SECTION 452 The [Required] Process and the [Appropriate] Time to [Perform] Hag’alah on Utensils (1-30)

סימן תנב סֵדֶר וּזְמַן הַגְעָלַת כֵּלִים וּבוֹ ל' סְעִיפִים:

1 The process through which hag’alah is [performed is as follows]: One should take a kettle and boil water in it. [Afterwards,] he should immerse in it all the utensils that require hag’alah1 in a k’li rishon.2

When a utensil is [too] large to immerse in [a kettle], one should make a border of mortar around [the utensil’s] rim so that it will [be able to] hold a large amount of water, enabling water to cover its entire rim.3 He should then fill [the utensil] with water and boil [the water] over fire. In this manner, even the rim of the utensil will have been subjected to hag’alah by the boiling water that passed over it.4

True, the boiling water will not remain on the rim of the utensil for an extended time, for [the water] will immediately flow [down] from [the rim] and descend from there through the mortar. Nevertheless, throughout the year as well, chametz did not remain on the rim of the utensil [for an extended time]. Chametz is only absorbed there because of [small] discharges that are sprayed from the food onto the rim of the utensil.

[This border is necessary,] for if one does not make a border around the rim [of the utensil] so that the boiling [water] will pass over its rim, [and he will only rely on] the [ordinary] discharges sprayed from the boiling water in [the utensil], the hag’alah will not be effective for [kashering] its rim. [The rationale is that] there is reason for concern that [the water] discharged will not ascend over the (entire) rim during the hag’alah. By contrast, the forbidden [substance]5 was cooked in the utensil many times. [Thus,] it is impossible that discharges [of the forbidden substance] did not ascend over (every [portion]) of its rim [at least] once.

If a person does not want to make a border [around the edge of the utensil], he should fill it copiously with water, and boil it over fire. He should then take a glowing hot stone or a flaming torch and cast it into the boiling water. As a result, the water will [come to a more] furious boil, ascending higher and flowing over the entire rim.

א סֵדֶר הַגְעָלָה: לוֹקֵחַ יוֹרָה וּמַרְתִּיחַ בָּהּ מַיִם וּמַכְנִיס לְתוֹכָהּ כָּל כֵּלִיםא הַצְּרִיכִים הַגְעָלָה1 בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן.ב,2

וּכְלִי גָּדוֹל שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכְנָס כְּלָל לְתוֹכָהּ – יַעֲשֶׂה שָׂפָהג שֶׁל טִיטד סָבִיב לְפִיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל מַיִם רַבִּים וְיַעַבְרוּ הַמַּיִם עַל כָּל שְׂפָתוֹ,3 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְמַלְּאֶנּוּ מַיִם עַל כָּל שְׂפָתוֹ וְיַרְתִּיחֵם בְּתוֹכוֹ אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁגַּם שְׂפַת הַכְּלִי הֻגְעַל עַל יְדֵי הָרוֹתְחִים שֶׁעָבְרוּ עַל גַּבָּיו.4 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָרוֹתְחִין אֵינָן מִתְעַכְּבִין הַרְבֵּה עַל שְׂפַת הַכְּלִי,ה שֶׁמִּיָּד הֵן זָבִין וְיוֹרְדִים מִשָּׁם דֶּרֶךְ הַטִּיט,ו מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי גַּם כָּל הַשָּׁנָה לֹא נִתְעַכֵּב הֶחָמֵץ עַל גַּבֵּי שְׂפַת הַכְּלִי, וְלֹא נִבְלַע בּוֹ הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי נִיצוֹצוֹתז הַנִּתָּזִים מֵהַתַּבְשִׁיל לִשְׂפַת הַכְּלִי.ח

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה שָׂפָה לְפִיו כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעַבְרוּ הָרוֹתְחִין עַל שְׂפָתוֹ – אֵין הַגְעָלָה עוֹלָה לִשְׂפָתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נִיצוֹצוֹת הַנִּתָּזִין עַל גַּבָּיו מֵהָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא עַכְשָׁו בִּשְׁעַת הַגְעָלָה זוֹ לֹא יַעֲלֶה נִיצוֹצוֹת עַל (כָּל) שְׂפָתוֹ, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן הָאִסּוּר5 שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּתוֹכוֹ פְּעָמִים הַרְבֵּה – אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא הֶעֱלָה נִיצוֹצוֹת עַל (כָּל) שְׂפָתוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת.ט

וְאִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ שָׂפָה – יְמַלְּאֶנּוּ מַיִם הֵיטֵב וְיַרְתִּיחֵם בְּתוֹכוֹ אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ וְיִקַּח אֶבֶן רוֹתֵחַ אוֹ לַפִּיד אֵשׁ וְיַשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ לְתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִין, וּמִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ יַרְתִּיחוּ יוֹתֵר וְיִגְבְּרוּ וְיַעֲלוּ עַל כָּל שְׂפָתוֹ:י

2 (After performing hag’alah either by [making a] rim or by [casting] a stone or a torch into [the utensil, the person] should pour the boiling water out from [the utensil]6 and then rinse [the utensil] with cold water.7 [Afterwards, the person] should fill [the utensil] with water [a second time]8 and boil it, performing hag’alah as he did the first time by [making a] rim or by [casting] a stone or a flaming torch into [the utensil. This second hag’alah is required] when one is performing the hag’alah on the day before Pesach from the fifth hour and onward9 and the utensil had been used within 24 hours, as will be explained.)10

All the above applies when only the inner portion of the utensil was used for chametz, as is the [ordinary] practice with regard to all utensils. Therefore, [the utensil] may be kashered through hag’alah with boiling water on its inside, for “[A utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance].”11 When, however, a utensil also absorbs chametz on its outside, for example, a ladle with which boiling [liquids] are taken from a k’li rishon12 and similarly, a bowl [where the] outer side [of its base] is used to cover a stewpot, it may not be kashered [merely] by boiling [water] inside of it.13 Instead, [such utensils] must be immersed entirely in a large kettle so that the boiling water will [also] cover their outer side.14

ב (וּלְאַחַר שֶׁהִגְעִילוֹ עַל יְדֵי שָׂפָה אוֹ עַל יְדֵי אֶבֶן וְלַפִּיד – יִשְׁפֹּךְ הָרוֹתְחִין מִתּוֹכוֹ6 וְיִשְׁטְפֶנּוּ בְּמַיִם קָרִים,7 וְיַחֲזֹר וִימַלְּאֶנּוּ מַיִם8 וְיַרְתִּיחֵם בְּתוֹכוֹ וְיַגְעִילֶנּוּ כַּמִּשְׁפָּט הָרִאשׁוֹן עַל יְדֵי שָׂפָה אוֹ אֶבֶן וְלַפִּיד אֵשׁ, אִם הוּא מַגְעִיל בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית וָאֵילָךְ9 וְהַכְּלִי הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ,יא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵריב,10).

וְכָל זֶה בִּכְלִי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָמֵץ אֶלָּא מִתּוֹכוֹ כְּדֶרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישׁ כָּל הַכֵּלִים, וּלְכָךְ הוּא נִכְשָׁר עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלַת הָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, דִּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ".11 אֲבָל כְּלִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ חָמֵץ גַּם בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁלּוֹ, כְּגוֹן כְּלִי שֶׁשּׁוֹאֲבִין בּוֹ רוֹתְחִין מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,יג,12 וְכֵן קְעָרָה שֶׁמְּכַסִּין הָאִלְפָּס בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁלָּהּיד – אֵינָן נִכְשָׁרִין עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלַת הָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁמִּתּוֹכָן,טו,13 אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְהַכְנִיסָן כֻּלָּם לְתוֹךְ יוֹרָה גְּדוֹלָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה הָרוֹתְחִים עַל צַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁלָּהֶם:14

3 When one immerses utensils in a large kettle, he must be careful that the water is boiling, i.e., that bubbles [are rising from the boiling water], at the time he immerses the utensils in it. [The rationale is that] hag’alah may only be performed with boiling [water] from which bubbles rise,15 but not in [merely] hot water, even though [it is so hot] that a hand will recoil from it.

It is common that when one immerses a utensil into boiling [water, the water temporarily] ceases to boil. [Therefore,] if one immerses many utensils into a kettle one after the other, he must wait and not immerse a second utensil until the water returns [to its previous state] and begins to bubble [again. The person] should wait in such a manner before immersing each individual utensil.

One must be very conscientious concerning this, because if one is not careful concerning this, he [will] invalidate the hag’alah entirely. Nevertheless, people at large are not careful about this factor. There are [some] authorities who found justification for their conduct, [explaining that] the general practice is to only perform hag’alah [by immersion] for spoons,16 which are primarily used in a k’li sheni,17[for] bowls that are primarily used by pouring [hot food into them] from a k’li rishon,18 and [for] cups that are primarily used for cold [drinks].19 Such utensils and the like need not [be kashered by] hag’alah in boiling [water].20 Instead, it is sufficient [to immerse such utensils] in hot water from which a hand would recoil. In contrast, [hag’alah in hot water that is not boiling is not effective] for utensils that are primarily used with the heat of a k’li rishon.21[Indeed,] if the water is not boiling, the [utensils even] cause the hot water in which they were immersed to become forbidden, even after the fact.

ג וּכְשֶׁמַּכְנִיס הַכֵּלִים לַיּוֹרָה – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַמַּיִם מַעֲלִין רְתִיחָה,טז דְּהַיְנוּ אֲבַעְבּוּעוֹת,יז בִּשְׁעַת כְּנִיסַת הַכֵּלִים לְתוֹכָם, שֶׁהַהַגְעָלָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בְּרוֹתְחִין שֶׁמַּעֲלִין אֲבַעְבּוּעוֹת,15 אֲבָל לֹא בְּחַמִּין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.יח

וְאִם מַכְנִיס לַיּוֹרָה כֵּלִים הַרְבֵּה זֶה אַחַר זֶה, וּרְגִילוּת כְּשֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין כְּלִי אֶחָד לְתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִין מִיָּד נָחִים מֵרְתִיחָתָם – צָרִיךְ לְהַמְתִּין שֶׁלֹּא יַכְנִיס כְּלִי הַשְּׁנִיָּה עַד יָשׁוּבוּ הַמַּיִם וְיַעֲלוּ אֲבַעְבּוּעוֹת, וְכֵן יַמְתִּין בְּהַכְנָסַת כָּל כְּלִי וּכְלִי.יט

וּמְאֹד צָרִיךְ לְהִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה, שֶׁאִם לֹא נִזְהַר בָּזֶה – הֲרֵי הִפְסִיד הַהַגְעָלָה לְגַמְרֵי. אֲבָל הָעוֹלָם אֵינָן נִזְהָרִין בָּזֶה, וְיֵשׁ שֶׁלִּמְּדוּ עֲלֵיהֶם זְכוּת,כ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהַגְעִיל רַק כַּפּוֹת16 שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן הוּא בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי,כא,17 וּקְעָרוֹת שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן הוּא עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,כב,18 וְכוֹסוֹת שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן הוּא בְּצוֹנֵן,כג,19 וְכֵלִים הַלָּלוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָן בְּרוֹתְחִין,20 אֶלָּא דַּי לָהֶם בְּחַמִּין שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.כד אֲבָל כֵּלִים שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן הוּא עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן21 – אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד אוֹסְרִין אֶת הַחַמִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶם, אִם הִגְעִילָן בְּחַמִּין שֶׁלֹּא הֶעֱלוּ רְתִיחָה:כה

4 There are authorities who require [the person performing the hag’alah] to leave the utensils in the boiling [water] for the time he assumes it would take them to release all the [forbidden] substances they absorbed. [Nevertheless,] this is not the customary practice,22 and a practice customarilyobserved by the Jewish people [has the strength of] Torah Law.23 [Moreover, there is logic to this practice:] Who can know how to estimate when a utensil will release all the substances it absorbed? Were it to be required that [the utensil] be left in boiling water for the same amount of time that the forbidden [substance] remained in it when it was absorbed, performing hag’alah once would never be effective. [After all, the utensil] was used for the forbidden [substance] on [several occasions]. How could it release all [that it absorbed] through one hag’alah?! Instead, our Sages received the tradition that [a utensil] releases everything [that it absorbed] through one hag’alah. If so, there is no difference whether one leaves the utensil in the boiling water for an extended time or he removes it immediately.

Nevertheless, it is desirable to leave [the utensil in the boiling water] for a brief time, so that the boiling [water] will have time to enter the entire thickness of the utensil and release the absorbed substances from there. Even though the release [of the absorbed substances] is instantaneous, nevertheless, it is necessary that [the utensil] remain [in the boiling water] for some time so that the boiling [water] can enter the thickness of the utensil and the absorbed substances [can] emerge from it.

ד יֵשׁ מַצְרִיכִין לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַכֵּלִים בְּתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִיןכו בְּאֹמֶד הַדַּעַת,כז בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיַּפְלִיטוּ כָּל גִּעוּלָם. וְלֹא נָהֲגוּ כֵּן,כח,22 וּמִנְהָגָן שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל תּוֹרָה הוּא,כט,23 כִּי מִי יוֹדֵעַ לְשַׁעֵר מָתַי יַפְלִיט הַכְּלִי כָּל גִּעוּלוֹ, שֶׁאִם בָּאנוּ לוֹמַר שֶׁיַּשְׁהֶה אוֹתוֹ כָּל כָּךְ בְּרוֹתְחִין כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁשָּׁהָה בּוֹ הָאִסּוּר כְּשֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ – לֹא הָיְתָה הַגְעָלָה אַחַת מוֹעֶלֶת לוֹ כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אִסּוּר זֶה כַּמָּה יָמִים, וְהַאֵיךְ יִפְלֹט כֻּלּוֹ בְּהַגְעָלָה אַחַת? אֶלָּא וַדַּאי כָּךְ קִבְּלוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁבְּהַגְעָלָה אַחַת הוּא פּוֹלֵט אֶת הַכֹּל, וְאִם כֵּן אֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אִם יִשְׁהֶה הַרְבֵּה בְּרוֹתְחִין אוֹ אִם יוֹצִיאֶנּוּ מִיָּד.ל

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ מְעַט מִזְּעֵיר, בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה פְּנַאי לְהָרוֹתְחִין לִכָּנֵס לְתוֹךְ עֳבִי הַכְּלִי וּלְהַפְלִיט הַגִּעוּל מִשָּׁם, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַפְּלִיטָה נַעֲשֵׂית כְּרֶגַע, מִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ קְצָת שְׁהִיָּה כְּדֵי כְּנִיסַת הָרוֹתְחִין לְתוֹךְ עֳבִי הַכְּלִי וּכְדֵי יְצִיאַת הַגִּעוּל לַחוּץ:לא

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 It has become universal Jewish custom to rinse each individual utensil in cold water immediately after hag’alah was performed on it.24 [This prevents the utensils] from absorbing the residue from the boiling water on its surface. [The rationale is that] the substances that were [absorbed in and] released from the utensil have become mixed with the boiling [water]. True, [the absorbed substance that was released] already became batel [because it was mixed] with 60 times [its volume of water].25 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is customary to remove [any trace of the water from the hag’alah] from the surface of the utensil by rinsing [the utensil] with cold [water].

ה וּלְאַחַר הַגְעָלַת כָּל כְּלִי וּכְלִי נָהֲגוּלב כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְשָׁטְפוֹ תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּד בְּמַיִם קָרִים,24 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִבְלַע מִלִּכְלוּךְ מַיִם רוֹתְחִים שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו, שֶׁגִּעוּל פְּלִיטַת הַכְּלִי נִתְעָרֵב בָּרוֹתְחִין.לג וְאַף שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכָם בְּשִׁשִּׁים,לד,25 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן נוֹהֲגִין לְכַתְּחִלָּהלה לְהַעֲבִירוֹ מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי שְׁטִיפָה בְּצוֹנֵן:

6 After the hag’alah of the utensilshas been completed, the boiling [water] in the kettle should be poured out. [The rationale is that] as an initial preference, it is forbidden to benefit from [this water],26 because the [forbidden] substances that had been [absorbed in and] released from the utensils are mixed in with [the water]. True, [those substances] have already become batel [because they were mixed] with [at least] 60 times [their volume of water].27 Nevertheless, since the person performing the hag’alah intentionally immerses the utensil into the boiling [water] in order to release the forbidden [substance28] from the utensil into the boiling [water], were he to benefit from the boiling [water] in which the forbidden substance was nullified, this would resemble intentionally nullifying a forbidden [substance] in a permitted [substance, i.e., in the boiling water].29 If, however, [the person performing hag’alah] does not benefit from the water, he is not considered as intentionally nullifying a forbidden substance, since his intent is solely to release the forbidden substance from the utensil, and not to benefit from the water into which the forbidden substance was released.30

(Even if the utensils upon which hag’alah was performed had not been used within 24 hours – in which instance, the flavor of the substance being released from them is impaired – benefitting from the water in the kettle should not be permitted as an initial preference. [The rationale is that] license to use a substance whose flavor was impaired was granted only when a person transgressed and cooked in a pot that had not been used for 24 hours. [In that instance,] it is permitted to eat the food [cooked in that pot at that time]. However, as an initial preference, it is forbidden to cook in a pot [that had been used for a forbidden substance], even if [the pot] had not been used [for the forbidden substance] within 24 hours.31 Thus, when [the person] intentionally [places] the [forbidden] utensil into the water to release the impaired forbidden [substance] from the utensil into the water, were he to benefit from the water into which the impaired forbidden [substance] was released, it would be comparable to [initially] cooking in a pot [used for a forbidden substance] that had not been used within 24 hours.)

ו וּלְאַחַר גְּמַר הַגְעָלַת הַכֵּלִים – יִשְׁפֹּךְ הָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה הַחוּצָה, שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה,לו לְפִי שֶׁגִּעוּל פְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים מְעֹרָב בָּהֶם.26 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכָם בְּשִׁשִּׁים,27 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמַּגְעִיל מַכְנִיס הַכְּלִי בַּיָּדַיִם לְתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִים כְּדֵי לְהַפְלִיט הָאִסּוּר28 מִן הַכְּלִי לְתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִין – הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בְּתוֹךְ הַהֶתֵּר בְּיָדַיִםלז אִם יֵהָנֶה מֵהָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁהָאִסּוּר נִתְבַּטֵּל בָּהֶם.לח,29 אֲבָל אִם לֹא יֵהָנֶה מֵהֶם – אֵינוֹ כִּמְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בְּיָדַיִם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ רַק לְהַפְלִיט הָאִסּוּר מִן הַכְּלִי, וְלֹא לֵהָנוֹת מֵהַמַּיִם שֶׁהָאִסּוּר נִפְלַט לְתוֹכָם.לט,30

(וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַכֵּלִים הַנִּגְעָלִים לֹא הָיוּ בְּנֵי יוֹמָן,מ שֶׁהַגִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מֵהֶם הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין לְהַתִּיר לֵהָנוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה מִן הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה, שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁעָבַר וּבִשֵּׁל בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בַּת יוֹמָהּ, שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה,מא אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לְבַשֵּׁל בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בַּת יוֹמָהּ,מב,31 וְזֶה שֶׁמַּכְנִיס הַכְּלִי בַּיָּדַיִם לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם כְּדֵי לְהַפְלִיט הָאִסּוּר הַפָּגוּם מִן הַכְּלִי לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם – הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְבַשֵּׁל בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ בַּת יוֹמָהּ אִם יֵהָנֶה מִן הַמַּיִם שֶׁהָאִסּוּר הַפָּגוּם נִפְלַט לְתוֹכָם):

7 One should be careful to thoroughly wash and scrub [clean] all utensils – even tables and cabinets32 – that require hag’alah, before hag’alah is performed on them, so that no forbidden [substance] will actually be present.33 ([This is merely a precautionary measure,] for according to the fundaments of the law, it can be assumed that utensils are clean,34 as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 95.)35 Afterwards, [the person] should dry [the utensils] from the water with which they were washed, since this [water] is cold. [Drying the utensil] will prevent [the cold water] from slightly cooling off the water used for hag’alah.36

ז וְכָל הַכֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ שֻׁלְחָנוֹת וְתֵבוֹת הַצְּרִיכִין הַגְעָלָה32 – יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר לַהֲדִיחָם וּלְשַׁפְשְׁפָם יָפֶה קֹדֶם הַהַגְעָלָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה דָּבוּק בָּהֶם שׁוּם מַשֶּׁהוּ אִסּוּר בְּעֵיןמג,33 (אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין סְתָם כֵּלִים נְקִיִּים הֵם,34 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"המד,35). וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְנַגְּבֵם יָפֶה מִמֵּי הַהֲדָחָה שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּיהֶם שֶׁהֵם צוֹנְנִים, שֶׁלֹּא יְצַנְּנוּ מְעַט אֶת מֵי הַהַגְעָלָה:מה,36

8 When [a person] performs hag’alah on utensils that had absorbed chametz after the time when its prohibition takes effect, i.e., on the day before Pesach from the fifth hour onward,37 he must first perform hag’alah on the kettle38 in which he will perform hag’alah on the utensils. He should then pour out the water with which he performed that hag’alah and rinse [the kettle] with cold water.39 [Afterwards, the person] should boil different water, and then immerse [the utensils he seeks to kasher] in it.

[This preliminary hag’alah is necessary.40] Were [the person] not to [perform this preliminary hag’alah], the water in the kettle would be forbidden because of [the chametz absorbed in] the kettle. [The rationale is that] the water is less than 60 times [the volume of] the thickness of all the sides of the kettle and its base.41 The water that became forbidden will then cause the utensils on which hag’alah is being performed in it to become forbidden, because [the chametz] released by the kettle into the water will be absorbed by these utensils.

ח הַמַּגְעִיל כֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים מֵחָמֵץ לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּר אֲכִילָתוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה ה'מו וָאֵילָךְ37 – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִיל מִתְּחִלָּה אֶת הַיּוֹרָה38 שֶׁמַּגְעִיל בָּהּ אֶת הַכֵּלִים,מז וְיִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶת מֵי הַהַגְעָלָה לַחוּץ40 וְיִשְׁטְפֶנָּה בְּצוֹנֵן,מח,39 וְיַרְתִּיחַ בָּהּ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים וְיַכְנִיס בְּתוֹכָהּ אֶת הַכֵּלִים, שֶׁאִם לֹא יַגְעִיל הַיּוֹרָה מִתְּחִלָּה – הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה נֶאֱסָרִין מֵחֲמַת הַיּוֹרָה, שֶׁאֵין בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל עֳבִי דָּפְנֵי הַיּוֹרָה וְשׁוּלֶיהָ,מט,41 וְחוֹזְרִין הַמַּיִם הַנֶּאֱסָרִים וְאוֹסְרִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים הַנִּגְעָלִין בְּתוֹכוֹ, שֶׁפְּלִיטַת הַיּוֹרָה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם נִבְלָע בַּכֵּלִים:נ

9 It is necessary that [the volume of] the water in the kettle be [at least] 60 times [the volume of] all the utensils on which hag’alah is being performed in it.42 [The rationale is that] if [the volume of] the water is not 60 [times the volume of] the utensils, the water will become forbidden because of [the chametz] released by the utensils. [The water] will then cause all the utensils to become forbidden. [The rationale is that the chametz] released by the utensils into the water will be reabsorbed by them, and cause them to be forbidden, since [the chametz] was not nullified, [due to the lack of the presence of] 60 times [its volume] in water.

ט וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה שִׁשִּׁיםנא כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַכֵּלִיםנב הַנִּגְעָלִים בְּתוֹכָם,42 שֶׁאִם אֵין בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכֵּלִים – הֲרֵי הַמַּיִם נֶאֱסָרִין מֵחֲמַת פְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים, וְחוֹזְרִין וְאוֹסְרִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים, שֶׁפְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם חוֹזֶרֶת וְנִבְלַעַת בָּהֶם וְאוֹסַרְתָּן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּטְּלָה בְּשִׁשִּׁים בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם:נג

10 [The above applies] even if one does not perform hag’alah on all the utensils at the same time, but rather does so one after the other. It is not sufficient that [the volume of] the water be merely 60 [times the volume of] each individual utensil, [rather,] it must be 60 times [the volume of] all of [the utensils] together. [The rationale is that when] the absorbed substance is released from the second or third utensil, the absorbed substance from the first [utensil] becomes significant again and is combined with the absorbed substance from the second or third [utensil. The combined substances that have been released into the water] cause the water to be forbidden if it does not contain 60 [times the volume of all the utensils], as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 99;43 consult that source.

י וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ מַגְעִיל כָּל הַכֵּלִים בְּבַת אַחַת אֶלָּא מַגְעִילָן זֶה אַחַר זֶה – לֹא דַּי שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּמַיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל כְּלִי וּכְלִי בִּלְבַדּוֹ, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּהֶם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד כֻּלָּם בְּיַחַד, לְפִי שֶׁגִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מִכְּלִי הַב' אוֹ הַג' – הֲרֵי גַּם גִּעוּל הָרִאשׁוֹן חוֹזֵר וְנֵעֹר וּמִצְטָרֵף עִם גִּעוּל הַב' וְג' וְאוֹסְרִין אֶת הַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן,נד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"טנה,43 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

11 When does the above44 apply? When the utensils upon which hag’alah is being performed absorbed the forbidden [substance] within 24 hours. If, however, [the forbidden substance was absorbed] more than 24 hours earlier, it is not necessary that [the volume of] the water be 60 [times the volume of] even one of the utensils. [The rationale is that the flavor of] the absorbed substance that the utensils released has been impaired. Even if [this substance] will be reabsorbed in [the utensils, since] its flavor is impaired, it is permitted [to use the utensils] as long as [they absorbed this impaired flavor] before Pesach,45 as explained in sec. 447[:18].

True, even before the absorbed substances were released from the utensils, [their flavor] was also impaired and, nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it was necessary to perform hag’alah on them to purge [that flavor] from the utensils. [This is] a decree, [imposed as a safeguard lest one use] utensils that had been used within 24 hours [without performing hag’alah on them].46 If so, since [after the hag’alah], the absorbed substance [that had been purged] is reabsorbed in [the utensil], of what benefit was the hag’alah?47

Nevertheless, [in resolution, it can be explained that even before hag’alah was performed,] the impaired [flavor of] the substance that had been absorbed is absolutely permitted, even according to Rabbinic Law.48 [Accordingly, the status of the flavor absorbed in the utensil after hag’alah] is that of a secondary flavor that is permitted, i.e., the impaired flavor that was absorbed in the utensil before hag’alah was performed is a primary permitted flavor. The absorbed substance that was impaired was released into the water from [the utensil]; this constitutes a secondary permitted flavor. And then the water was reabsorbed by the utensils; this is a tertiary permitted flavor. [Such a flavor] is permitted entirely, even when a Scriptural prohibition is involved, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 95.49

יא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?44 כְּשֶׁהַכֵּלִים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּגְעִילָן הֵם בְּנֵי יוֹמָן מִבְּלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר, אֲבָל אִם אֵינָן בְּנֵי יוֹמָן – אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁיםנו אֲפִלּוּ כְּנֶגֶד כְּלִי אֶחָד מֵהֶם, שֶׁהַגִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מֵהַכֵּלִים הוּא פָּגוּם, וְאַף אִם חוֹזֵר וְנִבְלָע בָּהֶם – הֲרֵי הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם, וּמֻתָּר כְּשֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,45 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז.נז

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקֹּדֶם שֶׁנִּפְלַט הַגִּעוּל מִן הַכֵּלִים הָיָה גַּם כֵּן פָּגוּם וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילוֹ וּלְהַפְלִיטוֹ מִן הַכְּלִי מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם כְּלִי בֶּן יוֹמוֹ,46 וְאִם כֵּן עַכְשָׁיו שֶׁהַגִּעוּל חָזַר וְנִבְלַע בָּהֶם – מָה הוֹעִיל כְּלוּם בְּהַגְעָלָתוֹ?47

מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַגִּעוּל בְּעַצְמוֹ הַפָּגוּם מֻתָּר גָּמוּר הוּא אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,48 הֲרֵי יֵשׁ נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, דְּהַיְנוּ טַעַם פָּגוּם שֶׁהָיָה בָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי קֹדֶם הַהַגְעָלָה הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם אֶחָד שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, וּמִמֶּנּוּ נִפְלָט הַגִּעוּל הַפָּגוּם לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם הֲרֵי נוֹתֵן טַעַם ב' שֶׁל הֶתֵּר,נח וְכֵן הַמַּיִם חָזְרוּ וְנִבְלְעוּ בַּכֵּלִים הֲרֵי נוֹתֵן טַעַם ג' שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, וְהוּא מֻתָּר גָּמוּר אַף בְּאִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ה:נט,49

12 Similarly, if the kettle had not been used within the past 24 hours, it is not necessary to perform hag’alah on it before performing hag’alah on the utensils [to be immersed] in it.50 [The rationale is that the status of the water in the kettle] is that of a tertiary permitted flavor: from the chametz to the kettle, from the kettle to the water [boiled] in it, and from the water to the utensils which are undergoing hag’alah. All [of these flavors] are permitted, since [the flavor of] the absorbed substance [in the kettle] is impaired.

יב וְכֵן אִם הַיּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ בַּת יוֹמָהּ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָהּ קֹדֶם הַגְעָלַת הַכֵּלִים בְּתוֹכָהּ,ס,50 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן ג' נוֹתְנֵי טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר: מִן הֶחָמֵץ לַיּוֹרָה, וּמִן הַיּוֹרָה לַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, וּמִן הַמַּיִם לַכֵּלִים הַנִּגְעָלִים, וְהַכֹּל שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַגִּעוּל הוּא פָּגוּם:

13 All [the above] applies when one performs hag’alah from [the beginning of] the fifth hour and onward on the day before Pesach.51 Similarly, even throughout all the days of the year, if one performs hag’alah on a utensil that absorbed [food] prohibited by Scriptural or Rabbinic Law, it is necessary to be careful that [the forbidden utensils] have not been used within 24 hours, or that [the volume of] the water will be 60 [times the volume of all the utensils undergoing hag’alah. When either of these conditions are met,] it is permissible to perform hag’alah, even if one performs hag’alah on utensils that absorbed forbidden [substances] together with kosher utensils that absorbed chametz.52 [This ruling applies] even if one places the utensil that absorbed the forbidden substance into the kettle before he places the kosher utensil [that absorbed chametz], or one places them both [in the kettle] at the same time.

If, however, one performs hag’alah on utensils that absorbed chametz before the fifth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan], even if the kettle had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, it is not necessary to first perform hag’alah on the kettle.53 Similarly, it is not necessary that [the volume of] the water be 60 [times the volume of] the utensils [being kashered], even though they had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. [The rationale is that] since chametz was still permitted to be eaten [at that time], what is [absorbed in the utensil] is a tertiary flavor that is permitted, provided it has yet to become forbidden, i.e., it is before the time [chametz] becomes forbidden. Therefore, [the chametz absorbed in the utensil being kashered] does not become forbidden even when the time when [chametz becomes] forbidden arrives, as explained in sec. 447[:45].*

* Consult that source, [which states that] even the authorities who forbid a secondary flavor [that is permitted] agree that a tertiary flavor [that is permitted is not forbidden], for the reason mentioned in that source.54 This situation does not resemble fish that were cooked in a pot that had been used for meat, which some authorities55 forbid eating together with milk even though it involves a tertiary flavor, i.e., [the flavor was transmitted] from the meat to the pot [in which it was cooked], from the pot to the liquid in which the fish [were cooked], and from the liquid to the fish. [Nevertheless, in that instance] the weakened flavor of meat that is absorbed in the fish is to a certain degree still significant, because [the flavor of] one food is absorbed in another food. [The rationale is that] the fish are fit to be eaten, and [the flavor of] the meat [the fish absorb] improves their flavor. Therefore, [according to these authorities,] if [fish] were cooked in a pot used for meat, it is forbidden to eat them together with milk [even though the taste of meat is merely a tertiary flavor]. By contrast, the weakened flavor of chametz that is released from the utensil or from the kettle and is then absorbed in the utensil56 is not considered as a [significant] flavor at all when it is released into cooked food during Pesach.

יג וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ.51 וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ בְּכָל יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, אִם מַגְעִיל כְּלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מִשְּׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה אוֹ אִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁיְּהֵא בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ,סא וְאָז מֻתָּר לְהַגְעִיל אֲפִלּוּ אִם מַגְעִיל כֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים מֵאִסּוּר עִם כֵּלִים כְּשֵׁרִים הַבְּלוּעִים מֵחָמֵץ,52 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מַכְנִיס לַיּוֹרָה כְּלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מֵאִסּוּר קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּכְנִיס כֵּלִים הַכְּשֵׁרִים אוֹ שֶׁמַּכְנִיסָן בְּיַחַד בְּבַת אַחַת.סב

אֲבָל אִם מַגְעִיל כְּלֵי הֶחָמֵץ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ה', אַף אִם הַיּוֹרָה הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילוֹ תְּחִלָּה,סג,53 וְכֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכֵּלִים אַף אִם הֵם בְּנֵי יוֹמָן,סד דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הוּא מֻתָּר עֲדַיִן בַּאֲכִילָה – הֲרֵי יֵשׁ כָּאן ג' נוֹתְנֵי טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבֹא לִכְלַל אִסּוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּרוֹ,סה וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֶאֱסָר אַף כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּרוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז.סו,*

* [וְעַיֵּן שָׁם שֶׁאַף הָאוֹסְרִים בְּב' נוֹתְנֵי טַעַם מוֹדִים בְּג' נוֹתְנֵי טַעַם,סז מִטַּעַם הַמְבֹאָר שָׁם.54 וְאֵין הַדָּבָר דּוֹמֶה לְדָגִים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹסְרִים לְאָכְלָם בְּחָלָב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ ג' נוֹתְנֵי טַעַם: מִן הַבָּשָׂר לַקְּדֵרָה, וּמֵהַקְּדֵרָה לְהָרֹטֶב שֶׁל דָּגִים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, וּמֵהָרֹטֶב לַדָּגִים,סח, 55 לְפִי שֶׁטַּעַם קָלוּשׁ שֶׁל בָּשָׂר הַמֻּבְלָע בַּדָּגִים יֵשׁ בּוֹ חֲשִׁיבוּת טַעַם קְצָת, כִּי נִבְלַע אֹכֶל בְּאֹכֶל, שֶׁהַדָּגִים רְאוּיִן לַאֲכִילָה וְהַבָּשָׂר נָתַן בָּהֶם טַעַם לִשְׁבָח, לְכָךְ אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּחָלָב אִם נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁל בָּשָׂר. אֲבָל טַעַם קָלוּשׁ שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּפְלַט מִן הַכֵּלִים אוֹ מִן הַיּוֹרָה וְחוֹזֵר וְנִבְלָע בַּכֵּלִים – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב טַעַם כְּלָל כְּשֶׁיַּחֲזֹר וְיִפְלֹט בְּפֶסַח לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁילסט, 56]

14 When does the above apply?57 When one performs hag’alah [only] on utensils used for milk or [only] on utensils used for meat. If, however, [a person] performs hag’alah [on utensils used for milk] together with [utensils used for meat], i.e., he places them in the kettle at exactly the same time, he must be careful that [either the volume of] the water is [at least] 60 times [the volume of] one [group] of [utensils], or that one [group] of [utensils] should not have been used within 24 hours. Were both [the utensils used for milk and the utensils used for meat] to have been used within 24 hours and [the volume of] the water [was] not 60 [times the volume of] one of them, the water will become forbidden due to the release [of the flavor] of the meat and [the flavor] of the milk that is mixed together in it.58 [The water] will then cause the utensils and the kettle to become forbidden.59

When, by contrast, one does not perform hag’alah [on utensils used for milk] together with [utensils used for meat], even though he performs hag’alah on [all the utensils] in the same kettle, immersing them one after the other, the water does not become forbidden at all. [The rationale is that] a secondary flavor that is permitted before the prohibition comes about – [the flavor of] the meat or the milk [was transmitted] from [the meat or the milk] to the utensil and [then it was transmitted] from the utensil to the water in the kettle. [At that time,] everything was still permitted because only the [permitted] flavor of the milk alone or the [permitted] flavor of the meat alone was released into the water.60

יד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?ע,57 כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל כְּלֵי חָלָב לְבַדָּם אוֹ כְּלֵי בָּשָׂר לְבַדָּם, אֲבָל אִם מַגְעִילָם בְּיַחַד,עא דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁתּוֹחֵב אוֹתָם בַּיּוֹרָה בְּבַת אַחַת מַמָּשׁעב – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד אֶחָד מֵהֶם,עג אוֹ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה אֶחָד מֵהֶם אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, שֶׁאִם שְׁנֵיהֶן הֵן בְּנֵי יוֹמָן וְאֵין בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד אֶחָד מֵהֶם – הֲרֵי נֶאֶסְרוּ הַמַּיִם מֵחֲמַת פְּלִיטַת הַבָּשָׂר וּפְלִיטַת הֶחָלָב הַמְעֹרֶבֶת בָּהֶם,58 וְחוֹזְרִין וְאוֹסְרִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים וְאֶת הַיּוֹרָה.עד,59 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מַגְעִילָן בְּיַחַד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּגְעִילָן בְּיוֹרָה אַחַת אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּכְנִיסָן זֶה אַחַר זֶה – לֹא נֶאֶסְרוּ הַמַּיִם כְּלָל, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּרעה קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּבוֹא לִכְלַל אִסּוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ מִן הַבָּשָׂר אוֹ הֶחָלָב לַכְּלִי וּמִן הַכְּלִי לְהַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה, וַעֲדַיִן הַכֹּל הֶתֵּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִפְלַט לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם אֶלָּא טַעַם חָלָב לְבַדּוֹ אוֹ טַעַם בָּשָׂר לְבַדּוֹ:עו,60

15 All the above applies according to the fundamental principles of the law. However, it has already become customary in these countries to be stringent and to first perform hag’alah on the kettle, even when it has not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, and one is performing hag’alah in it before the fifth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan].

Similarly, it has become customary not to perform hag’alah on any utensil when it was used [for chametz] within 24 hours, even when [hag’alah is being performed] on it alone and [the volume of] the water is more than 60 [times its volume]. Even if one desires to perform hag’alah on [the utensil] before the fifth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan], he should not perform hag’alah on it if it had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. [This is] a decree lest one err and perform hag’alah on utensils that absorbed other Scripturally forbidden [foods] when they had been used [for the prohibited substance] within 24 hours without checking to ascertain that [the volume of] the water is 60 [times the volume of the forbidden utensil].

[When hag’alah is being performed on utensils that absorbed other forbidden substances, were the volume of the water] to be less than 60 [times the volume of the forbidden utensil being immersed], the water [would become forbidden.61 When that water] would be reabsorbed in the utensils, it would cause them to become forbidden. [The rationale is that] the secondary flavor [of the prohibited substance] is not permitted;62 on the contrary, it [derives from the] forbidden [flavor] absorbed in the utensil.

טו וְכָל זֶה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לְהַחֲמִיר לְהַגְעִיל הַיּוֹרָה תְּחִלָּה אַף אִם אֵינָהּ בַּת יוֹמָהּ וּמַגְעִיל בְּתוֹכָהּ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ה'.עז

וְכֵן נָהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְהַגְעִיל שׁוּם כְּלִיעח כְּשֶׁהוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹעט אַף שֶׁהוּא יְחִידִיפ וְיֵשׁ בַּמַּיִם יוֹתֵר מִשִּׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ.פא וַאֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לְהַגְעִילוֹ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ה'פב – לֹא יַגְעִילֶנּוּ כְּשֶׁהוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִטְעוּ לְהַגְעִיל כְּלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מִשְּׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה כְּשֶׁהוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ,פג וְלֹא יְדַקְדְּקוּ אִם יֵשׁ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, וְיַחְזְרוּ הַמַּיִם וְיִבָּלְעוּ בַּכְּלִי וְיַאַסְרוּ אוֹתָם אִם אֵין בָּהֶם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ,61 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כָּאן נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא שֶׁל אִסּוּר הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי:62

16 There are authorities who differ with all the above63 and maintain that even when one performs hag’alah from the fifth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan] and onward, it is not necessary to perform hag’alah on the kettle first, even if it had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. Similarly, [these authorities maintain that] there is no need for [the volume of] the water to be 60 [times the volume of] the utensils, even if [the utensils] had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. [The rationale is that] as long as the utensils are active in releasing the substance absorbed in them, they will not absorb anything from the substance they release or from the substance released by the kettle. Since the [utensils] are actively involved in releasing [substances], they do not have the power to absorb [anything].64

[These authorities maintain that] it is, however, necessary to be careful that the utensils do not remain in the kettle for an overly-long interval. Instead, one should leave [the utensils in the kettle] for the time he estimates that it would take for them to release all [the chametz] that they absorbed, and then remove them immediately [thereafter]. Were [the person] to leave [the utensils in the kettle] after they released all [the chametz] they absorbed, they would then reabsorb the substances that [either] they previously released or that the kettle released. [The rationale is that] since [the utensils] are no longer active in releasing [substances], they will absorb [substances from the liquid in which they are immersed. Hence, the utensils] will become forbidden [again] if they had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, and [the volume of] the water is not 60 [times their volume], or if the kettle had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, even if [the volume of] the water is 60 [times the volume of the utensils].65

טז וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל כָּל זֶהפד,63 וְאוֹמְרִים: אַף כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִיל הַיּוֹרָה תְּחִלָּה אַף שֶׁהִיא בַּת יוֹמָהּ, וְכֵן אֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכֵּלִים אַף אִם הֵם בְּנֵי יוֹמָן, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַכֵּלִים טְרוּדִים לִפְלֹט הַגִּעוּל הַבָּלוּעַ בָּהֶם – אֵינָן בּוֹלְעִים כְּלוּם מֵהַגִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מֵהֶם וְלֹא הֵן מֵהַגִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מִן הַיּוֹרָה, שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת טִרְדָּתָם לִפְלֹט אֵין בָּהֶם כֹּחַ לִבְלֹעַ.64

רַק שֶׁצָּרִיךְ הוּא לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁהֶה הַכֵּלִים בְּתוֹךְ הַיּוֹרָה יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי,פה אֶלָּא יַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם שָׁם בְּאֹמֶד הַדַּעַתפו בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיַּפְלִיטוּ כָּל גִּעוּלָם, וְיוֹצִיאֵם מִיָּד, שֶׁאִם יַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם שָׁם לְאַחַר שֶׁהִפְלִיטוּ כָּל גִּעוּלָם – הֲרֵי הֵם חוֹזְרִין וּבוֹלְעִין מִגִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מֵהֶם כְּבָר אוֹ מִן גִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מִן הַיּוֹרָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵינָם טְרוּדִין עוֹד לִפְלֹט – הֲרֵי הֵם חוֹזְרִין וּבוֹלְעִין, וְנֶאֱסָרִין אִם הֵם בְּנֵי יוֹמָן וְאֵין בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן, אוֹ אִם הַיּוֹרָה הִיא בַּת יוֹמָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן:פז,65

17 Similarly, one must be careful not to perform hag’alah on utensils that absorbed a large amount of a forbidden [substance] together with utensils that absorbed only a small amount of a forbidden [substance]. For example, one should not perform hag’alah on spoons, which are primarily used in a k’li sheni66 – and needless to say, cups, which are primarily used for cold [liquids]67 – together with bowls, which are primarily used by having [hot liquids] poured into them from a k’li rishon68 – and needless to say, not with metal pots [in which food is cooked], nor with ladles that are used to stir the pots.69 (Instead, one should first immerse the utensils that absorbed only a small amount [of the forbidden substance, remove them,] and then immerse the utensils that absorbed a large amount [of the forbidden substance].) [The rationale is that were the person to insert the utensils at the same time, the spoons and the cups] will release the [forbidden] substance they absorbed quickly. Once they have released all the [forbidden] substance that they absorbed, they are no longer active in releasing [substances]. Hence, they will [then] absorb the [forbidden] substances released by the utensils that absorbed a larger amount of [forbidden] substances.

Similarly, one must be careful not to immerse a portion of a utensil a second time. For example, when one performs hag’alah on large utensils that cannot be immersed in the kettle in their entirety at one time,70 one should not rotate them in the water by hand, lest he re-immerse into the water the portion of the utensil that had undergone hag’alah once before and had already released all the substances it absorbed. Thus, at the present time, when he inserts it into the water again, it will absorb [either] the substances that it already released, the substances released from other utensils for which hag’alah was previously performed [in this kettle], or substances released from the kettle, since [the portion of the utensil that had undergone hag’alah] is no longer active in releasing [what it absorbed].

What should [the person] do? He should immerse half or a third of the utensil and then remove it after it releases the substances it absorbed. Then, he should insert the other side, being as precise as he can not to immerse a portion [of the utensil] a second time.

יז וְכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַגְעִיל בְּיַחַד כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶם אִסּוּר מְרֻבֶּה עִם כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶם אִסּוּר מוּעָט,פח כְּגוֹן כַּפּוֹתפט שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי,צ,66 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן בְּצוֹנֵןצא,67 – לֹא יַגְעִילֶנּוּ בְּבַת אַחַת עִם קְעָרוֹת שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,68 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר עִם קְדֵרוֹת שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת אוֹ עִם כַּפּוֹת שֶׁמְּגִיסִין בָּהֶם הַקְּדֵרָהצב,69 (אֶלָּא מִתְּחִלָּה יַכְנִיס לַיּוֹרָה הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּלִיעָתָן מוּעֶטֶת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַכְנִיס הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבְּלִיעָתָן מְרֻבָּהצג) שֶׁמְּמַהֲרִין לִפְלֹט גִּעוּל הַבָּלוּעַ מֵהֶם, וּלְאַחַר שֶׁפָּלְטוּ כָּל גִּעוּלָם שֶׁאֵינָם טְרוּדִין עוֹד לִפְלֹט – הֲרֵי הֵם חוֹזְרִין וּבוֹלְעִין גִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מִכְּלִי שֶׁבְּלִיעָתָן מְרֻבָּה.

וְכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַגְעִיל מִקְצָת כְּלִי אֶחָד ב' פְּעָמִים, כְּגוֹן כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל כֵּלִים גְּדוֹלִים שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַכְנִיס כָּל הַכְּלִי בְּתוֹךְ הַיּוֹרָה בְּבַת אַחַת70 – לֹא יְגַלְגְּלוֹ בַּיָּד סָבִיב בַּמַּיִם, שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזֹר וְיַכְנִיס בַּמַּיִם מִמִּקְצָת שֶׁכְּבָר הֻגְעַל פַּעַם אַחַת וּפָלַט כְּבָר כָּל גִּעוּלוֹ, וְעַכְשָׁו כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר וּמַכְנִיסוֹ בַּמַּיִם – הוּא חוֹזֵר וּבוֹלֵעַ גִּעוּל שֶׁפָּלַט כְּבָר, אוֹ גִּעוּל שֶׁנִּפְלַט מִשְּׁאָר כֵּלִים שֶׁהֻגְעֲלוּ כְּבָר, אוֹ גִּעוּל שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהַיּוֹרָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵינוֹ טָרוּד עוֹד לִפְלֹט. אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? יַכְנִיס בַּמַּיִם חֲצִי הַכְּלִי אוֹ שְׁלִישִׁיתוֹ וְיוֹצִיאֶנּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁפָּלַט גִּעוּלוֹ, וְיַחֲזֹר וְיַכְנִיס צַד הַשֵּׁנִי, וִיצַמְצֵם כְּפִי יְכָלְתּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַכְנִיס מִקְצָת אֶחָד פַּעֲמַיִם:צד

18 There are authorities who maintain that it is not necessary to be careful regarding all the above factors even when [a)] one performs hag’alah from the fifth hour and onward [on the fourteenth of Nissan], [b)] the utensils had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, [c) the volume of] the water is not 60 [times the volume of the utensils], and [d)] the kettle had also been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. [Nevertheless, notwithstanding all these factors,] there is no concern that [the utensils] will reabsorb the substances they released or the substances released by the kettle, because [of the principle] stated by our Sages71 that the natural tendency of substances that are boiling is to absorb [substances within them] and not to release what they already absorbed, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 92.72 Similarly, the boiling [water] in the kettle absorbs the substances released by the utensils and the kettle, and it does not release the substances it absorbed, i.e., [the boiling water] does not cause [these substances] to be absorbed in the utensils as long as [the water] is boiling, i.e., as long as it is producing bubbles.73 Therefore, if one acted swiftly and removed the utensils from the kettle while [the water] was still boiling, the utensils will not have absorbed any of the substances released [into the water].

If, by contrast, one removed [the utensils] after [the water in the kettle] ceased boiling, even though [the water] is still [so hot that] a hand would recoil from it, the utensils will reabsorb the substances they released or [absorb the substances released by] the kettle. Therefore, [if one removed the utensils after the water ceased boiling], he must boil the water and perform hag’alah on the utensils a second time,74 removing them before the water ceases boiling.

יח וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצה שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכָל זֶה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּגְעִיל מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ וְהַכֵּלִים הֵם בְּנֵי יוֹמָן וְאֵין בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן וְהַיּוֹרָה הִיא גַּם כֵּן בַּת יוֹמָהּ, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַחְזְרוּ וְיִבְלְעוּ מֵהַגִּעוּל שֶׁפָּלְטוּ אוֹ מֵהַגִּעוּל שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהַיּוֹרָה, לְפִי שֶׁאָמְרוּ חֲזַ"לצושֶׁטֶּבַע הָרוֹתְחִין לִבְלֹעַ וְלֹא לִפְלֹט מַה שֶּׁבָּלְעוּ,71 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ב,צז,72 וְכֵן אֵלּוּ הָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה בּוֹלְעִין הַגִּעוּל הַנִּפְלָט מֵהַכֵּלִים וּמִן הַיּוֹרָה וְאֵינָן פּוֹלְטִין אֶת הַגִּעוּל שֶׁבָּלְעוּ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵינָן מַבְלִיעִין אוֹתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַכֵּלִים כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֵן רוֹתְחִין,צח דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּעֲלִין רְתִיחָה וַאֲבַעְבּוּעוֹת.צט,73 וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם קָדַם וְהוֹצִיא אֶת הַכֵּלִים מִן הַיּוֹרָה בְּעוֹד שֶׁהָרוֹתְחִין מַעֲלִין רְתִיחָה – הֲרֵי לֹא נִבְלַע בְּהַכֵּלִים שׁוּם גִּעוּל.

אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיא לְאַחַר שֶׁנָּחוּ מֵרְתִיחָתָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ – הֲרֵי חָזְרוּ הַכֵּלִים וּבָלְעוּ גִּעוּל שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהֶם אוֹ מֵהַיּוֹרָה, לְכָךְ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהַרְתִּיחַ הַמַּיִם וְיַגְעִיל הַכֵּלִים פַּעַם שֵׁנִית,74 וְיוֹצִיאֵם טֶרֶם שֶׁיָּנוּחוּ הַמַּיִם מֵרְתִיחָתָן:ק

19 According to the latter two approaches,75 it is permitted to perform hag’alah on utensils even during Pesach76 (i.e., during Chol HaMoed. On the festive days, by contrast, utensils should only be kashered in the manner to be described in sec. 509[:10ff.]; consult that source.)77

According to the first approach,78 however, since hag’alah is effective only because [one is] nullifying [the forbidden flavor] in 60 [times its volume of water] or because an impaired flavor is permitted, [hag’alah is not effective] from the night of the fifteenth of Nissan onward. [The rationale is that from that time onward,] even the slightest trace of chametz is forbidden,79 and even an impaired flavor [of chametz] is forbidden according to our custom.80 [Hence, according to this approach, on Pesach] a utensil may only be kashered through libbun in fire, since then the forbidden [substance] is burnt and consumed entirely. [Once the forbidden substance is entirely consumed,] there is no concern that it will be reabsorbed in the utensil.81

יט וּלְפִי ב' סְבָרוֹת אֵלּוּ הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת75 – מֻתָּר לְהַגְעִיל כֵּלִים אַף בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח76 (פֵּרוּשׁ בְּחֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד, אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֵין לְהַכְשִׁיר כֵּלִים,קא אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"טקב עַיֵּן שָׁם77).

אֲבָל לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קג,78 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין תַּקָּנָה לְהַגְעָלָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי בִּטּוּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים אוֹ עַל יְדֵי הֶתֵּר נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם, אִם כֵּן מִלֵּיל ט"ו שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ אָסוּר בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ,79 וְגַם נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָםקד אָסוּר לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּקה,80 – אֵין לְהַכְשִׁיר שׁוּם כְּלִיקו אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי לִבּוּן בְּאוּר,קז שֶׁאָז הָאִסּוּר נִשְׂרָף וְנִכְלֶה לְגַמְרֵי,קח וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזֹר וְיִבָּלַע בַּכְּלִי:81

20 With regard to a [definitive] halachic ruling, fundamentally, [the halachah] follows the first approach.82 [Accordingly, the fact that the] water is boiling does not prevent the utensils from absorbing [any forbidden substances found in the water], and [the fact that] the utensils are releasing [what they absorbed] does not prevent them from absorbing (the substances [they and the kettle had absorbed and released through the hag’alah process. The rationale is that] since [the forbidden substance] is soft, it adheres and sticks to the utensil, and is absorbed [by it. The substances the utensil released] resembles brine that will be absorbed by meat even when the meat is actively releasing its blood, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 70.)83

Furthermore, the utensils complete releasing [the substances they absorbed] rapidly, as soon as they are immersed into the water, as explained [above.84 Therefore,] if [the utensils] are left in the water for [even] a little bit longer, there is concern that they will absorb [the chametz] they released or that was released by the kettle.

Moreover, when the utensils are removed from the kettle and they are soiled with the hot water, there is room for concern that at this time, they will absorb [the chametz that was released] from the water that is on them (for they are presently not actively releasing [what they absorbed]).85

Therefore, hag’alah is not effective from the fifth hour [of the fourteenth of Nissan] onward unless [the volume of] the water is 60 [times that of] the utensils, if [the utensils] were used [for chametz] within [the preceding] 24 hours. If the kettle had been used [for chametz] within [the preceding] 24 hours, hag’alah must be performed on it first, as explained86 according to the first approach.

כ וּלְעִנְיַן פְּסַק הֲלָכָה – הָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קט,82 שֶׁרְתִיחַת הַמַּיִם אֵינָהּ מְעַכֶּבֶת אֶת הַכֵּלִים מִלִּבְלֹעַ, וְגַם טִרְדַּת פְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים אֵינָהּ מְעַכַּבְתָּן מִלִּבְלֹעַקי (אֶת הַגִּעוּל, שֶׁהוּא רַךְ וְנִסְרָךְ וְנִדְבָּק וְנִבְלָע בַּכְּלִי, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא דּוֹמֶה לְצִיר שֶׁהוּא נִבְלָע בַּבָּשָׂר אַף כְּשֶׁהַבָּשָׂר טָרוּד לִפְלֹט אֶת דָּמוֹ,קיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ע'קיב,83).

וְעוֹד,קיג שֶׁפְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים נִגְמֶרֶת בִּמְהֵרָה מִיָּד שֶׁמַּכְנִיסָן לַמַּיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,קיד,84 וְאִם מַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם בַּמַּיִם מְעַט יוֹתֵר – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא חָזְרוּ וּבָלְעוּ מַה שֶּׁפָּלְטוּ אוֹ מַה שֶּׁפָּלְטָה הַיּוֹרָה.קטו

וְעוֹד, שֶׁכְּשֶׁמּוֹצִיא הַכֵּלִים מֵהַיּוֹרָה וְהֵן מְלֻכְלָכִין בְּמַיִם חַמִּין – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא בְּרֶגַע זוֹ בָּלְעוּ מִמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּיהֶןקטז (שֶׁבְּרֶגַע זוֹ אֵינָן טְרוּדִין לִפְלֹט).85

לְפִיכָךְ, אֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכֵּלִים אִם הֵם בְּנֵי יוֹמָן. וְאִם הַיּוֹרָה הִיא בַּת יוֹמָהּ – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָהּ תְּחִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרקיז,86 לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:

21 Even so, one should be stringent and show concern for the latter two approaches as well.87 Therefore, even when the kettle and the utensils had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours and [the volume of] the water is 60 [times that of] the utensils, one should be vigilant regarding all the factors that require careful attention according to both the second and third approaches.

This implies that one should be careful not to perform hag’alah on utensils that absorbed only a small amount [of a forbidden substance]together with utensils that absorbed a large amount [of a forbidden substance],88 not to perform hag’alah on a portion of a utensil a second time, and not to leave utensils [in the kettle for] more than the time required, lest they reabsorb the substances that they released.89

Even though [the flavor of] the substances that were released is impaired and [the volume of] the water is 60 [times that of the utensils],90 nevertheless, unless one is careful regarding these concerns, it is as if he is intentionally causing the substances that were released to be [re]absorbed [by] the utensils, according to the second approach. ([The rationale is that although] as long as the utensils are actively releasing [the substances they absorbed], they will not absorb anything else. [However,] if one is not careful [about the above concerns, then the utensils] will absorb [substances that have been released into the water].) Certainly, as an initial preference, one should not cause [the water in the kettle] to be absorbed [by the utensils], for initially, it is forbidden to benefit from this water, because the substances [that were released from the utensil] are absorbed in it, as explained [above.91 Since] the person desires to benefit from these utensils and use them, how can he [be allowed to] cause the substances [they released] to be reabsorbed by them?

Similarly, [the person] should be careful not to leave the utensils in the boiling water until after it ceases boiling, because when one leaves [utensils] in hot water that is not boiling, it is as if he is intentionally causing the substances [that were released into the water] to be reabsorbed [by the utensils], according to the third approach.92

For this same reason, initially, one should be careful not to immerse utensils [in the kettle] until the water begins to boil. [The rationale is that] when one immerses [the utensils] before [the water begins to boil], there is room for concern that they will release [the forbidden substance they had previously absorbed] and then reabsorb it. True, it is not certain that [the utensils] will reabsorb what they released, and it is possible that they will not be able to release [the substances they had previously absorbed] and then reabsorb them before the water boils. Nevertheless, initially, one should [be careful] not to cause the substances that were purged to be reabsorbed, even though their flavor is impaired and [the volume of] the water is 60 [times the volume of the utensils]. Therefore, everything possible that can be done to prevent [the utensil] from [re-]absorbing any [forbidden substance] should be done. [For that reason,] according to the third approach, if one will be careful to immerse the utensils in the kettle while the water is already boiling and remove them while [the water] is still boiling, [the utensils] will certainly not absorb anything. [Conversely,] if [the person] is not careful about this, [the utensil] may absorb [the substances released into the water. Therefore,] initially, one must be careful and perform hag’alah in the manner that will certainly [prevent the utensil] from absorbing any [forbidden substance]. True, even if [the utensil] will absorb [some forbidden substance] before the water boils, it will release [that substance] when the water boils, and [the utensil] will not absorb [anything else] if [the person] is careful to remove it from the kettle before the water ceases boiling. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should do [whatever is possible to ensure] that [the utensil] will not absorb [anything] at all, since initially, it is forbidden to cause a forbidden substance to be absorbed with the intent that afterwards, hag’alah will be performed and [the forbidden substance] will [subsequently] be purged.

Since one must be cautious regarding all these factors when performing hag’alah from the fifth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan] and onward, it is preferable for a person to be careful and perform hag’alah before the fifth hour. [In this way,] he will not need to show concern for all these factors.93

There are some (among those who are exacting [in their observance]) who [are even more meticulous, and are] accustomed to perform hag’alah three days before Pesach.

כא וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וְלָחֹשׁ גַּם לַסְּבָרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת,87 וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף אִם הַיּוֹרָה וְהַכֵּלִים אֵינָן בְּנֵי יוֹמָן וְגַם יֵשׁ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכֵּלִים – יִזָּהֵר בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְפִי סְבָרָא הַשְּׁנִיָּה וּבְמַה שֶּׁצָּרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְפִי סְבָרָא שְׁלִישִׁית.קיח

דְּהַיְנוּ,קיט שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַגְעִיל כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּלִיעָתָם מוּעֶטֶת עִם כֵּלִים שֶׁבְּלִיעָתָם מְרֻבָּה,קכ,88 וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהַגְעִיל מִקְצָת כְּלִי שְׁתֵּי פְּעָמִים,קכא,88 וְשֶׁלֹּא לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַכֵּלִים יוֹתֵר מִדַּאי שֶׁלֹּא יַחְזְרוּ וְיִבְלְעוּ הַגִּעוּל שֶׁפָּלְטוּ.קכב,89 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזֶּה הַגִּעוּל הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם, וְגַם יֵשׁ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ,90 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם לֹא יִזָּהֵר בַּדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַבְלִיעַ הַגִּעוּל בְּיָדַיִם בְּתוֹךְ הַכֵּלִים לְפִי סְבָרָא הַשְּׁנִיָּה (שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַכֵּלִים טְרוּדִים לִפְלֹט אֵינָן בּוֹלְעִים כְּלוּם, וּמֵחֲמַת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִזְהָר יִבְלְעוּ), וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה בְּוַדַּאי אֵין לְהַבְלִיעוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַכֵּלִים,קכג שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה אֲסוּרִין לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהַגִּעוּל בָּלוּעַ בָּהֶם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,קכד,91 וְכֵלִים הַלָּלוּ שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם אֵיךְ יַבְלִיעַ בָּהֶם אֶת הַגִּעוּל?

וְכֵן יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַכֵּלִים עַד שֶׁיָּנוּחוּ הַמַּיִם מֵרְתִיחָתָם, שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּשְׁהֶה אוֹתָן בְּמַיִם חַמִּים שֶׁאֵינָן רוֹתְחִין – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַבְלִיעַ בָּהֶם הַגִּעוּל בְּיָדַיִם לְפִי סְבָרָא הַשְּׁלִישִׁית.קכה,92 וּמִטַּעַם זֶה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לְהַכְנִיס הַכֵּלִים עַד שֶׁהַמַּיִם יַעֲלוּ רְתִיחָה,קכו שֶׁכְּשֶׁמַּכְנִיסָם קֹדֶם לָכֵן יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁיַּפְלִיטוּ וְיַחְזְרוּ וְיַבְלִיעוּ.קכז וְאַף שֶׁאֵין הַדָּבָר בָּרוּרקכח שֶׁיַּבְלִיעוּ מַה שֶּׁיַּפְלִיטוּ, וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יַסְפִּיקוּ לִפְלֹט וְלִבְלֹעַ קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּרְתִּיחוּ הַמַּיִם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לְהַבְלִיעַ בָּהֶם הַגִּעוּל אַף שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם וְיֵשׁ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, אִם כֵּן כָּל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְתַקֵּן שֶׁלֹּא יַבְלִיעַ כְּלוּם צָרִיךְ הוּא לְתַקֵּן. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁלְּפִי סְבָרָא הַשְּׁלִישִׁית אִם יִזָּהֵר לְהַכְנִיס הַכֵּלִים לַיּוֹרָה כְּשֶׁהַמַּיִם רוֹתְחִין כְּבָר וּלְהוֹצִיאָם מֵהַיּוֹרָה בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַמַּיִם הֵם רוֹתְחִין בְּוַדַּאי לֹא יַבְלִיעוּ כְּלוּם, וְאִם לֹא יִזָּהֵר בְּכָךְ אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּבְלְעוּ – צָרִיךְ הוּא לִזָּהֵר לְכַתְּחִלָּה וּלְהַגְעִיל בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יִבְלְעוּ כְּלוּם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאַף אִם יִבְלְעוּ קֹדֶם רְתִיחַת הַמַּיִם יַפְלִיטוּ אַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיַּרְתִּיחוּ הַמַּיִםקכט וְשׁוּב לֹא יִבְלְעוּ כְּשֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵהַיּוֹרָה טֶרֶם שֶׁיָּנוּחוּ הַמַּיִם מֵרְתִיחָתָם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְתַקֵּן בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יַבְלִיעוּ כְּלָל, שֶׁאֵין לְהַבְלִיעַ אִסּוּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה עַל דַּעַת שֶׁיַּגְעִילוֹ וְיַפְלִיטוֹ אַחַר כָּךְ.

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהִזָּהֵר בְּכָל דְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ, לְפִיכָךְ טוֹב לוֹ לָאָדָם שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְהַגְעִיל קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ה', כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לִזָּהֵר וּלְדַקְדֵּק בְּכָל דְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ.קל,93 וְיֵשׁ (מֵהַמְדַקְדְּקִים) שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַגְעִיל ג' יָמִים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח:קלא

22 If one desires to use during Pesach the kettle in which hag’alah was performed on utensils before the fifth hour94 – or even [if hag’alah was performed] after the fifth hour, but the utensils had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours,95 or even if they had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, but [the volume of] the water was 60 [times their volume]96 – it is not necessary to perform hag’alah on the kettle after hag’alah was performed on the utensils in it if one performed hag’alah on [the kettle] before performing hag’alah on the utensils.97 [The rationale is that] the [forbidden] substances that [the kettle] absorbed that had been released by the utensils were already nullified, [either] because [the volume of] the water was 60 [times the volume of the utensils], or because [the kettle absorbed merely] a secondary flavor that is permitted, as explained.98

Nevertheless, if when [the person] originally performed hag’alah on the kettle, [the kettle] had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours and he performed hag’alah [on the kettle] from the fifth hour onwards,99 [after using the kettle to perform hag’alah on the utensils], hag’alah must be performed on [the kettle] a second time100 [to enable it to be used during Pesach. This requirement applies] even if the utensils [on which hag’alah was performed] had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, and [even if the volume of] the water was 60 [times the volume of the utensils].101 ([Indeed,] even if one does not desire to perform hag’alah on utensils in [the kettle], it is necessary to perform hag’alah a second time on [the kettle]) to kasher it for use on Pesach. [The rationale is that] when the person originally performed hag’alah on [the kettle], the water became absorbed in it and caused it to become forbidden,102 because [the chametz] released from the kettle was not nullified, [since the volume of] the water [was not] 60 [times the volume of the kettle], as explained above.103

Also, [the flavor of chametz reabsorbed by the kettle] is not a secondary flavor that is permitted, because the kettle had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours and the time when chametz became forbidden had already arrived at the time hag’alah was being performed. Nevertheless, [a second hag’alah is effective in kashering the kettle]104 because the entire substance of the water that was reabsorbed by the kettle is not forbidden. [On the contrary,] only a certain proportion of [the water] is forbidden, i.e., the proportion of released substances [that had been absorbed by] the entire body of the kettle in relation to all the water in the kettle. For example, if [the volume of] all the water in the kettle is ten times that of the entire body of the kettle, the water that was absorbed in the kettle [from the first hag’alah] comprises ten parts of the permitted water that was [previously] in the kettle and an eleventh part that consists of the absorbed substance that is released from the kettle to the water. Therefore, when [the person] performs hag’alah on the kettle a second time, and the substances absorbed from the first hag’alah are released, [the flavor of chametz] is now nullified in the water in the kettle [because there is] more than 60 [times the volume of that flavor].105 Even though [a trace of the chametz] is reabsorbed in the kettle during this [second] hag’alah, it does not cause the kettle to be forbidden, because it has already been nullified [because there is more] than 60 [times its volume of water].106

According to this rationale, when one performs hag’alah on [the kettle] twice before performing hag’alah on the utensils in it, that is sufficient. Nevertheless, it has become customary to perform hag’alah on the kettle again after hag’alah was performed on utensils in it, so that [the kettle] could be used on Pesach. [This practice is observed] even when the utensils had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, the hag’alah had been performed before the fifth hour, and the kettle had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours when hag’alah was performed.107

כב וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בְּיוֹרָה זוֹ שֶׁהִגְעִיל בָּהּ הַכֵּלִים קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ה',94 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר שָׁעָה ה' אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ הַכֵּלִים בְּנֵי יוֹמָן95 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הָיוּ בְּנֵי יוֹמָן אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן96 – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהַגְעִיל אֶת הַיּוֹרָה אַחַר הַגְעָלַת הַכֵּלִים בְּתוֹכָהּ אִם הִגְעִילָהּ כְּבָר קֹדֶם הַגְעָלַת הַכֵּלִים,קלב,97 שֶׁהֲרֵי הַגִּעוּל שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהּ מִפְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים כְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל בַּמַּיִם בְּשִׁשִּׁים, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.98

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִגְעִיל אֶת הַיּוֹרָה בַּתְּחִלָּה הָיְתָה בַּת יוֹמָהּ וְהִגְעִילָהּ מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְקלג,99 – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְהַגְעִילָהּ פַּעַם שֵׁנִית100 אַף אִם לֹא הָיוּ הַכֵּלִים בְּנֵי יוֹמָן וְהָיָה בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדָּן101 (וְאַף אִם אֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה כְּלָל לְהַגְעִיל בְּתוֹכָהּ כֵּלִים – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָהּ ב' פְּעָמִיםקלד) לְהַכְשִׁירָהּ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִגְעִילָהּ בַּתְּחִלָּה חָזְרוּ הַמַּיִם וְנִבְלְעוּ בָּהּ וַאֲסָרוּהָ,102 שֶׁהֲרֵי הַגִּעוּל שֶׁנִּפְלַט מִן הַיּוֹרָה לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל בַּמַּיִם בְּשִׁשִּׁים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,קלה,103

וְגַם אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וּכְבָר הִגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּר הֶחָמֵץ בִּשְׁעַת הַגְעָלָה, אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁהַמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ שֶׁחָזְרוּ וְנִבְלְעוּ בַּיּוֹרָה אֵין כָּל גּוּפָן מַמָּשׁוּת אִסּוּר,104 וְאֵין בָּהֶם אִסּוּר אֶלָּא לְפִי חֶשְׁבּוֹן, דְּהַיְנוּ לְפִי עֵרֶךְ גִּעוּל פְּלִיטַת כָּל גּוּף הַיּוֹרָה נֶגֶד כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה, כְּגוֹן אִם יֵשׁ בְּכָל הַמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים כְּמוֹ כָּל גּוּף הַיּוֹרָה, יֵשׁ גַּם כֵּן בַּמַּיִם הַלָּלוּ שֶׁחָזְרוּ וְנִבְלְעוּ בַּיּוֹרָה עֶשֶׂר חֲלָקִים שֶׁל מַיִם הַמֻּתָּרִים שֶׁהָיוּ בַּיּוֹרָה, וְחֵלֶק אַחַד עָשָׂר הוּא הַגִּעוּל שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהַיּוֹרָה לַמַּיִם, לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר וּמַגְעִיל הַיּוֹרָה פַּעַם ב' – הֲרֵי חוֹזֵר וְנִפְלָט מִמֶּנָּה הַגִּעוּל שֶׁחָזַר וְנִבְלַע בְּתוֹכָהּ בְּהַגְעָלָה רִאשׁוֹנָה וְעַכְשָׁו הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה בְּיוֹתֵר מִשִּׁשִּׁים.קלו,105 וְאַף שֶׁחוֹזֵר וְנִבְלָע בַּיּוֹרָה גַּם בְּהַגְעָלָה זוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר אֶת הַיּוֹרָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים.106

וּלְפִי טַעַם זֶה, כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִילָהּ ב' פְּעָמִים קֹדֶם הַגְעָלַת הַכֵּלִים בְּתוֹכָהּ – דַּי בְּכָךְ. אֲבָל נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר וְלַחֲזֹר וּלְהַגְעִיל הַיּוֹרָה אַחַר הַגְעָלַת הַכֵּלִים בְּתוֹכָהּ כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּפֶסַח אַף אִם לֹא הָיוּ הַכֵּלִים בְּנֵי יוֹמָן וְהִגְעִילָם בְּתוֹכָהּ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ה' וְגַם הַיּוֹרָה לֹא הָיְתָה בַּת יוֹמָהּ בִּשְׁעַת הַגְעָלָתָה:קלז,107

23 Nevertheless, if [the volume of] the water [in the kettle] was 60 [times the volume of] the utensils [on which hag’alah is being performed],108 it is not [customary to act] stringently and perform hag’alah on the kettle again.109 [For this reason,] it is permitted to perform hag’alah on a utensil that absorbed a forbidden [substance] in a kosher kettle filled with boiling [water], if [the volume of the water] is 60 [times the volume of] the utensil undergoing hag’alah.110(However, [after the hag’alah,]one must be careful to pour out the boiling water in the kettle, for it is forbidden to benefit from it, as explained.)111

כג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הָיוּ בַּמַּיִם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכֵּלִים108 – אֵין מַחֲמִירִין לַחֲזֹר וּלְהַגְעִיל הַיּוֹרָה.109 לְפִיכָךְ, מֻתָּר לְהַגְעִיל כְּלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מֵאִסּוּר בְּתוֹךְ קְדֵרָה כְּשֵׁרָה מְלֵאָה רוֹתְחִין אִם יֵשׁ בָּהֶם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכְּלִי שֶׁמַּגְעִילקלח,110 (רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לִשְׁפֹּךְ הָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה, שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶםקלט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרקמ,111):

24 Even if [the volume of] the water in the kettle was not 60 [times the volume of] the utensils [undergoing hag’alah], it is not necessary to pour out the water and fill [the kettle] with other water to perform hag’alah on it.112 Instead, after completing hag’alah on [all] the utensils, while the boiling water is [still] in [the kettle], one should cast a glowing hot stone or a flaming torch into the water. This will cause the water to boil vigorously and overflow. This serves as hag’alah for it, as explained above.113

כד וְאַף אִם לֹא הָיוּ בַּמַּיִם שֶׁבַּיּוֹרָה שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכֵּלִים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׁפֹּךְ הַמַּיִם הַחוּצָה וְלַחֲזֹר וּלְמַלְּאוֹתָהּ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים לְהַגְעִילָהּ,112 אֶלָּא בְּעוֹד מַיִם רוֹתְחִין הַלָּלוּ בְּתוֹכָהּ לְאַחַר גְּמַר הַגְעָלַת הַכֵּלִים מַכְנִיס לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן אוֹ לַפִּיד בּוֹעֵר, וּמִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ יַרְתִּיחוּ הַמַּיִם בְּיוֹתֵר וְיִגְבְּרוּ וְיַעֲלוּ עַל שְׂפַת הַיּוֹרָה, וְזוֹ הִיא הַגְעָלָתָהּ,קמא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קמב,113

25 One should not place many utensils into one basket114 with holes or into one net and perform hag’alah on them [at the same time [unless there is ample space where [the utensils] are placed so that they are not touching each other. [The rationale is that] the hag’alah will not be effective where [the utensils] touch each other.115 True, the water will reach those places, [as evidenced by the fact that the utensils] touching [each other] is not considered an intervention116 with regard to the immersion of utensils. Nevertheless, for hag’alah [to be effective], the boiling water must reach the entire area of the utensil, and the water does not boil thoroughly in the place where [the utensils] touch.

(Moreover, [as a rule,] one should not perform hag’alah even for one utensil [by placing it] in a [larger] utensil that does not have holes [and immersing the larger utensil in the boiling water. This ruling applies] even though [the utensil being kashered] floats inside [the larger utensil], and the two do not touch. [The only exception is when] one leaves [the larger utensil] in the kettle for the amount [of time] explained in sec. 451[:28]; consult that source.)117

כה לֹא יַנִּיחַ כֵּלִים הַרְבֵּה לְתוֹךְ סַל אֶחָד מְנֻקָּבקמג,114 אוֹ לְתוֹךְ שְׂבָכָה אַחַתקמד וְיַגְעִילֵם יַחַד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם מֻנָּחִים שָׁם בְּרֶוַח שֶׁאֵינָם נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה,קמה לְפִי שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם נְגִיעָתָם אֵין הַגְעָלָה עוֹלָה שָׁם.115 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּיִם מַגִּיעִים שָׁם, שֶׁהֲרֵי לְעִנְיַן טְבִילָה אֵין נְגִיעָה זוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה חֲצִיצָה,קמו,116 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן הַגְעָלָה צָרִיךְ שֶׁרְתִיחַת הַמַּיִם יַגִּיעוּ בְּכָל שֶׁטַח הַכְּלִי,קמז וּבִמְקוֹם נְגִיעָתָם אֵין הָרְתִיחָה עוֹלָה יָפֶה.קמח

(אֲבָל בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְנֻקָּב לֹא יַגְעִיל אֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי אֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא צָף בְּתוֹכוֹ וְאֵין נוֹגְעִין זֶה בָּזֶה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם בְּתוֹךְ הַיּוֹרָה כְּשִׁעוּר שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א,קמט עַיֵּן שָׁם117):

26 If one holds the utensil [on which one desires to perform hag’alah]in the boiling water with pliers, it is necessary to rotate the utensil slightly, i.e., one must open the pliers in the boiling [water] and take hold of the utensil in another place so that the boiling [water] will cover the place where he [previously] held [the utensil with] the pliers. [Since this involves some difficulty,] it is preferable to perform hag’alah using a net or a basket with holes.118

כו אִם אוֹחֵז אֶת הַכְּלִי בְּתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִין עַל יְדֵי צְבָת – צָרִיךְ לְגַלְגֵּל מְעַט אֶת הַכְּלִי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּפְתַּח אֶת הַצְּבָת בְּתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִין וְיֹאחַז הַכְּלִי בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּעֲלוּ הָרוֹתְחִין עַל מְקוֹם אֲחִיזַת הַצְּבָת,קנ וּלְפִיכָךְ יוֹתֵר טוֹב לְהַגְעִיל בִּשְׂבָכָה אוֹ בְּסַל מְנֻקָּב:קנא,118

27 The laws applying to water from the hot springs of Tiberias119 resemble those applying to water heated by fire with regard to stringency. For example, with regard to the absorbance [of a forbidden substance, i.e.], if one [cooked] a forbidden [substance] in a utensil in the hot springs of Tiberias, the utensil is forbidden. Nevertheless, one may not perform hag’alah in [these hot springs] on utensils that became forbidden because [they absorbed substances from water] heated by fire. [This ruling applies] even when the utensils became forbidden only due to the heat of a k’li sheni. [The rationale is that] the hot springs of Tiberias are not heated by fire, and [the laws of hag’alah are governed by the principle], “[A utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance].” Just as [the utensil] absorbed [the forbidden substance] via [water] heated by fire, so too, it must release [the forbidden substance] via [water] heated by fire.

If, however, [utensils] only became forbidden [because they absorbed a forbidden substance] via the hot springs of Tiberias, they may be kashered through hag’alah performed via [these hot springs]. How much more so [may they be kashered through hag’alah performed] via [water] heated by fire.

כז חַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא119 דִּינָם כְּחַמֵּי הָאוּר לְהַחֲמִיר, כְּגוֹן לְעִנְיַן בְּלִיעָה, שֶׁאִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ אִסּוּר בִּכְלִי עַל יְדֵי חַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא – נֶאֱסַר הַכְּלִי.קנב אֲבָל אֵין מַגְעִילִין בְּתוֹכָם כֵּלִים שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ עַל יְדֵי חַמֵּי הָאוּר, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נֶאֶסְרוּ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי שֵׁנִי,קנג לְפִי שֶׁחַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא אֵינָן תּוֹלְדוֹת הָאוּר, וּכְבָר אָמְרוּ:קנד,119 "כְּבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ", מַה בּוֹלְעוֹ עַל יְדֵי תּוֹלְדוֹת הָאוּר – אַף פּוֹלְטוֹ עַל יְדֵי תּוֹלְדוֹת הָאוּר.קנה אֲבָל אִם לֹא נֶאֶסְרוּ רַק עַל יְדֵי חַמֵּי טְבֶרְיָא – יָכוֹל לְהַגְעִילָם עַל יָדָם,קנו וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן עַל יְדֵי חַמֵּי הָאוּר:קנז

28 Hag’alah may not be performed with any liquids other than water. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that other liquids do not have the [same] power to release all the substances absorbed [in a utensil] as water does.

Water mixed with ashes (called lug) is governed by the same laws as other liquids. [The rationale is that] the ashes nullify the power of the water. [However,] after the fact, if one transgressed and performed hag’alah with [such water] or with other liquids, the hag’alah is valid.

כח אֵין מַגְעִילִין בְּשׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה רַק בְּמַיִם,קנח לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקנט שֶׁשְּׁאָר מַשְׁקִים אֵין בָּהֶם כֹּחַ לְהַפְלִיט כָּל הַגִּעוּל כְּמוֹ הַמַּיִם, וּמַיִם הַמְעֹרָבִים עִם אֵפֶר (שֶׁקּוֹרִין לו"ג) דִּינָם כִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִים,קס שֶׁהָאֵפֶר מְבַטֵּל כֹּחַ הַמַּיִם. וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וְהִגְעִיל בָּהֶםקסא אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר מַשְׁקִיןקסב – עָלְתָה לָהֶם הַגְעָלָה:

29 If one performed hag’alah on many utensils in one kettle until the amount [of absorbed substances] released by the utensils accumulated to the extent that the water became like brine, one should not continue to perform hag’alah [on other utensils] in that water.120

כט אִם הִגְעִיל הַרְבֵּה כֵּלִים בַּיּוֹרָה עַד שֶׁמֵּרֹב פְּלִיטַת הַכֵּלִים נַעֲשׂוּ הַמַּיִם כְּצִיר – אֵין לְהַגְעִיל עוֹד בְּאוֹתָן הַמַּיִם:קסג,120

30 Since the laws of hag’alah involve very many factors [concerning which care must be taken], and people at large are not knowledgeable about them, it is therefore appropriate and fitting that [only] a master of Torah who is an expert in the laws of hag’alah perform hag’alah on utensils,121 in contrast to the present practice.122

ל וּלְפִי שֶׁרַבּוּ מְאֹד הַדִּקְדּוּקִים בְּהִלְכוֹת הַגְעָלָה וְאֵין הַכֹּל בְּקִיאִין בָּהֶם, לְפִיכָךְ רָאוּי וְנָכוֹן שֶׁבַּעַל תּוֹרָה הַבָּקִי בְּהִלְכוֹת הַגְעָלָה הוּא יַגְעִיל אֶת הַכֵּלִים,קסד,121 וְלֹא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין עַכְשָׁו:קסה,122