to oversee the preparation of the other matzos as well,16 and not to trust the common people [who are involved in their actual preparation].

ד וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקְלוּ הַדּוֹרוֹת וְרֹב הֲמוֹן עַם אֵין נִזְהָרִין בְּכָל דִּקְדּוּקִים שֶׁדִּקְדְּקוּ חֲכָמִים בִּשְׁמִירַת הַמַּצּוֹת מֵחִמּוּץ – רָאוּי לְכָל אָדָם אַף בִּשְׁאָר הַמַּצּוֹת16 לַעֲמֹד עַל עֲשִׂיָּתָן,כח וְלֹא לְהַאֲמִין לְעַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ:כט

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5 It is desirable that one who kneads a dough after the time when chametz becomes forbidden17 make the [following] statement when he [begins] kneading: “I am nullifying [my possession of] and declaring ownerless all the scraps [of dough] that will fall when kneading and arranging [the dough] and [the scraps of] dough that will become attached to the containers.”

When [the person] makes this statement, even if the scraps [of dough] become chametz, he will not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] even when [the scraps] comprise an olive-sized portion when they are collected and attached together18 because he already nullified [his possession of these scraps] before they became chametz. [The rationale is that] at that time, [the scraps] are still [considered to be] in his domain [and therefore, he can] nullify [his possession] of them and declare them ownerless, as explained in sec. 444[:20].19 If, however, [the person] does not nullify [his possession] of [the scraps of dough] before they become chametz, there are grounds for concern that he will not obliterate them from existence immediately after they become chametz.20 [Thus, he] will violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] according to Rabbinic Law, even if [the scraps] do not comprise an olive-sized portion, as explained in sec. 442[:28].

(True, it was explained in sec. 434[:6] that it is unnecessary to nullify [one’s possession of] crumbs of bread and declare them ownerless. [The rationale is that these crumbs] are ownerless as a matter of course since it is impossible that they will become attached to each other, and each crumb [alone] is insignificant and nullified as a matter of course.21 Nevertheless, [different laws apply to] scraps of dough22 because it is possible that when one sweeps the house, these scraps will be collected, become attached together, and become one piece. [Hence, even before they become attached, these scraps of dough] possess a certain [measure of] importance, and are not nullified as a matter of course.)

When [the person] nullifies [his possession of] the scraps [of dough], he should say: “The scraps will be ownerless” or “I am declaring them ownerless.” [He should not] follow the practice of people at large [who] say: “The scraps are ownerless.” [Those words] imply [a statement of fact], that [the crumbs] are ownerless as a matter of course, not that he is declaring them ownerless [at this time]. Although there is an authority who justifies [the use of such wording], it is [definitely] preferable to use wording that is more clearly [defined]. At the very least, [the person] should make the statement in a language that he understands, as stated in sec. 434[:8].23

ה הַלָּשׁ עִסָּה אַחַר זְמַן אִסּוּר חָמֵץ17 – טוֹבל שֶׁיֹּאמַר בִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁה: "כָּל פֵּרוּרִין שֶׁיִּפְּלוּ בִּשְׁעַת לִישָׁה וַעֲרִיכָהלא וְכֵן הַבָּצֵק שֶׁיִּדְבַּק בַּכֵּלִיםלב אֲנִי מְבַטֵּל וּמַפְקִיר אוֹתָם". וּכְשֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר כֵּן, אַף כְּשֶׁיִּתְחַמְּצוּ הַפֵּרוּרִין – אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עֲלֵיהֶם בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", אַף אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם כְּזַיִת כְּשֶׁיִּתְקַבְּצוּ וְיִתְדַּבְּקוּ יַחַד,18 כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר בִּטְּלָם קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ, שֶׁאָז הֵם עֲדַיִן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ לְבַטְּלָן וּלְהַפְקִירָן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ד.לג,19

אֲבָל אִם לֹא יְבַטְּלֵם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְחַמְּצוּ – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא לֹא יְבַעֲרֵם מִן הָעוֹלָם מִיָּדלד לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ,20 וְיַעֲבֹר עֲלֵיהֶם בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אַף שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם כְּזַיִת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב.לה

(וְאַף שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"דלו שֶׁהַפֵּרוּרִים אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַטְּלָם וּלְהַפְקִירָם כְּלָל שֶׁמֵּאֲלֵיהֶם הֵם הֶפְקֵר, הַיְנוּ פֵּרוּרֵי הַפַּת שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּתְדַּבְּקוּ יַחַד וְכָל פֵּרוּר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּלוּם וּבָטֵל מֵאֵלָיו,21 אֲבָל פֵּרוּרֵי בָּצֵקלז,22 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁרלח שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כִּבּוּד הַבַּיִת יִתְקַבְּצוּלט וְיִתְדַּבְּקוּ וְיִהְיוּ חֲתִיכָה אַחַת – יֵשׁ בָּהֶן חֲשִׁיבוּת קְצָת וְאֵינָן בְּטֵלִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶם).

וּכְשֶׁמְּבַטֵּל הַפֵּרוּרִין יֹאמַר: "הַפֵּרוּרִין יִהְיוּ הֶפְקֵר", אוֹ "אֲנִי מַפְקִירָם", וְלֹא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִים הֲמוֹן עַם לוֹמַר: "פֵּרוּרִין הֶפְקֵר", דְּמַשְׁמַע שֶׁמֵּאֲלֵיהֶם הֵם הֶפְקֵר וְלֹא שֶׁהוּא מַפְקִירָם.מ וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁיִּשְּׁבוּ הַמִּנְהָג,מא מִכָּל מָקוֹם יוֹתֵר טוֹב לוֹמַר בַּלָּשׁוֹן הַמְבֹרָר יוֹתֵר, וְעַל כָּל פָּנִים שֶׁיֹּאמַר בְּלָשׁוֹן שֶׁמֵּבִין,מב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ד:מג,23

6 After one finishes kneading [the dough], he should sweep [clean] the house, the table on which the matzos were prepared, and the place where the dough was kneaded, to obliterate the scraps [of dough]. Even though [the person] nullified [his possession of the scraps] before they became chametz, he must nevertheless obliterate them after they became chametz so that there will be no chametz in his domain during Pesach.24

One should burn the scraps [of dough] that he finds rather than tread them into the earth. True, [treading on them] is an [effective means of] obliterating [the scraps].25 Nevertheless, once the time when chametz becomes forbidden has arrived, according to the custom in these countries, there is no [other] means of obliterating chametz except to burn it.26 For this reason, it is desirable that one tread the scraps [of dough] into the earth immediately when they fall to the ground before they become chametz. [In this way,] they are obliterated immediately and it is not necessary to burn them afterwards.

ו וּלְאַחַר גְּמַר הַלִּישָׁה – צָרִיךְ לְכַבֵּד אֶת הַבַּיִתמד וְאֶת הַשֻּׁלְחָןמה שֶׁעָשׂוּ עָלָיו מַצּוֹת וְאֶת מְקוֹם הַלִּישָׁה,מו כְּדֵי לְבַעֵר אֶת הַפֵּרוּרִין, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּטְּלָם קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ צָרִיךְ הוּא לְבַעֲרָם שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ בְּפֶסַח,מז,24 וְהַפֵּרוּרִין שֶׁמּוֹצֵא – יִשְׂרְפֵם,מח וְלֹא יִדְרְסֵם בְּרַגְלָיו בֶּעָפָר, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מִתְבַּעֲרִים בְּכָךְ,25 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הִגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּר חָמֵץ – אֵין בִּעוּר חָמֵץ אֶלָּא בִּשְׂרֵפָה לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.מט,26 לְפִיכָךְ, טוֹב שֶׁמִּיָּד שֶׁהַפֵּרוּרִין נוֹפְלִין לָאָרֶץ קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּתְחַמְּצוּ – יִדְרְסֵם בְּרַגְלָיונ בֶּעָפָר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבַּעֲרוּ מִיָּד, וְלֹא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְשָׂרְפָם אַחַר כָּךְ:נא

7 Decorative designs should not be made on the matzos,27 i.e., one should not draw the shapes of animals or fowl [on them], because [a person] will take time [to make such designs] and at times, this delay will cause the matzos to become chametz.27 The Sages even forbade doing so when the matzos are very thin28 and will not become chametz rapidly.29

Even when one desires to make designs using a mold – in which instance, he does not delay at all – [he should] nevertheless [refrain from doing so.27 The rationale is that] the Sages did not make any distinctions regarding their decrees. [This principle is particularly relevant in this instance] because an observer who sees one baking matzos with designs will not know that [the designs] were made with a mold, and will permit making [designs] without a mold.

ז אֵין עוֹשִׂין סְרִיקִין הַמְצֻיָּרִין,נב,27 דְּהַיְנוּ לְצַיֵּר בַּמַּצּוֹת כְּמִין חַיָּה וָעוֹף,נג לְפִי שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹהֶא עֲלֵיהֶן לְצַיְּרָן, וּפְעָמִים יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי חִמּוּץ עַל יְדֵי שְׁהִיָּה זוֹ.נד,27 וַאֲפִלּוּ הַמַּצּוֹת הֵן רְקִיקִים דַּקִּים28 שֶׁאֵינָן מְמַהֲרִין לְהַחְמִיץ,נה אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים.29 וַאֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת הַצִּיּוּר עַל יְדֵי דְּפוּסנו שֶׁאֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶה כְּלוּם,27 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא חִלְּקוּ חֲכָמִים בִּגְזֵרָתָם, לְפִי שֶׁהָרוֹאֶה שֶׁיֹּאפֶה מַצּוֹת מְצֻיָּרוֹת אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ עַל יְדֵי דְּפוּס וְיָבֹא לְהַתִּיר לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּלֹא דְּפוּס:נז

8 [It is common] to make holes in the matzos so they do not rise. Even though this is done with a comb and thus something like a design is made, since one does not have the intent to make a design, [doing so] is permitted. Nevertheless, it is desirable to hurry as much as possible when doing so, since when one is making the holes in one part of the matzah, the other part is resting without being manipulated at all.30

ח אֲבָל הַנִּקּוּר שֶׁמְּנַקְּרִין הַמַּצּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפְּחוּ,נח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי מַסְרֵק וְנַעֲשֶׂה כְּעֵין צִיּוּר עַל הַמַּצָּה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְכַּוֵּן לְצִיּוּרנט – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּכָל מַה דְּאֶפְשָׁר,ס שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּשֶׁמְּנַקֵּר מִקְצָתָהּ הָאֶחָד שׁוֹהֶה מִקְצָתָהּ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּלֹא עֵסֶק כְּלָל:סא,30

9 If a person violated [the above instructions] and made designs on matzos, [the matzos] are permitted to be eaten,27 provided [the person] did not delay the amount of time it takes for [dough to] become chametz.31 One may fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] using such matzos even as an initial preference.32

ט אִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה צִיּוּרִין עַל הַמַּצּוֹת – מֻתָּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה27 אִם לֹא שָׁהָה בְּצִיּוּרָן שִׁעוּר חִמּוּץ.סב,31 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶן יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ:סג,32

10 Matzos should not be made a handbreadth33 thick,27 since when they are that thick, there are grounds for concern that heat of the [oven’s] fire will not be entirely effective upon [the dough in] the middle [of the matzah] and [some of the] inner [dough] may become chametz while it is baking. However, [a matzah] that is even the slightest bit less than a handbreadth thick is permitted to be made, even as an initial preference, according to the fundamentals of the law. [The rationale is that] as long as [the matz­ah] is less than a handbreadth thick, the [oven’s] fire will be effective [in baking the dough] throughout its [entire] thickness.

Nevertheless, it is desirable to make matzos as thin cakes, for they do not become chametz as fast as thick [matzos] do while they are outside the oven. If one violated [the above instructions] and made matzos that are a handbreadth or more thick, [the matzos] are permitted to be eaten.27 Nevertheless, one should inspect the inside [of these matzos to see] whether they were baked thoroughly and did not become chametz. Even so, it is desirable not to use [such matzos to fulfill] the mitzvah [of eating] matzah [on the night of Pesach].

י אֵין עוֹשִׂין מַצָּה עָבָה27 טֶפַח,סד,33 שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִיא עָבָה כָּל כָּךְ יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִשְׁלֹט חֹם הָאֵשׁ בְּתוֹכָהּ וְתִתְחַמֵּץ בְּתוֹכָהּ בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּתָהּ.סה אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,סו לְפִי שֶׁחֹם הַתַּנּוּר שׁוֹלֵט בְּתוֹךְ עָבְיוֹ כְּשֶׁאֵין בּוֹ טֶפַח.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמַּצּוֹת רְקִיקִין דַּקִּין,סז שֶׁאֵין מְמַהֲרִין לְהַחְמִיץ כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ הָעָבוֹתסח כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן הֵן חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר.

וְאִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה מַצּוֹת עָבוֹת טֶפַח אוֹ יוֹתֵר – מֻתָּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה.סט,27 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ לְעַיֵּן בְּתוֹךְ עָבְיָהּ אִם נֶאֱפֵית יָפֶה וְלֹא נִתְחַמְּצָה שָׁם. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לִקַּח אוֹתָהּ לְמַצּוֹת מִצְוָה:ע

11 No leniency should be taken in matters concerning which the Sages of the early generations were stringent, [for example,] not to make filled loaves, called poundash or pies,34 i.e., matzah dough that is filled with meat or cheese. [The rationale is that] while [the pie] is being baked, moisture exudes from the meat or the cheese and moistens the dough, slowing it from baking. Moreover, this moisture is [governed by the same laws] as mei peiros,35and when [mei peiros] is mixed with a dough that was kneaded with water, [the dough] becomes chametz immediately [thereafter],36 as explained in sec. 462[:3]. Accordingly, there is reason for concern that when the liquid [from the meat or cheese] was exuded into the dough, it became chametz immediately, before the heat of the [oven’s] fire affected it [and] baked it.

Similarly, eggs should not be placed inside matzah to bake with it, because the liquid that exudes from [the eggs] slows down the baking process. One should not even place [a cooked egg] inside matzah even though no liquid exudes from it. Even so, the heat of the [oven’s] fire does not affect [the dough where the egg is lying], and [the dough] does not bake well. Even after the fact, if one forgot and placed eggs in the matzah, it should be forbidden to eat and benefit from the matzah according to our custom of forbidding a matzah that became folded over in the oven. [The rationale is that] the heat of the [oven’s] fire does not affect the place that is folded over, as will be explained in sec. 461[:16]. Consult that source.

יא אֵין לְהָקֵל בְּמַה שֶּׁהֶחְמִירוּ הַקַּדְמוֹנִים שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּפֶסַח מִינֵי מוּלְיָתוֹת, שֶׁקּוֹרִין פאנד"ש אוֹ פלאדינ"ש,עא,34 דְּהַיְנוּ עִסּוֹת מַצּוֹת מְמֻלָּאוֹת בְּבָשָׂרעב אוֹ בִּגְבִינָה,עג לְפִי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיָּה יוֹצֵא לֵחָה מֵהַבָּשָׂר וְהַגְּבִינָה וּמְלַחְלַחַת אֶת הָעִסָּה וּמְעַכֶּבֶת אֲפִיָּתָהּ. וְעוֹד שֶׁלֵּחָה זוֹ דִּינָהּ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת35 שֶׁכְּשֶׁהֵם מִתְעָרְבִים בְּעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם הִיא מְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ מִיָּדעד,36 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ב,עה וְאִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא כְּשֶׁיָּצְאָה הַלֵּחָה לְתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה נִתְחַמְּצָה מִיָּד קֹדֶם שֶׁהִסְפִּיק חֹם הָאֵשׁ לִשְׁלֹט בָּהּ לֶאֱפוֹתָהּ.

וְכֵן אֵין לִתֵּן בֵּיצִים לְתוֹךְ הַמַּצָּה שֶׁיִּתְאַפֶּה עִמָּהֶם,עו לְפִי שֶׁהַלֵּחָה הַיּוֹצְאָה מֵהֶם מְעַכֶּבֶת אֲפִיָּתָהּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ בֵּיצָה מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת אֵין לִתֵּןעז אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לֵחָה יוֹצֵאת מִמֶּנָּה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בִּמְקוֹם הַבֵּיצָה אֵין חֹם הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט שָׁם וְאֵין נֶאֱפֶה שָׁם יָפֶה.

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְנָתַן אוֹתָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּצָּה – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר הַמַּצָּה בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה, לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹסְרִין מַצָּה שֶׁנִּתְכַּפְּלָה בַּתַּנּוּר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין חֹם הָאֵשׁ שׁוֹלֵט בִּמְקוֹם הַכֵּפֶל,עח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"אעט עַיֵּן שָׁם:

12 If, however, one places seeds37 – even if they are not crushed – in [the dough, the matzah] is permitted to be eaten,38 for a small entity of this size does not impede the baking [process]. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should be careful not to place even small entities in the dough unless they are crushed, since there is an authority who maintains that even small entities impede the baking [process].39

יב אֲבָל אִם נָתַן לְתוֹכָהּ זֵרְעוֹנִים37 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָם כְּתוּשִׁים – מֻתֶּרֶת בַּאֲכִילָה,38 לְפִי שֶׁדָּבָר קָטָן כָּזֶה אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב אֲפִיָּתָהּ.פ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵרפא שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן לְתוֹכָהּ אֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים קְטַנִּים, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם כְּתוּשִׁים, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרפב שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ דְּבָרִים קְטַנִּים מְעַכְּבִים אֶת הָאֲפִיָּה.39