SECTION 459 The Place and the Procedure for Kneading the Matzos (1-32)

סימן תנט מְקוֹם וְסֵדֶר לִישַׁת הַמַּצּוֹת וּבוֹ ל"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 A dough [to be baked as matzos] for Pesach should not be kneaded in a place where the sun shines [upon it],1 since the heat of the sun will warm the dough, and it could easily become chametz. It is, however, permitted to knead [dough for matzah] in a shady place, even under the open skies, provided it is not a cloudy day.

On a cloudy day, however, it is forbidden to knead [dough for matzah] anywhere outside, even in a shady place. [The rationale is that] sun[light] breaks through anywhere [there is even the smallest break in the clouds]. Since it does not shine directly through an open space because the clouds block its path, [the sunshine] spreads out [behind the clouds] and will break through every small crack between [the clouds].2

א אֵין לָשִׁין הָעִסָּה שֶׁל פֶּסַח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ זוֹרֵחַ שָׁם,א,1 שֶׁחֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מְחַמֵּםב הָעִסָּה וּבְקַל תּוּכַל לָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ. אֲבָל בִּמְקוֹם הַצֵּל – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ תַּחַת אֲוִיר הָרָקִיעַ אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן,ג אֲבָל בְּיוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן אָסוּר לָלוּשׁ תַּחַת כָּל אֲוִיר הָרָקִיעַ אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם צֵל,ד לְפִי שֶׁהַחַמָּה בּוֹקַעַת בְּכָל מָקוֹם, וְאֵינָהּ יוֹצְאָה דֶּרֶךְ חַלּוֹן כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹנָהּ, שֶׁהֶעָבִים עוֹמְדִים בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְהִיא מִתְפַּשֶּׁטֶת עֲלֵיהֶם וּבוֹקַעַת בְּכָל פִּסּוּק שֶׁבָּהֶם:ה,2

2 On a cloudy day, it is even forbidden to knead [dough for matzah] indoors opposite an open window, even one through which the sun can never shine [directly], e.g., [a window that is] facing north.3

ב וַאֲפִלּוּ בַּבַּיִת אָסוּר לָלוּשׁ בְּיוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לֹא יוּכַל לִזְרֹחַ לְתוֹכוֹ לְעוֹלָם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא פָּתוּחַ לְרוּחַ צָפוֹן:ו,3

3 It is customary to be careful not to knead [the dough] opposite an open window, even on a cloudless day in an instance where sun[light] cannot shine through [that window]. Even so, there is reason for concern that perhaps the skies will suddenly become overcast and [the person kneading the dough] will not realize [that the day became cloudy, and thus will not] immediately move the dough away from the window. By contrast, when one kneads under the open skies, if clouds come and cover the sun, he will realize [the change] and immediately bring the dough inside.

ג וְנָהֲגוּ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לָלוּשׁ כְּנֶגֶד חַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְעֻנָּן וְגַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לֹא יוּכַל לִזְרֹחַ לְתוֹכוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא פִּתְאוֹם יִתְכַּסּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם בְּעָבִים וְיִהְיֶה יוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן וְהוּא לֹא יַרְגִּישׁ בַּדָּבָרז שֶׁיָּסִיר מִיָּד אֶת הָעִסָּה מִכְּנֶגֶד הַחַלּוֹן, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁלָּשׁ תַּחַת אֲוִיר הָרָקִיעַ, אִם יָבֹאוּ עֲנָנִים וְתִתְכַּסֶּה הַחַמָּה, מִיָּד יַרְגִּישׁ בַּדָּבָר וְיַכְנִיס הָעִסָּה לַבַּיִת מִיָּד:ח

4 All the above4 applies when [one is kneading] directly opposite the window. It is, however, permitted to knead at the side of a window even if the sun is shining through the window, [for the person] is kneading in the shade, [and is merely] close to the place where the sun shines.

ד וְכָל זֶה4 כְּנֶגֶד הַחַלּוֹן מַמָּשׁ, אֲבָל מִן הַצַּד שֶׁל חַלּוֹן – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ זוֹרֵחַ לְתוֹךְ הַחַלּוֹן וְהוּא לָשׁ בַּצֵּלט קָרוֹב לִמְקוֹם זְרִיחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ:י

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5 Similarly, all the above4 applies when the window is actually open. If, however, [the window] is closed with glass,5 it is permitted to knead [dough] opposite [the window] even though the sun is shining there. (Nevertheless, it is necessary to be careful that the dough does not become warmed.)6

ה וְכָל זֶה4 בְּחַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ מַמָּשׁ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא סָתוּם בִּזְכוּכִית אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶשׁ זוֹרֵחַ שָׁם – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ כְּנֶגְדּוֹיא,5 (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא תְּחַמֵּם הָעִסָּה6):

6 Care must be taken when transporting flour for Pesach [use] during the day, and similarly, [when] matzos are taken to an oven to be baked during the day. [The flour or the unbaked matzos] should not be transported under the open skies on a cloudy day while they are uncovered. Needless to say, [the flour or the unbaked matzos] should not be transported while they are uncovered in a place where the sun is shining.7 Instead, [the flour or the unbaked matzos] should be covered with a cloth. One should not use the same cloth to cover [the flour or the unbaked matzos] many times, lest a little [bit] of the dough have become attached to [the cloth], and [that dough] have become chametz ([if] it was left for the time it takes to walk a mil), as will be explained.8 If [the flour or the unbaked matzos] are transported at night, or even at dusk, it is not necessary to cover them at all. (See sec. 455[:9].)7

ו יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁמּוֹלִיךְ קֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח בַּיּוֹם, וְכֵן כְּשֶׁמּוֹלִיךְ הַמַּצּוֹת לַתַּנּוּר לֶאֱפוֹתָן בַּיּוֹם – לֹא יוֹלִיכֵם מְגֻלִּין תַּחַת אֲוִיר הָרָקִיעַ אִם הוּא יוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא יוֹלִיכֵם מְגֻלִּין בִּמְקוֹם זְרִיחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ,יב,7 אֶלָּא יְכַסֶּה אוֹתָן בְּמַפָּה.יג וְאֵין לְכַסּוֹת פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה בְּמַפָּה אַחַת, דְּשֶׁמָּא נִדְבַּק בָּהּ מְעַט בָּצֵק וְנִתְחַמֵּץיד (כְּשֶׁשָּׁהָה כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ מִיל) כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.טו,8

וְאִם מוֹלִיכָן בַּלַּיְלָה, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְכַסּוֹתָן כְּלָלטז (עַיֵּן סִימָן תנ"היז,7):

7 One should not knead [dough for matzah] near the opening of an oven, because the heat of the oven will warm the dough. It is, however, permitted to knead [dough for matzah] behind the oven or at its sides.

To what [type of oven] does the above apply? To a baking oven, for it is made of thick bricks and its heat does not spread [powerfully] outside its walls. By contrast, one should not knead close to any of the sides of an oven [used to heat] a winter house, because it maintains its heat [at a high temperature] and its heat spreads outside its walls.9 [Indeed,] one should not knead [dough for Pesach use] in such a home even at a distance from [the oven], if its heat can be felt [from a distance,] unless the door and windows [to the home] are opened so that the heat will depart. For this reason, it is appropriate not to kindle an oven [used to heat] a winter house on the day [one desires to knead dough for matzos in that home].10

ז לֹא יִתְקָרֵב לָלוּשׁ אֵצֶל פִּי הַתַּנּוּר מִפְּנֵי חֹם הַתַּנּוּריח שֶׁמְּחַמֵּם הָעִסָּה, אֲבָל מֵאֲחוֹרָיו אוֹ מִצִּדָּיו מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ.יט

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁאוֹפִין בּוֹ, שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי מִלְּבֵנִים עָבִים וְאֵין חֻמּוֹ שׁוֹלֵט חוּץ לְדָפְנוֹתָיו, אֲבָל תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף שֶׁהֻסַּק – אֵין לָלוּשׁ בְּסָמוּךְ לוֹ מִכָּל צְדָדָיו, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא מַחֲזִיק חֻמּוֹ בְּיוֹתֵר וּמִתְפַּשֵּׁט חֻמּוֹ חוּץ לְדָפְנוֹתָיו.כ,9 וְאַף בְּרִחוּק מִמֶּנּוּ אִם מַרְגִּישִׁים שָׁם חֹם הַהַסָּקָה – אֵין לָלוּשׁ בְּאוֹתוֹ בַּיִת,כא עַד שֶׁיִּפְתַּח הַדֶּלֶת וְהַחַלּוֹנוֹת שֶׁיֵּצֵא הַחֹם.כב לְפִיכָךְ, נָכוֹן שֶׁלֹּא לְהַסִּיק תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם:10

8 Should one violate these instructions and knead [dough for matzah] in sun[light] or next to an oven, it is forbidden to partake [of any matzos made from this] dough11 if [the dough] became warm. If not, [the matzos] are permitted. [This license applies] even when one intentionally kneaded [the dough in these places].

ח עָבַר וְלָשׁ תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ אוֹ סָמוּךְ לַתַּנּוּר, אִם עַל יְדֵי כֵּן הוּחַמָּה הָעִסָּה – אֲסוּרָהכג בַּאֲכִילָה,כד,11 וְאִם לָאו – מֻתֶּרֶתכה אֲפִלּוּ לָשׁ בְּמֵזִיד:כו

9 As an initial preference, it is forbidden to leave the dough for even one moment without working it.12 [For] as long as one works the dough – even if he does so for the entire day – it will not become chametz.13 If [the person] leaves [the dough] without working it for the time it takes to walk a mil,14it will become chametz.15

If one paused [working the dough] for less than this amount of time and then began working it again – and then again paused for less than the [the amount of time it takes to walk] a mil, these [two] interruptions are not combined [and it is not considered as if the dough rested for] the above-mentioned amount of time. [The rationale is that the person’s] manipulation [of the dough] in the interim nullifies the slight degree of the leavening process that began the first time [the dough] rested.

When does the above apply? When [the person] worked the dough in a thorough manner, e.g., striking the dough forcefully with his hands or rolling out the matzos with a wooden rolling pin. However, punching holes in the matzah so that it will not rise is not considered as manipulation in a full sense to the extent that it nullifies the time that [the person] first paused [in his manipulation]. Nevertheless, [such a less than thorough manipulation] is [still] considered as working [the dough] to a certain degree, [i.e., it is assumed that] the matzah will not become chametz while holes are being punched in it.16

By contrast, the practice followed by people at large when they see [dough for a] matzah lying unattended, and it is impossible to bake it immediately because the coals were not raked out from the oven or because there is no place in the oven, is totally ineffective. [Their practice is] to rub the dough with their hands to prevent it from leavening. [Not only is this of no avail,] their hands actually warm the dough and cause it to become chametz faster.17 (For this reason, one should be careful not to place a hand on the dough [for matzos] unnecessarily.) See sec. 456[:5].

What should [a person do] instead [in the above situation] (if he is afraid that [the dough] will rest outside the oven for the length of time [it takes to walk] a mil and thus become chametz)? He should return [the rolled-out dough] into a lump of dough and then [roll it out] into a matzah[-shaped piece of dough] again as he did originally, so that his manipulation [of the dough] will nullify the leavening process.

Nevertheless, initially, it is preferable to take care that such a situation does not arise, since there is reason for concern that when one arranges [the dough to be rolled into its matzah shape] a second time, he will not arrange it in a proper manner so that it will actually become one mass. Instead, [it is possible that there will be] cracks and folded over portions. Thus, [the dough] will be similar to a folded-over matzah which is customarily prohibited, as will be explained in sec. 461[:16].

Therefore, there is reason to initially take care not to begin arranging the [dough for the] matzos and rolling it out until [others] have begun raking the coals from the oven so that [the matzos] can be baked immediately. Similarly, one should not begin to knead the dough until [sufficient] time has passed after the oven was kindled so that immediately after [the dough] was kneaded it would be possible to rake away [the coals in] the oven and begin to arrange the matzos and bake them immediately.

All the above applies as an initial preference. However, after the fact, [the matzos] should not be forbidden, unless [the person] paused for the length of time [it takes to walk] a mil without manipulating [the dough].

ט לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ הָעִסָּה בְּלֹא עֵסֶק אֲפִלּוּ רֶגַע אֶחָד,כז,12 וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁעוֹסְקִין בַּבָּצֵקכח אֲפִלּוּ כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹכט – אֵינוֹ בָּא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ.13 וְאִם הִנִּיחוּהוּ בְּלֹא עֵסֶק כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ מִילל,14 – הֲרֵי זֶה חָמֵץ.15

וְאִם שָׁהָה פָּחוֹת מִמִּיל וְחָזַר וְנִתְעַסֵּק וְחָזַר וְשָׁהָה פָּחוֹת מִמִּיל – אֵין הַשְּׁהִיּוֹת מִצְטָרְפוֹת לִכְדֵי הִלּוּךְ מִיל, שֶׁהָעֵסֶק שֶׁמִּתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ בֵּינְתַיִם מְבַטֵּל אֶת הַחִמּוּץ מְעַט שֶׁהִתְחִיל לְהִתְחַמֵּץ בַּשְּׁהִיָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.לא

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנִּתְעַסֵּק בְּעֵסֶק גָּמוּר, כְּגוֹן בְּעִיטַת הַיָּדַיִם בָּעִסָּה, אוֹ הָרִדּוּד שֶׁמְּרַדְּדִין הַמַּצּוֹת בְּעֵץ עָגֹל, אֲבָל הַנִּקּוּר שֶׁמְּנַקְּרִין הַמַּצּוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְפְּחוּ – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא עֵסֶק גָּמוּר לְבַטֵּל הַחִמּוּץ מְעַט שֶׁהִתְחִיל כְּבָר לְהִתְחַמֵּץ בַּשְּׁהִיָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, נִקְרָא עֵסֶק קְצָת לְעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין הַמַּצָּה בָּא לִידֵי חָמֵץ בִּשְׁעַת הַנִּקּוּר.לב,16

אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁנּוֹהֲגִין הֲמוֹן עַם כְּשֶׁרוֹאִין מַצָּה הָעֲשׂוּיָה מֻנַּחַת וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶאֱפוֹתָהּ מִיָּד לְפִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא גָּרְפוּ הַגֶּחָלִים מִן הַתַּנּוּר אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין לָהּ מָקוֹם בַּתַּנּוּר, וּכְדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תָּבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ מְשַׁפְשְׁפִין בָּהּ בְּיָדַיִם – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, וְאַדְּרַבָּה הַיָּד מְחַמֶּמֶת אֶת הַבָּצֵק וּמְמַהֵר לְהַחְמִיץלג,17 (וּלְכָךְ יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַנִּיחַ הַיָּד עַל הַבָּצֵק שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ), עַיֵּן סִימָן תנ"ו.לד

אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה (אִם מִתְיָרֵא שֶׁלֹּא תִּשְׁהֶה שִׁעוּר מִיל חוּץ לַתַּנּוּר וְתַחְמִיץ)? יִשְׁבְּרֶנָּה וְיַעֲשֶׂנָּה חֲתִיכַת בָּצֵק וְיַחֲזֹר וִיתַקְּנָהּ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה, כְּדֵי שֶׁהָעֵסֶק יְבַטֵּל הַחִמּוּץ.לה

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי כָּךְ,לו שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא כְּשֶׁיְּתַקְּנָהּ פַּעַם שְׁנִיָּה לֹא יַעֲרֹךְ אוֹתָהּ יָפֶה יָפֶה שֶׁתִּהְיֶה גּוּשׁ מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא יִהְיֶה בָּהּ סְדָקִים וּכְפִילוּת, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּעֵין מַצָּה כְּפוּלָה שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לֶאֱסֹר,לז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"א.לח

לְפִיכָךְ, יֵשׁ לְהִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לְהַתְחִיל לְהַעֲרִיךְ הַמַּצּוֹת וּלְרַדְּדָםלט עַד שֶׁיַּתְחִילוּ לִגְרֹף הַגֶּחָלִים מִן הַתַּנּוּר כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לֶאֱפוֹת מִיָּד. וְגַם מִתְּחִלָּה לֹא יַתְחִילוּ לָלוּשׁ הָעִסָּה עַד זְמַן מָה אַחַר שֶׁהֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר, בִּכְדֵי שֶׁמִּיָּד אַחַר הַלִּישָׁה יוּכְלוּ לִגְרֹף הַתַּנּוּר וּלְהַתְחִיל לְהַעֲרִיךְ הַמַּצּוֹת וְלֶאֱפוֹתָן מִיָּד.

וְכָל זֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד אֵין לֶאֱסֹר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִשְׁתַּהָה שִׁעוּר מִיל בְּלֹא עֵסֶק:מ

10 The length of time [it takes to walk] a mil14is one-fourth of an hour plus one-twentieth of an hour.18 [This measure is derived as follows:] Our Sages said:19 An average person walks 40 mil in an ordinary day. [The term “ordinary day” refers to] the days of Nissan and Tishrei, when the [number of hours in the] day and night are equal. Thus, there are twelve hours of daylight [in an “ordinary day”]. When the 12 hours are divided by 40 mil, [it follows that walking] each mil takes one-fourth of an hour plus one-twentieth of an hour. For when ten hours are divided into 40 parts, each part receives one-fourth of an hour, and when [the remaining] two hours are divided into 40 parts, each part receives one-twentieth of an hour.

There are authorities who differ with all the above and maintain that the length of time [it takes to walk] a mil is two-fifths of an hour. These authorities [arrive at this measure] because they maintain that [the statement that a person] can walk 40 mil during the days of Nissan and Tishrei [refers to the time] from dawn20 until the appearance of the stars. [This time period] comprises more than twelve average hours.21 (The meaning of the term “average hours” is an hour that is one twenty-fourth of a day.22 [Such a distinction is necessary] because there are [also] seasonal hours,23 as explained in sec. 58[:3].) [The days in Nissan and Tishrei] are called “average days” only because the [amount of] time from sunrise until sunset is the same as the [amount of] time from sunset to sunrise. Accordingly, the time from sunrise to sunset is twelve average hours,22 for there are 24 average hours in a day.

[According to this reckoning,] from sunrise to sunset, a person can only walk 30 mil. If so, it takes two-fifths of an hour [to walk] a mil. [This figure is derived as follows:] In twelve hours, there are 60 fifths of an hour. [When the 60 fifths] are divided [between] 30 portions, each portion receives two-fifths [of an hour].

With regard to the halachah, fundamentally, the latter opinion deserves primacy.24 Nevertheless, one should follow the stringency of the first opinion if a severe [financial] loss is not involved.

י שִׁעוּר מִיל14 הוּא רְבִיעִית שָׁעָה וְחֵלֶק עֶשְׂרִים,מא,18 שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים:מב,19 מַהֲלַךְ אָדָם בֵּינוֹנִי בְּיוֹם בֵּינוֹנִי, דְּהַיְנוּ בִּימֵי נִיסָן וְתִשְׁרֵי שֶׁהַיּוֹם וְהַלַּיְלָה שָׁוִין, הוּאמג אַרְבָּעִים מִיל, וְהַיּוֹם י"ב שָׁעוֹת,מד תְּחַלֵּק הַי"ב שָׁעוֹת לְאַרְבָּעִים מִיל יַגִּיעַ לְכָל מִיל רְבִיעִית שָׁעָה וְחֵלֶק עֶשְׂרִים מִשָּׁעָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי עֶשֶׂר שָׁעוֹת שֶׁכְּשֶׁתְּחַלְּקֵם לְמ' חֲלָקִים יַגִּיעַ לְכָל חֵלֶק רְבִיעִית שָׁעָה, וְהַב' שָׁעוֹת כְּשֶׁתְּחַלְּקֵם לְאַרְבָּעִים חֲלָקִים יַגִּיעַ לְכָל חֵלֶק עֶשְׂרִים מִשָּׁעָה.מה

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןמו עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁשִּׁעוּר מִיל הוּא שְׁנֵי חֻמְשֵׁי שָׁעָה, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמז שֶׁיְּמֵי נִיסָן וְתִשְׁרֵי שֶׁאָדָם יָכוֹל לַהֲלֹךְ בָּהֶם אַרְבָּעִים מִיל מֵעַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר20 עַד צֵאת הַכּוֹכָבִים יֵשׁ בָּהֶם יוֹתֵר מִי"ב שָׁעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִית21 (פֵּרוּשׁ אוֹתָן שָׁעוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ מֵהֶן כ"ד בְּמֵעֵת לְעֵת נִקְרָאִין שָׁעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִית, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁעוֹת זְמַנִּיּוֹת22 שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן נ"חמח), וְאֵינָן נִקְרָאִין יָמִים בֵּינוֹנִים אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁמֵּהָנֵץ הַחַמָּה עַד שְׁקִיעָתָהּ הוּא כְּמוֹ מִשְּׁקִיעָתָהּ עַד הֵנֵצָהּ, וּלְפִי זֶה עַל כָּרְחָךְ יֵשׁ מֵהָנֵץ הַחַמָּה עַד שְׁקִיעָתָהּ י"ב שָׁעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִית,23 שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמֵּעֵת לְעֵת הוּא כ"ד שָׁעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִית, וּמֵהָנֵץ הַחַמָּה עַד שְׁקִיעָתָהּ אֵין אָדָם יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ כִּי אִם שְׁלֹשִׁים מִיל,מט אִם כֵּן מַגִּיעַ לְכָל מִיל שְׁנֵי חֻמְשֵׁי שָׁעָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּי"ב שָׁעוֹת יֵשׁ בָּהֶם שִׁשִּׁים חֻמְשִׁין, תְּחַלְּקֵם לִשְׁלֹשִׁים חֲלָקִים יַגִּיעַ לְכָל חֵלֶק שְׁנֵי חֻמְשִׁין.

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, הָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה,נ,24 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה:

11 The Sages’ statement that the measure of the amount of time [it takes for dough to become chametz is the time it takes a person to walk] a mil only applies to dough that has not yet been warmed by the manipulation of a person’s hands. If, however, dough has already been warmed due to being manipulated by one’s hands, [there is concern that] it will become chametz immediately if it is left without being [continually] worked.25

Similarly, if dough is left without being manipulated in a hot place, e.g., close to the opening of the oven where it is baked, or one kneads [the dough] in a place where an oven used to heat a winter home was kindled and its heat is still felt,26 it can become chametz in less than the amount of time [it takes a person to walk a] mil.27This concept also applies to all places where one feels [even] a slightly [more than ordinary] amount of heat. The increase of the pace at which [the dough] becomes chametz depends on the extent of the increase of temperature. Attention should be paid to the matter according to the [nature of the] circumstance [at hand].

יא לֹא אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים שִׁעוּר מִיל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְחַמֵּם הַבָּצֵק עַל יְדֵי עֵסֶק הַיָּדַיִם, אֲבָל לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּם עַל יְדֵי עֵסֶק הַיָּדַיִם, אִם יַנִּיחוּהוּ בְּלֹא עֵסֶק – מִיָּד יַחְמִיץ.נא,25 וְכֵן בְּמָקוֹם חַם,נב כְּגוֹן סָמוּךְ לְפִי הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁאוֹפִין בּוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁלָּשׁ בְּבַיִת שֶׁהֻסַּק בּוֹ תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף וּמַרְגִּישִׁין חֻמּוֹ עֲדַיִן,26 אִם שָׁהָה הַבָּצֵק בְּלֹא עֵסֶק יָכוֹל לָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר מִיל.נג,27 וְכֵן בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁמַּרְגִּישִׁין בּוֹ חֹם קְצָת, וּלְפִי יִתְרוֹן הַחֲמִימוּת מְמַהֵר הוּא לְהַחְמִיץ,נד וְצָרִיךְ לָתֵת לֵב לְפִי הָעִנְיָן:נה

12 [The following rule applies if a person] kneaded two doughs at the same time and one of them became chametz – [as evidenced by the fact that] some of the signs that indicate that [a dough] became chametz that will be mentioned28 were visible on it – [even] before it rested for the amount of time [it takes a person to walk] a mil without a person manipulating it. If [the second dough] also rested for the same duration [as the first], it can be concluded that it also became chametz29even though it did not rest for the amount of time [it takes a person to walk] a mil and it did not exhibit signs of becoming chametz. Nevertheless, since one of [the batches of dough] became chametz, it can be [definitively] concluded that some [additional] warmth is present. [Therefore there are grounds to suspect that the warmth also] caused [the second batch of dough] to become chametz in less time than [it takes a person to walk] a mil.

יב אִם הִתְחִילוּ לָלוּשׁ ב' עִסּוֹת כְּאַחַת וְהֶחְמִיצָה אַחַת מֵהֶן קֹדֶם שֶׁשָּׁהֲתָה שִׁעוּר מִיל בְּלֹא עֵסֶק, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּרְאוּ בָּהּ סִימָנֵי חִמּוּץ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,28 בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁהֶחְמִיצָה גַּם הַשֵּׁנִיתנו אִם שָׁהֲתָה כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ חֲבֶרְתָּהּ.נז,29 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהֲתָה שִׁעוּר מִילנח וְגַם לֹא נִרְאוּ בָּהּ סִימָנֵי חִמּוּץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה אַחַת מֵהֶן, בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם אֵיזֶה חֲמִימוּת שֶׁמְּמַהֵר לְהַחְמִיץנט קֹדֶם שִׁעוּר מִיל:

13 When a dough became chametz to the extent that it has [developed] cracks – even when the cracks have not yet become interconnected, but one runs in one direction and a second in another – the dough is chametz in a complete sense,30 and one who partakes of [it or anything made from] it is liable for kareis.31Even when the cracks are visible only in a portion of the dough, the entire dough is chametz in a complete sense.

[Even] if the dough does not have any cracks, but its surface has begun to blanch (i.e., to turn [pale], that is it appears white with a tinge of black, bleichlich in Yiddish),32 like a person whose hair stands straight out of fear and dread and whose face blanches and his countenance changes, it is forbidden to eat and to benefit from [the dough] according to Rabbinic decree, as if it were chametz in a complete sense. [The dough] is referred to as chametz nukshah,33which is not fit to be eaten because its leavening process was not complete. (See sec. 442[:20].)34 It is necessary to admonish people at large who leave their doughs resting until the outer surfaces blanch.

יג בָּצֵק שֶׁהֶחְמִיץ עַד שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סְדָקִים, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְעָרְבוּ הַסְּדָקִים זֶה בָּזֶה אֶלָּא אֶחָד הוֹלֵךְ הֵנָּה וְאֶחָד הוֹלֵךְ הֵנָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה חָמֵץ גָּמוּר,30 וְהָאוֹכְלוֹ חַיָּב כָּרֵת.ס,31 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין סְדָקִים נִרְאֶה אֶלָּא בְּמִקְצָת הָעִסָּה – הֲרֵי כָּל הָעִסָּה חָמֵץ גָּמוּר.סא

וְאִם אֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם סֶדֶק אֶלָּא שֶׁהִכְסִיפוּ פָּנָיוסב (פֵּרוּשׁ מַרְאֶה לָבָןסג הַנּוֹטֶה לְשַׁחֲרוּת שֶׁקּוֹרִין בלייכלי"ך בְּל"אסד)32 כְּאָדָם שֶׁעָמְדוּ שַׂעֲרוֹתָיו מִתּוֹךְ פַּחַד וָרֶתֶת שֶׁפָּנָיו מַכְסִיפִין,סה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנֵּית צוּרָתוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָהסו מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים כְּחָמֵץ גָּמוּר,32 וְהוּא נִקְרָא חָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה,סז,33 שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה מֵחֲמַת חֲמִיצוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא גָּמַר כָּל צָרְכּוֹסח (עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"בסט,34). וְצָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בַּהֲמוֹן עַם שֶׁמַּשְׁהִין הָעִסּוֹת עַד שֶׁמַּכְסִיפִין פְּנֵיהֶם:ע

14 If the woman who kneads [the dough] bakes [the matzos] herself, when she [desires to begin] kneading again after baking the first [batch of] dough, she must cool her hands in cold water before she kneads [a second batch of dough.35 The rationale is that] her hands became warm because of the heat of the oven, and they will warm the dough. [Nevertheless,] if she violated [the above directive and] did not cool her hands before kneading [the second batch of dough], the loaf [of matzah] is permitted.

יד אִם הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁלָּשָׁה הִיא אוֹפָה בְּעַצְמָהּ,עא כְּשֶׁתָּבוֹא לָלוּשׁ עוֹד לְאַחַר שֶׁאָפְתָה עִסָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה – צְרִיכָה הִיא לְצַנֵּן יָדֶיהָ בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִין קֹדֶם שֶׁתָּלוּשׁ,עב,35 לְפִי שֶׁיָּדֶיהָ נִתְחַמְּמוּ מֵחֹם הַתַּנּוּרעג וּמְחַמְּמִים אֶת הָעִסָּה. וְאִם עָבְרָה וְלֹא צִנְּנָה יָדֶיהָ קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁה – הַפַּת מֻתֶּרֶת:עד

15 If the woman who kneads the dough [also] moistens (i.e., she moistens the surface of the cake [of dough] with water before baking [it]), she should not moisten it with the same water with which she cools her hands. [The rationale is that the water] becomes warm from the warmth of her hands and that causes the cake [of dough] to become chametz. Instead, she should have a separate container filled with water to moisten [the dough].35

In these regions, it is not customary to moisten matzah at all. Nevertheless, if it happened that [a woman moistened matzah with the water she used to cool off her hands], the matzah should not be prohibited from being eaten.

טו אִם הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁלָּשָׁה הִיא מְקַטֶּפֶת (פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁטָּחָה פְּנֵי הַחֲרָרָה בְּמַיִםעה קֹדֶם הָאֲפִיָּה) – לֹא תְּקַטֵּף בְּאוֹתָן מַיִם שֶׁמְּצַנֶּנֶת בָּהֶם יָדֶיהָ,עו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם מִתְחַמְּמִין מֵחֹם יָדֶיהָ וּמַחְמִיצִין אֶת הַחֲרָרָה,עז אֶלָּא יְהֵא לָהּ כְּלִי אַחֵר מָלֵא מַיִם שֶׁתְּקַטֵּף בָּהֶם.עח,35

וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵין נוֹהֲגִין כְּלָל לְקַטֵּף הַמַּצּוֹת בְּמַיִם.עט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵרַע כָּךְ – אֵין אוֹסְרִין הַמַּצָּה בַּאֲכִילָה:פ

16 If one kneads [dough] after the time when chametz becomes forbidden, i.e., from the beginning of the sixth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan] onward,36 it is necessary to be careful regarding the water used to wash the kneading trough and the other utensils used for the dough, the water used to moisten the dough,37 and the water with which the one [who bakes the matzah] cools his or her hands.38 [This water] should only be poured out down an incline35 so that it will be quickly absorbed by the earth.

If, by contrast, [this water] is not poured out on an incline, there is concern that it might collect in one place and became chametz before it is absorbed by the earth, and thus [the person] will have chametz in his domain during Pesach. Even if [the person] pours [the water] into the public domain, and thus it will leave his domain before it becomes chametz,39 [it is] nevertheless [undesirable to pour the water out where it will collect], for once the time when chametz becomes forbidden arrives, as an initial preference, one must take care that none of the entities he possesses become chametz at all.

טז אִם לָשׁ אַחַר זְמַן אִסּוּר חָמֵץ,פא דְּהַיְנוּ מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְפב,36 – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בַּמַּיִם שֶׁרוֹחֲצִין בָּהֶם הָעֲרֵבָה עִם שְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בָּעִסָּה וּבַמַּיִם שֶׁמְּקַטֶּפֶת בָּהֶן37 וּבַמַּיִם שֶׁמְּצַנֶּנֶת בָּהֶם יָדֶיהָ,פג,38 שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁפְּכֵם אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם מִדְרוֹן,פד,35 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּבָּלְעוּ מְהֵרָה בַּקַּרְקַע.פה אֲבָל אִם שׁוֹפְכָן שֶׁלֹּא בִּמְקוֹם מִדְרוֹן – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַבְּצוּ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד וְיַחְמִיצוּפו קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּבָּלְעוּ בַּקַּרְקַע, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ בְּפֶסַח. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם שׁוֹפְכָן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְנִמְצְאוּ שֶׁיָּצְאוּ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ,פז מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הִגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּר חָמֵץ – צָרִיךְ הוּא לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּכָל אֲשֶׁר יֵשׁ לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי חִמּוּץ כְּלָל:פח,39

17 One should not pour [this water] on a floor [paved with] stones, even if it is on an incline, because it will not be absorbed into the ground quickly.

יז וְלֹא יִשְׁפְּכֵם עַל גַּבֵּי רִצְפַּת אֲבָנִים אֲפִלּוּ הִיא מִדְרוֹן, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָם נִבְלָעִין בַּקַּרְקַע בִּמְהֵרָה:פט

18 It was already explained40 that as an initial preference, it is forbidden to leave dough resting without being occupied with it for even less than the time it takes to walk a mil.41Therefore, one must be careful to thoroughly scrape clean all the utensils used for the dough – e.g., the kneading trough, the knife used to cut the dough, the wood rolling pins used to roll the matzos, the wood utensils with which holes are made in the matzos – between each [batch of] dough [and remove any] scraps of dough attached to them. Even if one does not wait the time it takes to walk a mil between each [batch of] dough and thus, the dough attached to the utensils does not rest without activity, as an initial preference, one must nevertheless be careful regarding this [factor].

[A different ruling applies] if one does not wait at all between one [batch of] dough and the next, but instead, he kneads [the doughs] one after the other without any interruption at all, and thus, there is no time at all when the utensils are not involved in activity. [Since] the dough attached to the utensils does not rest without being worked at all, it is not necessary to scrape off [the scraps of dough] between one [batch of] dough and another.42

יח כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵרצ,40 שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַבָּצֵק בְּלֹא עֵסֶק אֲפִלּוּ פָּחוֹת מִשִּׁעוּר מִיל,41 לְפִיכָךְ כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַמְשַׁמְּשִׁים בָּעִסָּה, כְּגוֹן הָעֲרֵבוֹת וְהַסַּכִּין שֶׁחוֹתְכִין בּוֹ הָעִסָּה וַעֲצֵי מְגַלְגְּלִין שֶׁמְּרַדְּדִין בָּהֶם הַמַּצּוֹת וְעֵצִים שֶׁמְּנַקְּרִין בָּהֶם הַמַּצּוֹת – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְגָרְדָם יָפֶה בֵּין כָּל עִסָּה וְעִסָּה, לְנַקּוֹתָם מִפֵּרוּרֵי בָּצֵק הַנִּדְבָּקִים בָּהֶם.צא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹהִין שִׁעוּר מִיל בֵּין כָּל עִסָּה וְעִסָּה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהַבָּצֵק הַדָּבוּק בַּכֵּלִים אֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶא בְּלֹא עֵסֶק, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכָךְ.צב

וְאִם אֵין שׁוֹהִין כְּלָל בֵּין עִסָּה לְעִסָּה, אֶלָּא לָשׁ מִיָּד זוֹ אַחַר זוֹ בְּלֹא הֶפְסֵק כְּלָל, וְאֵין הַכֵּלִים פְּנוּיִים מִמְּלַאכְתָּם כְּלָל, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהַבָּצֵק הַדָּבוּק בַּכֵּלִים אֵינוֹ שׁוֹהֶא כְּלוּם בְּלֹא עֵסֶק – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְגָרְדָם בֵּין עִסָּה לְעִסָּה:צג,42

20 43 [In the interim, during the time] after one finishes kneading all the dough that will be baked during one heating period of an oven, while [the person] heats [the oven] again to [prepare to] bake in it a second time,44 he should [thoroughly] wash and dry all the utensils that were used for [one batch of] dough, [before] using them a second time.45 The common practice [of] merely scraping off the dough is insufficient, for it is impossible to clean [the utensils of dough] entirely merely by scraping them.

On a festival,46 when it is forbidden to wash utensils for which one has no need to use further that day, [the person] should have a non-Jew wash them.47 [This is permitted because the prohibition against] washing [utensils on a festival] that are not necessary for the festival is a shvus,48and [the prohibition against] instructing a non-Jew [to perform a forbidden activity] is [also a shvus. Thus, instructing a non-Jew in the above situation is] a shvus d’shvus, and [the Sages] did not [institute a restrictive] decree [against performing] a shvus d’shvus when a mitzvah49 – [in this instance,] the obliteration and the removal of the chametz attached to the utensils – was involved.50

כ צד,43 וְאַחַר גְּמַר לִישַׁת הָעִסּוֹת הַנֶּאֱפוֹת בְּהֶסֵּק תַּנּוּר אֶחָד, כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר וּמַסִּיקוֹ לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ פַּעַם שֵׁנִית44 – יָדִיחַ כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בָּעִסָּה וִינַגְּבֵם לַחֲזֹר וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם פַּעַם שֵׁנִית,צה,45 וְלֹא דַּי לָהֶם בִּגְרִידָה בִּלְבַד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין הָעוֹלָם, כִּי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקּוֹתָם לְגַמְרֵי עַל יְדֵי גְרִידָה בִּלְבַד.צו

וְאִם הוּא יוֹם טוֹב46 שֶׁאָסוּר לְהָדִיחַ כֵּלִים שֶׁאֵין לוֹ צֹרֶךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם עוֹד בּוֹ בַּיּוֹםצז – יְדִיחֵם עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,צח,47 שֶׁהַהֲדָחָה שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב הִיא שְׁבוּת48 וְהָאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת, וּשְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת לֹא גָּזְרוּ בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה,צט,49 דְּהַיְנוּ לְבַעֵר וּלְהַעֲבִיר הֶחָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בַּכֵּלִים:50

21 If a non-Jew is not present to wash [the utensils], it is sufficient for [the owner] to nullify [his possession of the scraps of] dough attached to the utensils, [i.e., he should nullify his possession of these scraps] and declare them ownerless51 before they become chametz. At that time,52 [i.e., prior to their becoming chametz, the scraps] are still in [the owner’s] domain [and he may] nullify [his possession of] them and declare them ownerless. [When he does this, the scraps] need not be removed and obliterated afterwards even if they later become chametz, as long as there is less than an olive-sized portion of dough attached to any individual utensil, as explained in sec. 442[:27-28].53 Consult that source.

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one must be careful not to allow [the scraps] to become chametz at all, as explained above.54 Therefore, if a non-Jew is not present, [the utensils] should be placed in cold water, for the cold water [will] prevent [the scraps of dough] from becoming chametz.55 [However, one] must be careful to weigh down [the utensils so they sink] to the bottom of the water and do not float on top of it.

כא וְאִם אֵין שָׁם נָכְרִי לַהֲדִיחָם – דַּי לוֹ בְּבִטּוּל שֶׁיְּבַטֵּל וְיַפְקִיר הַבָּצֵק הַדָּבוּק בַּכֵּלִים51 קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ, שֶׁאָז52 הוּא עֲדַיִן בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ לְבַטְּלוֹ וּלְהַפְקִירוֹ.ק וְאַף כְּשֶׁיִּתְחַמֵּץ אַחַר כָּךְ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִירוֹ וּלְבַעֲרוֹ אִם בְּכָל כְּלִי וּכְלִי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת בָּצֵק דָּבוּק, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"בקא עַיֵּן שָׁם.53

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ הוּא לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קב,54 לְפִיכָךְ אִם אֵין שָׁם נָכְרִי – יְטִילֵם לְמַיִם צוֹנְנִיםקג שֶׁהַצּוֹנְנִים מוֹנְעִים מִלְּהַחְמִיץ,קד,55 וְיִזָּהֵר לְהַכְבִּידָם לְמַטָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם, וְאַל יָצוּפוּ לְמַעְלָה:קה

22 All the above applies when [the person] does not intend to bake any more matzos [that day]. Thus, he no longer has any use for the utensils he used for the dough on the festival56 itself. Therefore, it is forbidden for a Jew to wash them. (True, it is even permitted to wash utensils for the sake of the mitzvah of obliterating chametz on Shabbos, as explained in sec. 444[:8]. Nevertheless, since in this instance, there is another option [available to prevent the scraps of dough] from leaveningat all,57 [the Sages] did not permit washing utensils for which one has no further use on the festival.)58

When, by contrast, [the person] intends to bake other matzos at a later time on [the day of the] festival, it is permitted to wash all the utensils after the first [time the matzos were] baked, since it is necessary to use [these utensils] again on the festival.59 Therefore,60 it is permitted to wash the kneading trough even when one does not intend to bake more matzos that day. [The rationale is that] since [the kneading trough] contains open space inside, it can be used [as a container] in which other objects could be placed during that day. Thus, [the person] would have some need of it on the festival itself.

כב וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱפוֹת עוֹד מַצּוֹת, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהַכֵּלִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בָּעִסָּה אֵין לוֹ עוֹד צֹרֶךְ בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ,56 וּלְכָךְ אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לַהֲדִיחָם.

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלְּצֹרֶךְ מִצְוַת בִּעוּר חָמֵץ מֻתָּר לְהָדִיחַ כֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ד,קו מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ תַּקָּנָה שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ כְּלָל – לֹא הִתִּירוּ לְהָדִיחַ כֵּלִים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן עוֹד צֹרֶךְ בְּיוֹם טוֹב).58

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱפוֹת עוֹד מַצּוֹת פַּעַם שֵׁנִית בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ – מֻתָּר לְהָדִיחַ כָּל הַכֵּלִים אַחַר אֲפִיָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן צְרִיכִין לוֹ עוֹד בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ.קז,59 לְפִיכָךְ60 מֻתָּר לְהָדִיחַ אֶת הָעֲרֵבָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱפוֹת עוֹד מַצּוֹת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ תּוֹךְ יָכוֹל הוּא לִתֵּן בְּתוֹכָהּ דְּבָרִים אֲחֵרִים בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהִיא צְרִיכָה לוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ:קח

23 It is nevertheless forbidden for a Jew to scrape clean the kneading trough or any other utensils [on a festival], even though he intends to [use them] to bake again that day and thus, this scraping would be [being performed] for the sake of the festival. Even so, [the Sages] did not permit him [to do so. The rationale is that] the prohibition against scraping [utensils clean] was not instituted [because the person has no further need of the utensil, but] because he would be scraping away the [utensil’s] wood, as explained in sec. 323[:11],61 and [this] scraping is not necessary at all for the festival itself, since it is possible to remove the dough from the utensils without scraping away the wood, e.g., by washing them.

כג אֲבָל אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִגְרֹד אֶת הָעֲרֵבָה אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם וְנִמְצָא שֶׁגְּרִידָה זוֹ הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב עַצְמוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא הִתִּירוּהוּ,קט לְפִי שֶׁאִסּוּר הַגְּרִידָה הוּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְמַחֵק הָעֵץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"ג,קי,61 וּמְחִיקָה אֵין בָּהּ צֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַעֲבִיר הַבָּצֵק מֵהַכֵּלִים בְּלֹא מְחִיקַת הָעֵץ, כְּגוֹן עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה:

24 As an initial preference, one should be careful not to place the kneading trough in which he kneads [the dough for matzah] on a woolen pillow or cushion when he is kneading [the dough. The rationale is that] they will warm the kneading trough, which [in turn] will warm the dough inside it.62 It is, however, permitted to place [a kneading trough] on a woolen garment or on a leather pillow or cushion, for they do not generate that much warmth.

כד יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן הָעֲרֵבָה שֶׁלָּשִׁין בָּהּ עַל גַּבֵּי כַּר אוֹ כֶּסֶת שֶׁל צֶמֶר בִּשְׁעַת הַלִּישָׁה, לְפִי שֶׁהֵן מְחַמְּמִין אֶת הָעֲרֵבָהקיא וְהִיא מְחַמֶּמֶת אֶת הָעִסָּה שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ.62 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִתֵּן אוֹתָהּ עַל גַּבֵּי בֶּגֶד שֶׁל צֶמֶרקיב אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי כַּר אוֹ כֶּסֶת שֶׁל עוֹר,קיג לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן מְחַמְּמִין כָּל כָּךְ:קיד

25 If a dough has a very loose composition – i.e., one placed more water than is appropriate in it – he should not add flour to the dough being kneaded so that it will be of the appropriate [consistency. The rationale is that there are grounds for] concern that the flour that will be added will not be thoroughly kneaded and mixed [into the existing dough. Thus, some of the additional flour] will not become [integrated into the] entire dough. Instead, some [flour] might remain in its initial state in the midst of the dough and even after [the dough] will be baked, [this flour] will still remain in its initial state.63 [Similarly, there is room] for concern that [in the baking process,] this flour will not be roasted thoroughly. ([By contrast, when] flour is roasted thoroughly, it will never become chametz, as will be explained in sec. 463[:2]). [Accordingly,] there is concern that [the unroasted flour] will be [included in] cooked food on Pesach and become chametz.64

What [then] should [a person] do [in such a situation]? Another person should knead another small dough with a thick consistency, [using a minimal amount of] water. [That dough] should be combined with the soft dough that is overly moist because [too much] water was added to it. The moistness of one and the dryness of the other will cancel out each other, so that [the resulting dough] will have a normal [consistency].

However, one person should not knead both doughs at the same time. [The rationale is that] it is impossible to knead two doughs at the same time and be occupied with [both of] them adequately.65

כה אִם הָעִסָּה הִיא רַכָּה מְאֹד שֶׁנָּתְנוּ בָּהּ מַיִם יוֹתֵר מִן הָרָאוּי – אֵין לְהוֹסִיף קֶמַח לְתוֹךְ הַלִּישָׁה כְּדֵי שֶׁתְּהֵא הָעִסָּה כָּרָאוּי,קטו לְפִי שֶׁהַקֶּמַח שֶׁמּוֹסִיפִין יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא אֵין כֻּלּוֹ נִלּוֹשׁ וְנִגְבָּל יָפֶה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ בָּצֵק, אֶלָּא נִשְׁאַר מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט קֶמַח בְּעֵין בְּתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה, וַאֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר אֲפִיָּה עוֹדֶנּוּ בְּעֵין,קטז,63 וְשֶׁמָּא לֹא נִקְלָה אוֹתוֹ קֶמַח יָפֶהקיז (שֶׁהַקֶּמַח שֶׁנִּקְלָה יָפֶה אֵינוֹ בָּא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"גקיח), וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּפֶסַח וְיִתְחַמֵּץ.קיט,64

אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? יָלוּשׁ אָדָם אַחֵר עוֹד עִסָּה אַחֶרֶת קְטַנָּה מִגִּבּוּל קָשֶׁה וִיבֵשׁוּת מַיִם וִיעָרֵב אוֹתָהּ עִם הָעִסָּה הָרַכָּהקכ הַמְלֻחְלֶחֶת שֶׁנִּתּוֹסֵף בָּהּ מַיִם, וִיקַבְּלוּ זוֹ מִזּוֹ וְזוֹ מִזּוֹ לַחְלוּחִית וִיבֵשׁוּת עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְמִדָּה בֵּינוֹנִית. אֲבָל אָדָם אֶחָד אֵין לוֹ לָלוּשׁ שְׁתֵּיהֶן כְּאַחַת, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָלוּשׁ שְׁתֵּי עִסּוֹת כְּאַחַת וּלְהִתְעַסֵּק בָּהֶן יָפֶה:קכא,65

26 After the fact, if one violated [the above instructions] and added flour to a dough with a soft blend, [the matzos baked from that dough] are permitted to be eaten. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is desirable to take care that these matzos are not placed into moist [food], lest the flour [that might be present] in them become chametz. When, by contrast, one partakes of [these matzos] when they are dry, even when one chews them with his teeth, his saliva does not cause them to become chametz since they do not remain in his mouth for the amount [of time it takes to walk] a mil.66

[Moreover,] after the fact,67 when one violated [the above instructions] and made cooked food with these [matzos, that cooked food] is permitted to be eaten, for there is merely a suspicion that some flour remained in its initial state and was not roasted thoroughly.

When, [however,] one knows that [some of the] flour that was kneaded into the matzah [remained in its initial state], one should be stringent even after the fact if he violated [the above instructions] and placed [the matzah] into moist [food]. See sec. 463[:2].68

כו וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וְהוֹסִיף קֶמַח בָּעִסָּה הָרַכָּה – מֻתֶּרֶת בַּאֲכִילָה.קכב אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר בַּמַּצּוֹת הַלָּלוּ שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לְתוֹךְ דָּבָר לַח, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַמֵּץ הַקֶּמַח שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלָן כְּשֶׁהֵן יְבֵשׁוֹת,קכג וְאַף שֶׁלּוֹעֲסָן בְּשִׁנָּיו – אֵין הָרֹק מַחְמִיצוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹהִין בַּפֶּה שִׁעוּר מִיל.קכד,66

אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד67 שֶׁעָבַר וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן תַּבְשִׁיל – מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן אֶלָּא חֲשָׁשָׁא בְּעָלְמָא,קכה שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאַר מְעַט קֶמַח בְּעֵין, וְשֶׁמָּא לֹא נִקְלָה יָפֶה.

אֲבָל מַצָּה שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁנִּלּוֹשׁ בְּתוֹכָהּ קֶמַח – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וּנְתָנָהּ לְתוֹךְ דָּבָר לַח,קכו עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"ג:קכז,68

27 One must be very careful to distance the matzos from flour, because flour that becomes attached to [the matzos] will afterwards [come to be included in] food and become chametz. For this reason, [the person] who measures the flour into the kneading trough should not approach the doughs [being kneaded or being arranged]69 until he first cleans off his clothes and washes his hands.

כז צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְהַרְחִיק הַמַּצּוֹת מִן הַקֶּמַח, כִּי הַקֶּמַח הַנִּדְבָּק בָּהֶן בָּא אַחַר כָּךְ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל וּמִתְחַמֵּץ.קכח וְלָכֵן אוֹתוֹ הַמּוֹדֵד קֶמַח לְתוֹךְ הָעֲרֵבָה – לֹא יִקְרַב אֶל הָעִסּוֹת69 עַד שֶׁיְּנַקֶּה מַלְבּוּשָׁיו מִקֶּמַח וְיָדִיחַ יָדָיו תְּחִלָּה:קכט

28 Those who are precise in their observance follow the custom of kneading [dough for matzah] in a bowl. After [kneading] each [batch of] dough, they wash out the bowl and dry it with a cloth unless they immediately knead [another batch of dough] without any interruption.70

The proper practice to follow is to have two bowls, [so that one can] switch [bowls] between one [batch of] dough and the next.71

כח הַמְדַקְדְּקִים נוֹהֲגִין לָלוּשׁ בְּסֵפֶל, וְאַחַר כָּל עִסָּה וְעִסָּה יָדִיחַ הַסֵּפֶל וִינַגְּבוֹ בְּמַפָּה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן לָשׁ מִיָּד בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק.קל,70 וְהַמִּנְהָג הַנָּכוֹן לִהְיוֹת לוֹ שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים, לְהַחֲלִיף בֵּין עִסָּה לְעִסָּה:קלא,71

29 The person who kneads the dough, those who arrange the matzos, (and similarly, the one who pours the flour [into the kneading bowl or trough]) should wash their hands [thoroughly] between each [batch of] dough, (unless they immediately become occupied [with another batch of dough] without any interruption at all).

כט אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלָּשׁ הָעִסָּה וְאוֹתָן שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ הַמַּצּוֹת (וְכֵן אוֹתוֹ שֶׁנּוֹתֵן הַקֶּמַח) יָדִיחוּ יְדֵיהֶם בֵּין כָּל עִסָּה וְעִסָּה (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מִתְעַסְּקִין מִיָּד בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק כְּלָל):קלב

30 It is necessary to be careful and remove [all] scraps [of dough] from the table [on which the matzos are rolled and arranged] between each [batch of] dough. If [the table] has a hole or a crack, it must be filled so that dough will not [enter there], become chametz there, and afterwards become mixed with the dough.72 Since most tables have cracks, there are [people] who [roll and arrange the matzos] on sheets.73

If one desires to [roll and/or arrange] matzos on a sheet on which matzos were [rolled and/or arranged] once before, it is not sufficient to [merely] rinse it, because the chametz becomes attached to it. Instead, it must be thoroughly laundered.74 Even if previously one [rolled and/or arranged matzos] only on one side of the sheet, he should not turn [the sheet over] on its other side [to roll and/or arrange matzos on its other side] without [first] laundering it. [The rationale is that] the chametz bursts through and passes from one side [of the sheet] to the other. Before washing [the sheet], one must undo all the stitches in it, as explained in sec. 453[:24],75 except for the stitches on the edges. It is not necessary to undo [these stitches] since it is not customary to [roll and/or arrange matzos] on the edges [of the sheet], but [it is only customary to do so] in the middle of the sheet.

[The following rules apply] if one violated [the above instructions] and [rolled and/or arranged] matzos on [a sheet] without laundering it [after using it for this purpose before]: If [he did so] during Pesach, the matzos should be forbidden since, during Pesach,76 even the slightest trace of chametz [causes a mixture to be forbidden]77 and it is almost a certainty that a scrap of chametz became mixed [with these matzos]. If, however, one turned the sheet over or laundered it but did not undo its stitches, such stringency should not be applied and the matzos [should not] be forbidden.

ל וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְבַעֵר הַפֵּרוּרִין מֵעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן אַחַר כָּל עִסָּה וְעִסָּה.קלג וְאִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ נֶקֶב אוֹ סֶדֶק – צָרִיךְ לְסָתְמָן שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס בָּהֶן בָּצֵק וְיַחְמִיץ שָׁם וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִתְעָרֵב בָּעִסָּה.קלד,72

וּלְפִי שֶׁרֹב הַשֻּׁלְחָנוֹת יֵשׁ בָּהֶם סְדָקִים, לְפִיכָךְ יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִים לַעֲשׂוֹת הַמַּצָּה עַל הַסָּדִין.קלה,73 וְסָדִין שֶׁעָשׂוּ עָלָיו מַצּוֹת פַּעַם אַחַת, אִם רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת עָלָיו פַּעַם ב' – לֹא דַּי לוֹ בַּהֲדָחָה,קלו לְפִי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ נִדְבַּק בּוֹ, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְכַבְּסוֹ הֵיטֵב.קלז,74 וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא עָשָׂה מַצּוֹת בַּפַּעַם הָא' אֶלָּא עַל עֵבֶר אֶחָד שֶׁל הַסָּדִין – אֵין לוֹ לְהָפְכוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל עֵבֶר הַשֵּׁנִי בְּלֹא כִּבּוּס, לְפִי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מְבַצְבֵּץ וְיוֹצֵא מֵעֵבֶר עַל עֵבֶר.קלח וְקֹדֶם הַכִּבּוּס צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיר כָּל הַתְּפִירוֹת שֶׁבּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ג,קלט,75 חוּץ מִן הַתְּפִירוֹת שֶׁבָּאִימְרָא שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיר, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מַצּוֹת עַל הָאִימְרָא אֶלָּא בְּאֶמְצַע הַסָּדִין.

וְאִם עָבַר וְעָשָׂה עָלָיו מַצּוֹת בְּלֹא כִּבּוּס, אִם הוּא תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יֵשׁ לְאָסְרָן,76 כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ,77 וְקָרוֹב לְוַדַּאי שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בָּהֶן פֵּרוּר מַשֶּׁהוּ. אַךְ אִם הָפַךְ הַסָּדִין אוֹ שֶׁכִּבְּסוֹ, אַף שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּיר הַתְּפִירוֹת – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר וְלֶאֱסֹר הַמַּצּוֹת:קמ

31 One must take care that the kneading trough in which [the dough] is kneaded does not have any hole or crack that one cannot scrape clean after kneading [the dough].78 There should not be a hole or crack that one cannot scrape clean even on the rim [of the kneading trough. The rationale is that] dough that enters [the holes or cracks] will become chametz when it remains [there] for the time it takes to walk a mil. Afterwards, when one kneads [other dough in the kneading trough], the dough [in the holes or cracks] will become mixed with the [new] dough.

How should one conduct himself if there are cracks in the kneading trough? He should widen them until they are a thumbbreadth wide79 or [slightly] less so that he can clean them thoroughly. Afterwards, he should fill them and plane them so that [the trough’s surface] is entirely level.

לא הָעֲרֵבָה שֶׁלָּשִׁין בָּהּ – יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בָּהּ שׁוּם גֻּמָּא וְסֶדֶקקמא שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לְנַקְּרָם אַחַר הַלִּישָׁה.קמב,78 וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל שְׂפָתָהּ לֹא יִהְיֶה שׁוּם גֻּמָּא וְסֶדֶק שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לְנַקְּרָם,קמג לְפִי שֶׁהַבָּצֵק הַנִּכְנָס שָׁם מִתְחַמֵּץ כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹהֶה שִׁעוּר מִיל, וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר וְלָשׁ בָּהּ מִתְעָרֵב בָּצֵק זֶה בָּעִסָּה.קמד וְכֵיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? אִם יֵשׁ סְדָקִים בָּעֲרֵבָה – יַרְחִיב אוֹתָם כְּרֹחַב אֶצְבַּע אוֹ פָּחוֹת,79 כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְנַקְּרָם הֵיטֵב, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִסְתְּמֵם וְיַחֲלִיקֵם לְהַשְׁווֹתָם יָפֶה:קמה

32 Similarly, the baker’s peel with which loaves [of matzah] are inserted into and removed from the oven must be smooth, without any cracks and holes, so that [no] dough will [be pushed in] there and become chametz. When, however, [the peel] is smooth, dough will not become attached to it at all. Therefore, there is no need to wash it at all after [the matzos] are baked, even though one needs [the peel] to bake with it a second time.

לב וְכֵן הַמִּרְדֶּה שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין בָּהּ הַפַּת לַתַּנּוּר וּמוֹצִיאִין בָּהּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר תְּהֵא חֲלָקָה בְּלִי שׁוּם סֶדֶק וְגֻמָּא, שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס לְשָׁם בָּצֵק וְיִתְחַמֵּץ.קמו אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִיא חֲלָקָה אֵין בָּצֵק מִתְדַּבֵּק בָּהּ כְּלָל, וְלָכֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ לַהֲדִיחָהּ כְּלָל אַחַר גְּמַר הָאֲפִיָּה אַף שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לוֹ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ פַּעַם אַחֶרֶת:קמז