SECTION 455 The Laws Governing the Water Used to Knead [the Dough from which] Matzah is Made (1-34)

סימן תנה דִּין מַיִם שֶׁלָּשִׁין בָּהֶם הַמַּצָּה וּבוֹ ל"ד סְעִיפִים:

1 The matzah that a person eats throughout all the days of Pesach may be kneaded solely with cold water, but not with lukewarm water,1 i.e., water whose temperature is that of saliva.2 [The rationale is that] when the water is not cold, it is very easy for [the dough] to become chametz unless one works with it with exceeding vigor, and it cannot be assumed that [people at large will exert] such vigor.3 Therefore, the Sages forbade kneading [dough for matzah] with lukewarm water.4 Needless to say, [kneading dough for matzah] with warm water [is forbidden].

(However, [using] boiling water would be permitted according to the fundamentals of the law.5 Nevertheless, the Geonim ruled strictly and forbade this, as explained in sec. 454[:7].)6

א הַמַּצָּה שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַחא אֵין לָשִׁין אוֹתָהּ אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִין, אֲבָל לֹא בְּפוֹשְׁרִין,ב,1 דְּהַיְנוּ כַּחֲמִימוּת הָרֹק,ג,2 לְפִי שֶׁבְּקַל תּוּכַל לָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ כְּשֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם צוֹנְנִין אִם לֹא יִתְעַסְּקוּ בִּזְרִיזוּתד יְתֵרָה מְאֹד,ה וְאֵין אָנוּ בְּחֶזְקַת זְרִיזִין כָּל כָּךְ,3 לְפִיכָךְ אָסְרוּ לָנוּ חֲכָמִים לָלוּשׁ בְּפוֹשְׁרִין,4 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּחַמִּיןו (אֲבָל בְּרוֹתְחִין הָיָה מֻתָּר מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,5 אֶלָּא שֶׁהַגְּאוֹנִים הֶחֱמִירוּ וְאָסְרוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"דז,6):

2 The Sages even forbade kneading [the dough] with cold water on the day on which it was drawn from a river or a spring.7 Instead, [the water] must be [allowed] to rest [overnight] before one kneads [dough for matzah] with it.8 There are authorities who explain that the reason for keeping [the water overnight] is that the days of Nissan are still wintery and the springs are [therefore] somewhat hot.9 Therefore, [the water] must be left to cool for one night after it was removed from its place of warmth, i.e., after it was drawn from the spring.

With regard to [water from] rivers that do not flow from [underground] springs,10 [such water] also must be cooled overnight because the heat of the sun beats down on [the rivers] during the day and [their water] becomes slightly warm.

ב וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִין אָסְרוּ חֲכָמִים לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ מֵהַנָּהָרח אוֹ מֵהַמַּעְיָן,7 אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לַהֲלִינָם קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּלוּשׁ בָּהֶם.ט,8 וְטַעַם לִינָה זוֹ, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים:י לְפִי שֶׁיְּמֵי נִיסָן עֲדַיִן מִימוֹת הַחֹרֶף הֵן, שֶׁהַמַּעְיָנוֹת הֵן רוֹתְחִין מְעַט,9 לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְצַנְּנָם לַיְלָה אֶחָדיא לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ מִמְּקוֹם רְתִיחָתָן, דְּהַיְנוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ מֵהַמַּעְיָן.

וּמֵי הַנְּהָרוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן נִמְשָׁכִיןיב מִמַּעְיָנוֹת10 צְרִיכִין גַּם כֵּן צִנּוּן לַיְלָה אֶחָד, לְפִי שֶׁהִכָּה עֲלֵיהֶם חֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בַּיּוֹם וְנִתְחַמְּמוּ מְעַט:יג

3 As an initial preference, one should be careful to draw [the water] before the beginning of the night, so that it will cool off for the entire night after being removed from the place where it was warmed.11 After the fact, if one violated [these instructions] and drew [water] after nightfall, it is permitted to knead [dough for matzah] with it on the following day after daybreak, [even] as an initial preference, provided that [the water] was drawn before midnight.12 [The rationale is that] the primary cooling effect of the night is from midnight until dawn, because a north wind blows throughout the six hours [from midnight until dawn].

Before dawn, however, it is forbidden to knead [dough for matzah] with water [that had not rested an entire night, from nightfall until dawn,] even if [the water] was drawn on the previous [night] before dawn.13 [The rationale is that] all six hours from midnight until dawn must pass over [the water] consecutively after it was removed from its place of warmth.

When, by contrast, one desires to knead [dough for matzah] with [water] on the following day after dawn, he may draw [the water] during any hour of the day that he desires, for [the water] will cool the entire night. Nevertheless, fundamentally, the cooling process takes place at night, when the heat of the sun is not present. During the day, by contrast, even after [the water] is removed from the place that warms it,11 it will not cool off at all, because it is warmed by the heat of the sun.

ג וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְשָׁאֳבָן קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת תְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר עֲלֵיהֶם צִנּוּן כָּל הַלַּיְלָהיד לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ מִמְּקוֹם רְתִיחָתָן.11 וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וּשְׁאָבָן לְאַחַר כְּנִיסַת תְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה לְמָחָרטו לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּאִיר הַיּוֹם אִם שְׁאָבָן קֹדֶם חֲצִי הַלַּיְלָה,12 לְפִי שֶׁעִקַּר צִנּוּן הַלַּיְלָה הוּא מֵחֲצוֹת עַד עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר, שֶׁבְּכָל שִׁשָּׁה שָׁעוֹת הַלָּלוּ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת רוּחַ צְפוֹנִית.טז

אֲבָל קֹדֶם עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר אָסוּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן,יז אֲפִלּוּ שְׁאָבָן אֶתְמוֹל קֹדֶם עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ מִמְּקוֹם רְתִיחָתָן כָּל שִׁשָּׁה שָׁעוֹת שֶׁמֵּחֲצוֹת הַלַּיְלָה עַד עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַריח רְצוּפִין.13 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן לְמָחָר לְאַחַר שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַמּוּד הַשַּׁחַר – רַשַּׁאי לְשָׁאֳבָן הַיּוֹם בְּכָל שָׁעָה שֶׁיִּרְצֶה מֵהַיּוֹם, שֶׁהֲרֵי יִצְטַנְּנוּ כָּל הַלַּיְלָה.יט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, עִקַּר הַצִּנּוּן הוּא בַּלַּיְלָה שֶׁאֵין שָׁם חֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, אֲבָל בַּיּוֹם אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ מִמְּקוֹם רְתִיחָתָן11 אֵינָם מִצְטַנְּנִים כְּלָל, שֶׁחֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מְחַמְּמָן:כ

4 There are, however, other authorities who explain that the reason [the water] must be left overnight is that during the night all the waters of springs and rivers are warmed slightly because the sun warms them from below the ground.14 Know [that this is true], because at dawn, one [may] see mist arising from the rivers. Accordingly, when one wants to knead [dough for matzah] with [water from a river], it is necessary that [the water] be separated [for] the entire night from the place where it warmed. Hence, [the water] must be drawn exactly at nightfall.15 If [the water] was drawn after the beginning of the night, it is forbidden to knead [dough for matzah] with it, because it already warmed at the beginning of the night.

By contrast, when the water was drawn at the very beginning of the night, even though it was warmed the previous night, it already cooled from this warming [effect], since it was connected to the spring during the entire day, for during the day, the springs are cold because the sun is far above them.16 [As a result,] the ground beneath [the springs] is cold and it cools off [the water].

ד אֲבָל יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכא שֶׁטַּעַם לִינָה זוֹ: לְפִי שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה כָּל מֵי מַעְיָנוֹת וּנְהָרוֹת הֵן רוֹתְחִין מְעַט שֶׁהַחַמָּה מְחַמַּמְתָּן תַּחַת הַקַּרְקַע,14 תֵּדַע, שֶׁבַּעֲלוֹת הַשַּׁחַר אַתָּה רוֹאֶה עָשָׁן עַל הַנְּהָרוֹת.כב

לְפִיכָךְ, כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן צָרִיךְ שֶׁכָּל הַלַּיְלָה יִהְיוּ תְּלוּשִׁין מִמְּקוֹם רְתִיחָתָן, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּשְׁאֲבֵם תְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁ.כג,15 וְאִם שְׁאָבָן לְאַחַר תְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה – אָסוּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְחַמְּמוּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה.כד אֲבָל הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁ, אַף שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְחַמְּמוּ בְּלֵיל אֶתְמוֹל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּבָר נִצְטַנְּנוּ מֵחִמּוּם זֶה כְּשֶׁהָיוּ מְחֻבָּרִין בַּמַּעְיָן יוֹם תָּמִים, שֶׁהַמַּעְיָנוֹת הֵן צוֹנְנִים בַּיּוֹם,כה לְפִי שֶׁהַחַמָּה גְּבוֹהָה מֵהֶן,16 וְהַקַּרְקַע שֶׁתַּחְתֵּיהֶן צוֹנֶנֶת וּמְצַנַּנְתָּן:כו

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5 According to this explanation, one only should draw water [with which] to knead matzos at dusk.17 [The rationale is that] before dusk, the water has not cooled from the warmth it received the previous night, since an entire day has not passed from the end of the previous night. After dusk, there are grounds for concern that it is already after the beginning of the night (– for not everyone is knowledgeable enough to pinpoint the exact [time when] night begins –) and the water will have warmed a bit.

[According to this approach, if the water is not drawn at the correct time,] there is no way of rectifying [the matter so that one could] knead [dough for matzah] with [this water], even [if the water remains stored above ground for] several nights. [The rationale is that] according to this understanding, the only cooling [process] that is effective for water, is for it to be cooled an entire day while it is in contact with the ground.18 Keeping [the water] overnight does not add to [its] cooling.

([If so,] the Sages’ mention19 of [the term “water] that was kept overnight” [appears problematic.20 However, it can be explained that they used that wording] to teach that [having the water] remain overnight while in contact with the ground is what causes it to be forbidden [to knead dough for matzah with the water,] because at night the springs are hot, but not during the day. Thus, as a matter of course, it is understood that the water should be drawn at dusk, so that 12 hours of a full day will pass while [the water] is in contact with the ground so that it will cool from the warmth [it received] from being warmed during the twelve hours of the previous night.)

ה וּלְפִי טַעַם זֶה, אֵין לִשְׁאֹב הַמַּיִם לְלִישַׁת הַמַּצּוֹת אֶלָּא בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת17 בִּלְבַד,כז שֶׁקֹּדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת עֲדַיִן לֹא נִצְטַנְּנוּ הַמַּיִם מֵרְתִיחָתָן שֶׁהָיוּ רוֹתְחִין בַּלַּיְלָה הֶעָבָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עָבַר יוֹם תָּמִים מִסּוֹף לַיְלָה הֶעָבָר, וְאַחַר בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא כְּבָר הוּא אַחַר תְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה (שֶׁאֵין הַכֹּל בְּקִיאִין לְצַמְצֵם תְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁכח), וּכְבָר נִתְחַמְּמוּ הַמַּיִם מְעַט, וְאֵין לָהֶם תַּקָּנָה לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר כַּמָּה לֵילוֹת,כט שֶׁאֵין צִנּוּן מוֹעִיל לַמַּיִם לְפִי סְבָרָא זוֹל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִצְטַנְּנוּ בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע18 יוֹם תָּמִים, וְאֵין הַלִּינָה מוֹסֶפֶת לָהֶם עוֹד צִנּוּן.לא

(וּמַה שֶּׁהִזְכִּירוּ חֲכָמִים19 לִינָה,לב,20 הוּא כְּדֵי לְלַמְּדֵנוּ שֶׁהַלִּינָה בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע הִיא הַגּוֹרֶמֶת הָאִסּוּר, שֶׁבַּלַּיְלָה הַמַּעְיָנוֹת הֵן רוֹתְחִין אֲבָל לֹא בַּיּוֹם, וּמִמֵּילָא נִשְׁמָע שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְשָׁאֳבָם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם י"ב שָׁעוֹת שֶׁל יוֹם תָּמִים בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, שֶׁיִּצְטַנְּנוּ מֵרְתִיחָתָן שֶׁהָיוּ רוֹתְחִין י"ב שָׁעוֹת שֶׁל לַיְלָה הֶעָבָר):

6 With regarding to the halachic ruling: As an initial preference, one should follow the stringencies of both views. Thus, one should draw [the water] at dusk,21 but refrain from kneading [dough for matzah] with it until after daybreak the following day.22 If one does not know how to pinpoint the time so that he can draw [water] at the moment of dusk, he should [draw the water] slightly earlier so that he is certain that the entire span of dusk has not yet passed. ([With regard to] the length of the span of dusk, see sec. 261[:1, 5].)23

One should not be concerned that perhaps [he is drawing water] while it is still day, because according to the first opinion, it is permitted – [even] initially – to draw water while it is still day. If, however, [the person] is concerned that the entire period of dusk has passed and it is already after nightfall, he should not continue to draw [water. The rationale is that] even according to the first opinion, as an initial preference, one should draw water at the actual beginning of the night.24

After the fact, should one have violated [these instructions] and drawn [water] while it is still day, he may rely on the first opinion [according to which] it is permitted to knead [dough for matzah] with [this water] on the following day after daybreak. Similarly, should one have violated [these instructions] and drawn [water] after the beginning of the night, it is permitted to knead [dough for matz­ah] with [this water] on the following day as long as [the water] was drawn before midnight. [Nevertheless,] one should wait until twelve hours pass from the time [the water] was drawn before kneading [dough for matz­ah] with it, since there are authorities who maintain that in the rainy season water will not cool from warmth that it acquired until [at least] twelve hours pass from the time it was removed from the place where it warmed.

ו וּלְעִנְיַן פְּסַק הֲלָכָה, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּחֹמֶר ב' הַסְּבָרוֹת,לג דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּשְׁאֲבֵן בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,לד,21 וְלֹא יָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁיָּאִיר הַיּוֹם לְמָחָר.לה,22

וְאִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְכַוֵּן לִשְׁאֹב בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מַמָּשׁ – יַקְדִּים מְעַטלו לִשְׁאֹב בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבָּרִי לוֹ שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא עָבַר כָּל אֹרֶךְ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת (וְשִׁעוּר אֹרֶךְ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת עַיֵּן בְּסִימָן רס"אלז,23). וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ לוֹ שֶׁמָּא עֲדַיִן הוּא יוֹם גָּדוֹל, שֶׁהֲרֵי לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מֻתָּר לִשְׁאֹב לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל.

אֲבָל אִם הוּא חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא כְּבָר עָבַר כָּל בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וּכְבָר הוּא אַחַר הַתְחָלַת הַלַּיְלָה – לֹא יִשְׁאַב עוֹד, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה צָרִיךְ לִשְׁאֹב לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּהַתְחָלַת הַלַּיְלָה מַמָּשׁ.24

וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וּשְׁאָבָן בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּמֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן לְמָחָרלח לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵאִיר הַיּוֹם. וְכֵן אִם עָבַר וּשְׁאָבָן לְאַחַר תְּחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם לְמָחָרלט אִם נִשְׁאֲבוּ קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת הַלַּיְלָה.מ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ לְהַמְתִּין מִלָּלוּשׁ בָּהֶם עַד שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם י"ב שָׁעוֹת מֵעֵת שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ,מא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמב שֶׁאֵין הַמַּיִם מִצְטַנְּנִים מֵרְתִיחָתָן שֶׁהָיוּ רוֹתְחִין בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים עַד שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם י"ב שָׁעוֹת מֵעֵת שֶׁנִּתְלְשׁוּ מִמְּקוֹם רְתִיחָתָן:

7 As an initial preference, it is desirable to be careful when keeping water overnight, not to keep it in a winter home, nor in another room, but in an open place, so that it will cool from the surrounding atmosphere. If the surrounding atmosphere is warm, [the water] should not be left overnight outside, but rather, [it should be left] in a cellar, for a cellar is cool when [the outside temperature] is warm. (If a person does not have a cellar, he should leave [the water] in a building [overnight].) If [the outside] temperature is cold, he should not leave [the water] in a cellar, since a cellar is warm when the [outside temperature] is cold. Instead, he should keep [the water] outside.25

ז יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה כְּשֶׁמְּלִינִים הַמַּיִם, שֶׁלֹּא יְלִינֵם בְּתוֹךְ בֵּית הַחֹרֶף, וְלֹא בְּחֶדֶר אַחֵר, אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם מְגֻלֶּה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְטַנְּנוּ בַּאֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם.מג וְאִם אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם הוּא חַם – לֹא יְלִינֵם בָּאֲוִיר אֶלָּא בַּמַּרְתֵּף, שֶׁהַמַּרְתֵּף הוּא קַר בִּזְמַן הַחֹםמד (וְאִם אֵין לוֹ מַרְתֵּף – יַנִּיחֵם בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת). וְאִם אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם הוּא קַר – לֹא יַנִּיחֵם בַּמַּרְתֵּף שֶׁהוּא חַם בִּזְמַן הַקֹּר, אֶלָּא יְלִינֵם בָּאֲוִיר:מה,25

8 When [water] is left overnight outside, one should be careful to bring it under a roof or into a room with a roof before the sun rises so that it will not be heated by the heat of the sun. Even on a cloudy day, the heat of the sun passes through the clouds and heats the water. [The above applies] even if [the water] is covered [by a cloth or a lid], for a cover will not protect [the water from the heat] if it is left in the sun for a long time.

For the [above] reason, it is preferable to leave [the water] under a roof overnight,26 lest one forget to bring it under a roof before sunrise. Nevertheless, if one left [the water] outside overnight and did not bring it inside before sunrise, it is permitted to knead [dough for matzah] with it even if it was exposed to sunlight, as long as the water did not remain [in the sunlight] for sufficient time for it to become warm due to the sun’s heat.27 Instead, the water was [still] cold when one went [in the morning to take it].

ח וּכְשֶׁמְּלִינָם בָּאֲוִיר – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְהַכְנִיסָם תַּחַת הַתִּקְרָה אוֹ לְתוֹךְ חֶדֶר מְקֹרֶה קֹדֶם זְרִיחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַמְּמוּ בְּחֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ. וְאַף בְּיוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן עוֹבֵר חֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ דֶּרֶךְ הֶעָבִים וּמְחַמֵּם הַמַּיִם.מו וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵם מְכֻסִּים, אֵין הַכִּסּוּי מֵגֵן עֲלֵיהֶם אִם יִשְׁתַּהוּ הַרְבֵּה בַּחַמָּה.מז לְפִיכָךְ, יוֹתֵר טוֹב לַהֲלִינָם תַּחַת הַתִּקְרָה,26 שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח לְהַכְנִיסָם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּזְרַח הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הֱלִינָם בָּאֲוִיר וְלֹא הִכְנִיסָם קֹדֶם זְרִיחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶםמח אֲפִלּוּ זָרְחָה הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם,מט אִם לֹא נִשְׁתַּהוּ שָׁם עַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּחַמּוּנ הַמַּיִם בְּחֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ27 אֶלָּא מְצָאָן צוֹנְנִים:נא

9 One should take care to cover the water with a cloth while it is being transported under the sky [during the day], for example, when it is transported from the cellar [where it was kept] to the kneading place. [This law applies] whether one is transporting [the water] on a cloudy day or when the sun is shining – so it will not become slightly warmer because of the heat of the sun.

If one is transporting [the water] in a glass container, placing a cloth as a covering on top [of the container] is not effective, because the heat of the sun will pass through the sides of the container.28 ([Instead,] one must cover the sides [of the container] that are exposed to the sunlight with a cloth. If it is a cloudy day, one must cover all the sides [of the container].)

If, however, [the person] is transporting the water at night or at dusk (bein hashmashos), e.g., at the time he drew [the water] from the river or the well,29 and is transporting it to his home in the open air, it is not necessary to cover [the water] at all, for the sun has already set and [the water] will no longer be warmed [by it]. Nevertheless, it is customary to cover [the water at that time as well, as a safeguard] so that a leavening agent will not fall into it.

For this reason,30 it is customary to filter the water with a clean white cloth while drawing it.31

ט כְּשֶׁמּוֹלִיךְ הַמַּיִם בַּיּוֹם תַּחַת אֲוִיר הָרָקִיעַ,נב כְּגוֹן שֶׁמּוֹלִיכָן מִן הַמַּרְתֵּף לְבֵית הַלִּישָׁה,נג יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְכַסּוֹתָן בְּמַפָּה אִם הוּא יוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן,נד אוֹ שֶׁמּוֹלִיכָן בִּמְקוֹם זְרִיחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ,נה שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַמְּמוּ מְעַט בְּחֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ. וְאִם מוֹלִיכָן בִּכְלִי זְכוּכִית – אֵין מוֹעִיל מַה שֶּׁמְּכַסֶּה בְּמַפָּה עַל גַּבֵּיהֶם, כִּי חֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ עוֹבֵר דֶּרֶךְ דָּפְנוֹת הַכְּלִי.נו,28

(וְצָרִיךְ לְכַסּוֹת הַמַּפָּה עַל הַדְּפָנוֹת שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד זְרִיחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, וְאִם הוּא יוֹם הַמְעֻנָּן צָרִיךְ לְכַסּוֹת עַל כָּל הַדְּפָנוֹת).

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמּוֹלִיךְ הַמַּיִם בַּלַּיְלָה אוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, כְּגוֹן בִּשְׁעַת שְׁאִיבָתָן מֵהַנָּהָר אוֹ מֵהַמַּעְיָן29 שֶׁמּוֹלִיכָן מִשָּׁם לְבֵיתוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֲוִיר הָרָקִיעַ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְכַסּוֹתוֹ כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר שָׁקְעָה הַחַמָּה וְלֹא יִתְחַמְּמוּ עוֹד,נז אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְכַסּוֹתָןנח שֶׁלֹּא יִפֹּל לְתוֹכָם שׁוּם דְּבַר חִמּוּץ.נט

וּמִטַּעַם זֶה30 נוֹהֲגִין לְסַנֵּן הַמַּיִם בִּשְׁעַת הַשְּׁאִיבָהס בְּבֶגֶד לָבָןסא וְנָקִי:31

10 It is permitted to draw water during dusk [on one day] so that [it could be used] for many days. True, every day, the surrounding atmosphere is warm due to the heat of the sun. Even so, the water in the container does not become warm, since it is in a building where it is not exposed to the heat of the sun. Nevertheless, every night, one should place [the water] in the open air under a roof.32 If the surrounding atmosphere is hot, one should place [the water] in a cellar during the day and the night, until he kneads [the dough with it].

י מֻתָּר לִשְׁאֹב מַיִם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֶחָד לְצֹרֶךְ יָמִים הַרְבֵּה.סב וְאַף שֶׁבְּכָל יוֹם אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם הוּא חַם מֵחֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי מִתְחַמְּמִין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת, שֶׁאֵין חֹם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ מַכֶּה עֲלֵיהֶם.סג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּכָל לַיְלָה יַנִּיחֵם בָּאֲוִיר תַּחַת הַתִּקְרָה.32 וְאִם אֲוִיר הָעוֹלָם הוּא חַם – יַנִּיחֵם בַּמַּרְתֵּף, בֵּין בַּיּוֹם בֵּין בַּלַּיְלָה, עַד הַלִּישָׁה:סד

11 [The following law applies to] those who, on the night of the fifteenth [of Nissan], follow the custom of baking the matz­ah to be used for the mitzvah [of eating matzah] for the reason to be explained in sec. 458[:4]: If the fifteenth [of Nissan] falls on Sunday, they must draw water on Thursday [evening],33 just before nightfall, during dusk leading to the night [between Thursday and] Friday. [This is necessary] because it is impossible for one to draw water during dusk leading to the night [between Friday and] Shabbos even from a well in [his own] courtyard,34 because it is forbidden to prepare for a festival on Shabbos, even when doing so does not involve a forbidden labor, as explained in sec. 416.35 [This prohibition applies during dusk,] for there is an unresolved halachic question [as to whether or not] dusk is [part of] Shabbos.36

יא הַנּוֹהֲגִים לֶאֱפוֹת מַצָּה שֶׁל מִצְוָה בְּלֵיל ט"ו מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ח,סה אִם חָל ט"ו בְּאֶחָד בַּשַּׁבָּת – צְרִיכִים הֵם לִשְׁאֹב הַמַּיִם בְּיוֹם ה'33 סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל לֵיל שִׁשִּׁי,סו שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לִשְׁאֹב בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל לֵיל שַׁבָּת אֲפִלּוּ מִבְּאֵר שֶׁבְּחָצֵר,34 לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהָכִין מִשַּׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מְלָאכָה אֲסוּרָה,סז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תי"ו,סח,35 וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת סְפֵק שַׁבָּת הוּא:סט,36

12 If one forgot and did not draw [water] during dusk on the night [between Thursday and] Friday, he should draw the water on Friday close to nightfall, [i.e.,] shortly before dusk, for one may rely on the authorities who maintain that it is permitted to draw water even during the daytime.37

If one forgot and did not draw [the water] before dusk and remembered during dusk, he should have [the water] drawn by a non-Jew.38 ([This is permitted] even if [the Jew does not have a] well in his courtyard, and [the non-Jew] will have to bring [the water] through the public domain. [The rationale is that the prohibition against] instructing a non-Jew [to perform a forbidden activity on Shabbos] is a shvus,39and during dusk, [the Sages] did not [impose] their decree against [performing] a shvus when a mitzvah is involved,40 as explained in sec. 261[:1-2].)

True, [there is a difficulty in the course of action recommended here, because] as an initial preference, one should not have a non-Jew draw the water for the matzah to be used for the mitzvah, as will be explained.41 Nevertheless, in this instance, [the situation] is considered as after the fact since it is impossible [to draw the water] any other way.

יב וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא שָׁאַב בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל לֵיל ו' – יִשְׁאַב בְּיוֹם ו' סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מְעַט, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל הָאוֹמְרִיםע שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִשְׁאֹב הַמַּיִם אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹד הַיּוֹם גָּדוֹל.עא,37

וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא שְׁאָבָן קֹדֶם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְנִזְכַּר בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – יִשְׁאַב עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִיעב,38 (אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹר בַּחֲצֵרוֹ וְצָרִיךְ לְהוֹלִיכָן דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁאֲמִירָה לְנָכְרִי הִיא שְׁבוּת,39 וּבְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת לֹא גָּזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּת בִּמְקוֹם מִצְוָה,40 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רס"אעג).

וְאַף שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לִשְׁאֹב הַמַּיִם שֶׁל מַצּוֹת מִצְוָה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,עד,41 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּדִיעֲבַד:

13 If the person has [other] water in his home that was drawn while it was still day [on Friday] – even if it was not drawn for the sake of the mitzvah [of eating matzah]42 – he should take it [and] knead [the dough for matzah] with it instead of instructing a non-Jew to draw other water for him during dusk if [the non-Jew] would have to carry [the water] through the public domain.43 [This option is preferable] since, fundamentally, the halachah follows the authorities who maintain that even water that was drawn during the day is acceptable to knead [dough for matzah] as an initial preference. If so, [according to this view,] in this instance, there is no mitzvah at all to draw more water.44

יג וְאִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ מַיִם שְׁאוּבִים מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אַף שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאֲבוּ לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה42 – יִקַּח אוֹתָם לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם,עה וְלֹא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיִּשְׁאַב לוֹ עוֹד מַיִם אֲחֵרִים בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אִם צָרִיךְ לְהוֹלִיכָן דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,43 שֶׁהָעִקָּר כְּהָאוֹמְרִיםעו שֶׁאַף הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם כְּשֵׁרִים לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, וְאִם כֵּן אֵין כָּאן מִצְוָה כְּלָל לִשְׁאֹב עוֹד מַיִם:עז,44

14 If, however, it is only necessary to bring [the water] via a karmelis,45 one should instruct a non-Jew to draw water for him and bring it to him during dusk [instead of] taking the water that he had at home that was drawn while it was still day. Needless to say, if one has a cistern in his courtyard, he should instruct a non-Jew to draw water for him during dusk. [The rationale is that] the prohibition against carrying in a karmelis and similarly, the prohibition against preparing for a festival on Shabbos through an activity that does not involve the performance of a [Scripturally forbidden] labor are both merely shvusim [forbidden] by Rabbinic Law. When one instructs a non-Jew to perform [such activities], it is thus a shvus d’shvus.46 [The Sages did not issue a prohibitive] decree regarding such a situation during bein hashmashos even when a mitzvah was not involved, as explained in sec. 349[:3].47 If one forgot to instruct a non-Jew to draw water for him during dusk, he should take the drawn water that he has at home, that was drawn during the day, even though it was not drawn with the intent to be used for a mitzvah, since he has no other alternative.

יד אֲבָל אִם אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹלִיכָן אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ כַּרְמְלִית45 – יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיִּשְׁאַב לוֹ מַיִם וִיבִיאֵם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, וְאַל יִקַּח הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ בּוֹר בַּחֲצֵרוֹ, שֶׁיֹּאמַר לְנָכְרִי לִשְׁאֹב לוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, שֶׁאִסּוּר הַטִּלְטוּל בְּכַרְמְלִית, וְכֵן אִסּוּר הֲכָנָה מִשַּׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ מְלָאכָה, אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא שְׁבוּת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וּכְשֶׁאוֹמֵר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת הֲרֵי הוּא שְׁבוּת דִּשְׁבוּת,46 וְלֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אַף שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שמ"ט.עח,47

וְאִם שָׁכַח בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְלֹא אָמַר לְנָכְרִי לִשְׁאֹב לוֹ מַיִם – יִקַּח הַמַּיִם שְׁאוּבִים שֶׁבְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם אַף שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאֲבוּ לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר:עט

15 [The following law applies with regard to a person] who has water at home that was drawn for the sake of kneading matzah and the spring equinox fell either on that night or [during the next] day, or a person in the neighborhood died. [In both instances, the prevailing custom] is to pour out all the water in the neighborhood, because there is concern48 for danger.49 Nevertheless, it is not necessary to pour out this water [which was drawn to enable observing the mitzvah to eat matzah. This can be derived from the verse,]50 “One who upholds a commandment will not know any adversity.”

[Nevertheless,] if one seeks to be stringent and pour out [the water], he may do so.51 [Indeed,] it is proper to do so if [the person] can easily obtain other water that was held overnight, or if it is easy for him to knead [the dough for matzah] on another day with other water that he will draw during dusk on the preceding day.

טו מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ מַיִם שְׁאוּבִין שֶׁשְּׁאָבָן לְלִישַׁת הַמַּצָּה וְנָפְלָה הַתְּקוּפָה בַּלַּיְלָהפ אוֹ בַּיּוֹם, אוֹ שֶׁמֵּת אֶחָד בִּשְׁכוּנָתוֹ, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּשְּׁכוּנָה מִפְּנֵי חֲשַׁשׁ48 סַכָּנָה,פא,49 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ מַיִם הַלָּלוּ,פב שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרפג,50 "שׁוֹמֵר מִצְוָה לֹא יֵדַע דָּבָר רָע".פד

וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְשָׁפְכָם – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ.51 וְנָכוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּקַל לִמְצֹא מַיִם אֲחֵרִים שֶׁלָּנוּ,פה אוֹ שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ בְּקַל לָלוּשׁ בְּיוֹם אַחֵר בְּמַיִם אֲחֵרִים שֶׁיִּשְׁאַב בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁלְּפָנָיו:

16 To what does the above apply? To water that was drawn to knead [dough for] matzah that was not [intended to be used] for the mitzvah [of eating matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan. Such matzah] is very similar to a matter which is [not a mitzvah, but rather a matter of] choice. [The rationale is that] a person has the option of not eating matzah during all the days of Pesach [with the exception of the night of the fifteenth of Nissan].52 Therefore, one may be stringent with himself and pour out [the water that had been drawn at the time of the equinox.

Different rules apply,] by contrast, to water that was drawn for the sake of kneading [dough with which to bake] matzah to be used for the mitzvah [of eating matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan]. Even if one could find other water and [would like to be] stringent and pour out the water, he is not acting in a desirable manner, for it appears that he is regarding with derision the promise of the verse,50 “One who upholds a commandment will not know any adversity.”

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is desirable not to rely on this promise [alone] and [to take the precaution] of placing a piece of iron in [the water] before the advent of the equinox.53 It is desirable to be careful that the iron is clean, like a needle or the like, so that there will not be (the slightest trace of chametz) attached to the [piece of] iron [lest the chametz] crumble from [the iron] into the water.

טז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמַיִם שֶׁשְּׁאָבָן לְלִישַׁת הַמַּצָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ שֶׁל מִצְוָה, שֶׁהִיא קְרוֹבָה לִדְבַר הָרְשׁוּת, שֶׁהָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח,51 לְפִיכָךְ רַשַּׁאי לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ וּלְשָׁפְכָם. אֲבָל הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ לְלִישַׁת הַמַּצּוֹת שֶׁל מִצְוָה, אַף אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְצֹא מַיִם אֲחֵרִים וּמַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ וְשׁוֹפְכָן – לֹא טוֹב הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְזַלְזֵל בְּמַאֲמַר הַכָּתוּב:50 "שׁוֹמֵר מִצְוָה לֹא יֵדַע דָּבָר רָע".פו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁהַתְּקוּפָה נוֹפֶלֶת לֹא יִסְמֹךְ עַל זֶה, וְיָשִׂים לְתוֹכוֹ בַּרְזֶל.פז,53 וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיְּהֵא הַבַּרְזֶלפח נָקִיפט כְּעֵין מַחַט וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא (מְאוּמָה פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ) דָּבוּק בַּבַּרְזֶל וְיִפָּרֵר מִמֶּנּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם:צ

17 It is desirable to be careful and not to leave the [piece of] iron in the water [for a lengthy period]. Instead, one should remove it immediately after the equinox passes. [The rationale is that] iron will raise the temperature of the water slightly.54

It is also desirable to be careful to tie a thread or a strand to the [piece of] iron and have the other end of the thread outside the water so that one could hold onto [the thread] to remove the [piece of] iron from the water. [Thus,] he would not have to insert his hand into the water to remove [the piece of iron] from there. [That would be undesirable] since [the person’s] hand will raise the temperature of the water slightly.

יז וְטוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַבַּרְזֶל בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם, אֶלָּא יוֹצִיאֶנּוּ מִיָּד לְאַחַר שֶׁנָּפְלָה הַתְּקוּפָה, שֶׁהַבַּרְזֶל מְחַמֵּם מְעַט אֶת הַמַּיִם.צא,54 וְכֵן טוֹב לִזָּהֵר לִקְשֹׁר הַבַּרְזֶל בְּחוּט אוֹ בִּמְשִׁיחָה וְרֹאשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁל הַחוּט יִהְיֶה חוּץ לַמַּיִם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לֶאֱחֹז בּוֹ לְהוֹצִיא הַבַּרְזֶל מִן הַמַּיִם, וְלֹא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְהַכְנִיס יָדוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִשָּׁם, שֶׁהַיָּד מְחַמֶּמֶת מְעַט אֶת הַמַּיִם:צב

18 As an initial preference, it is desirable to take care that the water to be used for kneading the [dough for] matzah to be used for the mitzvah [of eating matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan], not be drawn by a non-Jew, (nor by a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual, or a minor).55 [The rationale is that] the activities that prepare for a mitzvah are comparable to [the activities involved in] the mitzvah itself. Kneading [the dough for] the matzah to be used for the mitzvah [of eating matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan] is acceptable only [when performed] by (an adult, mature)56 Jew57 who will watch [that the dough does not become] chametz, [doing so] for the sake of the mitzvah [of eating matz­ah.58Similarly, since drawing the water makes it possible to fulfill this mitzvah, only such individuals should perform that act.]

[Indeed,] it is desirable that a Jew also draw the water for the other matzos,59 if possible.

יח יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁאֹב הַמַּיִם לְלִישַׁת הַמַּצֹּת שֶׁל מִצְוָה עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִיצג (וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָןצד),55 לְפִיצה שֶׁמַּכְשִׁירֵי הַמִּצְוָה הֵן כְּמִצְוָה, וְהַלִּישָׁה שֶׁל מַצַּת מִצְוָה אֵינָהּ כְּשֵׁרָה כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל57 (גָּדוֹל בֶּן דַּעַת56) שֶׁיִּשְׁמֹר אוֹתָהּ מֵחִמּוּץ לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה.צו,58 וְאַף לְלִישַׁת שְׁאָר הַמַּצּוֹת59 טוֹב שֶׁיִּשְׁאַב יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם אֶפְשָׁר:צז

19 It is customary not to draw water [for matz­os] with an earthenware container unless it is new. [One should not draw the water] with an earthenware utensil that had been used previously – even [if the] earthenware [utensil] had [only been used] on the preceding Pesach – unless it is coated. (See sec. 451[:69-70]).60 [The rationale is that using] previously used earthenware utensils that are not coated does not reflect [the approach of] performing the mitzvah in a manner that beautifies it, as will be explained in sec. 673.61 One should not deviate from this custom.

[When using] utensils [made] of all other materials, even those made of wood, there is no reason for objection if they were used [previously], provided they were used solely with water. If, however, [the utensils] were [used] with mei peiros62(i.e., all liquids other than water are called mei peiros in this context, as will be explained in sec. 462[:2]), it is preferable to be careful not to draw [water with] them unless one performed hag’alah on them previously. [The rationale is that] when [even] a small amount of mei peiros mixes with water, the water [will] cause the dough kneaded with it to become chametz faster, as will be explained in sec. 462[:3].

As an initial preference, it is desirable not to draw [the water to be used to make dough for matzah] with a copper utensil – even if it is new – because copper raises the temperature [of the water]. After the fact, however, there is no need for concern. Even if water remained in [a copper container] for many days, it is permitted to [use it to] knead [dough for matzos].63

יט נוֹהֲגִים שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁאֹב הַמַּיִם בִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם חֲדָשִׁים,צח אֲבָל לֹא בִּישָׁנִים אֲפִלּוּ הֵם שֶׁל פֶּסַח הֶעָבָר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם מְצֻפִּיםצט (עַיֵּן בְּסִימָן תנ"אק),60 שֶׁכְּלֵי חֶרֶס יְשָׁנִים שֶׁאֵינָן מְצֻפִּין אֵינָן הִדּוּר לְמִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תרע"ג,קא,61 וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַמִּנְהָג. אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל עֵץ – אֵין לְהַקְפִּיד בָּהֶם אִם הֵם יְשָׁנִים.קב

וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם בִּלְבַד, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה בָּהֶם מֵי פֵּרוֹת62 (פֵּרוּשׁ כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִין חוּץ מִמַּיִם נִקְרָא מֵי פֵּרוֹת לְעִנְיָן זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"בקג) – טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁאֹב בּוֹקד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִגְעִילוֹ מִקֹּדֶם,קה לְפִי שֶׁמֵּי פֵּרוֹת כְּשֶׁמִּתְעָרֵב מְעַט מֵהֶם בְּמַיִם מְמַהֲרִין הַמַּיִם לְהַחְמִיץ אֶת הָעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בָּהֶם,קו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ב.קז

וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁאֹב בִּכְלִי נְחֹשֶׁת וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא חָדָשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁהַנְּחֹשֶׁת מְחַמֵּם.קח אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד אֵין לָחֹשׁ.קט וַאֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁתַּהוּ הַמַּיִם בְּתוֹכוֹ יָמִים הַרְבֵּהקי – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם:63

20 Even as an initial preference, it is customary to grant license to knead [the dough for matzah] in a copper utensil. It is only necessary to be careful not to use [such a utensil] to draw water. [The rationale is that] the water must cool overnight,64 and when it is kept in a copper utensil it will not cool as much as it will [cool] in other utensils.

כ וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה נוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר לָלוּשׁ בִּכְלִי נְחֹשֶׁת, וְאֵין נִזְהָרִין אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁאֹב בּוֹ מַיִם,קיא שֶׁהַמַּיִם צְרִיכִין צִנּוּן לַיְלָה אֶחָד,64 וּכְשֶׁהֵם בִּכְלִי נְחֹשֶׁת אֵינָן מִצְטַנְּנִין כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר כֵּלִים:קיב

21 It is customary not to knead [dough for] the matzah [designated to be used] for the mitzvah [of eating matzah] with water drawn to knead [the dough to make] other matz­os.65Instead, one should draw water specifically to knead the matzah [designated to be used] for the mitzvah [of eating matzah] and say66 when drawing [the water],67 “Behold, I am drawing [the water] for the sake of [making] the matzah to be used for the mitzvah.”

כא נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁאֵין לָשִׁין הַמַּצּוֹת שֶׁל מִצְוָה בְּמַיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ לְלִישַׁת שְׁאָר הַמַּצּוֹת,65 אֶלָּא שׁוֹאֵב מַיִם מְיֻחָדִים לְלִישַׁת הַמַּצֹּת שֶׁל מִצְוָה,קיג וְאוֹמְרִים66 בִּשְׁעַת הַשְּׁאִיבָה:67 "הֲרֵינִי שׁוֹאֵב לְשֵׁם מַצַּת מִצְוָה":קיד

22 As an initial preference, one should draw water from rivers if possible, and not from wells, because in the winter, well water is warmer than river water.68 (The [early] days of Nissan are still considered as winter, as explained [above].)69 To whatever degree it is possible to seek out colder water, one should. When, however, the rivers swell because of melted snow and rain, it is preferable to draw water from wells if possible, because rain water and the water from melted snow is warmer than well water.

כב לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִשְׁאֹב מִן הַנְּהָרוֹת אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ וְלֹא מִן הַבְּאֵרוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁמֵּי הַבְּאֵרוֹת בִּימוֹת הַחֹרֶף הֵם רוֹתְחִים יוֹתֵר מִמֵּי הַנְּהָרוֹתקטו,68 (וִימֵי נִיסָן מִימוֹת הַחֹרֶף הֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרקטז,69), וְכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַדֵּר אַחַר מַיִם קָרִים בְּיוֹתֵר מְהַדְּרִין.

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהַנְּהָרוֹת גְּדוֹלוֹת מֵהַפְשָׁרַת שְׁלָגִים וּגְשָׁמִים – טוֹב יוֹתֵר לִשְׁאֹב מִן הַבְּאֵרוֹתקיז אִם אֶפְשָׁר, לְפִי שֶׁמֵּי הַגְּשָׁמִים וּמֵי הַפְשָׁרַת שְׁלָגִים הֵן רוֹתְחִין יוֹתֵר מִמֵּי הַבְּאֵרוֹת:קיח

23 Water from wells, caves, and cellars also must be cooled off for one night before kneading [dough with them], for vapor rises from them in the rainy days [of winter], and the [early] days of Nissan are still [considered as wintery].69 Some authorities maintain that [different rules apply], by contrast, to water kept in a cistern, i.e., an underground reservoir whose walls and floor are covered entirely with [cement or other] building materials. [These authorities maintain that] it is as if the water [the cistern contains] is being held in a chest. [Therefore, these authorities maintain that] it is permitted to knead [dough for matzah] with [such water] on the day it was drawn. [The rationale is that] the warmth of the water from wells and storage vats70 in the winter comes about solely from the fact that [at that time], the sun proceeds along the edge of the sky, close to the earth.71 As a result, the body of the earth and the water it contains becomes warm. The atmosphere above the ground, by contrast, is cold and it cools some of the thickness of the earth from above. Nevertheless, the [actual] body of the earth below [the surface of the ground] is warmer in the winter than in the summer. Therefore, the water coming from below [the ground] is slightly warmer [in the winter than in the summer].

When, by contrast, water is in a cistern, [the cement and] building [materials] separate between the earth and the water on all sides. [As a result,] the heat of the sun does not reach [the water]. Therefore, there is no need to keep [such water] overnight before kneading [it into dough for matzah]. Nevertheless, one should only rely on this reasoning in a pressing situation, for, as is obvious to all, in the winter, such water is [as] warm as the water of a storage vat.72

כג מֵי הַבְּאֵרוֹתקיט וּמְעָרוֹת וּמַרְתֵּפוֹתקכ צְרִיכִין גַּם כֵּן צִנּוּן לַיְלָה אֶחָד קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן מַעֲלִין הֶבֶל בִּימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, וִימֵי נִיסָן עֲדַיִן מִימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִיםקכא הֵן.69

אֲבָל מֵי הַדּוּת, דְּהַיְנוּ בּוֹר שֶׁהוּא מְרֻצָּף בְּבִנְיָן בְּקַרְקָעִיתוֹ וּבְקִירוֹתָיו סָבִיב וְהַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ הֵן כְּמֻנָּחִין בְּתֵבָה – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכב שֶׁמֻּתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ, לְפִי שֶׁחֲמִימוּת מֵי הַבְּאֵרוֹת וְהַבּוֹרוֹת70 בִּימוֹת הַחֹרֶף אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהַחַמָּה מְהַלֶּכֶת אָז בְּשִׁפּוּלוֹ שֶׁל רָקִיעַ סָמוּךְ לָאָרֶץקכג,71 וְעַל יְדֵי כֵּן מִתְחַמֵּם כָּל גּוּף הָאָרֶץ עִם הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָאֲוִיר שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הָאָרֶץ הוּא קַר וּמְקָרֵר גַּם כֵּן מִקְצָת עֳבִי הָאָרֶץ מִלְמַעְלָה, אֲבָל גּוּף הָאָרֶץ מִלְּמַטָּה הוּא חַם בִּימוֹת הַחֹרֶף יוֹתֵר מִבִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה, וּלְכָךְ גַּם הַמַּיִם שֶׁלְּמַטָּה הֵן חַמִּין מְעַט, אֲבָל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּדּוּת שֶׁהַבִּנְיָן מַפְסִיק בֵּין הָאָרֶץ לַמַּיִם מִכָּל צְדָדֵיהֶם – אֵין חֹם הַחַמָּה מַגִּיעַ אֲלֵיהֶם,קכד וּלְכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לַהֲלִינָם קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁה.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא זוֹ כִּי אִם בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,קכה שֶׁהֲרֵי עֵינֵינוּ רוֹאוֹת שֶׁמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ בִּימוֹת הַחֹרֶף הֵם חַמִּים כְּמוֹ מֵי בְּאֵר:קכו,72

24 If one violated [the Sages’ instructions] and kneaded dough [for matzah] with water that did not rest overnight, it is forbidden to eat [anything made from that dough] on Pesach.73 The Sages penalized [such a person] and, [moreover,] stringently [enforced] this penalty, forbidding all Jews [to use this dough]74 so that [no one will] breach this [safeguard].

When does the above apply? When one intentionally [used such water for] kneading [dough for matzah]. If, however, one kneaded [such water into dough for matzah] unintentionally,75 the Sages did not penalize him, and it is permitted to partake [of matzah made from this dough] on Pesach.

כד אִם עָבַר וְלָשׁ עִסָּה בְּמַיִם שֶׁלֹּא לָנוּ – אָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּפֶסַח,קכז,73 שֶׁקְּנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים,קכח וְהֶחֱמִירוּ בִּקְנָס זֶה לְאָסְרָהּ עַל כָּל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל,74 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַפְרִיצוּ בָּזֶה. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁלָּשׁ בְּמֵזִיד, אֲבָל אִם לָשׁ בְּשׁוֹגֵג75 – לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים, וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח:קכט

25 In a pressing situation when it is impossible for [a person] to fulfill the mitzvah of eating matzah [on the fifteenth of Nissan] unless he kneads [the dough] with water that did not rest overnight, he is permitted to knead [the dough] with water that did not rest overnight [even as an] initial preference, so that he will be able to fulfill the mitzvah of eating matzah, which is a Scriptural [obligation].

[What is meant by a pressing situation?] It is impossible for [the person] to find water that rested overnight, it is impossible for him to find other matzah, and it is impossible for him to postpone kneading [the dough] until he draws [water] and allows it to rest overnight, e.g., it is [already] the day before Pesach.

(Nevertheless, if it is possible, it is desirable [for the person] to draw water on Pesach eve at dusk on the night of the festival and knead [dough] with it immediately at the beginning of the night, since there are authorities who maintain that such water is considered as water that rested overnight, as explained above.)76

כה בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָקקל שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת אֲכִילַת מַצָּהקלא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יָלוּשׁ בְּמַיִם שֶׁלֹּא לָנוּ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְצֹא מַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ, וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְצֹא מַצָּה אַחֶרֶת, וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַמְתִּין מִלָּלוּשׁ עַד שֶׁיִּשְׁאַב מַיִם וִילִינֵם, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא עֶרֶב פֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לוֹ לָלוּשׁ לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּמַיִם שֶׁלֹּא לָנוּ,קלב כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת אֲכִילַת מַצָּה שֶׁהוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶפְשָׁר טוֹב לִשְׁאֹב מַיִם בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל לֵיל יוֹם טוֹב, וְיָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם מִיָּד בִּתְחִלַּת הַלַּיְלָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים כְּמַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקלג,76):

26 One may not even knead [dough for matz­ah] with water that rested overnight if afterwards it became heated slightly to the extent that it became lukewarm,77 i.e., it reached the temperature of saliva. [This restriction applies] whether:

[a) the water] was close to a fire and was heated slightly by the warmth of the fire,

[b)] it was left in the sun and became slightly warm,73 or

[c)] it was poured into a utensil that had been on a fire [after the utensil] was removed from [the fire, and the water] remained in [the utensil] until it became slightly warm. For example, one poured [the water that had rested] into a large copper or earthenware urn after [the urn] was removed from the fire.73 Since [the urn’s] base is thick and it is [always] placed over fire, it preserves its heat and heats the water poured over its base, even after it was removed from the fire.

כו אֲפִלּוּ מַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ,קלד אִם נִתְחַמְּמוּ מְעַט עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ פּוֹשְׁרִין,קלה,77 דְּהַיְנוּ כַּחֲמִימוּת הָרֹקקלו – אֵין לָשִׁין בָּהֶם, בֵּין שֶׁהָיוּ סָמוּךְ לָאֵשׁ וְנִתְחַמְּמוּ מְעַט מֵחֹם הָאֵשׁ, בֵּין שֶׁעָמְדוּ בַּחַמָּה עַד שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּמוּ מְעַט,קלז,73 בֵּין שֶׁהִכְנִיסָן לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה עוֹמֵד עַל הָאֵשׁ וְהוּרַד וְשָׁהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּמוּ מְעַט,קלח כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִכְנִיסָן לְתוֹךְ דּוּד גָּדוֹל שֶׁל נְחֹשֶׁתקלט אוֹ שֶׁל חֶרֶסקמ לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹרִידוּהוּ מֵעַל הָאֵשׁ,73 וּמֵחֲמַת שֶׁהַשּׁוּלַיִם שֶׁלּוֹ עָבֶה וְהוּא עוֹמֵד תָּמִיד עַל הָאֵשׁ הוּא מְשַׁמֵּר אֶת חֻמּוֹ, וּמְחַמֵּם אֶת הַמַּיִם הַנִּשְׁפָּכִים לְשׁוּלָיו אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹרִידוּהוּ מֵעַל הָאֵשׁ:קמא

27 It is permitted to knead [dough for matz­ah] with water that became lukewarm and [then] cooled.78 [If,] however, water became hot and [then] cooled, there are authorities who forbid kneading [dough for matzah] with it, if it became hot due to the heat of fire. [These authorities maintain that] cooling off is not effective for [water] that was heated by fire. There are [other] authorities who differ and permit [kneading dough for matzah with such water]. One may rely on the words [of the lenient authorities] in a pressing situation or when a severe [financial] loss is involved, e.g., one violated [the Rabbis’ instructions] and intentionally kneaded many matzos with [such water].

If, however, one kneaded [dough with such water] unintentionally75 – even if he kneaded [the dough] with hot water, there are authorities who permit partaking [of matzah made from the dough]. (It is only that one should take pains to occupy himself with [the dough] with exceeding vigor, as explained above.)77 [The rationale is that the Sages] did not penalize someone who acted unintentionally.

Other authorities forbid partaking [of matzah made from such dough] even when one unintentionally kneaded [the dough with] lukewarm water. [These authorities maintain that the prohibition] does not [stem] from a penalty, but rather from the concern [that the dough] became chametz, for when [dough] is kneaded with lukewarm water, it becomes chametz faster. Fundamentally, the halachah [follows this view]. (Nevertheless, in a pressing situation, the first opinion may be relied upon and [the matzah] may be permitted to be eaten if one kneaded [the dough with such water] unintentionally.) All authorities agree, however, that it is permitted to benefit from [the matzah]79 or to leave it until after Pesach even if one intentionally kneaded [the dough] with hot water.

כז הַפּוֹשְׁרִין שֶׁנִּצְטַנְּנוּ – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם.קמב,78 אֲבָל הַחַמִּין שֶׁנִּצְטַנְּנוּ – יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןקמג לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן אִם נִתְחַמְּמוּ מֵחֲמַת חֹם הָאֵשׁ, שֶׁאֵין צִנּוּן מוֹעִיל לְחַמֵּי הָאוּר. וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין וּמַתִּירִין.קמד וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק אוֹ בְּהֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה,קמה כְּגוֹן שֶׁעָבַר וְלָשׁ בָּהֶם מַצּוֹת הַרְבֵּה בְּמֵזִיד.

אֲבָל אִם לָשׁ בְּשׁוֹגֵג,75 אֲפִלּוּ לָשׁ בְּחַמִּין – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקמו בַּאֲכִילָה (רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לַעֲסֹק בָּהּ בִּזְרִיזוּת יְתֵרָהקמז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקמח,77), שֶׁלֹּא קָנְסוּ עַל הַשּׁוֹגֵג.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין בַּאֲכִילָהקמט אֲפִלּוּ לָשׁ בְּשׁוֹגֵג בְּפוֹשְׁרִין, וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם קְנָס, אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ,קנ שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּפוֹשְׁרִין הִיא מְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ. וְכֵן עִקָּר (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהקנא לְהַתִּיר בַּאֲכִילָה אִם לָשׁ בְּשׁוֹגֵג).

אֲבָל בַּהֲנָאָהקנב אוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹתקנג עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,78 אֲפִלּוּ לָשׁ בְּחַמִּין בְּמֵזִיד:

28 As an initial preference, it is permitted to knead [dough] with [some] water that did not rest overnight – even if it is lukewarm and even if it is hot – as long as it became mixed with a larger amount of cold water that did rest overnight, provided [the mixture] is not lukewarm [at the time the dough is kneaded].

[Indeed,] it is even customary to initially permit mixing water that did not rest overnight with a larger amount of water that did rest overnight. [Doing so] is not considered as [intentionally] nullifying a forbidden substance.80 [The rationale is that] the reason that it is permitted to knead [dough for matzah with a mixture of water] is not that the water that did not rest overnight becomes nullified in the larger amount [of water that did rest overnight]. Instead, [the rationale is that the water that did not rest overnight] was cooled by the larger amount of water that did rest overnight, which was cold. It is permitted to cool [water in this manner] even as an initial preference.

True, there are authorities who differ with this ruling and forbid intentionally mixing [water that did not rest overnight] into [the water that did rest overnight]. Nevertheless, one should not admonish those who follow the leniency of the first opinion. (However, it is desirable for [every person] himself to act stringently and give weight to the words of those who rule stringently when it is easy for him to find other water that rested overnight, or it is easy for him to knead [his dough] on another day before Pesach with water that rested overnight.)

כח מַיִם שֶׁלֹּא לָנוּ,קנד אֲפִלּוּ הֵן פּוֹשְׁרִין, וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵן חַמִּין,קנה אִם נִתְעָרְבוּ בְּרֹבקנו מַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ צוֹנְנִין – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶן לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אִם אֵינָן פּוֹשְׁרִין עַכְשָׁו.

וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה נוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר לְעָרֵב מַיִם שֶׁלֹּא לָנוּ בְּרֹב מַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ, וְאֵין זֶה כִּמְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה,קנז,80 לְפִי שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁמֻּתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ אֵינוֹ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁלֹּא לָנוּ נִתְבַּטְּלוּ בְּרֹב, אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּצְטַנְּנוּ בְּרֹב מַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁהֵן צוֹנְנִין, וְאַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לְצַנְּנָן.קנח

וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹסְרִיןקנט לְעָרֵב בְּיָדַיִם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיַד הַמְּקִלִּין כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה (אֲבָל לְעַצְמוֹ טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וְלָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵי הַמַּחֲמִירִין אִם אֶפְשָׁר בְּקַל לִמְצֹא עוֹד מַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ, אוֹ שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר בְּקַל לָלוּשׁ בְּיוֹם אַחֵר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּמַיִם שֶׁלָּנוּ):

29 It is customary not to place salt in a dough [to be used for] matzah. This is a proper [custom] since there are authorities who maintain that salt causes the temperature of dough to rise. [This is reflected in the ruling81 that] a substance that is salted is considered as boiling hot. As a result, it will be easier for the dough to become chametz. Furthermore, there are authorities82 who maintain that salt is governed by the same laws as mei peiros,83i.e., when [such a substance] is mixed into a dough that is kneaded with water, [the dough] becomes chametz quickly. [Unlike ordinary dough,] working it [manually] with one’s hands does not prevent it from becoming chametz. Therefore, there is no way of correcting the situation except by baking [the dough] immediately after the mei peiros is mixed into it, as will be stated in sec. 462[:3].

כט נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן מֶלַח תּוֹךְ עִסַּת הַמַּצָּה.קס וְנָכוֹן הַדָּבָר,קסא לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקסב שֶׁהַמֶּלַח מְחַמֵּם אֶת הָעִסָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמָּלִיחַ הוּא כְּרוֹתֵחַ81 וְעַל יְדֵי כֵּן הָעִסָּה נוֹחָה לְהַחְמִיץ. וְעוֹד,קסג שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקסד שֶׁהַמֶּלַח דִּינוֹ כְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת,83 שֶׁכְּשֶׁהֵם מְעֹרָבִין בְּעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם הִיא מְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ,82 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהָעֵסֶק שֶׁעוֹסְקִין בָּהּ בְּיָדַיִם אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל אוֹתָהּ מִידֵי חִמּוּץ, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לָהּ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא לֶאֱפוֹתָהּ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ מֵי הַפֵּרוֹת בְּתוֹכָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ב:קסה

30 If one violated [this directive] and placed a small amount of salt [in dough for matz­ah], (and the salt was kneaded into [the dough] and thus, it became impossible to remove [the salt] from it),84 he should bake [the dough] immediately. There is no concern that the temperature of the dough was raised because of the salt, for there are authorities who maintain that a small amount of salt does not have the power to raise the temperature of dough. [Moreover,] a substance that is salted is not considered as boiling hot unless it was heavily salted, [i.e., it was so salty] that it cannot be eaten because of the salt, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 91;85 consult that text.

If one did not bake [the dough] immediately, stringency should be followed and [the matzah] should be forbidden to be eaten.86 True, there are authorities who maintain that the laws that govern mei peiros do not apply to salt and [indeed,] fundamentally, the halachah follows this view, as will be explained in sec. 462[:18]. Nevertheless, there are authorities who maintain that even a small amount of salt raises the temperature of the dough and causes it to be forbidden.87

ל וְאִם עָבַר וְנָתַן בָּהּ מְעַט מֶלַחקסו (וְנִלּוֹשׁ הַמֶּלַח בְּתוֹכָהּ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַהֲסִירוֹ מִמֶּנָּה)84 – יֹאפֶנָּה מִיָּד.קסז וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נִתְחַמְּמָה הָעִסָּה מִן הַמֶּלַח, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקסח שֶׁמְּעַט מֶלַח אֵין לוֹ כֹּחַ לְחַמֵּם הָעִסָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמָּלִיחַ אֵינוֹ כְּרוֹתֵחַ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא מָלוּחַ הַרְבֵּה עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל מֵחֲמַת מִלְחוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"אקסט,85 עַיֵּן שָׁם.קע

וְאִם לֹא אֲפָאָהּ מִיָּד – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְאָסְרָהּקעא בַּאֲכִילָה.קעב,86 וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהַמֶּלַח אֵין לוֹ דִּין מֵי פֵּרוֹת וְכֵן עִקָּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ב,קעג מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקעד שֶׁאַף מְעַט מֶלַח מְחַמֵּם אֶת הָעִסָּה וְאוֹסְרָהּ:87

31 If the dough was kneaded solely with mei peiros, even if one placed a large amount of salt in it, [so much] that it cannot be eaten because of the salt, [the dough] is permitted although it was not baked immediately. [The rationale is that] even though its temperature rises, [the dough] will not become chametz since it was kneaded with mei peiros.88

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should follow the stringency [mandated by] those who maintain that even a small amount of salt should not be placed in dough [for matzah]. ([This ruling applies] even when [the dough] was kneaded with mei peiros.)[The rationale is that] fundamentally, [the halachah follows the view that] salt is not governed by the laws that apply to mei peiros; instead, it is governed by [the laws] that apply to water.89 [Now,] initially, one should not mix even a small amount of water into a dough that was kneaded with mei peiros,90 even if one desires to bake [the dough] immediately, as will be explained in sec. 462[:3, 18].

לא וְאִם הָעִסָּה הִיא נִלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת בִּלְבַד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אֲפָאָהּ מִיָּד – מֻתֶּרֶת, אֲפִלּוּ נָתַן בָּהּ מֶלַח הַרְבֵּהקעה עַד שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהֵאָכֵל מֵחֲמַת מִלְחָהּ, שֶׁאַף אִם נִתְחַמְּמָה אֵינָהּ בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת.קעו,88

אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן מֶלַח בָּעִסָּה כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט (וַאֲפִלּוּ נִלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹתקעז[)], לְפִי שֶׁהָעִקָּר הוּא שֶׁהַמֶּלַח אֵין לוֹ דִּין מֵי פֵּרוֹת אֶלָּא דִּין מַיִם,89 וְעִסָּה שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת אֵין לְעָרֵב בָּהּ מַיִם לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֲפִלּוּ מְעַט,90 אֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לֶאֱפוֹתָהּ מִיָּד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ב:קעח

32 Similarly, initially, one should be careful not to place any spices in a dough (that was kneaded with water).91 [The rationale is that] spices are somewhat pungent and raise the temperature of the dough slightly. If one violated [these instructions] and placed [spices] in [a dough, the dough] is permitted. If, however, one placed pepper – even one grain of pepper – in [a dough and] kneaded it into the dough, one should be stringent and forbid partaking of the entire [dough].86 [The rationale is that] pepper is very sharp and raises the temperature of the entire dough.

Ginger, turmeric, and cloves are governed by the same laws as other spices. After the fact, they do not cause [a dough] to become forbidden. It is permitted, even as an initial preference, to mix black cumin,92 sesame,93 and other similar seeds that are not pungent at all into a dough [intended for matzah]. (Nevertheless, initially, one should crush [these seeds] before adding them to dough and should not add them while they are whole, for the reason to be explained in sec. 460[:12]. Consult that source.)94

לב וְכֵן יִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לִתֵּן שׁוּם תַּבְלִין בָּעִסָּהקעט (שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִםקפ),91 לְפִי שֶׁהֵן חֲרִיפִין קְצָת וּמְחַמְּמִין קְצָת אֶת הָעִסָּה. וְאִם עָבַר וּנְתָנָן בְּתוֹכָהּ – מֻתֶּרֶת.

אֲבָל אִם נָתַן בְּתוֹכָהּ פִּלְפְּלִין, אֲפִלּוּ קֹרֶט אֶחָד פִּלְפְּלִין שֶׁנִּלּוֹשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְאָסְרָהּקפא כֻּלָּהּ בַּאֲכִילָה,קפב,86 לְפִי שֶׁפִּלְפֵּל הוּא חָרִיף מְאֹד וּמְחַמֵּם אֶת כָּל הָעִסָּה.קפג

אֲבָל זַנְגְּבִיל וְכַרְכֹּם וְנֶעגְלִיךְ, דִּינָם כִּשְׁאָר תַּבְלִין שֶׁאֵינָם אוֹסְרִין בְּדִיעֲבַד.קפד

אֲבָל קֶצַחקפה,92 וְשֻׁמְשְׁמִיןקפו,93 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם מִמִּינֵי זְרָעִים שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם חֲרִיפוּת כְּלָלקפז – אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לְעָרְבָם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה (אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לְכָתְשָׁם קֹדֶם שֶׁיְּשִׂימֵם בָּעִסָּה, וְאַל יְשִׂימֵם בְּתוֹכָהּ כְּשֶׁהֵם שְׁלֵמִים, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסוֹף סִימָן ת"סקפח עַיֵּן שָׁם94):

33 [Although it is permitted to add certain other ingredients to matzah,] nevertheless, the matzah that a person [eats] to fulfill his obligation to eat matzah as commanded must contain only flour and water. If one added black cumin, sesame, or types of spices [to dough, the matzah] is deemed rich matzah,95 and one may not fulfill his obligation with it. Therefore, it is permitted to eat it on the day preceding Pesach (see sec. 471[:4]).96 If, however, one violated [the instructions given above] and added salt [to the dough, the matzah baked] is not considered as “rich [matzah]” because of the added salt. [The rationale is that] a poor man also adds salt to dough.97 Accordingly, it is forbidden to eat [such matzah] on the day preceding Pesach.98

There are authorities who maintain that even if one added many [different] types of spices [to a dough], this does not cause [the resulting matzah] to be considered as “rich matzah,” since the fundamental element of making the dough, i.e., kneading it, is done only with water.99 With regard to the halachah, [since] a Scriptural [mitzvah is involved],100 one should act stringently, [following] the first opinion [that maintains] that [such matzah] is considered as “rich matzah.” Nevertheless, it is forbidden to eat [such matzah] on the day preceding Pesach,96 for weight is [also] given to the second opinion [that maintains] that [such matzah] is not considered as “rich matzah,” (since, fundamentally, [the halachah] follows this opinion).

לג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמַּצָּה שֶׁל מִצְוָה שֶׁאָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ – צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא בָּהּ רַק קֶמַח וּמַיִם בִּלְבַד.קפט אֲבָל אִם עֵרֵב בָּהּ קֶצַח וְשֻׁמְשְׁמִין אוֹ מִינֵי תַּבְלִין – הֲרֵי זוֹ מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה,95 וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בָּהּ,קצ וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח (עַיֵּן סִימָן תע"אקצא,96). אֲבָל אִם עָבַר וְנָתַן בָּהּ מֶלַח – אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת עֲשִׁירָה מֵחֲמַת הַמֶּלַח שֶׁבָּהּ,קצב שֶׁהֲרֵי גַּם הֶעָנִי נוֹתֵן מֶלַח בָּעִסָּה,97 לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח.98

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקצג שֶׁאַף אִם עֵרֵב בָּהּ מִינֵי תַּבְלִין הַרְבֵּה אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר עֲשִׂיָּתָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ לִישַׁת הַקֶּמַח, אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם בִּלְבַד.99

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה100 כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא נִקְרֵאת מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה,קצד וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח,96 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ עַל סְבָרָא הַב' שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָהקצה (כִּי כֵן נִרְאֶה עִקָּרקצו):

34 If a small amount of lime fell into dough and was kneaded into it, one should conduct himself stringently and forbid the matzah to be eaten, because the lime raises the temperature [of the dough and causes it] to became chametz faster. If, however, [the lime] merely fell on [top of] the dough, but was not kneaded into it, [the lime] should be removed and [then the dough] is permitted. Similarly, if pepper fell on [dough] and was not kneaded into it, [the pepper] should be removed and [then the dough] is permitted.

Even if [a dough] was kneaded with pepper, lime, or a large amount of salt, it is only forbidden to partake of it. One may, however, benefit from [such dough]. Similarly, it is permitted to leave [the dough] until after Pesach.101 [Support for this ruling can be drawn from the ruling that] if one kneaded [dough for matzah] with water heated by fire, it is only forbidden to partake of it, as stated above.102

לד אִם נָפַל מְעַט סִיד בְּתוֹךְ הָעִסָּה וְנִלּוֹשׁ בְּתוֹכָהּ – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְאָסְרָהּ בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַסִּיד מְחַמֵּם אוֹתָהּ וּמְמַהֶרֶת לְהַחְמִיץ.קצז אֲבָל אִם נָפַל עָלֶיהָ וְלֹא נִלּוֹשׁ בְּתוֹכָהּ – יְסִירֶנּוּ מִמֶּנָּה וּמֻתֶּרֶת. וְכֵן אִם נָפְלוּ עָלֶיהָ פִּלְפְּלִין וְלֹא נִלּוֹשׁוּ בְּתוֹכָהּ – יְסִירֵם מִמֶּנָּה וּמֻתֶּרֶת.קצח

וְאַף אִם נִלּוֹשׁוּ בָּהּ פִּלְפְּלִין וְסִיד אוֹ מֶלַח הַרְבֵּה – אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא בַּאֲכִילָה, אֲבָל לֹא בַּהֲנָאָה,קצט וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,ר,101 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ אִם לָשָׁהּ בְּחַמֵּי הָאוּר אֵינָהּ אֲסוּרָה אֶלָּא בַּאֲכִילָה בִּלְבַד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:רא,102