SECTION 453 The Laws Pertaining to the Grain Used for Matzah and [How] it must be Ground (1-33)

סימן תנג דִּינֵי הַחִטִּים וּטְחִינָתָם לְמַצּוֹת וּבוֹ ל"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 The matzah that a person is obligated to eat on the night of the fifteenth [of Nissan]1 must be from [flour made from any of] the five species of grain: wheat, barley, spelt, oats, or rye.2 If, however, one made matzah from rice, millet,3 or other types of kitniyos,4and partook of it, he did not fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah. This concept is derived from the verse:]5 “Do not eat chametz with it;6 eat matzah… for seven days.” [From the association between the two phrases, it is inferred that only a] species that can leaven7 may be used by a person to make matzah [and thereby] fulfill his obligation. This excludes species of kitniyos and the like that will never leaven. Instead, they [merely] spoil. Even if a person would knead rice flour or the like with boiling water and cover [the dough] with clothes until it rises like dough that leavened, this is not [considered] leavening, but spoilage. [Bread made from such dough] is permitted to be eaten [on Pesach].8 Therefore, even if one made matzah [from such flour], he does not fulfill his obligation.

א הַמַּצָּה שֶׁאָדָם חַיָּב לֶאֱכֹל בְּלֵיל ט"ו א,1 – צְרִיכָה לִהְיוֹת מֵאֶחָד מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי דָּגָן,ב שֶׁהֵם: חִטִּים וּשְׂעוֹרִים וְכֻסְמִין וְשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְשִׁיפוֹן.ג,2

אֲבָל אִם עָשָׂה מַצָּה מֵאֹרֶזד אוֹ דֹּחַןה,3 אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹתו,4 וַאֲכָלָהּ – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרז,5 "לֹא תֹאכַל עָלָיו6 חָמֵץ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת וְגוֹ'", דְּבָרִים הַבָּאִים לִידֵי חִמּוּץ7 – אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהֶם יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אִם עֲשָׂאָן מַצָּה, יָצְאוּ מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם שֶׁאֵינָם בָּאִים לִידֵי חִמּוּץ לְעוֹלָם ח אֶלָּא לִידֵי סִרְחוֹן, ט שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אִם לָשׁ אָדָם קֶמַח אֹרֶז וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ בְּרוֹתְחִין וְכִסָּהוּ בִּבְגָדִים עַד שֶׁנִּתְפַּח כְּמוֹ בָּצֵק שֶׁהֶחְמִיץ – אֵין זֶה חִמּוּץ אֶלָּא סִרְחוֹן, י וְהוּא מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה,יא,8 וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף אִם עֲשָׂאוֹ מַצָּה – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בּוֹ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ:יב

2 The optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is to [make] the matzah used for the mitzvah9 from wheat and not from one of the other four species of grain. This is the [prevailing] custom. If a person does not have wheat,10 he should take [flour] from the species of grain he prefers most, so that he will eat matzah with appetite.

ב וּמִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְכַתְּחִלָּה לִקַּח חִטִּים לְמַצַּת מִצְוָה,9 וְלֹא אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר אַרְבָּעָה מִינֵי דָּגָן,יג וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג.יד וְאִם אֵין לוֹ חִטִּים10 – יִקַּח מִשְּׁאָר מִינֵי דָּגָן מִן הֶחָבִיב עָלָיו יוֹתֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֹּאכַל מַצָּה לְתֵאָבוֹן:טו

3 The species commonly known as Turkish wheat11 is not a subspecies of wheat, but is rather considered a species of kitniyos. Buckwheat is a species of kitniyos, and it is permitted to make cooked food from it on Pesach, just as it is permitted to do so from other types of kitniyos according to the fundamentals of the law.

Nevertheless, it has become customary in these countries12 not to eat on Pesach cooked food [made] from rice, millet, beans, lentils, poppy13 seeds, and other species of kitniyos even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora.14 The reason for this stringency is that] in [these] later generations, there has been a [marked] increase in the number of unlearned people who are unfamiliar with [the laws of] what is forbidden and what is permitted [on Pesach]. If [these people] observe [others] eating cooked food made from kitniyos on Pesach, they will err and also permit food cooked from all types of grain. Since throughout the year, cooked food is customarily made from kitniyos just like cooked food is made from grain, they will [erroneously] conclude that the same laws apply to both [kitniyos and grains] on Pesach. Therefore, it has become customary to forbid all [forms of kitniyos].

ג מִין הַנִּקְרָא בִּלְשׁוֹן אַשְׁכְּנַז טירקשי"ן וויי"ץ11 – אֵינוֹ מִין חִטִּים רַק לְמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת יֵחָשֵׁב.טז טטרק"י (אוֹ היידי"ן אוֹ גריק"ע) הוּא מִמִּינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת,יז וּמֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ תַּבְשִׁיל בְּפֶסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת מִשְּׁאָר מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹתיח מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין.

אֲבָל נָהֲגוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ12 שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל בְּפֶסַח תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁל אֹרֶז וְדֹחַןיט וּפוֹלִין וַעֲדָשִׁים וְשֻׁמְשְׁמִים13 וּשְׁאָר מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת כ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אַחֲרוֹן,14 לְפִי שֶׁבַּדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים רַבּוּ עַמֵּי הָאָרֶץ שֶׁאֵינָן בְּקִיאִין בְּאִסּוּר וְהֶתֵּר, וְאִם יִרְאוּ שֶׁאוֹכְלִים בְּפֶסַח תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת – יִטְעוּ לְהַתִּיר גַּם כֵּן תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁל מִינֵי דָּגָן, הוֹאִיל וְכָל הַשָּׁנָה דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת תַּבְשִׁיל מִמִּינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת כְּמוֹ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ מִמִּינֵי דָּגָן, יִדְמֶה בְּעֵינֵיהֶם שֶׁדִּינָם שָׁוֶה בְּפֶסַח, לְפִיכָךְ נָהֲגוּ לֶאֱסֹר הַכֹּל:כא

4 This prohibition was observed only with regard to species of kitniyos [when] a cooked food made from them [may be confused] with a cooked food made from a species of grain, since they are similar. [The rationale is that] both [types of dishes] are referred to as cooked food, and for that reason, one was forbidden because of the other.

By contrast, it is not customary to forbid [other] species of plants, for example, dill (which is referred to as anis), coriander (which is referred to as aleinder), akliaza seed, or other seeds of types of garden grasses. Mustard is an exception. Since its [seeds] grow in pods, they resemble [the way] kitniyos grow, and are forbidden as they are. Another exception is caraway seeds that are sold in stores (which are called krom kimmel) which are brought to [this region] from other regions. These seeds resemble grain. Therefore, stringency is taken regarding them, as it is taken with regard to all species of kitniyos.

By contrast, the type of cumin15 (which is referred to as field cumin) has a form that does not resemble grain. [Hence,] no stringency is taken regarding it at all. Similarly, no stringency is taken with regard to all types of vegetables, since they do not resemble grain at all.16

ד וְלֹא נָהֲגוּ אִסּוּר אֶלָּא בְּמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת, שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מֵהֶם מִתְחַלֵּף בְּתַבְשִׁיל הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִמִּינֵי דָּגָן, שֶׁהֵם דּוֹמִים זֶה לָזֶה, שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם נִקְרָאִים מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה, וּלְכָךְ אָסְרוּ זֶה בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה.כב

אֲבָל מִינֵי זְרָעִים, כְּגוֹן הַשֶּׁבֶת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין עני"ש) וְהַכֻּסְבָּר (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אליינד"ר)כג וְזֶרַע אקלייז"א,כד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם מִשְּׁאָר מִינֵי זֵרְעוֹנֵי גִּנָּה – אֵין נוֹהֲגִין בָּהֶם אִסּוּר.

חוּץ מִן הַחַרְדָּל,כה לְפִי שֶׁגִּדּוּלוֹ הוּא בְּשַׁרְבִיטִין, וַהֲרֵי הוּא דּוֹמֶה לְגִדּוּל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת, וְנֶאֱסָר בִּכְלָלָם.כו

וְחוּץ מִן הַכַּמּוֹן הַנִּמְכָּר בַּחֲנוּת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קראם קימל) שֶׁמְּבִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְכָאן מִמְּדִינוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת וְגַרְעִינָיו דּוֹמֶה לְדָגָן, וּלְכָךְ מַחֲמִירִין בּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמַּחֲמִירִין בְּכָל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת.

אֲבָל מִין כַּמּוֹן15 (שֶׁקּוֹרִין פעלד קימל) שֶׁאֵין צוּרָתוֹ דּוֹמָה לְדָגָן – אֵין מַחֲמִירִין בּוֹ כְּלָל.כז

וְכֵן כָּל מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת – אֵין מַחֲמִירִין בָּהֶם, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן דּוֹמִים כְּלָל לְדָגָן:כח,16

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5 Even the various kinds of kitniyos [that were forbidden] were only forbidden [a)] to be eaten [and b)] when water fell upon them17 in an instance where, were the same [to transpire] with [kernels from] the five species of grain, [the kernels] would be forbidden according to the fundamentals of the law.18 It is, however, permitted to benefit from [kitniyos] on Pesach [even though they came in contact with liquids].

Similarly, it is permitted to use their oil for kindling19 even on a table on which one eats.20 Since the custom of [observing] this prohibition is merely an [extra] stringency,21 there is no concern that oil from the lamp will fall into the cooked food. [The rationale is that] even if a little oil were to fall into [a cooked dish], it would be nullified due to the majority [of permitted substances that are in the cooked dish].

(Oils that are not made from species of kitniyos22 are even permitted to be eaten.) [The above leniency applies] even when before the oil was made, [the produce from which it was made] was pressed in a press in which barley would at times be moistened. Nevertheless, the flavor of the barley absorbed in the press is not released into the oil when it is pressed in [such a press], since [the oil] is not a pungent substance.23

Similarly, [a person] is permitted to keep [kitniyos] in his home [during Pesach] even if they were moistened in water. [This includes], for example, types of [kitniyos] groats that will be pressed in a press and made moist with water before they are pressed.

By contrast, groats from the five species of grain are absolutely chametz.24 If they remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from them [after Pesach]25 unless one is certain that they were not moistened with water before being pressed.

ה וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת לֹא נָהֲגוּ אֶלָּא אִסּוּר אֲכִילָה אִם נָפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם,כט,17 בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בְּה' מִינֵי דָּגָן אָסוּר מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,18 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם בְּפֶסַח. ל

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַדְלִיק בִּשְׁמָנִים הַנַּעֲשִׂים מֵהֶםלא,19 (אֲבָל הַשְּׁמָנִים שֶׁאֵינָם נַעֲשִׂים מִמִּינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת22 מֻתָּרִים אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה) אֲפִלּוּ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁאוֹכְלִים עָלָיו.לב,20 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִפֹּל מֵהַשֶּׁמֶן לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל, שֶׁאַף אִם יִפֹּל לְתוֹכוֹ מְעַט שֶׁמֶן – הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּרֹב,לג כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּנְהַג אִסּוּר זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא חֻמְרָא בְּעָלְמָא.21 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקֹּדֶם עֲשִׂיַּת הַשֶּׁמֶן כּוֹתְשִׁין אוֹתוֹ בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת שֶׁשּׁוֹרִין בָּהּ שְׂעוֹרִים לִפְעָמִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין טַעַם שְׂעוֹרִים הַבָּלוּעַ בַּמַּכְתֶּשֶׁת נִפְלָט לְתוֹךְ הַשֶּׁמֶן עַל יְדֵי כְּתִישָׁתוֹ בְּתוֹכָהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָּבָר חָרִיף.לד,23

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִתלה אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁרוּ בַּמַּיִם, כְּגוֹן מִינֵי הָרִיפוֹת הַנִּכְתָּשִׁין בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת וּמְלַחְלְחִין אוֹתָן בְּמַיִם קֹדֶם הַכְּתִישָׁה.לו

אֲבָל מִינֵי הָרִיפוֹת שֶׁל ה' מִינֵי דָּגָן הֵן חָמֵץ גָּמוּר,24 וְאִם עָבַר עֲלֵיהֶם הַפֶּסַח – אֲסוּרִים בַּהֲנָאָה,25 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בָּרִי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְלַחְלְחוּ בְּמַיִם קֹדֶם הַכְּתִישָׁה:לז

6 All types of plants [and seeds] that are permitted on Pesach must be checked thoroughly before cooked food is made [using] them. [The purpose of checking these plants and seeds is] to remove any kernels of grain [that might] be found among them [because that is a common phenomenon]. Therefore, may blessings alight upon one who is stringent and refrains from eating cumin and dill [seeds] until the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora], because it is [virtually] impossible to thoroughly check them [for kernels of grain].

ו כָּל מִינֵי זְרָעִים הַמֻּתָּרִים בְּפֶסַח צְרִיכִין בְּדִיקָה רַבָּה קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מֵהֶם תַּבְשִׁיל, לִבְרֹר מֵהֶם גַּרְעִינֵי דָּגָן שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְהִמָּצֵא בֵּינֵיהֶם,לח וּלְפִיכָךְ הַמַּחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל כַּמּוֹןלט וְשֶׁבֶת עַד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן – תָּבוֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה, כִּי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְבָרְרָם יָפֶה: מ

7 When one mixed wheat flour and rice26 flour together and baked matzah from [the mixture], it is considered as if [the matzah] was made entirely from wheat, provided that the taste of wheat is discernable in the matzah.27 If one partakes of an olive-sized portion of [this matzah], he fulfills his obligation [to partake of matzah] even if the majority of this olive-sized portion is comprised of rice.28 [The rationale is that] the nature of rice is to become subordinate to wheat, so that the flavor of the rice changes to that of wheat when it is mixed with [wheat].29

[Different rules apply] if one mixed wheat flour with millet30 flour or [flour from] other types of kitniyos, and, similarly, if one mixed flour from one of the other four species of grain with rice flour and made matzah from [the mixture]. Even though the flavor [of the matzah] is [that of] grain, [the person] does not fulfill his obligation [to partake of matzah]29 with this [matzah], unless it contains [at least] an olive-sized portion of flour from grain in [the amount of matzah which is the size of] a p’ras,31i.e., in every half loaf of this [matzah], there will be an olive-sized portion of flour from grain. [Only] then does one fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] by eating an olive-sized portion of [this matz­ah. The rationale is that] the flavor of the olive-sized portion of grain that is perceptible in the half-loaf of rice or other species of kitniyos transforms that [entire] half-loaf to be like actual grain. Thus, it is as if [the person] ate an olive-sized portion of actual grain, since the primary [dimension] of eating is [tasting] the flavor.32 [Accordingly,] since [the person] tasted the flavor [of grain] in an olive-sized portion of matzah, he fulfills his obligation [to eat matzah]. If, by contrast, there is less than an olive-sized portion of [flour from] grain in every half loaf of this matzah, the flavor of grain does not have the power to transform the kitniyos to be actually considered as grain.

Other authorities maintain that a person cannot fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah on the first night of Pesach] even with a matzah that is made from a mixture of wheat flour and rice flour, unless [the matzah] contains an olive-sized portion of wheat [flour] in every half loaf. [Furthermore, these authorities maintain that] if [matzah] is made from [a mixture of] wheat flour and [flour from] other types of kitniyos, or from rice flour with [flour from] other types of grain, one does not fulfill his obligation even if there is an olive-sized portion of [flour from] grain in every half loaf. [The rationale is that] even though the flavor of the olive-sized portion of grain transformed the [entire half loaf] to be like actual grain,33 nevertheless, this dough would never have become leavened unless it was comprised of a majority of grain, and whenever a dough will not leaven, one may not fulfill the obligation of [eating] matzah with it. This does not apply when [matzah] is made from [a mixture of] wheat flour and rice [flour], since the wheat [flour] subordinates the rice [flour to the wheat flour], and causes [the rice flour] to leaven.

With regard to the halachah, as an initial preference, one should give weight and [follow] the stringency of the latter view, [because] a Scriptural [obligation is involved]. Nevertheless, in a pressing situation, one may rely on the first opinion, because fundamentally, it is accepted [as halachah].

ז אִם עֵרַב קֶמַח חִטִּים עִם קֶמַח אֹרֶז26 וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶם מַצָּה, אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם חִטִּיםמא – הֲרֵי הִיא כְּאִלּוּ הָיְתָה כֻּלָּהּ מֵחִטִּים,מב,27 וּכְשֶׁאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִמֶּנָּה – יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֹב כְּזַיִת זֶה הוּא אֹרֶז,מג,28 לְפִי שֶׁטֶּבַע הָאֹרֶז לְהִגָּרֵר אַחַר הַחִטִּים,מד וְנִשְׁתַּנָּה טַעֲמוֹ לְטַעַם חִטִּים כְּשֶׁהֵן מְעֹרָבִים עִמּוֹ.מה,29

אֲבָל אִם עֵרַב קֶמַח חִטִּים עִם קֶמַח דֹּחַן30 אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת, וְכֵן אִם עֵרַב קֶמַח שֶׁל אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר ד' מִינֵי דָּגָן עִם קֶמַח אֹרֶז וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶן מַצָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם דָּגָן – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,מו,29 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בָּהּ קֶמַח דָּגָן כְּזַיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס31 מִמֶּנָּה,מז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁבְּכָל פְּרָס מִמֶּנּוּ יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּזַיִת קֶמַח דָּגָן, שֶׁאָז יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בִּכְזַיִת מִמֶּנָּה, לְפִי שֶׁטַּעַם כְּזַיִת דָּגָן הַנִּרְגָּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַפְּרָס שֶׁל אֹרֶז אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת מְהַפֵּךְ אֶת הַפְּרָס לִהְיוֹת כְּמוֹ דָּגָן מַמָּשׁ,מח וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ אָכַל כְּזַיִת דָּגָן מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי עִקַּר הָאֲכִילָה הוּא הַטַּעַם,32 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁטָּעַם טַעַם בִּכְזַיִת מַצָּה – יָצָא.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין בְּמַצָּה זוֹ כְּזַיִת דָּגָן בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס – אֵין כֹּחַ בְּטַעַם הַדָּגָן לְהַפֵּךְ אֶת מַמָּשׁוּת הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת לִהְיוֹת כְּמוֹ דָּגָן מַמָּשׁ.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםמט שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ מַצָּה הַנַּעֲשֵׂית מִתַּעֲרֹבֶת קֶמַח חִטִּים עִם קֶמַח אֹרֶז – אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בָּהּ כְּזַיִת חִטִּים בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס. נ וְאִם נַעֲשֵׂית מִקֶּמַח חִטִּים עִם שְׁאָר מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת אוֹ מִקֶּמַח אֹרֶז עִם שְׁאָר מִינֵי דָּגָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּזַיִת דָּגָן בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס – אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבָה, שֶׁאַף שֶׁטַּעַם הַכְּזַיִת דָּגָן הָפַךְ אֶת הַפְּרָס לִהְיוֹת כְּמוֹ דָּגָן מַמָּשׁ,33 מִכָּל מָקוֹם עִסָּה זוֹ לֹא הָיְתָה בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ לְעוֹלָם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה רֻבָּהּ דָּגָן,נא וְכָל עִסָּה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בָּאָה לִידֵי חִמּוּץ – אֵין יוֹצְאִין בָּהּ יְדֵי חוֹבַת מַצָּה.נב מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית מִקֶּמַח חִטִּים עִם הָאֹרֶז, שֶׁהַחִטִּים גּוֹרְרִין אֶת הָאֹרֶז וְגוֹרְמִין לוֹ לָבוֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ.נג

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁנד לְכַתְּחִלָּה לִסְבָרָא אַחֲרוֹנָה לְהַחֲמִיר בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה. אֲבָל בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, כִּי כֵן עִקָּר:נה

8 [The following rules apply when] mice ate [kernels of] wheat and many of the [kernels of] wheat that remained had been bitten by the mice when they ate [the wheat]. There are grounds for concern that [the kernels] became chametz because of the saliva in the mouths of the mice, for saliva causes [grain] to leaven like water does, as will be explained in sec. 466[:3].34 Nevertheless, there is no need to separate and remove the kernels that were bitten from the kernels that are intact. Instead, one should grind the entire [quantity] together.35 In this manner, the flour from [the kernels] that were bitten will mix with the flour from the whole [kernels] and [any chametz that is there] will be nullified [because of the presence of] 60 [times its volume of kosher-for-Pesach flour] before Pesach. Afterwards, [the chametz] does not become significant again [on Pesach], even if one bakes matzos from [this flour] during Pesach, as explained in sec. 447[:1, 22].36

[The person] is not considered as intentionally nullifying the presence of a forbidden substance.37 [The rationale is that the person] is not grinding the kernels in order to nullify [the presence of the chametz]. Instead, he is grinding [the kernels] so that he can partake [of the flour], and [the chametz] is nullified as a matter of course.38

If [the volume of the kernels of] wheat that are intact is not 60 [times the volume of] the kernels that were bitten, one should not grind them [together] before selecting and removing the bitten [kernels] (that are in excess of the amount that would be nullified [due to the presence of] 60 [times their volume of kernels that are intact]).39

If one did not select [and remove the excess amount of kernels that were bitten, but instead,] ground the entire [mixture] together, [the flour] is permitted, since the flour [made from the kernels] that were bitten does not cause the flour [made from the kernels] that were intact to be forbidden after the fact. [This leniency was granted] because the concern that [the kernels] that were bitten became chametz is not absolute, for wheat [kernels] are firm and do not leaven rapidly. It is unlikely that [were they to have been bitten, the kernels] would have become chametz from the small amount of saliva in the mouths of the mice.

If, however, mice ate from barley (rye, or oats) and [the volume of the kernels] that are intact is not 60 times [the volume of] those that were bitten, and one forgot and ground the entire amount together, one should be stringent and obliterate [all the flour] before Pesach.40 (See sec. 442[:13].) [The rationale is that] barley, (oat, and rye) [kernels] are soft and become chametz rapidly. Thus, there is reason for concern that they became chametz from the small amount of saliva in the mouths of the mice.

ח חִטִּים שֶׁאָכְלוּ מֵהֶם עַכְבָּרִיםנו וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ בְּתוֹכָן הַרְבֵּה חִטִּים נְשׁוּכִין מֵאֲכִילַת הָעַכְבָּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ בָּהֶן שֶׁמָּא נִתְחַמְּצוּ מֵחֲמַת הָרֹק שֶׁבְּפִי הָעַכְבָּר,נז שֶׁהָרֹק מַחְמִיץ כְּמוֹ מַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ו,נח,34 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְרֹר וּלְהָסִיר הַחִטִּים הַנְּשׁוּכִים מֵהַחִטִּים הַשְּׁלֵמִים, אֶלָּא טוֹחֵן הַכֹּל בְּיַחַד,35 וְעַל יְדֵי כֵּן מִתְעָרֵב קֶמַח הַנְּשׁוּכִים בְּקֶמַח הַשְּׁלֵמִים, וְנִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעֹר, אַף אִם יֹאפֶה מִמֶּנָּה מַצּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,נט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז.ס,36 וְאֵין זֶה כִּמְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם,37 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ לִטְחֹן כְּדֵי לְבַטֵּל, אֶלָּא טוֹחֵן כְּדֵי לֶאֱכֹל, וּמֵאֵלָיו הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל.סא,38

וְאִם אֵין בַּחִטִּים הַשְּׁלֵמִים שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַנְּשׁוּכִין – לֹא יִטְחֲנֵם עַד שֶׁיִּבְרֹר מֵהֶם הַנְּשׁוּכִים (הָעוֹדְפִים עַל הַמִּתְבַּטְּלִין בְּשִׁשִּׁיםסב).39

וְאִם לֹא בֵּרְרָם וְטָחַן הַכֹּל בְּיַחַד – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר, שֶׁקֶּמַח הַנְּשׁוּכִין אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר אֶת קֶמַח הַשְּׁלֵמִים בְּדִיעֲבַד, לְפִי שֶׁהַנְּשׁוּכִין עַצְמָן אֵין בָּהֶם חֲשַׁשׁ גָּמוּר שֶׁל חִמּוּץ,סג שֶׁהַחִטִּים הֵם קָשִׁיםסד וְאֵינָם מְמַהֲרִין לְהַחְמִיץ, וְרָחוֹק הַדָּבָר שֶׁיִּתְחַמְּצוּ מֵחֲמַת מְעַט רֹק שֶׁבְּפִי הָעַכְבָּר.סה

אֲבָל אִם אָכְלוּ עַכְבָּרִים מִשְּׂעוֹרִים (אוֹ מִשִּׁיפוֹן וְשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָלסו) וְאֵין שִׁשִּׁים בְּהַשְּׁלֵמִים כְּנֶגֶד הַנְּשׁוּכִין וְשָׁכַח וְטָחַן הַכֹּל בְּיַחַד – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְבַעֲרָם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח40 (עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"בסז), שֶׁהַשְּׂעוֹרִין (וְשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְשִׁיפוֹן) הֵם רַכִּים וּמְמַהֲרִים לְהַחְמִיץ, וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְחַמְּצוּ בִּמְעַט רֹק שֶׁבְּפִי הָעַכְבָּר:סח

9 Germinated (which are referred as ois-gevaksen [in Yiddish]) [kernels of] wheat41 are absolutely chametz. [Nevertheless,] if they are mixed with kosher [for Pesach kernels of] wheat and [the volume of] the kosher-[for-Pesach kernels] is 60 [times that of the germinated] ones, it is permitted to grind the entire quantity together [before Pesach] and bake matzos from it even during Pesach, as explained above.42

According to the authorities who maintain that a mixture of flour and flour is governed by the laws applying to a dry mixture, as explained in sec. 447[:1], it is forbidden to bake [matzah from the mixture] during Pesach. [The rationale is that] the flour that is chametz that was nullified [by being mixed with] the kosher flour before Pesach becomes significant again on Pesach, as is the law regarding [chametz] in a dry mixture that was nullified before Pesach, which becomes significant again on Pesach, and causes the [entire] mixture to become forbidden, as stated in sec. 447[:22].43

When, by contrast, [the mixture of flour] is baked before Pesach, all of the flour in each matzah actually becomes a single entity through the baking process. Therefore, [any flour that was chametz] does not become significant again on Pesach.44

As an initial preference, every meticulous person45 should act stringently regarding his [own conduct] and give weight to this opinion. For this reason, it has become widespread custom in these countries to bake all [one’s] matzos before Pesach,46 because most [batches of kernels of] wheat contain a small amount of germinated kernels mixed in among them.

ט חִטִּים שֶׁצָּמְחוּ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אוי"ס גיוואקסיןסט)41 וְהֵן חָמֵץ גָּמוּר, וַהֲרֵי הֵן מְעֹרָבִין בְּתוֹךְ חִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים, אִם יֵשׁ בְּהַכְּשֵׁרִים שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן – מֻתָּר ע לִטְחֹן הַכֹּל בְּיַחַד וְלֶאֱפוֹת מֵהֶם מַצּוֹת אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,עא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.עב,42

וּלְפִי דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםעג שֶׁקֶּמַח הַמְעֹרָב בְּקֶמַח יֵשׁ לְתַעֲרוֹבוֹת זֶה דִּין תַּעֲרֹבֶת יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר סִימָן תמ"זעד – אָסוּר לֶאֱפוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, לְפִי שֶׁקֶּמַח הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּקֶמַח הַכָּשֵׁר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח הוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח, כְּדִין יָבֵשׁ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב וְנִתְבַּטֵּל בְּיָבֵשׁ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח וְאוֹסֵר הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז.עה,43 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹפֶה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה כָּל הַקֶּמַח שֶׁבְּכָל מַצָּה וּמַצָּה חֲתִיכָה אַחַת מַמָּשׁ עַל יְדֵי הָאֲפִיָּה,עו וּלְכָךְ אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעֹר בְּפֶסַח.44

וְכָל בַּעַל נֶפֶשׁ45 יַחֲמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה לָחֹשׁ לִסְבָרָא זוֹ.עז וּמִפְּנֵי כָּךְ נִתְפַּשֵּׁט הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לֶאֱפוֹת כָּל הַמַּצּוֹת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,46 לְפִי שֶׁרֹב הַחִטִּים יֵשׁ בָּהֶם תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת מְעַט מֵחִטִּים שֶׁצָּמְחוּ:עח

10 All the above47 applies when [the mixture] contains more than 60 [times the volume of kosher-for-Pesach kernels] as [germinated kernels]. If, by contrast, there is less than 60 [times the volume of kosher-for-Pesach kernels] as [there are germinated kernels], there is no way to rectify [the matter, and all the kernels] must be obliterated before Pesach.48 If [the kernels] were [in a Jew’s possession] throughout Pesach and he did not obliterate them, he should sell them to a non-Jew without [receiving payment for] the value of the forbidden substance in [the mixture],49 as explained in sec. 442[:3].

Before Pesach one may not add to [the mixture] additional [kernels of] wheat that are kosher-[for-Pesach] and grind the entire [mixture] together49 so that the flour that is chametz will become nullified in 60 [times its volume of] kosher flour, for it is forbidden to intentionally nullify a forbidden substance.37

י וְכָל זֶה47 כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן, אֲבָל אִם אֵין שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן – אֵין לָהֶם תַּקָּנָה, וְצָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרָם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.40 וְאִם עָבַר עֲלֵיהֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרָן – יִמְכְּרֵם לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶן48 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב.עט וְאֵין לוֹ לְהוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח עוֹד חִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים וְלִטְחֹן הַכֹּל בְּיַחַד49 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבַּטֵּל קֶמַח הֶחָמֵץ בְּשִׁשִּׁים בַּקֶּמַח הַכָּשֵׁר, שֶׁאָסוּר לְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה:פ,37

11 When does the above50 apply? When wheat [kernels] germinated, for even though they became mixed with kernels that are kosher-[for-Pesach], they are recognizable in [the mixture].51 Therefore, [the germinated kernels] are not nullified [among] the majority [of kosher-for-Pesach kernels in the mixture], as is the law pertaining to a dry mixture [of a kosher and forbidden substance of the same type, in which instance, the presence of the forbidden substance] is nullified [when it is mixed] with a majority [of kosher substances]. [This law applies] to all Scriptural prohibitions. The same [law applies] to barley [kernels] that were bitten by mice. They are recognizable among [the kernels] that are intact. Therefore, their [presence] is not nullified [even though they are mixed] with a majority [of intact kernels].

By contrast, [a more lenient ruling applies] when [kernels of] grain became chametz, but [their becoming chametz] is not apparent, e.g., [kernels] upon which water fell, [causing them] to split open (see sec. 467[:1, where this subject is discussed]),52 after which they dried and it is not apparent that they split open. If the [kernels that became wet] became mixed with a greater amount of kosher-[for-Pesach] grain, their [presence] is nullified [because they are mixed] with a majority [of kosher-for-Pesach kernels].53 As in similar instances concerning other forbidden substances, the entire [mixture] is considered as absolutely permitted; [it is as if] the forbidden substance ceases to be present at all.54

Therefore, [when there is such a mixture,] it is permitted to add many more kosher-[for-Pesach kernels of] grain until there are 60 [times the volume of the kernels that are chametz], and then grind the entire [mixture] together so that [the presence of] the flour that is chametz is nullified [because it is mixed] with 60 [times its volume of] kosher-[for-Pesach] flour before Pesach. [Thus,] it will be permitted to eat all [the flour] on Pesach.55 This is not considered as intentionally nullifying [the presence of] a forbidden [substance], as explained in sec. 442[:16].56

יא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?50 בְּחִטִּים שֶׁצָּמְחוּ, שֶׁאַף שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּחִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים נִכָּרִין הֵן בְּתוֹכָן,פא,51 וּלְכָךְ אֵינָם מִתְבַּטְּלִים בְּתוֹכָם בְּרֹב כְּדִין יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ שֶׁהוּא בָּטֵל בְּרֹב בְּכָל אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה. וְכֵן שְׂעוֹרִין הַנְּשׁוּכִין מֵאֲכִילַת עַכְבָּר נִכָּרִין הֵם בְּתוֹךְ הַשְּׁלֵמִים, וּלְכָךְ אֵינָם מִתְבַּטְּלִין בְּתוֹכָם בְּרֹב.

אֲבָל דָּגָן שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ וְאֵין חִמּוּצוֹ נִכָּר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וְנִתְבַּקֵּעַ (עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"זפב,52) וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְיַבֵּשׁ וְאֵין בִּקּוּעוֹ נִכָּר וְנִתְעָרֵב בְּדָגָן כָּשֵׁר הַרְבֵּה מִמֶּנּוּפג – הֲרֵי נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּרֹב,53 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין, נַעֲשָׂה הַכֹּל הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר, וְאֵין כָּאן אִסּוּר כְּלָל.54 לְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו עוֹד דָּגָן כָּשֵׁר הַרְבֵּה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, וְאָז יִטְחֹן הַכֹּל בְּיַחַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבַּטֵּל קֶמַח הֶחָמֵץ בְּשִׁשִּׁים בַּקֶּמַח הַכָּשֵׁר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וִיהֵא מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל הַכֹּל בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,55 וְאֵין זֶה מְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב:פד,56

12 Even [when only] one [kernel of] wheat split open because water fell upon it and then dried, [a halachic issue arises if] it fell into a large pile of wheat ]kernels[.57 If [the owner] does not desire to grind [all the kernels into flour] before Pesach, it is forbidden to maintain possession of [the kernels during Pesach], as is the law applying to dry mixtures [of permitted and forbidden substances of the same type, even though the forbidden substance] became nullified before Pesach, as explained in sec. 442[:18].58

What should [the owner] do if a severe [financial] loss is involved or it is a pressing situation?59 He should remove one kernel from the pile and eat it or cast it to oblivion before Pesach. [Once the owner does so,] the remaining [kernels] are permitted for him;60 he may even grind [the kernels into flour] on Pesach and partake [of it.61 License is granted in this instance] because there are two doubts that might lead to a lenient ruling: [a)] maybe the kernel that was eaten or cast to oblivion is the [chametz] wheat [kernel] that became mixed into the pile, and [b)] even if one would say that the [chametz] wheat [kernel] still remains mixed in the pile, nevertheless, when [a person] eats matzah during Pesach made from the kernels in that pile, regarding every piece of matzah that he swallows, the possibility exists that this piece does not contain any trace of [the flour from] the wheat [kernel] that became chametz, and thus, eating it does not involve any prohibition at all.

Thus, concerning every piece of matzah that [the person] swallows there is a compounded doubt62 that leads to leniency, [leading us] to say there is no prohibition at all involved in eating this [matzah]. The Sages ruled leniently regarding such a compounded doubt since according to Scriptural Law, in a dry mixture, [the presence of] a forbidden substance is nullified [when it mixes with] a larger amount [of permitted substances].63

{64True, in the instance of a compounded doubt of this nature involving other types of forbidden substances, according to Rabbinic Law, [the presence of the forbidden substance] is not nullified when it is mixed with a larger amount [of permitted substances], for example, [an instance when] a piece of non-kosher meat that is large and valuable, and significant [enough] to serve to guests, became mixed with many pieces of kosher meat, and then one of the pieces [of meat] was lost. Even though [a person] is permitted to partake of the remaining pieces [of meat] one after the other, because every piece that he is eating has two factors that create doubt [as to whether the piece he is currently eating is the forbidden piece and] thus lead to leniency, nevertheless, it is forbidden to eat the pieces one after the other individually. Instead, [the person] must eat two pieces together at the same time, i.e., he must take a small amount from one piece [of meat] and a small amount from another piece [of meat] and swallow them together, at the same time.65 [The rationale is that by eating the meat in this manner, when swallowing the pieces, the person] will certainly be swallowing [meat from] one kosher piece, for one of the two [pieces that he is eating] is certainly permitted, since only one forbidden piece [of meat] had been [introduced into] the mixture.

When, by contrast, [the person] swallows from only one piece of meat, there is room for concern that he is only eating and swallowing from [a piece of meat that is] forbidden, without any [accompanying] permitted [meat]. The Sages did not desire to rely on a compounded doubt and rule leniently in such a situation, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 110.66

Nevertheless, [in the situation described above, a person] is not required to eat two pieces of matzah together. [The rationale is that when the person] partakes of even one piece of matz­ah, it certainly contains permitted [flour], since only one [kernel of] wheat that was chametz had been mixed in the pile [of grain]. Accordingly, if many [kernels of] wheat that were chametz became mixed in the [pile of] grain67 to the extent that when [a person] partakes of a piece of matzah, [it is possible that] there are not [at least] twice the amount of [permitted kernels of wheat] in relation to [kernels of] wheat that are chametz, so that there will certainly be as much [flour] that is permitted as flour that is suspected to be forbidden, (for the reason explained in Yoreh Deah, loc. cit.) [the entire mixture of kernels may not be used on Pesach,]}.68 There is no way of rectifying [the problem that exists] regarding this pile of grain, [not] even by leaving it until after Pesach. [The only alternative is to follow] the course [of action] explained in sec. 442[:17].69

יב וַאֲפִלּוּ חִטָּה אַחַת שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלֶיהָ מַיִם וְנִתְבַּקְּעָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְיַבְּשָׁה וְנָפְלָה לְתוֹךְ כְּרִי גָּדוֹל שֶׁל חִטִּים,57 אִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְטָחֲנָם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם כְּדִין יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב.פה,58 כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה אִם יֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק?59 יָסִיר חִטָּה אַחַת מֵהַכְּרִי וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה אוֹ יַשְׁלִיכֶנָּה לְאִבּוּדפו קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,פז וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר לוֹ60 אֲפִלּוּ לְטָחֲנָם בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וְלֶאֱכֹל,פח,61 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן ב' סְפֵקוֹת לְהָקֵל: שֶׁמָּא הַחִטָּה שֶׁנֶּאֶכְלָה אוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֶבְדָה מִן הָעוֹלָם הִיא הִיא הַחִטָּה הַמְחֻמֶּצֶת שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בַּכְּרִי, וְאִם תִּמְצֵי לוֹמַר שֶׁאוֹתָהּ [חִטָּה] עֲדַיִן הִיא מְעֹרֶבֶת בַּכְּרִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל בְּפֶסַח מַצָּה הַנַּעֲשֵׂית מֵחִטִּים שֶׁבַּכְּרִי – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק עַל כָּל חֲתִיכַת מַצָּה שֶׁהוּא בּוֹלֵעַ שֶׁמָּא אֵין בַּחֲתִיכָה זוֹ כְּלוּם מֵאוֹתָהּ חִטָּה הַמְחֻמֶּצֶת, וְאֵין בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ שׁוּם אִסּוּר כְּלָל, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁעַל כָּל חֲתִיכַת מַצָּה שֶׁהוּא בּוֹלֵעַ יֵשׁ בָּהּ סְפֵק סְפֵקָא לְהָקֵל וְלוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ אִסּוּר כְּלָל, וְהֵקֵלּוּ חֲכָמִים בִּסְפֵק סְפֵקָא62 כָּזֶה, לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה כְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל הָאִסּוּר בְּרֹב יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ.פט,63

(64וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּסְפֵק סְפֵקָא כָּזֶה בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִים שֶׁאֵינָם מִתְבַּטְּלִים בְּרֹב מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּגוֹן חֲתִיכַת בְּשַׂר טְרֵפָה וְהִיא חֲתִיכָה גְּדוֹלָה וַחֲשׁוּבָה הָרְאוּיָה לְהִתְכַּבֵּד בָּהּ לִפְנֵי הָאוֹרְחִים שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּהַרְבֵּה חֲתִיכוֹת בָּשַׂר כְּשֵׁרָה וְנֶאֶבְדָה אַחַת מֵהַחֲתִיכוֹת, שֶׁאַף שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל הַשְּׁאָר בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה מִשּׁוּם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּכָל חֲתִיכָה שֶׁאוֹכֵל בּוֹ ב' סְפֵקוֹת לְהָקֵל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אָסוּר לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל חֲתִיכָה חֲתִיכָה לְבַדָּהּ, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאכַל שְׁתַּיִם בְּיַחַד בְּבַת אַחַת, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּקַּח מְעַט מֵהַחֲתִיכָה אַחַת וּמְעַט מֵהַחֲתִיכָה אַחֶרֶת וְיִבְלְעֵם בְּיַחַד בְּבַת אַחַת,65 כְּדֵי שֶׁבִּבְלִיעָה זוֹ יִהְיֶה בָּהּ בְּוַדַּאי הֶתֵּר בָּרוּר, שֶׁאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּיהֶן הִיא בְּוַדַּאי הֶתֵּר בָּרוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְעָרְבָה אֶלָּא חֲתִיכָה אַחַת שֶׁל אִסּוּר.

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ בּוֹלֵעַ אֶלָּא מֵחֲתִיכָה אַחַת בִּלְבַד – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא בְּלִיעָה וַאֲכִילָה זוֹ הִיא כֻּלָּהּ מֵהָאִסּוּר בִּלְבַד וְאֵין בָּהּ מֵהַהֶתֵּר, וְלֹא רָצוּ חֲכָמִים לִסְמֹךְ עַל ב' סְפֵקוֹת לְהָקֵל בָּזֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"י.צ,66

אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כָּאן אֵין צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל ב' חֲתִיכוֹת מַצָּה בְּיַחַד, לְפִי שֶׁאַף בַּחֲתִיכָה אַחַת שֶׁהוּא בּוֹלֵעַ יֵשׁ בָּהּ בְּוַדַּאי גַּם מֵהַהֶתֵּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְעָרֵב בַּכְּרִי אֶלָּא חִטָּה אַחַת מְחֻמֶּצֶת.צא לְפִיכָךְ, אִם נִתְעָרְבוּ בַּכְּרִי כָּל כָּךְ חִטִּים מְחֻמָּצוֹת67 עַד שֶׁבַּחֲתִיכַת מַצָּה שֶׁהוּא בּוֹלֵעַ אֵין בָּהּ פִּי שְׁנַיִם כְּנֶגֶד הַחִטִּים הַמְחֻמָּצוֹת כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּחֲתִיכָה זוֹ הֶתֵּר בָּרוּר כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ הַחֲשַׁשׁ אִסּוּר (מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה שָׁםצב)68 – אֵין לוֹ לִכְרִי זֶה תַּקָּנָה אֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב:צג,69

13 Even if only one [kernel of chametz] wheat was mixed [into the pile of grain] and [a kernel] was eaten or lost before Pesach,70 [the owner] must take care not to grind the entire pile [of grain] together during Pesach71 so that all the flour will not be mixed together. [Were that to happen,] all [the flour] would be forbidden because of a doubt – maybe the one [kernel of] wheat that had become chametz remained in the pile [of grain], and was ground [together] with [the kosher-for-Pesach kernels in] it. The flour [from this kernel] would then have become mixed and blended with the flour from the entire pile [of grain. This would create a halachic difficulty] because fundamentally, [the halachah follows] the words of [the authorities who] maintain that flour [from two sources] becomes mixed and blended thoroughly.72 Thus, there is not [even] a small portion of the flour from the pile [of grain] that will not have a trace of the flour from [the kernel of] wheat that became chametz. Thus, [at that time,] there would cease to be two factors [that create a compounded] doubt73 and thus enable a lenient ruling.74

יג וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְעָרְבָה אֶלָּא חִטָּה אַחַת וְנֶאֶכְלָה אוֹ נֶאֶבְדָה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח70 – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִטְחֹן כָּל הַכְּרִי בְּיַחַד בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,71 שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעָרֵב כָּל הַקֶּמַח בְּיַחַד וְיִהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר מִסָּפֵק, שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאֲרָה חִטָּה הַמְחֻמֶּצֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּרִי וְנִטְחֲנָה עִמּוֹ וְנִתְעָרֵב קִמְחָהּ וְנִבְלַל בְּקֶמַח כָּל הַכְּרִי, שֶׁעִקָּרצד כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםצה שֶׁקֶּמַח בְּקֶמַח מִתְעָרֵב וְנִבְלָל יָפֶה,72 וְאֵין מְעַט קֶמַח מִקֶּמַח הַכְּרִי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ מַשֶּׁהוּ מִקֶּמַח הַחִטָּה הַמְחֻמֶּצֶת, וְאֵין כָּאן עוֹד ב' סְפֵקוֹת73 לְהָקֵל:צו,74

14 A person does not fulfill his obligation [to partake of matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan] except [by eating] matzah that a Jew guarded [while it was being produced to ensure that it would not become] chametz75 for the sake of Pesach. [This concept is derived from the verse,]76 “And you shall guard the matzos.” [This is interpreted as meaning] that a Jew must guard [the matzah throughout the time it is being produced] with the intent that the matzos [be used to observe] the mitzvah of [eating] matzah.77

Some authorities maintain that, [while guarding the matzos,] one must have the intent [that they be used to fulfill] the mitzvah “In the evening, you shall eat matzos.78

Other authorities maintain that one may have the intent [to use the matzos to fulfill] the mitzvah “You shall eat matzah for seven days,”79 i.e., if one guarded [the matzah as it was being produced] for the sake of [producing] matzah that will be eaten during the seven days of Pesach, a person may fulfill his obligation [to partake of matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan] with this [matzah]. Fundamentally, the halachah follows this view.

יד אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אֶלָּא בְּמַצָּה שֶׁשְּׁמָרָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵחִמּוּץ75 לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרצז,76 "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת הַמַּצּוֹת", שֶׁיִשְׁמְרֶנָּה יִשְׂרָאֵל לְשֵׁם מִצְוַת מַצָּה.צח,77

וְיֵשׁצט אוֹמְרִים: ק לְשֵׁם מִצְוַת "בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת".קא,78

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים:קב לְשֵׁם מִצְוַת "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכְלוּ מַצּוֹת",קג,79 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאִם שְׁמָרָהּ לְשֵׁם מַצָּה שֶׁיֹּאכְלֶנָּה בְּז' יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח – יוֹצֵא בָּהּ. וְכֵן עִקָּר:קד

15 What does the Scriptural [obligation of] guarding [the dough for the matzos] involve? When [a person] sees [the dough intended for matz­ah] approaching [a state] when it could become chametz, he should guard it and endeavor that it not become chametz.80For example, from the beginning of the kneading [of the dough] and onward, when [the flour] has already come in contact with water, [the dough] will rapidly become chametz unless one hurries and works [the dough] with his hands, kneading it, arranging it, and baking it. A mature81 Jew82 must occupy himself in these activities for the sake of [fulfilling the mitzvah of] matzah.83 A non-Jew, a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual, or a minor84 may not [perform these acts], as will be explained in sec. 460[:1].

However, before [the flour] came in contact with water, i.e., before it is kneaded, it is not necessary for a Jew to guard the grain or the flour so that it does not come in contact with water.85 Instead, any grain that is brought to [a Jew] that does not appear to have any [factor that would arouse] concern that it is chametz, may be ground for [the sake of use on] Pesach. Similarly, it is permitted to knead any flour that is brought to [a Jew] that does not appear to have any [factor that would arouse] concern that it is chametz even for the sake of matzos to be used for the mitzvah [of eating matzah]. We do not suspect that this flour came from grain that came in contact with water and became chametz, for we do not presume that a prohibition exists merely because there is such a possibility,86 as will be explained in sec. 467[:11, 48].

טו וּמַהוּ שִׁמּוּר זֶה הָאָמוּר בַּתּוֹרָה? הוּא כְּשֶׁרוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ קְרוֹבָה לָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ יִשְׁמְרֶנָּה וְיִשְׁתַּדֵּל בָּהּ שֶׁלֹּא תַּחְמִיץ,קה,80 כְּגוֹן מִתְּחִלַּת לִישָׁתָהּ וָאֵילָךְ, שֶׁכְּבָר בָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ מַיִם וְהִיא קְרוֹבָה לְהַחְמִיץקו אִם לֹא יְמַהֵר לְהִתְעַסֵּק בָּהּ בְּיָדַיִםקז בְּלִישָׁתָהּ וַעֲרִיכָתָהּ וַאֲפִיָּתָהּקח – צָרִיךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל82 בֶּן דַּעַת81 לְהִתְעַסֵּק בַּעֲסָקִים הַלָּלוּ לְשֵׁם מַצָּה,83 אֲבָל לֹא נָכְרִי וְלֹא חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן,84 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"ס.קט

אֲבָל קֹדֶם שֶׁבָּאוּ עָלֶיהָ מַיִם, דְּהַיְנוּ קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁה – אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּשְׁמֹר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַדָּגָן אוֹ אֶת הַקֶּמַח שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם,85 אֶלָּא כָּל דָּגָן שֶׁבָּא לְפָנֵינוּ וְאֵין אָנוּ רוֹאִין שׁוּם חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ – מֻתָּר לְטָחֲנוֹ לְפֶסַח. וְכֵן כָּל קֶמַח הַבָּא לְפָנֵינוּ וְאֵין אָנוּ רוֹאִין בּוֹ שׁוּם חֲשַׁשׁ חִמּוּץ – מֻתָּר לָלוּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֲפִלּוּ מַצַּת מִצְוָה. וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא קֶמַח זֶה בָּא מִתְּבוּאָה שֶׁנָּפְלָה מַיִם עָלֶיהָ וְנִתְחַמְּצָה, כִּי אֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵק,קי,86 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז:קיא

16 All the above applies according to the letter of the law. Nevertheless, the Jewish people have universally accepted the custom of guarding the wheat from which [they will bake] the matzos to be used for the mitzvah [of partaking of matz­ah] from the time [the wheat] is ground onward.87 [The rationale is that] from that time [onward, the wheat] approaches a state where it could become chametz. [For example, the wheat] comes close to water when it is brought to a water mill to grind. And even if [the wheat] is ground in a hand mill, during the rest of the year it is common to rinse wheat before it is ground. Thus, it is close to becoming chametz. Therefore, a Jew must guard [the wheat] so that it does not become chametz at the time that it is being ground.88

The grinding of the wheat itself, by contrast, may be performed by a non-Jew,89 [using] for example, a hand mill. It is only that a mature Jew should stand over him from the beginning of the grinding until the end [of the grinding process, to ensure that the wheat and the flour do not come in contact with water. It is] not [acceptable] if a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual, or a minor [supervises the grinding]. Similarly, when the grain is ground in a water mill,90 a deaf-mute, a mentally or emotionally challenged individual, or a minor should not [supervise the process to ensure that the wheat and the flour do not come in contact with water]. Instead, [this should be done by] a mature Jew who reached [the age when he became obligated in the observance of] the mitzvos.

טז וְכָל זֶה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁמֹר הַחִטִּים שֶׁל מַצַּת מִצְוָה מִשְּׁעַת טְחִינָה וָאֵילָךְ,87 לְפִי שֶׁאָז הֵם קְרוֹבִים לָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מְקָרְבִין אוֹתָן אֶל הַמַּיִם כְּשֶׁמְּבִיאִין אוֹתָן לְבֵית הָרֵחַיִם שֶׁל מַיִם לִטְחֹן,קיב וְגַם כְּשֶׁטּוֹחֲנִין בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁל יָד, רְגִילוּת הוּא בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה לִרְחֹץ הַחִטִּים קֹדֶם טְחִינָתָן, וְהֵן קְרוֹבִין לָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ,קיג לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְרֵם מֵחִמּוּץקיד בִּשְׁעַת הַטְּחִינָה.88

אֲבָל הַטְּחִינָה עַצְמָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי,קטו,89 כְּגוֹן בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁל יָד,קטז רַק שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל בֶּן דַּעַת יַעֲמֹד עַל גַּבָּיו מִתְּחִלַּת הַטְּחִינָה עַד סוֹפָהּ, אֲבָל לֹא חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן.קיז וְהוּא הַדִּין כְּשֶׁטּוֹחֲנָן בְּרֵחַיִם שֶׁל מַיִםקיח – לֹא יִשְׁמֹר שָׁם חֵרֵשׁ שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן,90 אֶלָּא יִשְׂרָאֵל גָּדוֹל שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לִכְלַל הַמִּצְוֹת:

17 In a pressing situation, when it is impossible to find wheat that could be guarded from the time [the kernels were] ground and onward, [the person should act] according to the letter of the law. [In such a situation,] it is permitted to purchase flour from the marketplace91 even [to use] for the sake of the matzah to be used for the mitzvah. There is no concern that perhaps this flour came from grain that came into contact with water, as explained above.92

Nevertheless, in those places where it is commonplace to wash wheat before it is ground and it is left in the water for some time, it is forbidden to purchase flour [for matzah] from the marketplace even in a pressing situation.93 [The rationale is that] whenever grain came into contact with water and remained in contact with it for the amount [of time it takes to walk] a mil,94the grain will become chametz, as will be explained in sec. 467[:2].

יז וְאִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא חִטִּים לְשָׁמְרָם מִשְּׁעַת הַטְּחִינָה וָאֵילָךְ – מַעֲמִידִין עַל עִקַּר הַדִּין, וּמֻתָּר לִקַּח קֶמַח מִן הַשּׁוּק91 אֲפִלּוּ לְמַצַּת מִצְוָה, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא קֶמַח זֶה בָּא מִתְּבוּאָה שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלֶיהָ מַיִם,קיט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קכ,92

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לִרְחֹץ הַחִטִּים קֹדֶם הַטְּחִינָה וְשׁוֹהִין אוֹתָן בְּמַיִם אֵיזֶה זְמַן – אָסוּר לִקְנוֹת קֶמַח מִן הַשּׁוּקקכא אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,93 שֶׁכָּל דָּגָן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עָלָיו מַיִם וְשָׁהוּ עָלָיו כְּשִׁעוּר מִיל94 – הוּא בָּא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז:קכב

18 When does the above [restriction]95 apply? When it is known that it is the practice of some of the flour merchants in the town to always wash the wheat before grinding it, even if most of [the flour merchants] do not wash [their wheat]. Nevertheless, since it is not public knowledge which [of the merchants] do not wash [the wheat], it is forbidden [for a Jew] to go to the home [of a flour merchant] and purchase flour from him. [The rationale is that] the merchants are considered to be located in a fixed and established place in the town, each one in his home. [Thus, the situation is governed by the principle,]96 “Whenever [a doubt arises in a place where the status of the substance is] established (kavua), [the probability] is defined as half-and-half.”97 Similarly, it is forbidden to go [and purchase flour] from [the flour merchants] in the place which they established in the marketplace to sell [their flour].

If, however, it is not known with certainty that it is the ordinary practice of some of the flour merchants to always wash their wheat, [the status of] the forbidden [substance, i.e., the flour that became chametz,] is not considered to be established, because the [existence of a] prohibited [substance] is not definite. Therefore, [in such an instance, the status of the flour] is determined by [the practice] of the majority of the [local] flour merchants – and [the majority of the merchants] do not wash [their wheat before grinding it. Hence,] it is permitted even to go to the homes [of these merchants]98 to purchase [flour] from them. Nevertheless, one should not purchase [wheat flour] from a baker, for [a baker’s] practice is certainly to wash wheat [before grinding it]. It is, however, permitted to purchase flour from the other four species of grain from [bakers], for it is not their regular practice to wash the [kernels of these species of grain before grinding them].

Similarly, it is even permitted to purchase wheat flour from the villagers who bring [their] flour [to town] from the villages daily, since it is not their regular practice to wash wheat [before grinding it].80 Even if it is known that some [villagers] do wash their wheat, [it is nevertheless permitted to purchase flour from them] because they have left (pirshu)the place where their position is established (kavua). [Under such circumstances, the ruling] is determined by the majority,99 who [in the case of the villagers], do not wash [their wheat]. Similarly, even if one of the flour merchants in the town brought flour to a Jew’s home, it is permitted to purchase it from him if it is [publicly] known that most of the [flour] merchants in the town do not wash their wheat. [The rationale is that] since [the merchant] left (pireish)the place where his position was established (kavua), we assume that he is one of the majority who do not wash their grain.

Nevertheless, it is forbidden to purchase [flour] from [a merchant] who sells finely sifted flour, for, [in that instance,] the wheat was certainly moistened in water so that its coating would be removed so that finely sifted flour could be made from it.

יח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?95 כְּשֶׁיָּדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁמִּקְצָת הַמּוֹכְרֵי קֶמַח שֶׁבָּעִיר דַּרְכָּם לִרְחֹץ הַחִטִּים תָּמִיד קֹדֶם הַטְּחִינָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֻבָּם אֵינָן רוֹחֲצִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מַכִּירִים אוֹתָם שֶׁאֵינָן רוֹחֲצִין – אָסוּר לָנוּ לֵילֵךְ אֶצְלָם לְבָתֵּיהֶם וְלִקַּח מֵהֶם קֶמַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמּוֹכְרִים הֵם קְבוּעִים בָּעִיר כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד בְּבֵיתוֹ, וְכָל הַקָּבוּעַ96 כְּמֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה.קכג,97 וְכֵן אָסוּר לֵילֵךְ אֶצְלָם לַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֵן קְבוּעִין בַּשּׁוּק לִמְכֹּר שָׁם.קכד

אֲבָל אִם אֵין יָדוּעַ לָנוּ בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁמִּקְצָת מוֹכְרֵי הַקֶּמַח רְגִילִין לִרְחֹץ תָּמִיד הַחִטִּים – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא אִסּוּר קָבוּעַ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ אִסּוּר בָּרוּר, וּלְפִיכָךְ הוֹלְכִין אַחַר רֹב מוֹכְרֵי קֶמַח שֶׁאֵינָן רוֹחֲצִין, וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לֵילֵךְ לְבָתֵּיהֶם98 לִקַּח מֵהֶם.קכה וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא יִקַּח מִן הַנַּחְתּוֹמִים, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי דַּרְכָּם לִרְחֹץ הַחִטִּים. אֲבָל קֶמַח שֶׁל שְׁאָר ד' מִינֵי דָּגָן – מֻתָּר לִקַּח מֵהֶם, שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם לִרְחֹץ אוֹתָם.קכו

וְכֵן מֻתָּר לִקַּח אֲפִלּוּ קֶמַח חִטִּים מִן בְּנֵי הַכְּפָרִים הַמְּבִיאִים בְּכָל יוֹם קֶמַח מִן הַכְּפָרִים, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם לִרְחֹץ99 הַחִטִּים.קכז,80 וְאַף אִם יָדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁמִּקְצָתָם רוֹחֲצִים הַחִטִּים – הֲרֵי פֵּרְשׁוּ מִמְּקוֹם קְבִיעוּתָם, וְהוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב שֶׁאֵינָן רוֹחֲצִין.קכח וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד מִמּוֹכְרֵי קֶמַח שֶׁבָּעִיר שֶׁהֵבִיא קֶמַח לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – מֻתָּר לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ אִם יָדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁרֹב הַמּוֹכְרִים שֶׁבָּעִיר אֵינָן רוֹחֲצִים הַחִטִּים, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁפֵּרַשׁ מִמְּקוֹם קְבִיעָתוֹ – אָנוּ תּוֹלִין לוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא מִן הָרֹב שֶׁאֵינָן רוֹחֲצִים.קכט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם מוֹכֵר סֹלֶת נְקִיָּה – אָסוּר לִקַּח אוֹתָהּ מִמֶּנּוּ,קל שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי נִבְלְלוּ הַחִטִּים בְּמַיִם לְהָסִיר קְלִפָּתָןקלא לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן סֹלֶת:

19 All the above100 applies in a pressing situation. When, by contrast, the situation is not pressing, Jews are holy and are accustomed to act stringently and guard even [the flour used to bake] the matzos for all the days of Pesach101 from the time [the flour is] ground onward. [They] do not purchase flour from the marketplace even in a manner that is permitted in a pressing situation.102

However, it is desirable to be [even more] stringent [regarding the flour used for] the matz­ah with which one fulfills the mitzvah [of eating matzah on the night of the fifteenth of Nissan], and if possible to guard the wheat [from which the flour for those matzos will be ground] so that it will not come in contact with water from the time the wheat is harvested onward. [The reason for this stringency is that] there are authorities who maintain that, according to Rabbinic Law, a person cannot fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] on Pesach except with matzah that a Jew guarded from becoming chametz from the time when it was possible for that to happen, i.e., immediately from the time the sheaves were harvested from the ground.103 From that time onward, were water to [come in contact with the wheat], it would become chametz. (Nevertheless, while [the wheat] is still connected to the ground, [contact with water] does not cause it to become chametz as long as it still needs [to derive nurture from] the ground,104 as explained in sec. 467[:12].)

יט וְכָל זֶה100 בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, אֲבָל שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק – יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשִׁים, וְנוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר אֲפִלּוּ בְּמַצּוֹת שֶׁל כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח101 לִשְׁמֹר אוֹתָם מִשְּׁעַת טְחִינָה וָאֵילָךְ,קלב וְלֹא לִקַּח קֶמַח מִן הַשּׁוּקקלג אֲפִלּוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ הַמֻּתָּר בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק.102

אֲבָל הַחִטִּים שֶׁל מַצַּת מִצְוָה – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁמְרָם מִשְּׁעַת קְצִירָה וָאֵילָךְ שֶׁלֹּא יִפְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם,קלד לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלה שֶׁמִּדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּפֶסַח אֶלָּא בְּמַצָּה שֶׁשְּׁמָרָהּ יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵחִמּוּץ מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שֶׁהָיְתָה רְאוּיָה לָבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ, דְּהַיְנוּ מִיָּד בִּתְלִישַׁת הַשִּׁבֳּלִים מֵהַמְחֻבָּר,103 שֶׁאָז אִם הָיוּ נוֹפְלִים עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם הָיוּ מַחְמִיצִין.

(אֲבָל בְּעוֹדָם בִּמְחֻבָּר – אֵינָם בָּאִים לִידֵי חִמּוּץ אִם הֵם צְרִיכִים לַקַּרְקַע,104 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"זקלו):

20 It is permitted to moisten [kernels of] wheat, i.e., [one may soak and] stir [the kernels] in water before grinding them.105 [This measure is permitted] because as long as [the kernels] are being stirred and one is actively manipulating them, they will not become chametz since the wheat is firm and does not become chametz quickly. [However,] immediately after one completes the moistening process, he must grind [the kernels into flour] so that they do not have time to become chametz.106

By contrast, it is forbidden to moisten [kernels of] barley, oats, and rye.107 Since [the kernels of these grains] are soft and become chametz rapidly, there is room for concern that they will become chametz during the moistening process.

כ מֻתָּר לִלְתֹּת אֶת הַחִטִּים,קלז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁבּוֹלְלִין אוֹתָן בְּמַיִםקלח קֹדֶם הַטְּחִינָה,105 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁבּוֹלְלִין אוֹתָן וְעוֹסְקִין בָּהֶם בְּיָדַיִם אֵינָם בָּאִים לִידֵי חִמּוּץ,קלט שֶׁהַחִטִּים הֵם קָשִׁים וְאֵינָם מְמַהֲרִים לְהַחְמִיץ. קמ וּמִיָּד אַחַר גְּמַר הַלְּתִיתָה צָרִיךְ לְטָחֲנָם,קמא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה לָהֶם שְׁהוּת לְהַחְמִיץ.קמב,106 אֲבָל אָסוּר לִלְתֹּת אֶת הַשְּׂעוֹרִיםקמג וְשִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל וְשִׁיפוֹן,קמד,107 שֶׁהֵם רַכִּים וּמְמַהֲרִים לְהַחְמִיץ, וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי חִמּוּץ בִּשְׁעַת הַלְּתִיתָה:

21 All the above108 applies according to Talmudic Law. Nevertheless, the Geonim forbade moistening all [grain to be used for Pesach], even wheat. [The rationale is that] we are not knowledgeable regarding how to soak [and stir] the kernels thoroughly so that they will not become chametz while they are being moistened. Also, there is concern that [the kernels] may be left alone for a short amount of time after the moistening has concluded, before they are ground, and they will [then] become chametz.

Nevertheless, [the Geonim] only forbade partaking [of such flour]. It is permitted to leave [the flour from] wheat that was moistened [until after Pesach],109 provided one is careful to grind [the kernels] immediately after moistening them. If, however, one does not grind [the kernels] immediately [after moistening them], and left the [kernels] with the water’s moisture on them for the time it takes to walk a mil, it is forbidden to [maintain possession of] them [during Pesach], as will be explained in sec. 467[:2]; consult that source.

כא וְכָל זֶה108 מִדִּינָא דִּגְמָרָא, אֲבָל הַגְּאוֹנִים אָסְרוּ כָּל לְתִיתָה אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל חִטִּים, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִין לִלְתֹּת יָפֶהקמה שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי חִמּוּץ בִּשְׁעַת הַלְּתִיתָה, וְעוֹד שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁהוּקמו מְעַט אַחַר גְּמַר הַלְּתִיתָה קֹדֶם הַטְּחִינָה וְיָבוֹאוּ לִידֵי חִמּוּץ.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לֹא אָסְרוּ אֶלָּא בַּאֲכִילָה, אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַחִטִּים הַלְּתוּתִיםקמז,109. רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְטָחֲנָם מִיָּד אַחַר הַלְּתִיתָה, אֲבָל אִם לֹא טְחָנָם מִיָּד אֶלָּא שָׁהוּ בְּלִחְלוּחַ הַמַּיִם שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶם כְּדֵי הִלּוּךְ מִיל – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"זקמח עַיֵּן שָׁם:

22 In those places where it is common for those who mill [grain] to wash the wheat before grinding it, one should warn the general populace not to buy wheat [flour for Pesach] from the owner of a mill. [The rationale is that the miller] takes a measure from all the wheat ground at [his mill]110 throughout the year, and sells it to others.111

כב בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַטּוֹחֲנִים לִרְחֹץ הַחִטִּים קֹדֶם הַטְּחִינָה – יֵשׁ לְהַזְהִיר לַהֲמוֹן עַם שֶׁלֹּא יִקְחוּ חִטִּים מִבַּעַל הָרֵחַיִם, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֵחַ מִדּוֹת חִטִּים מִכָּל חִטִּים הַנִּטְחָנִים אֶצְלוֹ 110 כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וּמוֹכְרוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים:קמט,111

23 If a person desires to store the flour [he will use] for Pesach in the sacks in which he stores the flour used throughout the year, it is not sufficient to wash [the sacks] with cold water. Instead, they must be washed with hot water together with ashes and they must be beaten (i.e., while washing them, the launderer must beat out [the sacks]).

[The rationale is that] the flour that clings to the sack will [cake into] dough because of the cold water, causing it to adhere to the sack to an even greater extent.112 [The flour] will [then] not separate from [the sack] even when [the sack] is washed several times in cold water. [Instead, the sack must] be washed with hot water and ash and beaten out.113

Similarly, if on Pesach, one desires to eat on a cloth that had been placed over a sack of flour – even [flour that was kosher]-for-Pesach – it is not sufficient to shake [out the cloth] or to wash it in cold water [to remove the traces of flour]. Instead, it must be washed with hot water and ash and beaten out.

כג שַׂקִּים שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים בָּהֶם קֶמַח כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, אִם רוֹצֶה לִתֵּן בָּהֶם קֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח – לֹא דַּי לָהֶם בְּכִבּוּס בְּצוֹנֵן, אֶלָּא צְרִיכִין כִּבּוּס בְּחַמִּין עִם אֵפֶר וַחֲבִיטָהקנ (פֵּרוּשׁ הַכָּאוֹת שֶׁהַכּוֹבֵס מַכֶּה עַל הַבְּגָדִים בִּשְׁעַת כְּבִיסָתָןקנא), לְפִי שֶׁהַקֶּמַח הַדָּבוּק בַּשַּׂק נַעֲשֶׂה בָּצֵק עַל יְדֵי מַיִם צוֹנְנִין וּמִתְדַּבֵּק יוֹתֵר בַּשַּׂק,קנב,112 וְאֵינוֹ נִפְרָד מִמֶּנּוּ, וַאֲפִלּוּ יְכַבְּסֶנּוּ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים בְּצוֹנֵן, עַד שֶׁיְּכַבְּסֶנּוּ בְּחַמִּין עִם אֵפֶר וַחֲבִיטָה.113 וְכֵן מַפָּה שֶׁהָיְתָה מֻנַּחַת עַל שַׂק שֶׁל קֶמַח אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל פֶּסַח, אִם רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל עָלֶיהָ בְּפֶסַח – לֹא דַּי לָהּ בְּנִעוּר וְלֹא בְּכִבּוּס בְּצוֹנֵן, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְכַבְּסָהּקנג בְּחַמִּין עִם אֵפֶר וַחֲבִיטָה:קנד

24 Before washing [these sacks], one must undo all the stitches on the sides of the sacks and similarly, the stitches on the border on its edge. If [the sacks] have been patched, one must undo all the stitches on the patches before washing [the sacks.114 The rationale is that] flour [collects] under the stitches [and that flour] will not be [washed] out when [the sacks] are washed. Even if one desires to wash new sacks that were [only] used once for flour that [was kosher]-for-Pesach, one must undo all their stitches before washing them. Nevertheless, after the fact, even [if] one stored flour that [was kosher]-for-Pesach in old sacks [without] undoing their stitches before washing them, the flour may be permitted [to be used] for Pesach.

כד וְקֹדֶם הַכִּבּוּס צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיר כָּל הַתְּפִירוֹת שֶׁבִּקְצוֹת הַשַּׂקִּים,קנה וְכֵן הַתְּפִירוֹת שֶׁבָּאִימְרָא שֶׁעַל שְׂפָתוֹ.קנו וְאִם הֵם מְטֻלָּאִים – צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיר כָּל הַתְּפִירוֹת שֶׁבַּטְּלָאִיםקנז קֹדֶם הַכִּבּוּס,114 שֶׁהַקֶּמַח שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתְּפִירוֹת אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא עַל יְדֵי כִּבּוּס. וַאֲפִלּוּ שַׂקִּים חֲדָשִׁים שֶׁנָּתַן בָּהֶם פַּעַם אַחַת קֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח, אִם רוֹצֶה לְכַבְּסָם צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיר כָּל הַתְּפִירוֹת שֶׁבָּהֶם קֹדֶם הַכִּבּוּס.קנח

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּדִיעֲבַד אֲפִלּוּ שַׂקִּים יְשָׁנִים שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּיר הַתְּפִירוֹת שֶׁבָּהֶם קֹדֶם הַכִּבּוּס וְנָתַן בָּהֶם קֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר הַקֶּמַח לְפֶסַח:קנט

25 All the above applies according to the fundamentals of the law. Nevertheless, the optimum manner of fulfilling the mitzvah is that a person who can, should buy new sacks for Pesach. [The rationale is that] it is very unlikely that there will not be some fleck of dough adhering to one of the holes of the sack [even] after it was washed.

כה וְכָל זֶה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְמִי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁיִּקְנֶה לוֹ שַׂקִּים חֲדָשִׁים לְפֶסַח, כִּי רָחוֹק הַדָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מַשֶּׁהוּ בָּצֵק דָּבוּק בְּאֶחָד מִנִּקְבֵי הַשַּׂק אַחַר הַכִּבּוּס:קס

26 It is necessary to hasten and grind the wheat a day or two before kneading [the flour from] it, i.e., if possible one should see to it that there are two days between the [time when the wheat] was ground and [the time when the flour ground from] it is kneaded. If it is impossible that there be two days between these two [acts], one should endeavor that there be [at least] one day, [i.e.,] a 24-hour period, between them. At the very least, there should be an interval of the passage of a night [between grinding the flour and kneading it into dough. The rationale is that the passage of] the night cools off [the flour] that became very warm when it was being ground.115

On the day that it was ground, by contrast, [the flour] is still very warm, and if it is kneaded that day, it will warm the water. As a result, it will be easier for the dough to become chametz. Even if [the flour] was ground on the day before Pesach, it is forbidden to knead it that day.

Nevertheless, if one violated [these instructions] and kneaded [flour] on the day that it was ground, the dough should not be forbidden to be used for Pesach. [Instead,] extra precautions should be taken when guarding it from becoming chametz, i.e., one should work with [this dough] with greater zeal than [he employs] with other dough.116

כו צָרִיךְ לְמַהֵר לִטְחֹן הַחִטִּים יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁה,קסא דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ יִרְאֶה שֶׁיְּהֵא שְׁהוּת ב' יָמִים בֵּין הַטְּחִינָה לְהַלִּישָׁה. וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶם שְׁהוּת ב' יָמִים – יִשְׁתַּדֵּל שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׁהוּת בֵּינֵיהֶם יוֹם אֶחָדקסב מֵעֵת לְעֵת,קסג וּלְפָחוֹת תְּהֵא מַפְסֶקֶת בֵּינֵיהֶם לִינַת לַיְלָה,קסד שֶׁהַלַּיְלָה מְקָרֵר אֶת הַקֶּמַח שֶׁהָיָה רוֹתֵחַ בִּשְׁעַת הַטְּחִינָה.קסה,115 אֲבָל בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּטְחַן עֲדַיִן הוּא רוֹתֵחַ, וְאִם יָלוּשׁ אוֹתוֹ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם – הֲרֵי הוּא מְחַמֵּם אֶת הַמַּיִם, וְעַל יְדֵי כֵּן הָעִסָּה נוֹחָה לְהַחְמִיץ. וַאֲפִלּוּ נִטְחַן בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אָסוּר לָלוּשׁ אוֹתוֹ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם.קסו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וְלָשׁ אוֹתוֹ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּטְחַן – אֵין לֶאֱסֹר הָעִסָּה לְפֶסַח,קסז וְיִשְׁמְרֶנָּה הֵיטֵב מֵחִמּוּץ,קסח דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיַּעֲסֹק בָּהּ בִּזְרִיזוּת יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁאָר עִסּוֹת:קסט,116

27 When the sacks containing flour are transported from a mill or from other places, it is forbidden to place them on a horse or a donkey that does not have a saddle on it or [at least] a thick piece of leather that is placed under the sacks. [The rationale is that if the sacks[ are placed directly on the back of the animal, the flour will be warmed by the animal’s body and this will cause it to become chametz faster while being kneaded.Moreover, animals usually sweat under the heavy loads, and there is concern that the sweat of the animal can cause [flour] to become chametz like water does.117

Nevertheless, if one violated [these instructions] and placed the sacks on the actual body of the animal, the flour should not be forbidden [to be used] for Pesach. [The rationale is that] it is logical to think that an animal’s sweat has [qualities] similar to human sweat, [and like human sweat,] it will not cause [flour] to become chametz, as will be explained in sec. 466[:1]. Nevertheless, it is necessary that one wait a day or two118 between transporting the flour and kneading it, so that [the flour] can cool [down after having been] warmed by the animal’s body.

כז כְּשֶׁמּוֹלִיכִין הַשַּׂקִּים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן קֶמַח מִן הָרֵחַיִםקע אוֹ מִשְּׁאָר מָקוֹםקעא – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחָם עַל גַּבֵּי סוּס אוֹ חֲמוֹר שֶׁאֵין עָלָיו אֻכָּף אוֹ עוֹר עָב תַּחַת הַשַּׂקִּים, לְפִי שֶׁהַקֶּמַח מִתְחַמֵּם בְּגוּף הַבְּהֵמָה כְּשֶׁמֻּנָּח עַל גַּבָּהּ מַמָּשׁ,קעב וְעַל יְדֵי כֵּן הוּא מְמַהֵר לְהַחְמִיץ בִּשְׁעַת הַלִּישָׁה,קעג וְעוֹד שֶׁרְגִילוּת הַבְּהֵמוֹת הוּא לְהַזִּיעַ תַּחַת כֹּבֶד הַמַּשָּׂא, וְיֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא זֵעַת הַבְּהֵמָה הִיא מְחַמֶּצֶת כְּמוֹ מַיִם.קעד,117

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עָבַר וְנָתַן הַשַּׂקִּים עַל גַּבֵּי גּוּף הַבְּהֵמָה מַמָּשׁ – אֵין לֶאֱסֹר הַקֶּמַח לְפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁהַדַּעַת נוֹטָה שֶׁזֵּעַת הַבְּהֵמָה הִיא דּוֹמָה לְזֵעַת אָדָם שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְחַמֶּצֶת,קעה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ו.קעו וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שְׁהוּת יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם118 בֵּין הוֹלָכָה זוֹ לְהַלִּישָׁה, לְקָרֵר אֶת הַקֶּמַח שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּם מִגּוּף הַבְּהֵמָה:קעז

28 As an initial preference, where possible, one should be careful not to place many sacks of flour one on top of another, so that the flour in the lower sacks does not become warm because of the heavy weight of the upper sacks [lying] on them. If one violated [these instructions] and stored [sacks in this manner], he should wait a day or two before kneading [the flour into dough], as explained.119

As an initial preference, it is also desirable to be careful and refrain from sitting on a sack that contains flour that is [kosher]-for-Pesach, so that the flour will not become warm due to the weight [of the person] seated [upon it].

כח יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַנִּיחַ הַרְבֵּה שַׂקִּים עִם קֶמַח זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶה, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַמֵּם הַקֶּמַח שֶׁבַּשַּׂקִּים הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים מֵחֲמַת כֹּבֶד מַשָּׂא שַׂקִּים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶם.קעח וְאִם עָבַר וְהִנִּיחָם – יַמְתִּין יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם קֹדֶם הַלִּישָׁהקעט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.119 וְכֵן טוֹב לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לֵישֵׁב עַל שַׂק שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח, שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַמֵּם הַקֶּמַח מֵחֲמַת כֹּבֶד יְשִׁיבָתוֹ:קפ

29 It has become universal Jewish custom to scrape out mills before flour for Pesach is ground in them,120 since at times [grain that was] moistened [to produce] fine flour is ground in them.121 How much more so does this apply in these countries where throughout the year fermented barley (referred to as malt)122 is ground in [the mills] while ]the kernels[ are still slightly moist, and [thus are] very [likely to] become stuck to the mills!

כט נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְנַקֵּר הָרֵחַיִם קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּטְחֲנוּ בָּהֶם קֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח,120 לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים טָחֲנוּ בָּהֶם תְּבוּאָה לְתוּתָה לְסֹלֶת.קפא,121 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁכָּל הַשָּׁנָה טוֹחֲנִין בָּהֶם שְׂעוֹרִים חֲמוּצִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין מאל"ץ122) בְּעוֹדָם לַחִים קְצָת וְנִדְבָּקִים מְאֹד בָּרֵחַיִם:קפב

30 It is customary that the first [run of] flour ground in a mill after it has been scraped clean is not [used for] Pesach consumption. ([The rationale is that] there is concern that perhaps [the mill] was not scraped out thoroughly, and a small amount of flour that was chametz remained attached to it. [This chametz then] becomes mixed with that first [run of] flour. Therefore,) [this first run of flour] is stored away until after Pesach or eaten before Pesach.

At present, [since] it has become customary to [attach a] linen cloth as a cover (around) a mill after scraping it out, even the first [run of] flour may be permitted for Pesach [consumption].123

ל וְנוֹהֲגִין שֶׁקֶּמַח הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּטְחַן בָּרֵחַיִם לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּקְּרוּ אוֹתָם אֵין אוֹכְלִין אוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַחקפג (שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא לֹא נִקְּרוּ אוֹתָם הֵיטֵב וְנִשְׁאַר דָּבוּק בָּהֶם מְעַט קֶמַח חָמֵץ וְנִתְעָרֵב מִמֶּנּוּ לְתוֹךְ קֶמַח זֶה הָרִאשׁוֹן,קפד לְפִיכָךְ) מַצְנִיעִין אוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,קפה אוֹ אוֹכְלִין אוֹתוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח. וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְכַסּוֹת (סְבִיבקפו) הָרֵחַיִם בְּבֶגֶד פִּשְׁתָּן אַחַר הַנִּקּוּר – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר גַּם הַקֶּמַח הָרִאשׁוֹן לְפֶסַח:קפז,123

31 All the above124 applies when one grinds [the flour for Pesach] within 30 days of Pesach. If, however, one grinds [the flour] more than 30 days before Pesach, license can be granted to grind [it] without scraping out the mills. [The rationale is that] according to the fundamentals of the law, there is no need to scrape out [the mills] even within 30 days [of Pesach], since even if a small amount [of flour that is] chametz becomes mixed with the flour for Pesach, before Pesach, [the chametz flour] becomes batel because of [the presence of] 60 [times its volume of kosher-for-Pesach flour]. According to all authorities, [the chametz flour] does not become significant again during Pesach provided matzos were baked from [this flour] before Pesach, as explained above.125 Nevertheless, it has become customary to act stringently and scrape out [the mills. However,] the obligation mandated by this custom is not incumbent on [a person] more than 30 days before [Pesach], just as all the other ordinances prescribed by our Sages [in preparation for] Pesach are not yet incumbent on [a person at this time], as explained in sec. 436[:1].

[Moreover,] even within 30 days [of the holiday], in a pressing situation, where it is not easily possible to scrape out the mills and it is also impossible to wait until [a time when] it will be possible to scrape them out because it is close to Pesach, the matter is determined according to the fundamentals of the law. [Thus,] it is permitted to grind [the flour for Pesach] without scraping out the mills, provided one grinds [the flour] before Pesach. Nevertheless, it is desirable to be careful to bake all the matzos [from this flour] before Pesach, because of the rationale mentioned previously.126

לא וְכָל זֶה124 כְּשֶׁטּוֹחֵן בְּתוֹךְ ל' יוֹם שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁטּוֹחֵן קֹדֶם ל' יוֹם – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לִטְחֹן בְּלִי נִקּוּר הָרֵחַיִם, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין לֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְנַקְּרָם אַף בְּתוֹךְ ל' יוֹם, שֶׁאַף אִם יִתְעָרֵב מְעַט חָמֵץ לְתוֹךְ הַקֶּמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעֹר בְּפֶסַח לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אִם אוֹפֶה מִמֶּנּוּ הַמַּצּוֹת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קפח,125 אֶלָּא שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְנַקְּרָם,קפט וְקֹדֶם ל' יוֹם לֹא חָל עָלָיו חוֹבַת מִנְהָג זֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁלֹּא חָל עֲדַיִן כָּל תַּקָּנוֹת חֲכָמִים שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ בִּגְלַל הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"[ו].קצ

וְאַף בְּתוֹךְ ל' יוֹם, אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּקַל לְנַקֵּר הָרֵחַיִם, וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַמְתִּין עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקְּרָם כִּי הוּא סָמוּךְ לְפֶסַח – מַעֲמִידִין עַל עִקַּר הַדִּין,קצא וּמֻתָּר לִטְחֹן בְּלִי נִקּוּר הָרֵחַיִם אִם טוֹחֵן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לִזָּהֵר לֶאֱפוֹת כָּל הַמַּצּוֹת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,קצב מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:126

32 One must be careful not to grind flour for Pesach in a millhouse at the same time that moistened wheat is being ground [there], even though [the moistened wheat] is being ground in another grinder far from the grinder where one desires to grind the flour for Pesach. Nevertheless, the dust from [the moistened grain] will spread through the air and become mixed with the flour for Pesach, since they are both in the same building.

When does the above apply? When it is known that the other grain has been moistened. However, if it is not definitely known [that the other wheat had been moistened], it has become customary to rule leniently if one is grinding [the grain] before Pesach. [The rationale is that] even if the [other] grain had been moistened and its dust became mixed with the flour for Pesach, it is not prohibited after the fact since [whatever dust could have become mixed with the flour] was nullified in 60 [times its volume] before Pesach, and it will not become significant again on Pesach.127

לב צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִטְחֲנוּ (קֹדֶם) [קֶמַח] לְפֶסַח בְּבֵית הָרֵחַיִם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁטּוֹחֲנִין בּוֹ תְּבוּאָה לְתוּתָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטּוֹחֲנִין אוֹתָהּ בְּרֵחַיִם אַחֶרֶת רָחוֹק מֵהָרֵחַיִם שֶׁרוֹצִים לִטְחֹן בָּהֶם קֶמַח לְפֶסַח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הָאָבָק שֶׁלָּהּ פּוֹרֵחַ וּמִתְעָרֵב בְּקֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם בְּבַיִת אֶחָד.קצג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁיָּדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁאוֹתָהּ תְּבוּאָה הִיא לְתוּתָה, אֲבָל אִם אֵין הַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ בְּבֵרוּר – נָהֲגוּ לְהָקֵל אִם טוֹחֲנָן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף אִם אוֹתָהּ תְּבוּאָה הִיא לְתוּתָה וְנִתְעָרֵב הָאָבָק שֶׁלָּהּ בְּקֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח – אֵין אִסּוּר בְּדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁהֲרֵי נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,קצד וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח:קצה,127

33 Men [renowned for their good] deeds who are precise in the observance of the mitzvos are accustomed to personally go to the milling place to observe the milling of their flour. This is [in accordance with the general principle that applies with regard to] all the mitzvos:128 “[It is preferable that one] perform a mitzvah himself than have it performed by his agent.” Indeed, the great Sages of the Talmud conducted themselves in this manner.129

לג אַנְשֵׁי מַעֲשֶׂה הַמְדַקְדְּקִים בְּמִצְוֹת רְגִילִין לֵילֵךְ בְּעַצְמָם אֶל מְקוֹם הָרֵחַיִם לִרְאוֹת הֵם בְּעַצְמָם טְחִינַת קִמְחֵיהֶם,קצו שֶׁכֵּן הוּא בְּכָל הַמִּצְוֹת:128 "מִצְוָה בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁלוּחוֹ",קצז וְכָךְ הָיוּ נוֹהֲגִין גְּדוֹלֵי חַכְמֵי הַגְּמָרָא:קצח,129