CHAPTER 7 [The Details Concerning the Blessings Recited over Other Foods and Beverages] (1–24)

פרק ז [פְּרָטֵי בִּרְכַּת שְׁאָר אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין וּבוֹ כ"ד הֲלָכוֹת]

1 The blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited on all foods that do not grow from the earth, e.g., the meat of domesticated and wild animals, fowl, and fish, milk, cheese, eggs, water, salt, and honey. Similarly [one recites the blessing Shehakol before eating] mushrooms and truffles. Although they grow from the earth, they do not grow [from the earth itself, but] from the moisture on it; [moreover, they also grow] on wood and on utensils. Since they are not nurtured from the earth, but rather from the atmosphere, they are not considered, “the fruit of the earth,” and therefore the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited over them.1

א א ב ג עַל כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין גִּדּוּלוֹ מִן הָאָרֶץ, כְּגוֹן בְּשַׂר בְּהֵמָה חַיָּה וָעוֹף, דָּגִים, וְחָלָב, וּגְבִינָה, וּבֵיצִים, מַיִם, וּמֶלַח,ד וּדְבַשׁה – מְבָרְכִים "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ". וְכֵן כְּמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שוועמליך), אַף שֶׁגִּדּוּלָם מִן הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁמִּלַּחְלוּחִית הָאָרֶץ הֵם גְּדֵלִים עַל הָעֵצִים וְעַל הַכֵּלִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין יְנִיקָתָם מִן הָאָרֶץ אֶלָּא מִן הָאֲוִיר – אֵינָם נִקְרָאִים פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה, וּמְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ".ו

2 So, too, whenever the quality of a food has deteriorated, e.g., bread became somewhat moldy or a food’s appearance changed and deteriorated slightly, its blessing is downgraded [from] the specific blessing designated for it. [Instead,] the general blessing that includes all foods — Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro — is recited over it.

If, however, the food has spoiled entirely to the extent that it is not fit to be eaten at all, even with difficulty, no blessing is recited over it. The same rule applies to bread that has become [entirely] moldy.

Similarly, when the flavor of wine has soured to the extent that people refrain from drinking it because of its sour taste, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should be recited over it. If it turned into actual vinegar, i.e., it became so strong that when cast on the ground, it will bubble and effervesce, no blessing at all should be recited over it, because it will harm [one who partakes of it] and it is not fit to drink at all. If one mixes it with water until it is fit to drink, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited over it.2

ב וְכֵן כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה לְקִלְקוּל – נִשְׁתַּנָּה בִּרְכָתוֹ הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לוֹ, וּמְבָרְכִים עָלָיו בְּרָכָה הַכּוֹלֶלֶת שֶׁהִיא "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ", כְּגוֹן הַפַּת שֶׁעִפְּשָׁה, וְתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה צוּרָתוֹ וְנִתְקַלְקֵלז מְעַט. אֲבָל אִם נִתְקַלְקֵל לְגַמְרֵי עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו כְּלָל,ח וְכֵן בַּפַּת שֶׁעִפְּשָׁה.ט

וְכֵן יַיִן שֶׁהֶחְמִיץי עַד שֶׁבְּנֵי אָדָם נִמְנָעִים לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ מִפְּנֵי חֲמִיצוּתוֹיא – מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ". וְאִם נַעֲשָׂה חֹמֶץ גָּמוּר,יב דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהוּא חָזָק כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּשְׁלִיכִים אוֹתוֹ עַל הָאָרֶץ הוּא מְבַעְבֵּעַ וּמַעֲלֶה רְתִיחוֹתיג – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו כְּלָל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמַּזִּיקוֹ.יד וְאִם עֵרְבוֹ בַּמַּיִם עַד שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לִשְׁתִיָּה – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל".טו

3 Similarly, [the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited] over beverages that are made by cooking produce in water. Indeed, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is even recited over beer made from barley instead of the blessing Borei minei mezonos, because it is [a] clear [liquid]3 that is meant to be drunk.4

ג וְכֵן כָּל מִינֵי פֵּרוֹת שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָם בַּמַּיִם וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶם מַשְׁקֶה.טז וַאֲפִלּוּ שֵׁכַר שְׂעוֹרִים מְבָרְכִים עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל"יז וְלֹא "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת", הוֹאִיל וְהוּא צָלוּל וְעוֹמֵד לִשְׁתִיָּה.יח

4 Wine whose aroma resembles vinegar, but that tastes like wine, is [halachically] still considered wine and its blessing does not change. If, however, it tastes like vinegar, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited over it even though its aroma resembles wine.5

ד יַיִן שֶׁרֵיחוֹ חֹמֶץ וְטַעְמוֹ יַיִן – עֲדַיִן שֵׁם יַיִן עָלָיו, וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכָתוֹ.יט אֲבָל אִם טַעְמוֹ חֹמֶץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֵיחוֹ יֵין – מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל".כ

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5 The blessing Borei pri hagafen is recited over wine that was boiled.6 Similarly, when honey or [ground] pepper is mixed into wine, the blessing Borei pri hagafen is recited over it; although its flavor has changed, it has not deteriorated.7

ה יַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל מְבָרְכִים עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן".כא וְכֵן יַיִן שֶׁמְּעֹרָבִים בּוֹ דְּבַשׁ וּפִלְפְּלִין,כב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה טַעַם הַיַּיִן עַל יְדֵי הַדְּבַשׁ וּפִלְפְּלִיןכג – לֹא נִשְׁתַּנָּה לִגְרִיעוּתָא, וּבִרְכָתוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן".

6 [A different rule applies] if another beverage8 was mixed with wine. If a quantity [of the beverage] sufficient to detract from the wine’s taste was added, the blessing Borei pri hagafen should not be recited over it, only the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro, since [the wine’s] flavor has deteriorated. If a beverage that does not detract from the wine’s flavor was added [to the wine], the halachah depends on the proportion of the beverages. [If the majority is wine, the blessing Borei pri hagafen should be recited. Otherwise, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should be recited.]9

When wine is mixed with water, even if there is a majority of water, the blessing Borei pri hagafen should [still] be recited, provided: a) the wine remains strong enough that it is still fit to drink [even] when so heavily diluted, and b) it is common for people to drink it as wine10 [even] when diluted to this extent. If this is not the case [i.e., most people would not drink this beverage as wine, but the person drinking the beverage does consider it wine], the person’s individual feelings are considered insignificant in light of the approach of people at large [and the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should be recited].

If there are six parts water to every part wine, [i.e.,] the volume of the water is six times the volume of the wine, the blessing Borei pri hagafen should never be recited over the beverage.11

ו יַיִן שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בּוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִין, אִם נִתְעָרֵב כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁנִּפְסַד טַעַם הַיַּיִן – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" אֶלָּא "שֶׁהַכֹּל",כד כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה לִגְרִיעוּתָא. וְאִם נִתְעָרֵב בּוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַפְסִיד טַעַם הַיַּיִןכה – הוֹלְכִין אַחַר הָרֹב.כו

וְיַיִן שֶׁמְּזָגוֹ בְּמַיִם, אֲפִלּוּ הַמַּיִם הֵם הָרֹב – מְבָרְכִים עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן",כז אִם הוּא יַיִן חָזָק שֶׁרָאוּי לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי מְזִיגָה גְּדוֹלָה כָּזוֹ, וְדֶרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם יַיִן עַל יְדֵי מְזִיגָה כָּזוֹ, שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן בְּטֵלָה דַּעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם. וְאִם הַיַּיִן הוּא אֶחָד מִשִּׁשָּׁה בַּמַּיִם, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשָּׁה פְּעָמִים כְּמוֹתוֹכח – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן" בְּכָל עִנְיָן.כט

7 The blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should not be recited before drinking water, nor the blessing Borei nefashos afterwards, unless one drinks because he is thirsty. If, however, one drinks to swallow a cheekful [of food] that is causing him to choke,12 he should not recite a blessing, neither beforehand nor afterwards. For a person only derives satisfaction from drinking water when he is thirsty.

With regard to other beverages, by contrast, a person who drinks them [also] derives physical satisfaction from their flavor. [Therefore,] he must recite a blessing before and after drinking them even though he does not desire them and is not partaking of them because he wants to, butbecause he is forced to, [for example,] because he is choking on a cheekful of food.13

ז אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַמַּיִם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" לִפְנֵיהֶם וּ"בוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" לְאַחֲרֵיהֶם אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה לִצְמָאוֹ, אֲבָל אִם שׁוֹתֶה לְהַבְלִיעַ לֻגְמָתוֹ שֶׁחֲנָקַתּוּ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְל לֹא בַּתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַּסּוֹף,לא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הֲנָאָה לָאָדָם בִּשְׁתִיַּת הַמַּיִם אֶלָּא בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא צָמֵא.לב אֲבָל שְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֲנָאָה לַגּוּף בִּשְׁתִיָּתָן וּבְטַעְמָןלג – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶן בַּתְּחִלָּה וּבַסּוֹף, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ תָּאֵב לָהֶם וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹתֶה בְּרָצוֹן אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס לֻגְמָתוֹ שֶׁחֲנָקַתּוּ.לד

8 Similar [principles apply] regarding all foods and beverages which a person eats or drinks for curative purposes. If they have a pleasant flavor and the person enjoys their [taste], he must recite a blessing before and after partaking of them, even if he does not desire to partake of them at all and partakes of them only because he is forced to, due to his illness.14

If, however, they have an unpleasant [taste] and he does not derive any satisfaction from them, although he is being healed through them, he should not recite a blessing before or after partaking of them. (If they are neither tasty, nor entirely bad-tasting, there is an authority who maintains that one should always recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro over them.)15

ח וְכֵן כָּל הָאֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל וְשׁוֹתֶה לִרְפוּאָה, אִם טַעְמָן טוֹב וְהַחֵךְ נֶהֱנֶה מֵהֶם – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם תְּחִלָּה וָסוֹף, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ תָּאֵב לָהֶם כְּלָל וְאֵינוֹ אוֹכְלָם אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס חָלְיוֹ.לה אֲבָל אִם הֵם רָעִים שֶׁאֵין לוֹ הֲנָאָה מֵהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְרַפֵּא בָּהֶם – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְלו לֹא בַּתְּחִלָּה וְלֹא בַּסּוֹף (וְאִם אֵינָם טוֹבִים וְלֹא רָעִים לְגַמְרֵי – יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁרָצָה לוֹמַרלז שֶׁלְּעוֹלָםלח מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל"לט).

9 Similarly, when a sick person [must] eat on Yom Kippur or when a person [must] eat forbidden food because of a danger [to his life], he must recite a blessing beforehand and afterwards, because he is enjoying [the food. This ruling applies] even though he does not at all willingly derive satisfaction [and eats only] because he is forced to, because of his illness.16

ט וְכֵן חוֹלֶה הָאוֹכֵל בְּיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים,מ אוֹ מִי שֶׁאוֹכֵל דְּבַר אִסּוּר מִפְּנֵי הַסַּכָּנָה,מא כֵּיוָן שֶׁנֶּהֱנֶה צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה וָסוֹף, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה בְּרָצוֹן כְּלָל אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס חָלְיוֹ.מב

10 When honey was cooked together with a variety ofcrushed spices in order to flavor it, as is the practice of travelers, the honey is considered the [mixture’s] primary element (ikar). The spices [are considered] secondary (tafel) because they are used only to improve and flavor the honey. Therefore, one should recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro [on this mixture].

When, however, [different] types of confections are made from fruits, herbs, orvariousspices steeped in honey, these ingredients are considered the primary element [in the mixture] and the blessing appropriate for them should be recited. [This rule applies] even if the other elements of the mixture, [i.e., the fruits, herbs or spices,] are thoroughly crushed and mixed into the honey, (as explained in ch. 6, [law 14],) [and] even if there is much more of the honey than [of the other food].17

To what does the above apply? To a confection (which is made to be preserved and eaten a little bit at a time, and not to be eaten in large amounts as sustaining food and as a cooked dish. Therefore the honey is not considered of primary importance, even though it is the larger portion of the mixture.) When, however, cooked food (that is meant to be eaten [as a significant element of a meal]) is made from a mixture of honey and other types of food that are not one of the five species of grain — instead, they are produce or kitniyos18— the blessing [to be recited] is determined by the [confection’s] main [ingredient]. If the honey constitutes the larger part [of the mixture], it is considered the primary element. The blessing [Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro] should be recited over the confection. [This blessing will] cover the produce [as well] even if [the produce or the kitniyos] are not crushed and mixed together with [the honey], but are intact in [the honey]. Since they were cooked together and became one cooked dish, [they are covered by a single blessing]. The same ruling applies [when foods are cooked] in other liquids, with the exception of water,19 unless one ingredient is of primary importance and the other [ingredient] only serves to improve and enable one to partake of the first.20

י דְּבַשׁ שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ עִם מִינֵי בְּשָׂמִים כְּתוּשִׁים כְּדֵי לְבַשְּׂמוֹ כְּמִנְהַג הוֹלְכֵי דְּרָכִים – הַדְּבַשׁ עִקָּר וְהַבְּשָׂמִים טְפֵלִים, וּמְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהַכֹּל", שֶׁהֲרֵי הַבְּשָׂמִים בָּאִים לְתַקֵּן הַדְּבַשׁ וּלְהַטְעִימוֹ.מג

אֲבָל מִינֵי מִרְקַחַת מִפֵּרוֹת אוֹ עֲשָׂבִים אוֹ מִינֵי בְּשָׂמִים מְרֻקָּחִים בִּדְבַשׁ, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם כְּתוּשִׁים בְּיוֹתֵרמד וּמְעֹרָבִים בִּדְבַשׁ – הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים עִקָּר וּמְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם בִּרְכָתָםמה (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק ו'מו) אֲפִלּוּ הוּא הַרְבֵּה מִמֶּנּוּ.מז

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?מח בְּמִרְקַחַת (שֶׁהִיא עֲשׂוּיָה לְקִיּוּם, לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנָּה מְעַט מְעַט לִפְרָקִים, וְלֹא לְאָכְלָם הַרְבֵּה לְמָזוֹן וּלְתַבְשִׁיל, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין הַדְּבַשׁ נֶחְשָׁב עִקָּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא הָרֹב), אֲבָל תַּבְשִׁיל (שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי לַאֲכִילָה) הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִתַּעֲרֹבֶת דְּבַשׁ וּמִינִים אֲחֵרִים שֶׁאֵינָם מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי דָּגָן,מט כְּגוֹן פֵּרוֹת וְקִטְנִיּוֹת – הוֹלְכִים אַחַר הָרֹב,נ וְאִם הָרֹב הוּא דְּבַשׁ – הוּא עִקָּר,נא וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַפֵּרוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָם כְּתוּשִׁים וּמְעֹרָבִים עִמּוֹ אֶלָּא עוֹמְדִים בְּעֵינָם בְּתוֹכוֹ,נב כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ יַחַד וְנַעֲשׂוּ תַּבְשִׁיל אֶחָד,נג וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין,נד חוּץ מִמַּיִם,נה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָאֶחָד הוּא עִקָּר וְהַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְתַקֵּן וּלְהַכְשִׁיר אֲכִילַת חֲבֵרוֹ.נו

11 Whenever fruits were squeezed to extract their juice, the juice does not have the fruit’s status with regard to the blessing recited over it. [Therefore,] the blessing Borei pri haetz is not recited over [fruit juice]. Instead, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited over it. (Therefore, this blessing should be recited over beverages [like] visniak21 and maliniak.22) Olives and grapes are exceptions [to this rule]. Liquids [that are squeezed] from them [have the same status] as they do, and it would be fitting to recite the blessing Borei pri haetz on [liquids] produced from them.23

Nevertheless, [the blessing Borei pri haetz is not recited over wine, nor commonly over oil]. Since wine is important, [our Sages] established a separate, specific blessing for it.

A blessing should not be recited over [olive] oil when one drinks it by itself because it is harmful to his body. If one partakes of it with bread or mixes it together other liquids (for example, it is common to mix it with beer), the bread or the other beverages are considered of primary importance. A blessing should be recited over them, and that blessing covers the [olive] oil.

[There is] an exception [to this rule: One who] has a sore throat and [intends] to heal it by drinking a mixture oil and other beverages. Even though the oil is the lesser part of the mixture, it is considered its primary element because he is drinking the mixture with a curative intent. Therefore, he should recite the blessing Borei pri haetz over the mixture, and [thereby] cover the other beverages which are auxiliary (tafel).24

יא כָּל הַפֵּרוֹתנז שֶׁסְּחָטָן לְהוֹצִיא מֵימֵיהֶם – אֵין מֵימֵיהֶם חֲשׁוּבִים כְּמוֹתָם לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ",נח אֶלָּא מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ"נט (וְלָכֵן מְבָרְכִים עַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה ווישניק אוֹ מאליניק "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ"), חוּץ מִזֵּיתִים וַעֲנָבִיםסשֶׁהַמַּשְׁקֶה הַיּוֹצֵא מֵהֶם כְּמוֹתָם,סא וְרָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ".סב

אֶלָּא שֶׁהַיַּיִן מִפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹסג גּוֹרֵם בְּרָכָה לְעַצְמוֹ, בְּרָכָה מְבֹרֶרֶת וּפְרָטִית יוֹתֵר,סד וְהִיא "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הַגָּפֶן".סה וְהַשֶּׁמֶן אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו כְּלָל כְּשֶׁשּׁוֹתֵהוּ לְבַדּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַזִּיק לוֹ.סו וְאִם אוֹכְלוֹ עִם פַּת אוֹ מְעָרְבוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִיןסז (כְּמוֹ שֶׁרְגִילִין לִתְּנוֹ לְשֵׁכָר) – הַפַּת אוֹ הַמַּשְׁקִין עִקָּר,סח וּמְבָרֵךְ עַל הַפַּת אוֹ עַל הַמַּשְׁקֶה וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַשֶּׁמֶן.סט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חוֹשֵׁשׁ בִּגְרוֹנוֹ וְשׁוֹתֵהוּ לִרְפוּאָה מְעֹרָב בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִין,ע שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשֶּׁמֶן מוּעָטעא – הוּא עִקָּר, שֶׁמְּכַוֵּן בּוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ לִרְפוּאָה, וְלָכֵן מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" וּפוֹטֵר אֶת הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל אֵלָיו.עב

12 When any fruit, even olives or grapes, are steeped or cooked in water, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should be recited over the water, even though the water is saturated with the fruit’s flavor. This rule even applies regarding dried [fruit] which is usually eaten after being cooked. [The rationale is that the fruit trees] were not planted with the intent [that their fruit would be eaten when cooked].

When does the above apply? To fruits that are usually eaten raw. In contrast, the broth in which vegetables that are generally eaten cooked has the same status as [the vegetables]. For [these vegetables] were planted with the intent that the broth [in which they are cooked] would be eaten with them, or with bread. Accordingly, the broth is not removed from the halachic category of produce entirely. Therefore, one recites the blessing [recited on] the vegetables [before partaking of the broth], even if one drinks the broth by itself.25

Other authorities maintain that the water in which any fruit was cooked or steeped [has the] same [status] as the [fruit], and one should recite the blessing Borei pri haetz over it when drinking it by itself.26 [The rationale is that] the water was cooked primarily for the sake of the fruit, and the water has the flavor of the fruit.27

Accordingly, as an initial preference, one should recite the blessing Shehakol on the [fruit] soup, and thus fulfill his obligation according to all opinions. If, however, he first ate the fruit and recited the blessing Borei pri haetz over it, and then drinks the soup, he should not recite the blessing Shehakol over the soup, for it may have already been covered with the [blessing] Borei pri haetz. Hence, [in such an instance,] it is desirable to drink [another beverage] first so that he may recite the blessing Shehakol over it.28

יב כָּל הַפֵּרוֹת,עג אֲפִלּוּ זֵיתִים וַעֲנָבִים, שֶׁשְּׁרָאָן אוֹ בִּשְּׁלָן בַּמַּיִם,עד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְנַס טַעַם הַפְּרִי בַּמַּיִם – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עַל אוֹתָם הַמַּיִם אֶלָּא "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ",עה אֲפִלּוּ נִתְיַבְּשׁוּ וְדֶרֶךְ לְאָכְלָם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין עִקַּר נְטִיעָתָם עַל דַּעַת כֵּן.עו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּפֵרוֹת שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לְהֵאָכֵל חַיִּין, אֲבָל מִינֵי יְרָקוֹתעז שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּלעח – מֵי בִּשּׁוּלָם כְּמוֹתָם,עט שֶׁעַל דַּעַת כֵּן נוֹטְעִים אוֹתָםפ לֶאֱכֹל גַּם מֵימֵיהֶם עִמָּהֶם אוֹ עִם פַּת,פא וְלֹא יָצְאוּ מִתּוֹרַת אֹכֶל לְגַמְרֵי,פב לְפִיכָךְ מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם בִּרְכַּת הַיְרָקוֹת אַף אִם בָּא לִשְׁתּוֹתָם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם.פג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםפד שֶׁכָּל הַפֵּרוֹתפה מֵי בִּשּׁוּלָם אוֹ שְׁרִיָּתָםפו כְּמוֹתָם, וּמְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" אִם בָּא לִשְׁתּוֹתָם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָם,פז כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר בִּשּׁוּל הַמַּיִם בִּשְׁבִיל הַפֵּרוֹתפח וְיֵשׁ לְהַמַּשְׁקֶה טַעַם הַפְּרִי.פט

וְהִלְכָּךְ, לְכַתְּחִלָּה יְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמָּרָקצ "שֶׁהַכֹּל", וְיוֹצֵא לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.צא אֲבָל אִם אוֹכֵל מִתְּחִלָּה הַפְּרִי וּבֵרַךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ" וְאַחַר כָּךְ בָּא לִשְׁתּוֹת הַמָּרָק – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמָּרָק "שֶׁהַכֹּל", כִּי שֶׁמָּא נִפְטַר כְּבָר בְּבִרְכַּת "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ", עַל כֵּן טוֹב שֶׁיִּשְׁתֶּה דָּבָר אַחֵר תְּחִלָּה לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל".צב

13 All of the above applies with regard to fulfilling one’s obligation when there is a question as to which blessing should be recited before eating (berachah rishonah). [Different laws apply, however,] if there is a question as to which blessing should be recited after eating (berachah acharonah). For example, [the blessing recited after partaking of] raisins, figs or any of the other fruits from the seven species for which Eretz Yisrael is praised is the one blessing that encapsulates three (Al haetz). If one only partakes of the water in which [these fruits]are cooked or steeped [without eating any fruit], it is not clear whether the berachah acharonah should be Al haetz or Borei nefashos rabbos [“Who created many souls…”]. Therefore, one should refrain from drinking an amount of such a liquid [that would require reciting a blessing after partaking of it (a berachah acharonah)] except during a meal. Alternatively, he should eat (the required amount) of a fruit from the seven species and also drink (the required amount) of water, so that he will be obligated to recite both the blessing Al haetz and the blessing Borei nefashos.29

יג וְכָל זֶה לָצֵאת יְדֵי סָפֵק בְּרָכָה רִאשׁוֹנָה, אֲבָל בִּסְפֵק בְּרָכָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, כְּגוֹן מֵי שְׁרִיַּת אוֹ בִּשּׁוּל צִמּוּקִים אוֹ תְּאֵנִים אוֹ שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת מִשִּׁבְעַת הַמִּינִים שֶׁבִּרְכָתָם הָאַחֲרוֹנָה הִיא "מֵעֵין ג'", וּכְשֶׁשּׁוֹתֶה הַמָּרָק לְבַדּוֹ יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם יְבָרֵךְ "מֵעֵין ג'" אוֹ "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת" – לֹא יִשְׁתֶּה כְּשִׁעוּר אֶלָּא תּוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה, אוֹ יֹאכַל פְּרִי מִז' הַמִּינִים (כְּשִׁעוּר) וְגַם יִשְׁתֶּה מַיִםצג (כְּשִׁעוּר), כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ "מֵעֵין ג'" וְגַם "בּוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת".צד

14 All the above applies when the [fruit] was steeped or cooked with the intent of eating it together with the liquid. In that case, the liquid is included in the category of soup, [i.e., it is considered as fruit soup]. If, however, one steeped or cooked the fruit in order to drink the liquid by itself, the liquid is not considered [fruit] soup, but rather [it is considered] a beverage. All authorities agree that that one should recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro [before partaking of it] and the blessing Borei nefashos after [drinking it].30 For this reason, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited over water cooked with leaves (i.e., tea) or on water in which huckleberries or apples were steeped (called apel kvas or yagdas kvas31).([This rule] also applies to coffee).

יד וְכָל זֶה, כְּשֶׁשְּׁרָאָן אוֹ בִּשְּׁלָן עַל דַּעַת לְאָכְלָן עִם מֵימֵיהֶם, שֶׁאָז תּוֹרַת מָרָק עֲלֵיהֶם,צה אֲבָל אִם שְׁרָאָן אוֹ בִּשְּׁלָן לִשְׁתּוֹת מֵימֵיהֶם לְבַדָּם – אֵין שֵׁם מָרָק עֲלֵיהֶם אֶלָּא שֵׁם מַשְׁקֶה, וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" וּ"בוֹרֵא נְפָשׁוֹת רַבּוֹת".צו וְלָכֵן מְבָרְכִין עַל מַיִם מְבֻשָּׁלִים עִם עָלִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין טיי"א)צז אוֹ עַל מֵי שְׁרִיַּת תּוּתִים וְתַפּוּחִיםצח (שֶׁקּוֹרִין עפי"ל קוואס אוֹ יאגיד"ס קוואס) "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" (וְכֵן עַל שְׁתִיַּת הקאוו"י).צט

15 A similar law applies regarding soup produced by [preparing] any cooked dish from the five species of grain. The soup is not considered as the cooked dish itself — which would require the blessing Borei minei mezonos — if one desires to partake of [the soup] by itself, unless he cooked it to partake of the cooked dish.

Instead, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should be recited [when the grain] is cooked primarily to make soup, [i.e., to partake of the soup] itself, e.g., barley that is cooked so that a sick person may partake of the soup as a remedy. For this reason the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro — and not Borei minei mezonos — is recited over barley beer.

[Indeed, this rule would apply] even if one were to eat some of the cooked [grain] with the soup (for example, the cooked barley or oats called grits [in Yiddish]). In that instance, a great deal of water is added making the soup fit only to gulp down.32 The soup would not be covered by the blessing recited over the cooked [grain], since the soup is not secondary to the grain at all. [On the contrary,] the person’s primary intent when cooking [the grain] was to make soup.

Nevertheless, in order to follow the optimum course of action, it is appropriate to first recite the blessing [Shehakol] over the soup and to drink a small amount of soup by itself. Afterwards, the blessing Borei minei mezonos should be recited over the cooked food. For the cooked [grain] does not become secondary to the soup, even though it was cooked primarily for the sake [of the soup. The rationale is that] since it is a species of grain, it is important and it does not become secondary to the extent that it forfeits its [specific] blessing, as long as it was added to impart its flavor to [the cooked food].33

טו וְכֵן מָרָק שֶׁל כָּל מַעֲשֵׂה קְדֵרָה מֵחֲמֵשֶׁת הַמִּינִיןק – אֵין הַמָּרָק נֶחְשָׁב כְּתַבְשִׁיל לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" אִם בָּא לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ,קא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בִּשְּׁלוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכֹל הַתַּבְשִׁיל.קב

אֲבָל אִם עִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִיל הַמָּרָק לְבַדּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִין שְׂעוֹרִים לַחוֹלֶה לִשְׁתּוֹת הַמָּרָקקג – מְבָרְכִים עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ".קד וּמִטַּעַם זֶה מְבָרְכִים עַל שֵׁכַר שְׂעוֹרִים "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" וְלֹא "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת".קה

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אוֹכֵל גַּם כֵּן הַתַּבְשִׁיל עִם הַמָּרָק, כְּגוֹן שֶׁעוֹשִׂין תַּבְשִׁיל מִשְּׂעוֹרִים אוֹ שִׁבֹּלֶת שׁוּעָל (שֶׁקּוֹרִין גרי"ץ) וְנוֹתְנִים מַיִם הַרְבֵּה שֶׁאֵין רָאוּי רַק לְשָׂרְפוֹ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין זו"פ) – אֵין הַמָּרָק נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַתַּבְשִׁיל, שֶׁאֵינוֹ טָפֵל אֵלָיו כְּלָל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִיל הַמָּרָק.קו

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל צַד הַיּוֹתֵר טוֹב, רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה עַל הַמָּרָקקז וְלִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ מְעַט, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְבָרֵךְ עַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת",קח שֶׁגַּם הַתַּבְשִׁיל אֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה טָפֵל אֶל הַמָּרָק אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִילוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁמִּין דָּגָן הוּא חָשׁוּב וְאֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה טָפֵל לְהַפְסִיד בִּרְכָתוֹ כָּל שֶׁבָּא לִתֵּן טַעַם בַּקְּדֵרָה.קט

16 [Different principles apply,] however, when a cooked dish is made from grain in a manner that the kernels of the grain retain their original form. [In this case,] the blessing Borei pri haadamah should be recited on the food. In such an instance, the [resulting] soup is considered similar to soup made from other types of produce, [i.e., fruit].34 [In that instance,] even when one is cooking [the soup] primarily to partake of the fruit, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should be recited on the soup according to the first opinion [mentioned above],35 since the fruit is not usually eaten when cooked. Similarly, the five species of grain are not usually eaten when cooked in a manner that leaves the kernels of grain whole and in their natural state. Instead, bread or cooked food is made from them after they have been crushed or ground [in a mill]. Indeed, this is the reason the blessing Borei minei mezonos is recited [on grain products] because of their importance only when the kernels have been crushed or ground — for this is the manner in which they are usually eaten36 (as stated in ch. 1, [law 8]).37

By contrast, all authorities agree that the blessing Borei pri haadamah is recited over soup made from types of kitniyos that are usually eaten when cooked, even when the beans or kernels are whole and retain their original form. [The above ruling applies] provided one is not cooking [the grain or the kitniyos] primarily for the sake of the soup alone. If, however, he is cooking — whether types of kitniyos or types of grain — primarily for the sake of the soup, he should recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro even if he also eats the cooked food, [i.e., the grain or the kitniyos,] with it. [The soup] is not considered as secondary to [the cooked grain or kitniyos] and it is not covered by its blessing. Nevertheless, in order to follow the optimum course of action, it is appropriate to first recite the blessing [Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro] on the soup and partake of a small amount of it by itself. If the cooked food is a type of grain, he should then recite the appropriate blessing, [i.e., borei minei mezonos] on the cooked food. If, however, [the cooked food] is a type of kitniyos, a blessing should not be recited over it at all, because it is considered secondary to the soup and is covered by its blessing, because [the food] was cooked primarily for the sake of the soup. The same [law] applies to fruit that was cooked primarily for the sake of soup.38

טז אֲבָל תַּבְשִׁיל מִין דָּגָן שֶׁהַגַּרְעִינִים שְׁלֵמִיםקי וְעוֹמְדִים בְּעֵינָם,קיא שֶׁבִּרְכָתוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה"קיב – הֲרֵי הַמָּרָק כְּמָרָק שֶׁל שְׁאָר פֵּרוֹת, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ עִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִיל אֲכִילַת הַפֵּרוֹת – אֵין מְבָרְכִים עַל הַמָּרָק אֶלָּא "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" לִסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קיג הוֹאִיל וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָן עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל,קיד וְאַף חֲמֵשֶׁת מִינֵי דָּגָן אֵין דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל כְּשֶׁהֵם שְׁלֵמִים וְעוֹמְדִים בְּעֵינָם, אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶם פַּת אוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּכְתְּשׁוּ אוֹ נִטְחֲנוּ, שֶׁמִּפְּנֵי זֶה אֵין מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" מִפְּנֵי חֲשִׁיבוּתָםקטו אֶלָּא לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּכְתְּשׁוּ אוֹ נִטְחֲנוּ, שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָםקטז (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק א'קיז).

אֲבָל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּלקיח גַּם בְּעוֹדָם שְׁלֵמִים וְעוֹמְדִים בְּעֵינָם – מְבָרְכִין עַל הַמָּרָק "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.קיט

וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין עִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִיל הַמָּרָק לְבַדּוֹ, אֲבָל אִם עִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִיל הַמָּרָק, בֵּין בְּמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת בֵּין בְּמִינֵי דָּגָן – מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "שֶׁהַכֹּל", אַף אִם אוֹכֵל גַּם כֵּן הַתַּבְשִׁיל עִמּוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ טָפֵל אֵלָיו כְּלָל, וְאֵינוֹ נִפְטָר בְּבִרְכָתוֹ.קכ אֶלָּא לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל צַד הַיּוֹתֵר טוֹב, רָאוּי לְבָרֵךְ תְּחִלָּה עַל הַמָּרָקקכא וְלִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְבָרֵךְ עַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל אִם הוּא מִין דָּגָן.קכב אֲבָל אִם הוּא מִמִּינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל הַתַּבְשִׁיל כְּלָל, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל אֶל הַמָּרָק וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכָתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִילוֹ. וְכֵן בְּפֵרוֹת שֶׁעִקַּר בִּשּׁוּלָם לְצֹרֶךְ הַמָּרָק.קכג

17 [Different laws apply with regard to] types of vegetables. Even if vegetables were cooked for the sake of the soup, one should recite the blessing ordinarily recited for them.39 [The rationale is that] all people cook [vegetables] to partake of them. As such, the soup is considered as secondary to the cooked [vegetables]. Hence, the blessing to be recited over the soup does not change for this individual who cooked the vegetables to partake of [the soup that the vegetables produced]. This person’s intent [— to cook the vegetables so as to partake of the soup —] is considered insignificant in view of most people’s approach.

This situation is not comparable to [soups made] by cooking the five species of grain or kitniyos for the sake of the soup.40 In that instance, it is not appropriate to say that his intent is considered insignificant in view of most people’s approach, because many people cook [these species in other ways, e.g., they] make porridge from barley, without any broth at all. Many others [do not cook grains at all, but instead, grind them into flour and] make bread from them. Similarly, many people eat kitniyos uncooked. Similar concepts apply to fruit that is usually eaten uncooked. Moreover, even dried fruit that is not usually eaten uncooked is often soaked for the sake of the liquid it produces, as is the common practice with regard to dried pears and raisins. Therefore, according to all opinions the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited [on soup made from them when it is made for the sake of the soup],41 as was explained.42

יז אֲבָל מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת אַף אִם נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ לְצֹרֶךְ הַמָּרָק – מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּרְכַּת הַיְרָקוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל הָעוֹלָם מְבַשְּׁלִים אוֹתָם לַאֲכִילָה וְאָז הַמָּרָק בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הַתַּבְשִׁיל – לֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכַּת הַמָּרָק בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָם לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶם,קכד כִּי בָּטְלָה דַּעְתּוֹ אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם.קכה

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן ה' מִינֵי דָּגָן וּמִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁבִּשְּׁלָם לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶם – לֹא שַׁיָּךְ לוֹמַר בָּהֶם כָּל כָּךְ "בָּטְלָה דַּעְתּוֹ", כִּי הַרְבֵּה עוֹשִׂין מֵהֶםקכו כְּעֵין דַּיְסָא בְּלֹא רֹטֶב,קכז וְהַרְבֵּה עוֹשִׂין מֵהֶם פַּת,קכח וְהַרְבֵּה אוֹכְלִין קִטְנִיּוֹת חַיִּין.קכט וְכֵן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לְהֵאָכֵל חַיִּין, וְגַם הַיְבֵשִׁים שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם לְהֵאָכֵל חַיִּין הַרְבֵּה שׁוֹרִין אוֹתָן לְצֹרֶךְ מֵימֵיהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁרְגִילִין בְּאַגָּסִים יְבֵשִׁים וּבְצִמּוּקֵי עֲנָבִים.קל לְפִיכָךְ מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּלקלא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.קלב

18 According to the first opinion [mentioned above],43 the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is the blessing that should be recited over the brine in which produce (such as cabbage and cucumbers) was pickled to be preserved. Although the liquid absorbs the flavor of the produce, nevertheless, [the produce] was not steeped in [the water] with the intent of flavoring it. Indeed, the person did not at all intend to season the water and have it absorb the flavor of the produce. [Thus, steeping the produce in this manner is not comparable to cooking vegetables in which instance] one’s intent is [not only] to cook the vegetables, but to have the vegetables flavor the water with their taste. Accordingly, [in that instance, the water in which the vegetables were cooked] is considered like the vegetables themselves, since it was cooked with the intent to [partake of] it and not only with the intent to partake of the vegetables. According to the second opinion, by contrast, since the main purpose of steeping the produce is for its own sake, one should recite the appropriate blessing for the produce [when partaking of] the liquid in which it was steeped.44

יח מֵי שְׁרִיַּת פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּכְבְּשׁוּ בָּהֶם לְהִתְקַיֵּם (כְּגוֹן קרוי"ט ואוגרקי"ס) – אֵין מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם אֶלָּא "שֶׁהַכֹּל"קלג לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קלד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְנַס טַעַם הַפְּרִי בַּמַּיִם, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִכְבְּשׁוּ בָּהֶם כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ בָּהֶם טַעַם, וְלֹא הָיְתָה הַכַּוָּנָה כְּלָל עַל הַמַּיִם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֻכְשָׁרִים וּמֻטְעָמִים יוֹתֵר בְּטַעַם הַפְּרִי שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס בָּהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַכַּוָּנָה הוּא בְּבִשּׁוּל יְרָקוֹת גַּם עַל הַמַּיִם שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מֻטְעָמִים בְּטַעַם הַיָּרָק שֶׁלְּכָךְ נֶחְשָׁבִים כְּמוֹתָם.קלה אֲבָל לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָהקלו כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר שְׁרִיָּתָם הוּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַפֵּרוֹתקלז – מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם כְּבִרְכַּת הַפְּרִי שֶׁשּׁוֹרֶה בּוֹ.קלח

19 All the above applies with regard to soup in which the food was cooked or [water in which the food] was steeped until it imparted its flavor to the water. When, however, the food was neither cooked nor steeped [in the liquid], but the two were merely mixed so that they would be eaten together, one should recite the blessing appropriate for [the particular liquid] if he would like to drink the liquid by itself. If he partakes of [the liquid and the food] together, there is no need to recite a blessing over [the liquid], even if it is wine, because it is considered as secondary to the food and is covered by the blessing [recited over the food].

If, however, the person’s primary intent was for the soup and the food is included only for the purpose of [enhancing] the soup he drinks, then the soup is of primary importance. If his intent is to partake of both of them, [the blessing] is not determined by the majority [of the mixture]. Instead, one should recite the appropriate blessings for both the soup and the food. First, he should recite the blessing on the cooked food, and partake of a small amount of it. Then he should recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro on the soup.

Even if the cooked food is a species of grain, it is not considered as the primary element of the mixture to the extent that the blessing recited for it will cover the soup. [The rationale is that] even food from a species of grain that becomes soft and fit to drink like soup does not require the blessing Borei minei mezonos (as explained in ch. 1, law 9).

If, however, food was cooked or steeped in soup and flavored the soup, [all the halachic authorities agree that the soup] is considered secondary to the food, and is considered like the food [with regard to its blessing]. According to the second opinion [in law 12], the rationale is that the soup was cooked primarily for the sake of the food. According to the first opinion [in law 12, the rationale is that] the ordinary way of eating this food is to either eat it together with the soup or to eat it with bread, as explained.45

יט וְכָל זֶה בְּמָרָק שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ הַמַּאֲכָל אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה בּוֹ עַד שֶׁנָּתַן בּוֹ טַעַם, אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִשְׁרָה בּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁעֵרְבָן לְאָכְלָם יַחַד, וּבָא לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ – צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ.קלט

וְאִם בָּא לְאָכְלָן בְּיַחַד – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו כְּלוּם, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא יַיִן,קמ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל לַמַּאֲכָל וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכָתוֹ.קמא

וְאִם עִקַּר כַּוָּנָתוֹקמב עַל הַמָּרָק, וְהַמַּאֲכָל הוּא לָתֵת בּוֹ טַעַםקמג – הַמָּרָק עִקָּר.קמד

וְאִם כַּוָּנָתוֹ עַל שְׁנֵיהֶם – אֵין הוֹלְכִים בּוֹ אַחַר הָרֹב, אֶלָּא מְבָרֵךְ עַל שְׁנֵיהֶם,קמה תְּחִלָּה עַל הַמַּאֲכָלקמו וְיֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט, וְאַחַר כָּךְ "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" עַל הַמָּרָק.קמז

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמַּאֲכָל הוּא מִין דָּגָן – אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב עִקָּר לִפְטֹר הַמָּרָק בְּבִרְכָתוֹ,קמח לְפִי שֶׁאַף מִין דָּגָן עַצְמוֹ שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה רַךְ וְרָאוּי לִשְׁתִיָּה כְּמָרָק – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת"קמט (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּפֶרֶק א'קנ).

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בְּמָרָק שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ הַמַּאֲכָל אוֹ נִשְׁרָה בּוֹ וְנָתַן בּוֹ טַעַם, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הַמַּאֲכָל,קנא וּכְאֹכֶל הוּא חָשׁוּב, הוֹאִיל וְעִקָּרוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל הַמַּאֲכָל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרקנב לִסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הַמַּאֲכָל לֶאֱכֹל הַמָּרָק עִמּוֹ אוֹ עִם הַפַּתקנג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קנד

20 The difference of opinion [mentioned in law 12] is relevant only when produce was cooked in the soup by itself, without meat. If, however, meat was placed in the pot, one should recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro if one drinks the soup by itself. This even applies to vegetable soup, because the meat’s flavor in the soup is considered more important than the flavor of the vegetables or fruit.

[A different law applies to] a soup that includes cooked food from species of grain for which the appropriate blessing is Borei minei mezonos. The grain’s flavor in the soup is considered more important than that of the meat. The rationale is that foods from grain are more important than all other types of food, (as explained above46).47

כ וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָרָק שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ לֹא נֶחְלְקוּקנה אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ הַפְּרִי לְבַד בְּלֹא בָּשָׂר, אֲבָל אִם נָתַן בָּשָׂר בַּקְּדֵרָה – אֵין לְבָרֵךְ עַל הַמָּרָק אֶלָּא "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ" אִם בָּא לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ,קנו אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָרָק שֶׁל יְרָקוֹת, כִּי טַעַם הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁבַּמָּרָק חָשׁוּב עִקָּר יוֹתֵר מִטַּעַם הַיְרָקוֹת אוֹ הַפְּרִי.קנז

אֲבָל מָרָק שֶׁל תַּבְשִׁיל מִמִּין דָּגָן שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא מִינֵי מְזוֹנוֹת" – הֲרֵי טַעַם הַדָּגָן שֶׁבַּמָּרָק חָשׁוּב עִקָּר יוֹתֵר מִטַּעַם הַבָּשָׂר, שֶׁמִּין דָּגָן חָשׁוּב מִכָּל הַמִּינִיםקנח (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְעֵילקנט).

21 According to the first opinion [mentioned in law 12], when vegetables are cooked in vinegar, borscht,48 or any other liquid other than water, the blessing for the vegetables should not be recited over the soup. [The rationale is that] the broth in which the vegetables are cooked is considered like the vegetables themselves [with regard to the blessing recited over it] only because the vegetables are cooked in the water until they flavor the water. [It is only then that one] partakes of [it together with the vegetables]. Since the vinegar or the other liquid has its own flavor, that flavor is of primary importance. [Our Sages] ruled that [the blessing recited] over the vegetables [should also be recited over] the soup only when [the vegetables were cooked] in water which does not add any flavor [or] satisfaction except to a person who is thirsty.49

According to the second opinion [mentioned in law 12], if one is primarily cooking for the sake of the vegetables, even if the liquid in which they are cooked has a flavor of its own, the soup is considered secondary to the vegetables and is considered as [the vegetables themselves] once they impart their flavor to the liquid.50

כא וִירָקוֹת שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בְּחֹמֶץ אוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה שֶׁקּוֹרִין בארש"טקס אוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה אַחֵר, חוּץ מִמַּיִםקסא – אֵין מְבָרְכִין עַל הַמָּרָקקסב בִּרְכַּת הַיְרָקוֹת לְפִי סְבָרָא רִאשׁוֹנָה,קסג שֶׁאֵין מֵי יְרָקוֹת חֲשׁוּבִים כְּמוֹתָם אֶלָּא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִים בָּהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּתְּנוּ טַעַם בָּהֶם וְיֹאכְלוּם גַּם כֵּן, וּמֵאַחַר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהַחֹמֶץ אוֹ שְׁאָר מַשְׁקֶה עוֹד טַעַם שֶׁל עַצְמוֹ – הֲרֵי טַעַם זֶה עִקָּר. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁמְּרַק הַיְרָקוֹת כְּמוֹתָם אֶלָּא בְּמַיִם, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם טַעַם הֲנָאָה שֶׁל עַצְמָןקסד אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁהוּא צָמֵא.קסה

אֲבָל לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה אִם עִקַּר הַבִּשּׁוּל בִּשְׁבִיל הַיְרָקוֹת – הֲרֵי הַמָּרָק בָּטֵל אֶצְלָם וְנֶחְשָׁב כְּמוֹתָם כְּשֶׁנָּתְנוּ בּוֹ טַעַם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם עוֹד טַעַם שֶׁלָּהֶם.קסו

22 If dates were crushed by hand, pitted, and made into a dough-like mass, the blessing recited over them does not change, even though this is not the ordinary manner [in which they are eaten]. The blessing Borei pri haetz should be recited over [this mass] because [the dates’] appearance has not changed entirely. [The same law] applies to other fruits that underwent similar processes.

([The above laws] do not resemble those applying to wheat flour that was ground in a mill. In that instance, even if the flour was not ground very finely, it still retains the grain’s flavor, and, to a certain extent, it is fit to be eaten raw, one should not recite the blessing appropriate for wheat — Borei pri haadamah — over it. Rather [one recites] the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro.51 (The same [laws apply] to kitniyos, even those that are cooked), (which are called grupin shel melech, buckwheat groats). [The rationale is that] the wheat’s appearance changed entirely when it was ground, even though it was not ground as finely as ordinary flour. In contrast, even when dates and the like are crushed, they still retain the appearance of fruit.

However, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro should be recited over a nut that was crushed so thoroughly that its identity and appearance is no longer recognizable, or sesame seeds that were milled thoroughly, because this is not the usual manner [in which they are eaten].

[A different law applies] when this is the way [a type of produce] is ordinarily eaten. For example, when ginger [root] or spices are crushed and mixed with sugar or marinated in honey, the blessing recited over them does not change. Similarly, the appropriate blessing52 should be recited over roses and other types of produce which [are prepared to be] eaten by cutting them finely and frying them. [This ruling applies] even if they are thoroughly crushed to the extent that their appearance is not recognizable at all, because this is the manner in which they are eaten.53

כב תְּמָרִיםקסז שֶׁמְּעָכָם בַּיָּד וְהוֹצִיא גַּרְעִינֵיהֶם וְעָשָׂה מֵהֶם עִסָּה,קסח וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם מִשְּׁאָר פֵּרוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּם בְּכָךְ – לֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכָתָם, וּמְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָעֵץ", הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּנָּה תָּאֳרָם לְגַמְרֵי.קסט

וְאֵינָן דּוֹמִין לְחִטִּים שֶׁנִּטְחֲנוּ בְּרֵחַיִם, שֶׁאַף שֶׁלֹּא נִטְחֲנוּ דַּק דַּק כְּקֶמַח גָּמוּר אֶלָּא יֵשׁ בָּהֶן טַעַם חִטִּים וּרְאוּיִין לַאֲכִילָה קְצָת חַיִּין – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין מְבָרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶן "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" אֶלָּא "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ"קע (וְכֵן כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן בְּשֶׁל קִטְנִיּוֹת אֲפִלּוּ מְבֻשָּׁלִיםקעא) (שֶׁקּוֹרִין גרויפי"ן שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ), לְפִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה תֹּאַר הַחִטִּים לְגַמְרֵי בִּטְחִינָתָם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִטְחֲנוּ דַּק דַּק כְּקֶמַח גָּמוּר, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן בִּתְמָרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲכוּ – עֲדַיִן תֹּאַר פְּרִי עֲלֵיהֶם.קעב

אֲבָל אֱגוֹזקעג שֶׁכְּתָשׁוֹ בְּיוֹתֵרקעד עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר בְּמַהוּתוֹ וְתָאֳרוֹ, וְכֵן שֻׁמְשְׁמִיןקעה שֶׁטְּחָנָןקעו הֵיטֵבקעז – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ", הוֹאִיל וְאֵין דַּרְכָּם בְּכָךְ.קעח אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ בְּכָךְ, כְּגוֹן זַנְגְּבִיל וּבְשָׂמִים שְׁחוּקִים וּמְעֹרָבִים עִם צוקער אוֹ מְרֻקָּחִים בִּדְבַשׁ – לֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכָתָם.קעט וְכֵן וְרָדִיםקפ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָן הוּא לְחָתְכָם דַּק דַּק וּלְטַגְּנָם – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בִּרְכָתָם, אֲפִלּוּ כְּתוּשִׁים בְּיוֹתֵרקפא עַד שֶׁאֵין נִכָּר תָּאֳרָם כְּלָל,קפב לְפִי שֶׁגַּם זֶה הוּא דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָן.קפג

23 When produce was cooked or fried [to the extent] that it dissolved in the cooking process — for example, [jam made from] fried cherries (called povidla [in Yiddish]) — and its identity and appearance has changed, the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidivaro should be recited over it since this is not the ordinary way in which it is eaten. [A different rule applies,] however, if the produce did not dissolve entirely in the cooking process, but was only crushed and squashed. Since its substance still remains and its identity and appearance is recognizable, the blessing for it does not change, even though this is not the ordinary way it is eaten.54

כג וְכֵן פֵּרוֹת מְבֻשָּׁלִים אוֹ מְטֻגָּנִים שֶׁנִּמּוֹחוּ עַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל, כְּגוֹן גֻדְגְּדָנִיּוֹת מְטֻגָּנִים (שֶׁקּוֹרִין פאווידל"א),קפד וְנִשְׁתַּנָּה מַהוּתָם וְתָאֳרָם, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָם – מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ". אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִמּוֹחוּ לְגַמְרֵי בְּבִשּׁוּלָם, רַק שֶׁנִּתְרַסְּקוּ וְנִתְמַעֲכוּ וַעֲדַיִן מַמָּשָׁן קַיָּם וְנִכָּר מַהוּתָם וְתָאֳרָם – לֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכָתָם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין זוֹ דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָם.קפה

24 There are authorities who [differ with the above and] maintain that the blessing recited over produce — whether raw or cooked — does not change even when the produce either dissolves entirely in the cooking process, or was crushed to the extent that its identity and appearance is no longer recognizable, even when this is not the ordinary way it is eaten, provided its [flavor] did not deteriorate.

[This produce] is not comparable to wheat flour that was not ground as finely as ordinary flour, over which the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro is recited,55 although it has the flavor and substance of wheat. [The rationale for the distinction is that] the [ground] wheat can be upgraded by making bread from it. Although its form was changed from its natural state by being ground, this change did not change it into the final product, i.e., bread. Therefore, the flour is removed from the category of produce in which it had been classified before it underwent the change, and its [blessing] is downgraded [to Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro]. Fruits or vegetables, by contrast, are not used to make bread. Hence, the fact that [their appearance] changes by being crushed or dissolved through cooking does not cause them to be removed from the category of produce unless their [flavor] deteriorates through cooking, as explained (in ch. 6, [law 10]).

[A different ruling applies to certain] types of kitniyos. Since bread is sometimes made from them, the change from their natural state causes them to be removed from the category of produce. [This ruling applies] even if [they underwent this change] by being ground or crushed in a mortar, as is common with millet and other similar types of kitnoyos from which porridge (called kasha migropin [in Yiddish]) is made.

(Nevertheless, according to the first opinion,56 it is possible that crushing or grinding kitniyos slightly does not cause the blessing over [the kitniyos] to change. Hence, the blessing Borei pri haadamah is recited over such porridge, since this is the ordinary manner in which one partakes of [this type of food].)

With regard to actual practice, after the fact, the principle, whenever there is a doubt regarding a blessing, we rule leniently, should be followed. As an initial preference, however, one should recite the blessing Shehakol nih’yah bidvaro [over this type of porridge so as] to fulfill his obligation according to all opinions.57

כד וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקפו שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁנִּמּוֹחוּ לְגַמְרֵי בַּבִּשּׁוּל אוֹ שֶׁנִּכְתְּשׁוּ בְּיוֹתֵר עַד שֶׁאֵין מַהוּתָם וְתָאֳרָם נִכָּר כְּלָל – לֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכָתָם, בֵּין חַיִּין בֵּין מְבֻשָּׁלִים,קפז אִם לֹא נִשְׁתַּנּוּ לִגְרִיעוּתָא,קפח וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָם בְּכָךְ.קפט

וְאֵין דּוֹמִין לְחִטִּים שֶׁלֹּא נִטְחֲנוּ דַּק דַּק כְּקֶמַח גָּמוּר אֶלָּא יֵשׁ בָּהֶם טַעַם חִטִּים וּמַמָּשָׁם וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מְבָרְכִים עֲלֵיהֶם "שֶׁהַכֹּל נִהְיָה בִּדְבָרוֹ",קצ לְפִי שֶׁהַחִטִּים יֵשׁ לָהֶם עִלּוּי אַחֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן פַּת, לְפִיכָךְ, מֵאַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ מִבְּרִיָּתָם עַל יְדֵי טְחִינָה וְלֹא הִגִּיעוּ בְּשִׁנּוּי זֶה לְמַעֲלָתָם הָאַחֲרוֹנָה שֶׁהִיא מַעֲלַת הַפַּת – הֲרֵי שִׁנּוּיָם זֶה מוֹצִיאָן וּמוֹרִידָן מִתּוֹרַת פְּרִי שֶׁהָיְתָה עֲלֵיהֶם קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנּוּ,קצא אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁאֵין עוֹשִׂין מֵהֶם פַּת – אֵין שִׁנּוּיָם זֶה שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כְּתִישָׁה אוֹ מִחוּי הַבִּשּׁוּל מוֹצִיאָם מִתּוֹרַת פְּרִי, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִשְׁתַּנּוּ לִגְרִיעוּתָא בְּטַעְמָם עַל יְדֵי בִּשּׁוּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר (בְּפֶרֶק ו'קצב).

אֲבָל מִינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת, הוֹאִיל וְדֶרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מֵהֶן פַּת לִפְעָמִים – הֲרֵי שִׁנּוּיָם מִבְּרִיָּתָם בִּטְחִינָתָם מוֹצִיאָם מִתּוֹרַת פְּרִי,קצג וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי קְצָת טְחִינָה אוֹ כְּתִישָׁה בְּמַכְתֶּשֶׁת, כַּנָּהוּג בְּדֹחַן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִמִּינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת שֶׁעוֹשִׂין מֵהֶם דַּיְסָא (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קאש"ע מגרופי"ן).קצד

(אֲבָל לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהקצה אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁבִּכְתִישָׁה אוֹ טְחִינָה מוּעֶטֶת לֹא נִשְׁתַּנֵּית בִּרְכָתָם, וְיֵשׁ לְבָרֵךְ עַל דַּיְסָא זוֹ "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה", מֵאַחַר שֶׁזּוֹ הִיא דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָתָהּקצו).

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, סְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל בְּדִיעֲבַד.קצז אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה מְבָרֵךְ "שֶׁהַכֹּל" לָצֵאת לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.קצח