SECTION 451 The Laws [Applying] to the Purging of [Chametz from] Utensils (1-78)

סימן תנא דִּינֵי הַגְעָלַת כֵּלִים וּבוֹ ע"ח סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following rule applies to] all utensils that a person does not desire to kasher for Pesach use through hag’alah (purging in boiling water) or libbun (subjecting to heat until they become glowing hot)1 and to all earthenware utensils, [for earthenware utensils] cannot be kashered for Pesach use through [either] hag’alah or libbun:2 If [the person] desires to retain possession of [these utensils] until after Pesach, he must scrub them thoroughly [clean]3 (see sec. 444[:8-9])4 before [the beginning of] the sixth hour on the day before Pesach and wash them lightly,5 so that chametz will not be recognizable on their [surface. The utensils] should be stored in a concealed place6 that [the owner] does not frequent throughout all the days of Pesach, so that he will not forget and use them during Pesach.

True, it is permissible to keep utensils that absorbed [all] other forbidden [substances] in one’s home [without hiding them] and there is no concern that one will forget [and use them]. Nevertheless, there is more reason to show concern that one may forget [and use utensils for] chametz, since one is accustomed to [using chametz on an ongoing basis] throughout the year.7

It is desirable [for a person] to lock [the utensils used for chametz] in a special room and hide the key, so that he will not go [in] there [throughout] all the days of Pesach.

א כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהַכְשִׁירָן לְפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה אוֹ לִבּוּן,א,1 וְכֵן כָּל כְּלֵי חֶרֶס שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם הֶכְשֵׁר עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה וְלִבּוּן,2 אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַחב – צָרִיךְ לְשַׁפְשְׁפָן (עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"ד,4) הֵיטֵבד,3 קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְלַהֲדִיחָן מְעַט,5 בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא חָמֵץ נִכָּר בָּהֶן, וְיַצְנִיעֵם בְּמָקוֹם צָנוּעַ6 שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח.ו וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים מִשְּׁאָר אִסּוּרִין מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן עִמּוֹ בַּבַּיִת וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְשִׁכְחָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם חָמֵץ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל בּוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ בּוֹ יוֹתֵר לְשִׁכְחָה.,7 וְטוֹב לְסָגְרָם בְּחֶדֶר מְיֻחָד וּלְהַצְנִיעַ הַמַּפְתֵּחַ שֶׁלֹּא יֵלֵךְ לְשָׁם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח:ח

2 Nevertheless, it is permitted [for the person] to remove [the utensils used for chametz] from the place he concealed them and to use them temporarily and incidentally for cold [food], whether moist8 or dry.9 It is only that one must be careful to wash the utensil thoroughly10 before using it so that there will not even be a trace of actual chametz stuck to it. (See sec. 447[:51] with regard to the ruling after the fact.)11 According to the fundamental principles of the law, [mere] rinsing is sufficient [to permit] even an earthenware pot in which chametz was cooked throughout the year to be used during Pesach with cold [food]. (Nevertheless, it is customary not to use any earthenware utensils [that were used throughout the year]12 during Pesach, not even for cold food, as will be explained.)13 A knife [that was used during the year for chametz] should be inserted ten times in firm ground before one uses it [to cut] cold [food] on Pesach.14

It is, however, forbidden to use [such utensils] in an ongoing manner – even for cold foods – from [the beginning of] the fifth hour on the day before Pesach onward15 unless one renders them kosher for Pesach through hag’alah or libbun in the manner to be described. [This is] a decree, [instituted as a safeguard] lest one forget and use [these utensils] for hot food.

ב וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, דֶּרֶךְ עֲרַאי וּמִקְרֶה מֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיאָן מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִצְנִיעָן וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן דָּבָר צוֹנֵן, בֵּין לַח8 וּבֵין יָבֵשׁ.י,9 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְהָדִיחַ אֶת הַכְּלִי הֵיטֵב10 קֹדֶם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה שׁוּם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ דָּבוּק בּוֹ בְּעֵין (וּלְעִנְיַן דִּיעֲבַד – עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"זיב,11).

וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא קְדֵרָה שֶׁל חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בָּהּ חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – דַּי לָהּ בַּהֲדָחָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ צוֹנֵן בְּפֶסַח מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין (אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג הוּא שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ כְּלָל בְּפֶסַח בִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס יְשָׁנִים12 אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן,יד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,13).

וְאִם הוּא סַכִּין – צָרִיךְ לְנָעֲצוֹ עֶשֶׂר פְּעָמִים בְּקַרְקַע קָשָׁה קֹדֶם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ צוֹנֵן בְּפֶסַח.טז,14

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בִּקְבִיעוּתיח מִשָּׁעָה ה' בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וָאֵילָךְ15 אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן עַד שֶׁיַּכְשִׁירֵם לְפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה אוֹ לִבּוּן, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּחַמִּין:

3 [The following rules apply] if on the day before Pesach, one forgot and did not scrub his utensils clean from the chametz stuck to them and remembered during Pesach:16 If [one remembers] on Chol HaMoed, he must scrub off [the chametz] as soon as he remembers. (However, on Shabbos and festivals [one should not do so because] it is forbidden to touch chametz [on these days], even in order to obliterate it, as explained in sec. 446[:5]; consult that source.)

There is no concern that [the person] will forget and partake of the chametz while touching it when scrubbing it off, for the reason explained in sec. 435[:2].17 If Pesach passed and [the person] did not scrub [the chametz off his utensils], he must scrub them after Pesach to remove the chametz attached to them. [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to benefit from [that chametz] since it [existed in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach.18

ג אִם שָׁכַח בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְלֹא שִׁפְשֵׁף אֶת הַכֵּלִים מֵחָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בָּהֶן וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,16 אִם הוּא חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד (אֲבָל בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב אָסוּר לִגַּע בְּהֶחָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ כְּדֵי לְבַעֲרוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"וכ עַיֵּן שָׁם) – צָרִיךְ לְשַׁפְשְׁפָן מִיָּד שֶׁנִּזְכָּר. וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכַל מֵהֶחָמֵץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנּוֹגֵעַ בּוֹ כְּשֶׁמְּשַׁפְשְׁפוֹ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ה.כב,17 וְאִם עָבַר הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא שִׁפְשְׁפָן – צָרִיךְ לְשַׁפְשְׁפָן לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח לְהַעֲבִיר מֵהֶן הֶחָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בָּהֶן, שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח:18

4 There are some who customarily hang tin utensils used for chametz high on the walls of [their] homes, in a place where a person’s hand cannot reach them, [leaving the utensils] there throughout all the days of Pesach for decorative purposes.19 [These people] should not be admonished [for doing so]. True, whenever our Sages ordained a decree [as a safeguard] lest one forget and use [the object], they did not make any distinctions and forbade [using the object] even if it was elevated ten stories high, as explained in sec. 275[:2]20 and sec. 307[:22].21 Nevertheless, since the prohibition against allowing utensils used for chametz to remain in one’s home during Pesach was not decreed by the Sages of the Gemara, but rather is a stringency adopted by the sages of the later generations, it is therefore not necessary to be so strict [when observing this stringency]. In particular, [this is true in this instance], since by and large [these] utensils did not absorb chametz within 24 hours22 at the time they are arranged high on the wall on the day before Pesach. This is the rationale for the custom. Nevertheless, may blessings alight upon one who is stringent and stores [these utensils] in a concealed place.

ד יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְסַדֵּר כְּלֵי בְּדִיל שֶׁל חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת בְּגֹבַהּ הַכֹּתֶל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין יַד אָדָם מַגַּעַת לְשָׁם, וְהֵם סְדוּרִין שָׁם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח לְנוֹי,כד,19 וְאֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עָלָיו חֲכָמִים מֵחֲמַת חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ לֹא חִלְּקוּ בִּגְזֵרָתָם וְאָסְרוּ אֲפִלּוּ הִגְבִּיהַּ אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר עֶשֶׂר קוֹמוֹת,כו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רע"ה,20 וְסִימָן ש"ז,כח,21 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר זֶה שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת כְּלֵי חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת בְּפֶסַח לֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו חַכְמֵי הַגְּמָרָא אֶלָּא חַכְמֵי הַדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים הוּא שֶׁהֶחֱמִירוּ כֵּן, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בּוֹ כָּל כָּךְ. וּבִפְרָט שֶׁעַל פִּי הָרֹב אֵין הַכֵּלִים בְּנֵי יוֹמָן מִבְּלִיעַת הֶחָמֵץ22 בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּסַדְּרִין אוֹתָם בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח בְּגֹבַהּ הַכֹּתֶל. זֶהוּ טַעַם הַמִּנְהָג. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמַּחֲמִיר לְהַצְנִיעָן בְּמָקוֹם צָנוּעַ – תָּבוֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה:ל

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5 When a non-Jew sells new utensils in the marketplace – whether of earthenware, metal, or glass – one may purchase from him any utensil that appears new. There is no concern that perhaps the non-Jew used [the utensil] once. [The rationale is that generally] no use is ever made of a utensil that is made to be sold.23

By contrast, if one enters the home24 of a non-Jew to purchase new utensils from him, one should only purchase a new utensil that he can definitively recognize as never having been used. If, however, there are grounds to [believe] that perhaps [the utensil] was used once, even though it looks new, one should not purchase it unless the non-Jew states as a matter of course25 that it was never used, or [the Jew] selects one utensil out of many,26 as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 122;27 consult that source. [Otherwise,] there is reason for concern that perhaps the non-Jew made [the utensil] for his own purposes, already used it [at least] once, and then changed his mind and decided to sell it to the Jew who came to him.

Nevertheless, license may be granted to purchase clear glass utensils28 even if the non-Jew does not state as a matter of course [that they were never used] and [the Jew] did not select one utensil from among many others. Since they are clear, [one may be] certain that [the non-Jew] had not yet used them.29

ה נָכְרִי הַמּוֹכֵר כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים בַּשּׁוּק, בֵּין שֶׁל חֶרֶס בֵּין שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת בֵּין שֶׁל זְכוּכִית – לוֹקְחִין מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁהוּא נִרְאֶה חָדָשׁ, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ הַנָּכְרִי פַּעַם אַחַת, שֶׁכָּל כְּלִי הֶעָשׂוּי לִמְכֹּר אֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ כְּלָל.,23

אֲבָל אִם נִכְנַס לְבֵית הַנָּכְרִי לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ כֵּלִים חֲדָשִׁים – לֹא יִקַּח אֶלָּא כְּלִי חָדָשׁ שֶׁמַּכִּיר בּוֹ הֵיטֵב שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ עֲדַיִן.24 אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת אַף שֶׁהוּא נִרְאֶה חָדָשׁ – אֵין לְלָקְחוֹ,לב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַנָּכְרִי מֵסִיחַ לְפִי תֻּמּוֹ25 שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ עֲדַיִן, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא לוֹקֵחַ כְּלִי אֶחָד מִתּוֹךְ הַרְבֵּה כֵּלִים,לד,26 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קכ"ב עַיֵּן שָׁם,27 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא עֲשָׂאוֹ הַנָּכְרִי לְצֹרֶךְ עַצְמוֹ וּכְבָר נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ פַּעַם אַחַת וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ לְמָכְרוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל הַבָּא אֵלָיו.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בִּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית,28 יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לִקְנוֹת הַצְּלוּלִים אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַנָּכְרִי מֵסִיחַ לְפִי תֻּמּוֹ וְאֵינוֹ לוֹקֵחַ כְּלִי מִתּוֹךְ הַכֵּלִים, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהֵם צְלוּלִים בְּוַדַּאי לֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם עֲדַיִן:לו,29

6 [The following laws apply regarding] all earthenware utensils that were used with chametz together with liquid30 that was yad soledes bo, i.e., so hot that a hand would recoil from it,31 and thus, a utensil [made from] other [substances used] in such a manner would require hag’alah. Nevertheless, [the status of] earthenware utensils [in which forbidden substances were cooked]32 cannot be rectified through hag’alah, for the Torah attested that an earthenware utensil can never be purged of its disqualifying factor33 (i.e., [the discharge of the] repulsive substance34 it absorbed) even if one would purge it numerous times. Instead, [the earthenware utensil] will discharge a slight amount [of the forbidden substance] every time it is purged, but the primary [deposit of] the repulsive substance absorbed in it is never entirely purged. [Therefore, when] permitted [substances] are cooked in [the utensil], even though hag’alah was performed upon it numerous times, [the utensil] will [continue to] release some of [the forbidden substances] absorbed in it into the [permitted] food.

Where did the Torah attest to the above? With regard to cooking utensils that absorbed nosar.35 The Torah states:36 “An earthenware utensil in which it37 was cooked shall be broken.” From this, it can be derived38 that hag’alah is not effective for an earthenware utensil.

ו כָּל כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין30 שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,31 בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכַּיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ בִּשְׁאָר כֵּלִים צְרִיכִין הַגְעָלָה,לח אֲבָל כְּלִי חֶרֶס32 אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה הֵעִידָה עַל כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִידֵי דָּפְיוֹ,33 (פֵּרוּשׁ גִּעוּלמ,34 הַנִּבְלָע בּוֹ) לְעוֹלָם, אֲפִלּוּ יַגְעִילֶנּוּ כַּמָּה פְּעָמִים, אֶלָּא לְעוֹלָם פּוֹלֵט הוּא מְעַט מְעַט בְּכָל הַגְעָלָה, וְעִקַּר גִּעוּל הַבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ לְגַמְרֵי, וּכְשֶׁיְּבַשְּׁלוּ בּוֹ הֶתֵּר אֲפִלּוּ אַחַר כַּמָּה הַגְעָלוֹת – יִפְלֹט מְעַט מֵהַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל. וְהֵיכָן הֵעִידָה תּוֹרָה כָּךְ? גַּבֵּי כֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים מִנּוֹתָר,35 שֶׁאָמְרָה תּוֹרָה:מב,36 "וּכְלִי חֶרֶ[שׂ] אֲשֶׁר תְּבֻשַּׁל37 בּוֹ יִשָּׁבֵר", לָמַדְנוּ מִכָּאן38 שֶׁאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לִכְלִי חֶרֶס:

7 Nevertheless, the Sages received the tradition39 that an earthenware utensil can be made kosher by subjecting it to fire until it becomes glowing-hot,40 i.e., that it be so intensely heated that sparks are emitted from it.41 Then, [one can be certain that] the forbidden substance absorbed [in the utensil] was burned and destroyed in its entirety.42

ז וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, קִבְּלוּ חֲכָמִיםמד,39 שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִכְלִי חֶרֶס הֶכְשֵׁר עַל יְדֵי לִבּוּן בָּאוּר,40 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיַּסִּיקֶנּוּ כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִיצוֹצוֹת נִתָּזִים מִמֶּנָּה,,41 שֶׁאָז נִשְׂרָף וְנִכְלֶה כָּל הָאִסּוּר הַבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ:מו,42

8 When does the above43 apply? When one subjects [the earthenware utensil] to fire from its inside (i.e., [placing the source of heat] within the inner space of the utensil) and that is the manner in which one heats [the utensil] throughout the year, for example, an earthenware oven44 or the like. [Different laws apply,] by contrast, when throughout the year an earthenware utensil is heated from the outside, like an earthenware pot, frying pan, and heating tile, i.e., an earthenware utensil which is heated from below, with its top used as a cooking surface. Even if a person desires to kasher[such a utensil] by heating it from the inside, e.g., filling it with fiery coals, it would not be effective at all.45 [This is] a decree,46 lest the person show restraint47 out of fear that [the utensil] would break because of the [hot] coals, since this is not the manner [in which it is heated] throughout the year.48 [Therefore, there is concern that the person] would not fill [the utensil] with fiery coals, but instead subject it to external heat. Subjecting [the utensil] to external heat would not be at all effective according to Scriptural Law. [The reason why this is not effective is that] the forbidden substance was used on – and [thus] absorbed in – the inner [surface of] the utensil and [consequently] it must [also] be released from the inner [surface of] the utensil. [The rationale is that, “a utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance],”49 as will be explained. [Accordingly,] when one subjects [the utensil] to external heat, the forbidden substance will not be released from the inner surface of the utensil through this external heating.

ח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?43 כְּשֶׁמַּסִּיקוֹ מִבִּפְנִים (פֵּרוּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ חֲלַל הַכְּלִי), וְגַם דֶּרֶךְ הֶסֵּקוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הוּא מִבִּפְנִים, כְּגוֹן תַּנּוּר שֶׁל חֶרֶסמח,44 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ. אֲבָל כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ הֶסֵּקוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הוּא מִבַּחוּץ, כְּגוֹן קְדֵרָה וּמַחֲבַת וְטַפְּקָא שֶׁל חֶרֶס,,44 דְּהַיְנוּ כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁמַּסִּיקִין אוֹתוֹ תַּחְתָּיו מִלְּמַטָּה וְאוֹפִין עַל גַּבָּיו מִלְּמַעְלָה, אַף אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק מִבִּפְנִים,נ כְּגוֹן שֶׁיְּמַלְּאֶנּוּ גֶּחָלִים בּוֹעֲרוֹת – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם,45 גְּזֵרָה46 שֶׁמָּא יָחוּס עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּקֵּעַ47 מֵחֲמַת הַגֶּחָלִים,נב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין זֶה דַּרְכּוֹ בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה,48 וְלֹא יְמַלְּאֶנּוּ גֶּחָלִים בּוֹעֲרוֹת וְיַסִּיקֶנּוּ מִבַּחוּץ, וְהֶסֵּק חִיצוֹן אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הָאִסּוּר נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְנִבְלַע בִּפְנִימִית הַכְּלִי וְצָרִיךְ לְהַפְלִיטוֹ גַּם כֵּן דֶּרֶךְ פְּנִימִית הַכְּלִי, דִּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ"נד,49 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר, וּכְשֶׁמַּסִּיקוֹ מִבַּחוּץ אֵין הָאִסּוּר נִפְלָט דֶּרֶךְ פְּנִימִית הַכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק חִיצוֹן זֶה:נו

9 Even if one desires to heat [such a utensil] from both the inside and the outside – for example, by inserting it, while empty, into an oven that is filled with fire whose flames ascend from every side of the utensil and make it thoroughly glowing-hot both from inside and outside – it is not effective. [This is] a decree, lest the person show restraint so that [the utensil] not break and remove it from the oven before it becomes thoroughly glowing-hot to the extent that sparks are emitted from it.50

If, however, [the person] returns [the utensil] to a kiln filled with fire where new earthenware utensils are fashioned, it is permitted to use [the utensil] on Pesach.51 [The rationale is that] since [the person] subjects it to [the intense heat of] a fire [where new earthenware utensils are being fashioned], he is certainly not concerned that perhaps [the utensil] will break.

ט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לְהַסִּיקוֹ מִבִּפְנִים וּמִבַּחוּץ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמַּכְנִיסוֹ רֵיקָן לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר מָלֵא אֵשׁ, שֶׁשַּׁלְהֶבֶת עוֹלָה מִכָּל צְדָדֵי הַכְּלִי, וּמְלַבְּנוֹ יָפֶה מִבִּפְנִים וּמִבַּחוּץ – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָחוּס עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּקֵּעַ47 וְיוֹצִיאֶנּוּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר טֶרֶם שֶׁיִּתְלַבֵּן יָפֶה יָפֶה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִיצוֹצוֹת נִתָּזִים מִמֶּנּוּ.נח,50 אֲבָל אִם מַחֲזִירוֹ לְתוֹךְ כִּבְשָׁן מָלֵא אֵשׁ שֶׁמְּצָרְפִין בּוֹ כְּלֵי חֶרֶס חֲדָשִׁים – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח,,51 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמַּכְנִיסָן לְהֶסֵּק גָּדוֹל כָּזֶה בְּוַדַּאי אֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם אִם יִתְבַּקְּעוּ:

10 All the above applies to earthenware utensils. Metal utensils, by contrast, will not burst because of the heat of fire. Therefore, one may [kasher them by] filling them with coals from the inside,52 and leaving [the coals] there until the outer surface of the utensil [becomes so hot] that were a person to touch the outer side of the utensil, his hand would recoil because the utensil became glowing-hot from the coals. In such an instance, all the chametz absorbed in [the utensil] certainly will be burnt even though [the utensil] did not become so glowing-hot that sparks were emitted from it. [The rationale is that] metal utensils may be kashered through hag’alah, and libbun kal, i.e. [making the utensil] glowing-hot in this lesser manner, is no less effective than hag’alah.

י וְכָל זֶה בִּכְלִי חֶרֶס, אֲבָל בִּכְלִי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִפְקָע מֵחֲמַת חֹם הָאֵשׁ – הֲרֵי הוּא יָכוֹל לְמַלֹּאתוֹ גֶּחָלִים מִבִּפְנִיםס,52 וְיַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם בְּתוֹכוֹ, עַד שֶׁאִם יִגַּע אָדָם בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִי יִהְיֶה הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ31 מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּתְלַבֵּן הַכְּלִי מִן הַגֶּחָלִים, שֶׁאָז בְּוַדַּאי נִשְׂרָף כָּל הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ,סב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְלַבֵּן כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִיצוֹצוֹת נִתָּזִים מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּלֵי מַתָּכוֹת הֵן נִכְשָׁרִין עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, וְלִבּוּן קַל הַזֶּה אֵינוֹ גָּרוּעַ מֵהַגְעָלָה:

11 If a buchia (i.e., a utensil made from bricks and earth that is heated from the outside and [food] is baked and fried in it) is heated externally, it cannot be kashered for Pesach by heating it [externally],53 as explained.54 If, however, [the buchia] was filled with coals from the inside, or heated from the inside to the extent that it became glowing-hot as required by law,55 in the manner to be explained in sec. 461[:1], it is permitted to use [the buchia] on Pesach. There is no concern that [the person] will not make [the buchia] thoroughly glowing-hot out of restraint lest it break apart. [The rationale is that] since [a buchia] is made of bricks and earth, there is no concern that it may break apart.56

יא בּוּכְיָא (וְהוּא כְּלִי הֶעָשׂוּי מִלְּבֵנִים וְעָפָרסד וּמַסִּיקִין אוֹתוֹ מִבַּחוּץ וְאוֹפִין וּמְטַגְּנִין בְּתוֹכוֹ), אִם הִסִּיקוֹ מִבַּחוּץ – אֵינוֹ נִכְשָׁר לְפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק זֶה,53 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,סו,54 אֲבָל אִם מִלְּאוּהוּ גֶּחָלִים מִבִּפְנִים,,52 אוֹ שֶׁהִסִּיקוֹ מִבִּפְנִיםסח עַד שֶׁנִּתְלַבֵּן כְּדִינוֹ55 וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"א – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח. וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא לֹא יְלַבְּנוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה מֵחֲמַת שֶׁיָּחוּס עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִתְבַּקֵּעַ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא עָשׂוּי מִלְּבֵנִים וְעָפָר – אֵין לָחֹשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא יִתְבַּקֵּעַ:ע,56

12 Therefore, it is permitted [to make] bricks that were used for [baking or cooking] chametz throughout the year glowing hot by [subjecting them to] libbun57 and use them on Pesach.

In which instance [is the above effective]? With regard to bricks that were fired in a kiln. If, however, bricks were left to dry in the sun and were not used for chametz that was placed directly over a fire, e.g., through roasting or baking, rather boiling food that was chametz was poured over them,58 they do not require libbun. Hag’alah is sufficient for [these bricks], as [it is sufficient] for other utensils made of earth, as will be explained.59 [Once hag’alah was performed,] it is permitted to bake and roast upon [such bricks] on Pesach.

יב לְפִיכָךְ, לְבֵנִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – מֻתָּר לְלַבְּנָם בָּאוּר57 וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח. בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּלְבֵנִים שֶׁנִּצְרְפוּ בְּכִבְשָׁן, אֲבָל לְבֵנִים שֶׁנִּתְיַבְּשׁוּ בַּחַמָּה, אִם לֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר כְּמוֹ צְלִיָּה וַאֲפִיָּה אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּשְׁפַּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם תַּבְשִׁיל רוֹתֵחַ שֶׁל חָמֵץ58 – אֵין צְרִיכִים לִבּוּן, וְדַי לָהֶם בְּהַגְעָלָה כִּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי אֲדָמָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,עב,59 וּמֻתָּר לֶאֱפוֹת וְלִצְלוֹת עֲלֵיהֶם בְּפֶסַח:

13 [Different rules apply,] however, if [earthenware utensils] were used for chametz with fire [directly],60 and, similarly, [if] all other utensils, even those [made of different] types of metal, were used for chametz and [chametz] was absorbed in them through fire alone without liquid, for example, spits and grills on which [meat] stuffed with chametz is roasted. [In such an instance,] the actual chametz [itself] touches [the utensil] at the time [the food] is roasting, and there is no ([significant amount of])61 liquid intervening between them that would convey the flavor of the chametz into the spit or the grill. Instead, the flavor of chametz is absorbed in them [directly] solely through the heat of the fire. Therefore, [the chametz] will not be released through hag’alah in boiling water,62 for [the purging of forbidden substances is governed by the principle,] “[A utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance].” [Hence,] when a utensil absorbed chametz via a liquid, it releases [the chametz absorbed] through hag’alah in boiling water. When, however, a utensil absorbed chametz solely through the heat of fire without any liquid, [that chametz] is only purged from it through the heat of fire alone,63 i.e., [the utensil] must be [subjected to] fire [until] it is thoroughly glowing hot, to the extent that sparks emerge from it,64 or until [the utensil’s] outer surface is shed.65 At that stage, certainly any forbidden substance absorbed [in the utensil] has been consumed by fire.*

* This same law applies to utensils that absorbed other [substances] forbidden by Scriptural or Rabbinic Law only through [the heat of] fire. They must be made thoroughly glowing hot, to the extent explained [above. There is,] however, [a leniency with regard to] forbidden [substances] other [than chametz]. Libbun is necessary only when a forbidden [substance] was absorbed [through fire alone. A different ruling], however, [applies] if a permitted [substance] was absorbed through fire [alone] and became forbidden [only] afterwards.66 For example, meat which was permitted was roasted alone on [a utensil] and [only] afterwards, [did the utensil] absorb milk.67 [In such an instance,] [the utensil] may be kasheredthrough hag’alah.68True, the flavor of the meat absorbed in [the utensil] through fire will not be entirely released through hag’alah. Nevertheless, the small amount of the flavor of meat that it absorbed so deeply that it can only be purged by fire is very faint; it is not significant [enough] to be categorized as a new entity, i.e., [that it be] categorized as meat [cooked] with milk. Therefore, hag’alah is sufficient to purge the fundamental flavor of meat and the fundamental flavor of milk from [these utensils], which are forbidden because they are significant enough to be categorized as meat [cooked] with milk. [These fundamental flavors] are purged through hag’alah, because they are not absorbed [that deeply]. The remainder of the flavor of the meat and the remainder of the flavor of the milk that are absorbed [deeply] are very weak, and are not significant enough to be categorized as meat [cooked with] milk. [The rationale is that] the flavor of the meat was very weak before the milk was absorbed.69 Such a weak flavor cannot be placed in a new category.70

In contrast, when chametz was roasted on [a utensil] before Pesach, hag’alah is not effective in kasheringit for Pesach. True, when the chametz was absorbed in the utensil, it was permitted to be eaten.71 Nevertheless, since it was already categorized as chametz, that description does not depart from the weak flavor that is deeply absorbed due to the fire. When Pesach arrives, this weak flavor [that is absorbed] in [the utensil] will become forbidden [as a matter of course], since it was already categorized as chametz at the time it was [initially] released and separated from the substance of chametz that was roasted on [the utensil].

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that all utensils that absorbed chametz before Pesach, even [when they absorbed the chametz] only through fire,72 may be kashered through hag’alah. [The rationale is that] at the time [these utensils] absorbed [the chametz], they absorbed a permitted substance.73 Afterwards, when the time of the prohibition [against chametz] arrived, the forbidden [substance] itself was not actually present. [Rather, the forbidden substance] was merely absorbed in [the utensils].74 Therefore, [these authorities] ruled leniently and [allowed such utensils] to be kashered merely through hag’alah.

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. [This applies] even after the fact; [for example,] hot food was [baked or broiled] in a utensil that absorbed chametz through fire alone. Hag’alah was performed on [the utensil] before Pesach, but [the utensil] was not subjected to fire until it became thoroughly glowing hot to the extent explained above. This hot food is prohibited on Pesach75 unless a severe [financial] loss is involved or [not eating it] will prevent celebrating the festival with [appropriate] joy. In those situations, one may rely on the latter opinion.

Similarly, if there is another reason to rule leniently, one may also combine the second opinion and rely on it as an initial preference to use hag’alah to kasher utensils that absorbed chametz through fire, as will be explained.76

יג אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר,60 וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְנִבְלַע בָּהֶן חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקֶה,עד כְּגוֹן הַשַּׁפּוּדִים וְהָאַסְכְּלָאוֹת שֶׁצָּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם מוּלְיְתָא שֶׁל חָמֵץ,עו שֶׁגּוּף הֶחָמֵץ נוֹגֵעַ בָּהֶן בִּשְׁעַת צְלִיָּתוֹ, וְאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה (טוֹפֵחַ)61 שֶׁיּוֹלִיךְ טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ לְתוֹךְ הַשַּׁפּוּד וְהָאַסְכְּלָה, אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי חֹם הָאֵשׁ בִּלְבַד נִבְלַע בָּהֶם טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ, לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מֵהֶם עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בְּמַיִם רוֹתְחִים,62 דִּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ",עח,49 וּכְלִי שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקֶה – נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בְּמַיִם רוֹתְחִים, אֲבָל כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ הֶחָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי חֹם הָאֵשׁ בִּלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקֶה – אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי חֹם הָאֵשׁ בִּלְבַד,,63 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּלַבְּנוֹ בָּאוּר יָפֶה יָפֶה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִיצוֹצוֹת מְנַתְּזִין מִמֶּנּוּ,פ,64 אוֹ עַד שֶׁתַּשִּׁיר קְלִפָּתוֹ הָעֶלְיוֹנָה,,65 שֶׁאָז בְּוַדַּאי נִשְׂרָף כָּל הָאִסּוּר הַבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ.פב,*

* [וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּכֵלִים שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶן שְׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה אוֹ אִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְלַבְּנָם יָפֶה יָפֶה כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. אֶלָּא שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין אֵין צָרִיךְ לִבּוּן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶם דְּבַר אִסּוּר, אֲבָל אִם נִבְלַע בָּהֶם עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר דְּבַר הֶתֵּר וְאַחַר כָּךְ נַעֲשָׂה אִסּוּר,66 כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּצְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם בָּשָׂר לְבַדּוֹ שֶׁהוּא הֶתֵּרפד וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִבְלַע בָּהֶן חָלָב, 67 – הֲרֵי הֵן נִכְשָׁרִין עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה.68 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטַּעַם בָּשָׂר הַנִּבְלָע בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מֵהֶם לְגַמְרֵי עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אוֹתוֹ מוּעָט טַעַם בָּשָׂר הַבָּלוּעַ מְאֹד בְּתוֹכָם עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מֵהֶם רַק עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר קָלוּשׁ הוּאפו מְאֹד, וְאֵינוֹ כְּדַאי שֶׁיָּחוּל עָלָיו שֵׁם חָדָשׁ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֵׁם "בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב", לְפִיכָךְ דַּי לָהֶם בְּהַגְעָלָה כְּדֵי לְהַפְלִיט מֵהֶם עִקַּר טַעַם הַבָּשָׂר עִם עִקַּר טַעַם הֶחָלָב, שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהֵן כְּדַאי לְהִקָּרֵא עֲלֵיהֶם שֵׁם "בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב", וְהֵן נִפְלָטִין עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן בְּלוּעִין מְאֹד, וּמוֹתַר טַעַם הַבָּשָׂר עִם מוֹתַר טַעַם הֶחָלָב שֶׁהֵן בְּלוּעִין מְאֹד הֲרֵי הֵן קְלוּשִׁין מְאֹד, וְאֵינָן כְּדַאי לִהְיוֹת נִקְרָא עֲלֵיהֶן שֵׁם "בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב", כֵּיוָן שֶׁטַּעַם הַבָּשָׂר הָיָה קָלוּשׁ מְאֹד קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ הֶחָלָב69 – אֵין שֵׁם חָדָשׁ יָכוֹל לָחוּל עַל טַעַם קָלוּשׁ הַזֶּה.70 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁנִּצְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם חָמֵץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם לְהַכְשִׁירָן לְפֶסַח. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶם הָיָה מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה,71 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה עָלָיו שֵׁם חָמֵץ – לֹא נִפְקַע שֵׁם זֶה גַּם מִטַּעַם הַקָּלוּשׁ שֶׁנִּבְלַע מְאֹד בְּתוֹכָם עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר, וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח מִמֵּילָא נֶאֱסָר טַעַם קָלוּשׁ הַזֶּה שֶׁבְּתוֹכָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִקְרָא עָלָיו שֵׁם חָמֵץ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְלַט וְנִתְפָּרֵשׁ מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּצְלָה עֲלֵיהֶם].

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהפח וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁבָּלְעוּ חָמֵץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד72 – הֲרֵי הֵן נִכְשָׁרִין עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת בְּלִיעָתָן בָּלְעוּ דְּבַר הֶתֵּר,73 וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּרָן כְּבָר אֵין הָאִסּוּר בְּעֵין אֶלָּא הוּא בָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכָן,צ,74 לְפִיכָךְ הֵקֵלּוּ לְהַכְשִׁירָן עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בִּלְבַד.

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּחַמִּין בְּאוֹתָן כֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים מֵחָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד72 וְהֻגְעֲלוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא לִבְּנָם בָּאוּר יָפֶה יָפֶה כַּשִּׁעוּר שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר – הֲרֵי חַמִּין הַלָּלוּ אֲסוּרִין בְּפֶסַח.צב,75 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה. וְכֵן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ עוֹד צַד אַחֵר לְהָקֵל – יֵשׁ לְצָרֵף גַּם סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה וְלִסְמֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם לְכַתְּחִלָּה לְהַכְשִׁיר בְּהַגְעָלָה אֶת הַכֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים מֵחָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:,76

14 The optimum manner [to safeguard against eating chametz] for a person who has the capacity to do so is to purchase new knives for Pesach.77 However, according to the fundamental principles of the law, it is sufficient to perform hag’alah on the knives that are used throughout the year, even [knives used] for hot chametz,78 [to enable them to be used on] Pesach.79

True, there are authorities who maintain that when knives absorb other forbidden [substances] they [must be kashered] by libbun in fire80 in order that they may be used with hot food,81 as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 121. Nevertheless, since there are authorities who maintain that hag’alah is sufficient [to kasher] even utensils that absorbed chametz through fire alone [to enable their use on] Pesach82 and there are authorities who maintain that knives are not governed by the laws that apply to utensils that absorbed [substances] from fire alone,83 as explained in Yoreh Deah, loc. cit., therefore,84 there are grounds to [permit] kashering both large and small knives85 through hag’alah alone, [even] as an initial option.

The above applies when one performs hag’alah on [the knives] in the boiling water of a k’li rishon. [The term] k’li rishon [refers to] a utensilin which water was boiled over fire. [Moreover,] even though at the time hag’alah is being performed [on utensils immersed] in it, [the utensil] is not positioned over fire, it is [still] called a k’li rishon. Hag’alah may be performed in it on all utensils for which hag’alah in a k’li rishon is required,86 as long as the water in it is still boiling, i.e., bubbles are rising from [the water], as will be explained in sec. 452[:3].

יד מִצְוָה מִן הַמֻּבְחָר לְכָל מִי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ שֶׁיִּקְנֶה לוֹ סַכִּינִים חֲדָשִׁים לְפֶסַח.צד,77 אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָן סַכִּינִים שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בָּהֶם חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – דַּי לָהֶם בְּהַגְעָלָה78 לְפֶסַח.,79 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסַּכִּינִים הַבְּלוּעִים מִשְּׁאָר אִסּוּרִין יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםצו שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְלַבְּנָם בָּאוּר80 כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּחַמִּין81 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קכ"א, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָןצח שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ כֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים מֵחָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד72 דַּי לָהֶם בְּהַגְעָלָה לְפֶסַח,82 וְגַם יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםק שֶׁסַּכִּינִים אֵין לָהֶם דִּין כֵּלִים הַבְּלוּעִים עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד83 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה שָׁם, לְפִיכָךְ84 יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה לְהַכְשִׁיר סַכִּינִים בֵּין גְּדוֹלִים וּבֵין קְטַנִּים,85 עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בִּלְבַד.

וְהוּא שֶׁיַּגְעִילֵם בְּרוֹתְחִין בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן,קב וּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן נִקְרָא הַכְּלִי שֶׁהִרְתִּיחוּ בּוֹ הַמַּיִם אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ. אֲפִלּוּ אִם עַכְשָׁו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּגְעִילִין בְּתוֹכוֹ אֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ – הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, וּמַגְעִילִין בְּתוֹכוֹ כָּל כְּלִי הַצָּרִיךְ הַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹןקד,86 אִם הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ הֵן עֲדַיִן רוֹתְחִין, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמַּעֲלִין רְתִיחָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ב:

15 Before performing hag’alah, one must whet the knives [using] a grinder, mill, or other tool that removes all their rust.87 Similarly with regard to other utensils – all rust and other filth must be removed from them before hag’alah is performed on them.88 [This requirement is derived from] the passage describing [the command to perform] hag’alah on the utensils [taken from] Midian, which states:89 “Only the gold….” [The Hebrew word] ach [used in the verse] is understood90 to be synonymous with the word rak, [meaning] “only,” i.e., that hag’alah is effective in purging [the forbidden substances] absorbed [in the utensil when] “onlythe gold” is found, [and] there is no rust [on the utensil]. When, by contrast, there is rust or other filth, there is reason for concern that some of the actual forbidden substance remains intact under the rust or filth. [And] hag’alah is not effective [in ridding a utensil of] a forbidden substance that remains intact and is not absorbed in the sides of the utensil.

טו וְקֹדֶם הַגְעָלָה צָרִיךְ לָשׁוּף אֶת הַסַּכִּינִיםקו בְּמַשְׁחֶזֶת אוֹ בְּרֵחַיִם אוֹ בְּדָבָר אַחֵרקח הַמֵּסִיר אֶת כָּל הַחֲלֻדָּה שֶׁבָּהֶן,87 וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר כָּל הַחֲלֻדָּה וְהַטִּנּוֹפֶת שֶׁבָּהֶן קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּגְעִילָן,88 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקי בְּפָרָשַׁת הַגְעָלַת כְּלֵי מִדְיָן89 "אַךְ אֶת הַזָּהָב וְכוּ'", כְּלוֹמַר90 "רַק אֶת הַזָּהָב וְגוֹ'", דְּהַיְנוּ כְּשֶׁאֵין שָׁם חֲלֻדָּה רַק זָהָב בִּלְבַד – מוֹעֶלֶת הַגְעָלָה לְהַפְלִיט הַבָּלוּעַ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם חֲלֻדָּה אוֹ שְׁאָר טִנּוֹפֶת – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ שָׁם מַשֶּׁהוּ מִמַּמָּשׁוּת הָאִסּוּר בְּעֵין תַּחַת הַחֲלֻדָּה וְהַטִּנּוֹפֶת, וְאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לְמַה שֶּׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ וְאֵינוֹ בָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ דָּפְנֵי הַכְּלִי:

16 If one cannot remove the rust or does not want to take the trouble of doing so, he should place flaming coals on the rusted place and leave them there until the other side of the utensil [in the place] opposite the rust [will become so hot] that were a person to touch that portion [of the utensil], his hand would recoil [from it], since the utensil will have become glowing hot due to the coals. At that point, any forbidden substance that is under the rust will certainly have been burnt.

People at large have accepted the custom of leaving the coals over the rust to the extent that a piece of straw or a strand would be burned on the other side [of the utensil where the coals were placed], (i.e., a piece of straw or a strand is tied on the side of the utensil opposite the coals [placed] above the rust.91 One leaves the coals there until the straw or the strand on the other side is burned.)

Afterwards, one performs hag’alah on the utensil. If one did not [place flaming coals on the rusted area] before performing hag’alah, he should do so after performing hag’alah.

טז וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַעֲבִיר הַחֲלֻדָּה, אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לִטְרֹחַקיב וּלְהַעֲבִירָהּ – יָשִׂים גֶּחָלִים בּוֹעֲרוֹת עַל מְקוֹם הַחֲלֻדָּה וְיַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם שָׁם עַד שֶׁאִם יִגַּע אָדָם בַּצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁל הַכְּלִי בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁכְּנֶגֶד הַחֲלֻדָּה יִהְיֶה הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹקיד מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּתְלַבֵּן הַכְּלִי מִן הַגֶּחָלִים, שֶׁאָז בְּוַדַּאי נִשְׂרָף כָּל מַמָּשׁוּת אִסּוּר שֶׁתַּחַת הַחֲלֻדָּה.

וְהָעוֹלָם נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר לְהַשְׁהוֹת הַגֶּחָלִים כָּל כָּךְ עַל הַחֲלֻדָּה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קַשׁ אוֹ חוּט נִשְׂרָף מִצַּד הַשֵּׁנִיקטז (דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁקּוֹשְׁרִין קַשׁ אוֹ חוּט סְבִיב הַכְּלִי מִצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי נֶגֶד הַגֶּחָלִים שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי הַחֲלֻדָּה91 וּמַשְׁהֶה אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיִּשְׂרֹף הַקַּשׁ אוֹ הַחוּט שֶׁכְּנֶגְדָּן בַּצַּד הַשֵּׁנִי), וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַגְעִילִין אֶת הַכְּלִי.קיח וְאִם לֹא עָשָׂה כֵּן קֹדֶם הַגְעָלָה – יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן אַחַר הַהַגְעָלָה:

17 All the above applies when the rust is on the inner side of the utensil, in a place where the utensil is used on an ongoing basis. [Different rules apply,] if, by contrast, [the rust] is on the outer side of the utensil, [i.e., the side] which is not used for chametz. Although at times the chametz used also reaches this outer side, nevertheless, since by and large the chametz used does not reach [the outer portion of the utensil], there is no concern that perhaps the actual substance of chametz is present [and] intact under the rust [on the outer side], and there is no need to remove [the rust] at all.

יז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהַחֲלֻדָּה הוּא בַּצַּד הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁל הַכְּלִי בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ בְּקֶבַע, אֲבָל אִם הוּא בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִיקכ שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם חָמֵץ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מַגִּיעַ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הֶחָמֵץ גַּם מִבַּחוּץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁרֹב הַפְּעָמִים אֵין מַגִּיעַ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הֶחָמֵץ עַד לְשָׁם, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ שָׁם מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ בְּעֵין תַּחַת הַחֲלֻדָּה, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִירָהּ כְּלָל:91

18 All the above92 applies when the rust has some substance, so that it will produce some granules when it is scraped off. In such an instance, there is reason for concern that if [the rust] is not scraped off, a trace of the actual forbidden substance may be present; it is [merely] not seen because the rust is covering it.

[A different ruling applies,] if, however, there is no actual substance to the rust, [it] merely [caused] discoloration; [i.e.,] sometimes, there are black or red blotches on the inside of a utensil, but even if they were scraped off, no granules would be produced. [In such an instance,] there is absolutely no need for concern that there might be a trace of chametz there that is not visible. A similar law applies to those stains that appear on tin utensils (called earth stains). They do not impede hag’alah,since they do not have any substance; they are mere [external] discolorations.

יח וְכָל זֶה92 בַּחֲלֻדָּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ קְצָת מַמָּשׁוּת (שֶׁקּוֹרִין ראש"ט), שֶׁכְּשֶׁגּוֹרְדִין אוֹתָהּ מִשָּׁם יֵשׁ בָּהּ כַּמָּה עַפְרוּרִית, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ אִם לֹא יְגָרְדוּ אוֹתָהּ מִשָּׁם שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ תַּחְתֶּיהָ מַשֶּׁהוּ מַמָּשׁוּת הָאִסּוּר בְּעֵין וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה לָעַיִן מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהַחֲלֻדָּה מְכַסֵּהוּ. אֲבָל אִם אֵין בַּחֲלֻדָּה מַמָּשׁוּת כְּלָל רַק מַרְאֶה בִּלְבַד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּמְצָא לִפְעָמִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ שַׁחֲרוּת אוֹ אַדְמִימוּת בַּצַּד הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁל הַכְּלִי, שֶׁאַף אִם יְגָרְדוּ אוֹתָם לֹא יִהְיֶה שָׁם שׁוּם עַפְרוּרִית – אֵין לָחֹשׁ כְּלָל שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ שָׁם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה. וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּאוֹתָן כְּתָמִים הַנַּעֲשִׂים בִּכְלֵי בְּדִיל (שֶׁקּוֹרִין ערד פלעקי"ן) שֶׁאֵין מְעַכְּבִין אֶת הַהַגְעָלָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם מַמָּשׁוּת רַק מַרְאֶה בִּלְבַד:קכב

19 Hag’alah is not effective for a knife or any other utensil that requires hag’alah that possesses a crevice, a crack, or a hole,93 which prevents one from scraping there and cleaning it thoroughly.94 [The above applies] when [the impediment preventing a thorough hag’alah] is found in a place that is used on an ongoing basis, i.e., on the inner side of the utensil. [The rationale is that] there are grounds for concern that some actual substance of chametz might be present, and hag’alah is not effective when [the forbidden substance itself] is present.

Therefore, it is necessary to [first] place fiery coals on the crack or crevice and leave them there until the utensil [becomes so hot] that were a person to touch its outer side, his hand would recoil. At that point, any forbidden substance that is in the crack or hole will certainly have been burned.

People at large have accepted the custom of being stringent and leaving the coals [in place] until a piece of straw or a strand on the other side [of the coals] would be burnt. Afterwards, hag’alah is performed. If [fiery coals were not placed on the crevice or crack] before hag’alah, it should be done afterwards.

יט סַכִּין אוֹ אֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר כֵּלִים הַצְּרִיכִין הַגְעָלָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ גֻּמָּא אוֹ סֶדֶק94 אוֹ נֶקֶב שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְחַטֵּט בְּתוֹכָן לְנַקְּרָן וּלְנַקּוֹתָן הֵיטֵב – אֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם,93 אִם הֵן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ בְּקֶבַע, דְּהַיְנוּ מִצַּד הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁל הַכְּלִי,קכד לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ שָׁם מַשֶּׁהוּ מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ בְּעֵין, וְאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לְמַה שֶּׁהוּא בְּעֵין,

לְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ גֶּחָלִים בּוֹעֲרוֹת עַל הַסֶּדֶקקכו וְהַגֻּמָּא וְיַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם שָׁם עַד שֶׁאִם יִגַּע אָדָם כְּנֶגְדָּן בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִי יִהְיֶה הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, שֶׁאָז בְּוַדַּאי נִשְׂרָף כָּל מַמָּשׁוּת אִסּוּר שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַסֶּדֶק אוֹ הַגֻּמָּא.

וְהָעוֹלָם נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר לְהַשְׁהוֹת שָׁם כָּל כָּךְ אֶת הַגֶּחָלִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קַשׁ אוֹ חוּט נִשְׂרָף בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַגְעִילָן. וְאִם לֹא עָשָׂה כֵּן קֹדֶם הַהַגְעָלָה – יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן אַחַר הַהַגְעָלָה:קכח

20 Accordingly, hag’alah is not effective for knives whose ends are inserted into handles95 and affixed there with small pins. [The rationale is that] there are [very small] holes (surrounding [the space]) where the pins are inserted. Needless to say, [the above applies] if the handle itself is made of two pieces [that are] attached together, and there is a small empty space between [the two pieces that the handle is composed of] into which [the end of] the knife is inserted. [The reason hag’alah is not effective in this instance is] because by and large, it is impossible to thoroughly scrape clean [that area] so that there will be no filth stuck there. [It is therefore unacceptable to perform hag’alah upon it,] because hag’alah is effective only when a utensil is spotless and [completely] clean, as explained.96

Similarly, if the end of the knife is attached to the handle with glue, hag’alah is not effective. [The rationale is that] since glue becomes ruined in boiling water, there is reason for concern that one will show restraint and not boil the water properly. The same concept applies if the handle was made of animal horn.97 [Indeed,] hag’alah is not effective for all utensils made from an animal’s horn because animal horn becomes ruined in boiling water98 and there are grounds for concern that one will show restraint [and not boil the water properly when performing hag’alah on] such [a utensil].

כ לְפִיכָךְ אוֹתָם סַכִּינִים שֶׁיְּדוֹתֵיהֶן תְּחוּבִין תּוֹךְ בֵּית יָד וְהֵן קְבוּעִין שָׁם בְּמַסְמְרִים קְטַנִּים – אֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם,95 כִּי יֵשׁ גֻּמּוֹת דַּקּוֹת הַרְבֵּה בִּמְקוֹם (סְבִיב) הַמַּסְמְרִים. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם גּוּף הַבֵּית יָד נַעֲשָׂה מִב' חֲלָקִים מְדֻבָּקִין וְיֵשׁ רֶוַח מְעַט בֵּינֵיהֶם לְהַכְנִיס לְשָׁם אֶת הַסַּכִּין, שֶׁעַל פִּי הָרֹב אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקֵּר שָׁם הֵיטֵב שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה שׁוּם טִנּוֹפֶת דָּבוּק שָׁם,קל וְאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת אֶלָּא לִכְלִי זַךְ וְנָקִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.96

וְכֵן אִם יַד הַסַּכִּין דְּבוּקָה בְּבֵית יָד עַל יְדֵי דֶּבֶק – אֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לָהּ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַדֶּבֶק מִתְקַלְקֵל בְּמַיִם רוֹתְחִין – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָחוּס עַל הַדֶּבֶק47 וְלֹא יַרְתִּיחַ אֶת הַמַּיִם יָפֶה יָפֶה.

וְכֵן אִם הַבֵּית יָד הִיא עֲשׂוּיָה מִקֶּרֶן,קלב,97 וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים הָעֲשׂוּיִין מִקֶּרֶן – אֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶן, שֶׁהַקֶּרֶן מִתְקַלְקֵל בְּמַיִם רוֹתְחִין,98 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָחוּס עָלָיו:

21 All [of the above concerns] apply with regard to the handle of a knife, because the body of the knife is used for chametz and most of the time, the use of the chametz also reaches the knife’s handle. In contrast, when there are crevices, cracks, and rust on the handles of other utensils, there is no need to scrape them clean at all. [Moreover,] even if one did not subject the handles [of utensils used for chametz] to hag’alah at all99 and inserted them into food on Pesach, [the food] is permitted to be eaten, since it is not common to use chametz on the handles of utensils.100 Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one should at least perform hag’alah on the handles by pouring boiling water from a k’li rishon [over them. The rationale is that] at times, when the filth from chametz is being washed off the utensils in hot water,101 a small amount of that filth may be absorbed in the handles.102

כא וְכָל זֶה בְּבֵית יָד שֶׁל סַכִּין שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין חָמֵץ בְּגוּף הַסַּכִּין וְרֹב הַפְּעָמִים מַגִּיעַ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הֶחָמֵץ גַּם בְּהַבֵּית יָד שֶׁל סַכִּין,קלד אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּידוֹתֵיהֶן גֻּמּוֹת וּסְדָקִים וַחֲלֻדָּה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְנַקְּרָן כְּלָל. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא הִגְעִיל כְּלָל אֶת הַיָּדוֹת,99 וּתְחָבָן בְּפֶסַח לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה,קלו כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ חָמֵץ בִּידוֹת הַכֵּלִים.100

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִיל גַּם אֶת הַיָּדוֹת עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן86 לְכָל הַפָּחוֹת,קלח לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים כְּשֶׁמְּדִיחִין אֶת הַכֵּלִים מִלִּכְלוּךְ חָמֵץ שֶׁבָּהֶן בְּתוֹךְ מַיִם חַמִּין101 נִבְלָע קְצָת מִלִּכְלוּךְ הֶחָמֵץ לְתוֹךְ הַיָּדוֹת:,102

22 If one did not perform hag’alah even on the body of the utensil and inserted the handle of the utensil into a [hot] cooked dish, there are authorities who rule that the cooked dish is forbidden if the utensil and its handle are made of metal.103 [The rationale is that] when hot chametz was used within the body of the utensil, chametz was also absorbed in the utensil’s handle, for whenever part of a metal [object] is hot, the entire [object] becomes hot.104 [Thus, when hag’alah is performed on the body of the utensil, it is effective in purging the chametz from the entire utensil.105 The rationale is that] just as chametz was absorbed in the utensil’s handle via the body of the utensil, so too, [the chametz] is released from [the entire utensil] via [the hag’alah performed on] the body of the utensil.106 When, however, hag’alah was not even performed on the body of the utensil, the chametz that was absorbed [in the handle] remains in the handle, and is released from it into the food [when the handle is inserted into it].

There are authorities who differ with [this ruling] and maintain that even though whenever part of a metal object is hot, the entire [object] becomes hot, nevertheless, the flavor that is absorbed in a portion [of the utensil] does not spread throughout the entire utensil as a result of this heat.107 One may rely on the words [of these authorities] when a severe [financial] loss is involved or [when ruling stringently] would prevent celebrating the festival [with appropriate joy].

כב וְאִם לֹא הִגְעִיל כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ אֶת גּוּף הַכְּלִי וְתָחַב אֶת יַד הַכְּלִי לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – יֵשׁ אוֹסְרִין אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל אִם הַכְּלִי וְיָדוֹ הֵן שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת,103 לְפִי שֶׁכְּשֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין בְּגוּף הַכְּלִי נִבְלַע הֶחָמֵץ גַּם בְּיַד הַכְּלִי, שֶׁכָּל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁחַם מִקְצָתוֹ חַם כֻּלּוֹ,קמ,104 וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּבְלָע הֶחָמֵץ בְּהַיָּד עַל יְדֵי גּוּף הַכְּלִי כָּךְ הוּא נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ105 עַל יְדֵי גּוּף הַכְּלִי,,106 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁלֹּא הִגְעִיל אֲפִלּוּ אֶת גּוּף הַכְּלִי – הֲרֵי נִשְׁאֲרָה בְּלִיעַת הֶחָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַיָּד, וְנִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל.קמב

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מַתֶּכֶת שֶׁחַם מִקְצָתוֹ חַם כֻּלּוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁבְּמִקְצָתוֹ אֵינוֹ מִתְפַּשֵּׁט בְּכֻלּוֹ עַל יְדֵי חֹם זֶה.107 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ בִּמְקוֹם מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב:

23 Hag’alah is not effective in kasheringa sheath into which a knife used for chametz is inserted throughout the year, so that it be fit to [act as a sheath] for a knife [designated for] Pesach use. [The rationale is that] it is impossible to scrape and clean [the sheath] thoroughly from the actual substance of chametz that is stuck inside of it, because [the chametz] is stuck very deeply inside of it.108 [The only option is] to open the stitches [that sew the sheath closed] and [then] thoroughly scrape out [the chametz]. ([Once this is done,] even hag’alah is not necessary.)109

כג הַנָּדָן שֶׁל סַכִּינִים שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין לְתוֹכוֹ סַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – אֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לוֹ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ לְהַכְנִיס לְתוֹכוֹ סַכִּין שֶׁל פֶּסַח,קמד לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקְּרוֹ וּלְנַקּוֹתוֹ הֵיטֵב מִן הֶחָמֵץ בְּעֵין שֶׁנִּדְבַּק בּוֹ, כִּי עָמֹק עָמֹק הוּא מִי יִמְצָאֶנּוּ,,108 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן פּוֹתֵחַ אֶת הַתְּפִירוֹת וּמְגָרְדוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶהקמו (שֶׁאָז אֲפִלּוּ הַגְעָלָה אֵין צָרִיךְ):109

24 If one desires to use a tripod on Pesach, [i.e.,] a utensil with three supports on which a pot or a frying pan is placed over a fire in an oven,110 that was used throughout the year, it must be subjected to libbun in fire. [The rationale is that] at times dough [accidentally] spills over [the tripod], and the flavor of chametz is absorbed in it via fire without a liquid [intermediary].

כד חֲצוּבָה (שֶׁקּוֹרִין דרייפוס) וְהוּא כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ ג' רַגְלַיִם וּמַעֲמִידִין עָלֶיהָ קְדֵרָה אוֹ מַחֲבַת בַּתַּנּוּר110 עַל הָאוּר כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּפֶסַח – צָרִיךְ לְלַבְּנָהּ בָּאוּר, לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים נִשְׁפָּךְ עָלֶיהָ עִסָּהקמח וְנִבְלָע בָּהּ טַעַם חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקֶה:

25 [Utensils made from the following substances] that were used with chametz and hot liquids must be kashered through hag’alah in the same manner they were used.111[This rule applies to] utensils [made from]: metal, wood, animal turds,112 stone, earth (i.e., utensils made of earth that were not fired in a kiln, but rather dried in the sun), bone (with the exception of [utensils made from] animal horn, as explained above),113 and mother of pearl.

What is implied? Hag’alah in boiling [water114 in a] k’li rishon, following the directives to be mentioned in sec. 452[:3ff.] is required for utensils that were used for and absorbed chametz throughout the year via the heat of a k’li rishon,115 for example, pots, stew pots, large urns, and similarly, a spoon specifically used to stir a pot while it is on the fire or even after it was removed from the fire, as long as the food in it is so hot that a hand would recoil from it, a ladle used to transfer food from a pot to a dish,116 and any similar [utensil] that is commonly used for chametz throughout the year via the heat of a k’li rishon.

A [utensil]remains in the category of a k’li rishon even after it has been removed from the fire, as explained above.117

There are authorities who maintain that all utensils that were used with forbidden [substances] via the heat of a k’li rishon while the k’li rishon was over the fire must [have the forbidden substance purged from them through] hag’alah inside a k’li rishon that is over a fire, [following the principle,] “[A utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance].”

As an initial and preferred option, one should be stringent and give weight to their words with regard to other forbidden substances. However, with regard to chametz, one may rely on the first, [more lenient] opinion even initially. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that hag’alah in a k’li rishon that had already been removed from the fire is effective even for utensils that were used with chametz [over] fire alone.118

Needless to say, all authorities agree that when one performs hag’alah with a utensil that absorbed meat and milk, hag’alah in a k’li rishon that had already been removed from the fire is effective, even though the flavor of the meat and [that of] the milk were absorbed through fire [directly], provided that they were not absorbed at the same time, but one after the other, for the reason explained above.119

כה אֶחָד כְּלֵי מַתֶּכֶת וְאֶחָד כְּלֵי עֵץ וְאֶחָד כְּלֵי גְּלָלִים112 וּכְלֵי אֲבָנִים וּכְלֵי אֲדָמָהקנ (פֵּרוּשׁ כְּלֵי חֶרֶס שֶׁלֹּא נִצְרְפוּ בְּכִבְשָׁן אֶלָּא נִתְיַבְּשׁוּ בַּחַמָּה), וְאֶחָד כְּלֵי עֶצֶםקנב (חוּץ מִקֶּרֶן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,113), וּמַה שֶּׁקּוֹרִין פערי"ל מוט"רקנד שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקִין חַמִּין, כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן כָּךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַכְשִׁירָן עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה.,111

כֵּיצַד? כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְנִבְלַע בָּהֶן חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, כְּגוֹן קְדֵרוֹת וְאִלְפָּסִין וְיוֹרוֹת,קנו וְכֵן כַּף שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לְהָגִיס בּוֹ הַקְּדֵרָה כְּשֶׁהִיא אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁהֶעֱבִירָהּ מִן הָאֵשׁקנח אֶלָּא שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּתוֹכָהּ חַם בִּכְדֵי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, וְכֵן כַּף שֶׁהוּא מְיֻחָד לְהוֹצִיא בּוֹ הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֵהַקְּדֵרָה לְתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה,116 כָּל אֵלּוּ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָן בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן115 רוֹתֵחַ,114 וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ב.

וְנִקְרָא כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁהֶעֱבִירוּהוּ מִן הָאֵשׁ,קס כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.,117

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקסב שֶׁכָּל כְּלִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אִסּוּר עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילוֹ גַּם כֵּן בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן הָעוֹמֵד אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ, דִּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ".49 וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וְלָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִים, אֲבָל בְּחָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקסד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם הַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן לְאַחַר שֶׁהֶעֱבִירוּהוּ מִן הָאֵשׁ.118 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל כְּלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מִבָּשָׂר וְחָלָב, שֶׁלְּדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל יָכוֹל לְהַגְעִילוֹ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן לְאַחַר שֶׁהֶעֱבִירוּהוּ מִן הָאֵשׁ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁטַּעַם הַבָּשָׂר וְהֶחָלָב נִבְלְעוּ בּוֹ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר, אִם לֹא נִבְלְעוּ בּוֹ בְּבַת אַחַת אֶלָּא בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קסו,119

26 When chametz was used in utensils by pouring [hot food] into them from a k’li rishon, for example, [chametz was poured into] bowls,120 it is not necessary to perform hag’alah on them in a k’li rishon. Instead, it is sufficient to pour boiling water from a k’li rishon over them, [paralleling] the manner in which they were used.121 (True, at times, a bowl is turned upside down [and placed] over a stew pot that is [cooking] on a fire. The vapor from the cooked food in the stew pot rises and is absorbed in the bowl. Thus, at times, chametz will be absorbed in [the bowl] via the heat of a k’li rishon.122 Nevertheless, since bowls are predominantly used by pouring food into them from a k’li rishon, they may be kasheredby pouring [hot water into them] from a k’li rishon. [The rationale is that] the manner in which every utensil [is kashered] is determined by how it is primarily used.)123

There are authorities who differ with this [principle] and maintain that since at times chametz will be used in a bowl via the heat of a k’li rishon, [the bowl] must also be kasheredby hag’alah in a k’li rishon. [To explain their rationale via a rhetorical question:] How can [merely] pouring [hot water] from a k’li rishon be effective in purging [the flavor] the bowl absorbed at times via the heat of a k’li rishon itself?

כו וְכֵלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶם חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, כְּגוֹן קְעָרוֹת, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָן בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,120 אֶלָּא דַּי לָהֶם שֶׁיְּעָרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם רוֹתְחִין מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן כְּדֶרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישָׁן.,121

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים כּוֹפִין קְעָרָה עַל גַּבֵּי אִלְפָּס שֶׁאֵצֶל הָאֵשׁקסח וְעוֹלֶה הַהֶבֶל מֵהַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבָּאִלְפָּס וְנִבְלָע בְּהַקְּעָרָה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁנִּבְלָע בָּהּ חָמֵץ לִפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,122 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַקְּעָרוֹת הוּא לְעָרוֹת לְתוֹכָן מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – הֲרֵי נִכְשָׁרִין גַּם כֵּן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁאָנוּ הוֹלְכִים בְּכָל כְּלִי אַחַר רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹקע).123

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים: כֵּיוָן שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין חָמֵץ בִּקְעָרוֹת עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָן גַּם כֵּן בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, כִּי אֵיךְ תּוֹעִיל הַגְעָלַת עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן לְהַפְלִיט מִן הַקְּעָרָה מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בָּהּ לִפְעָמִים עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹ:

27 With regard to actual practice, as an initial and preferred option, one should follow the stringency of the second opinion. This is the accepted practice; one should not deviate [from it].124

If the bowl is so large that it is impossible to carry out hag’alah with it in a k’li rishon,125 one should place a glowing-hot rock on it. [Then the person] should pour boiling water over [the bowl] from a k’li rishon126and pass the stone127 over the surface of the [entire] bowl so that [the heat from the stone] will cause the water poured over [the bowl] to boil. [Thus, the water poured over the bowl] will be as hot as [water in] a k’li rishon. One should do this with all [large utensils] that must undergo hag’alah in a k’li rishon.128

Nevertheless, hag’alah by means of pouring [hot water] and [passing a] glowing hot stone [over the utensil] should not be performed on a small utensil that can be [placed] into a k’li rishon and similarly, on small bowls, because there are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that performing hag’alah in such a manner is not equivalent to performing hag’alah [by immersing the utensil] in a k’li rishon.

[Moreover,] even a large bowl,129 if it has ridges and bulges similar to buttons and flowers, cannot be [kashered through performing hag’alah] by pouring [hot water over the bowl] and [passing a] glowing hot stone [over the bowl’s surface], because it is impossible to pass the stone over [the bowl’s] entire surface.130

כז וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה. וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין,קעב וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.124

וְאִם הַקְּעָרָה הִיא גְּדוֹלָה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַגְעִילָהּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן125 – יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן וִיעָרֶה עָלֶיהָ מַיִם רוֹתְחִין מִן כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,,126 וְיַעֲבִיר עָלֶיהָ הָאֶבֶן127 עַל פְּנֵי הַקְּעָרָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּרְתִּיחַ אֶת כָּל הַמַּיִם שֶׁעֵרָה עָלֶיהָ וְיִהְיֶה חֻמָּם כָּל כָּךְ גָּדוֹל כְּחֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן.קעד וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה בְּכָל הַצָּרִיךְ הַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן.128

אֲבָל כְּלִי קָטָן שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהַכְנִיסוֹ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, וְכֵן קְעָרוֹת קְטַנּוֹת – אֵין לְהַגְעִילָן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי וְאֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִיןקעו עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהַגְעָלָה כָּזוֹ אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה כְּהַגְעָלָה בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן.

וַאֲפִלּוּ קְעָרָה גְּדוֹלָה,129 אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ אֳגָנִין וּבְלִיטוֹת כְּעֵין כַּפְתּוֹרִים וּפְרָחִים – אֵין לָהּ תַּקָּנָה עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי וְאֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַעֲבִיר הָאֶבֶן עַל פְּנֵי כֻּלָּהּ:,130

28 All the above applies as an initial [and preferred] option.131 After the fact, when one already performed hag’alah on bowls [or] the like by merely pouring water from a k’li rishon over them without [passing] a glowing-hot stone [over them], and used [the utensils] on Pesach for hot food, one may rely on the first opinion. It is permitted to eat this hot food on Pesach.132

[The above leniency applies] provided [the person] performed hag’alah by pouring [hot water] from the k’li rishon itself or [alternatively,] he inserted an empty utensil into a k’li rishon that was boiling and after the water entered the empty utensil, he left the utensil in the k’li rishon for a short time until the water that entered [that utensil] boiled while in [the utensil]. Afterwards, [the person] took [that utensil] from the k’li rishon and poured [the water] from it onto the bowls. Pouring this water is governed by the same laws as pouring from a k’li rishon itself.

([The rationale is that] since this utensil remained in the k’li rishon until the water inside it boiled, the sides of the utensil certainly became extremely hot. Thus, even after the utensil was removed from the k’li rishon with the water in it, its sides will preserve [the water’s] heat.133 Therefore, this utensil is governed by the laws of a k’li rishon itself.) If, [however, the utensil] was not kept in the k’li rishon for that long, there is an unresolved doubt whether or not it is governed by the laws of a k’li rishon, and a stringent perspective is taken, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 107.134 Therefore, if boiling [water] was poured from [such a utensil] over bowls that were used by having [hot food or liquid] poured into them from a k’li rishon, they are not considered as having undergone hag’alah,and the hot food for which they were used on Pesach becomes forbidden.

כח וְכָל זֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה,131 אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁכְּבָר הִגְעִיל אֶת הַקְּעָרוֹת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד בְּלִי אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח בְּחַמִּין – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּמֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל חַמִּין הַלָּלוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח.קעח,132

וְהוּא שֶׁהִגְעִילָן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁהִכְנִיס כְּלִי רֵיקָן לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן רוֹתֵחַ וְאַחַר שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ הַמַּיִם לְתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי רֵיקָן הִשְׁהָה מְעַט אֶת הַכְּלִי רֵיקָן בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַד שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ לְתוֹכוֹ הֶעֱלוּ רְתִיחָה בְּתוֹכוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הוֹצִיאוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן וְעֵרָה מִמֶּנּוּ עַל הַקְּעָרוֹת, שֶׁדִּין עֵרוּי זֶה כְּעֵרוּי כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹ.קפ

(דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁכְּלִי זֶה שָׁהָה בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַד שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּשְׁאֲבוּ לְתוֹכוֹ הֶעֱלוּ רְתִיחָה, בְּוַדַּאי נִתְחַמְּמוּ דָּפְנֵי כְּלִי זֶה חֹם גָּדוֹל, וְאַף לְאַחַר שֶׁהוֹצִיאוֹ עִם הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ מִתּוֹךְ הַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – הֲרֵי דַּפְנוֹתָיו מַעֲמִידִין אֶת חֹם הַמַּיִם שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ,,133 וּלְפִיכָךְ דִּין כְּלִי זֶה כְּדִין כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹקפב).

אֲבָל אִם לֹא שָׁהָה בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן כַּשִּׁעוּר הַזֶּה – יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בּוֹ אִם דִּינוֹ כִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹ אוֹ לָאו, וְהוֹלְכִין בּוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ז.קפד,134 לְפִיכָךְ אִם עֵרוּ מֵהָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ עַל קְעָרוֹת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹ – לֹא עָלְתָה לָהֶם הַגְעָלָה, וְאוֹסְרִין אֶת הַחַמִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח:

29 Even if one poured [boiling water] over a bowl from a k’li rishon, the hag’alah is not effective unless one is careful that the flow [of water] from the k’li rishon is not interrupted135 before [it] comes in contact with the body of the bowl. [The rationale is that] whenever the flow [of water] is interrupted and [the water] is not connected to the k’li rishon, [the water] cools [somewhat] and its temperature is reduced from that of the heat of a flow [of water] that is connected to a k’li rishon.136 Therefore, this flow [of water] will not cause a bowl to release [the flavor] it [previously] absorbed via a flow [of chametz] that was connected to the k’li rishon from which it was poured.137

כט וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם עֵרָה עַל הַקְּעָרָה מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹ לֹא עָלְתָה לָהֶם הַגְעָלָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא יִפְסֹק הַקִּלּוּחַ מִן הַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן135 קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּגַע הַקִּלּוּחַ בְּגוּף הַקְּעָרָה, שֶׁכָּל קִלּוּחַ שֶׁנִּפְסָק וְאֵינוֹ מְחֻבָּר לִכְלִי רִאשׁוֹןקפו – הֲרֵי נִתְקָרֵר וְנִתְמַעֵט חֻמּוֹ מֵחֹם קִלּוּחַ שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר לִכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן,,136 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין קִלּוּחַ זֶה מַפְלִיט מִן הַקְּעָרָהקפח מַה שֶּׁנִּבְלַע בָּהּ עַל יְדֵי קִלּוּחַ הַמְחֻבָּר לְהַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְקַלֵּחַ מִמֶּנּוּ:137

30 When, by contrast, hag’alah is performed using a glowing-hot stone, it is not customary to be careful about any of the above [measures. The rationale is that] even if the flow of water [from the k’li rishon] was interrupted before it reached the bowl and [the water] cooled slightly, it will boil again because of the glowing-hot stone.

A similar [leniency applies] even if one does not pour [boiling water] over the bowl from the k’li rishon itself, but [rather] pours [water] from the k’li rishon to another utensil and then [pours the water] from that utensil to the bowl. [In that instance as well, hag’alah is effective if one uses a glowing-hot stone. The rationale is that] the glowing-hot stone boils the water and brings it to a high temperature, as high a temperature as that of a k’li rishon.

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is desirable to be stringent and to be careful regarding all [the above measures] even when performing hag’alah by [using] a glowing-hot stone, for there are authorities who maintain that a glowing-hot stone does not have the power to boil water and bring it to as high a temperature as that of a k’li rishon.138

ל אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל עַל יְדֵי אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן – אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לִזָּהֵר בְּכָל זֶה, שֶׁאַף שֶׁנִּפְסָק הַקִּלּוּחַ קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְהַקְּעָרָה וְנִתְקָרֵר מְעַט הֲרֵי הוּא חוֹזֵר וּמַרְתִּיחַ עַל יְדֵי אֶבֶן הַמְלֻבָּן. וְכֵן אִם אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְעָרֶה עַל הַקְּעָרָה מֵהַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן עַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא מְעָרֶה מֵהַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן לִכְלִי אַחֵר וּמֵאוֹתוֹ כְּלִי מְעָרֶה עַל הַקְּעָרָה – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר,קצ שֶׁאֶבֶן הַמְלֻבָּן הוּא מַרְתִּיחַ אֶת הַמַּיִם וּמְחַמֵּם אוֹתָם חֹם גָּדוֹל כְּחֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וְלִזָּהֵר בְּכָל זֶה אַף כְּשֶׁמַּגְעִיל עַל יְדֵי אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקצב שֶׁאֶבֶן הַמְלֻבָּן אֵין לוֹ כֹּחַ לְהַרְתִּיחַ אֶת הַמַּיִם וּלְחַמֵּם אוֹתָם חֹם גָּדוֹל כְּחֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן:138

31 All the above139 applies when the bowl had not been used with a k’li rishon within 24 hours, e.g., it had not been turned upside down over a stew pot within 24 hours of the time hag’alah was performed. [The rationale is that] any [flavor] that was absorbed in [the bowl] from a k’li rishon [at least] 24 hours before hag’alah was performed has become impaired, and hag’alah [to] release what [was absorbed by] the bowl is not required according to Scriptural Law, only according to Rabbinic Law. According to the first opinion [mentioned above],140 the Sages showed leniency and [allowed hag’alah to be performed] according to the primary manner in which the utensil was used.141

If, by contrast, [the bowl] had been used with a k’li rishon within 24 hours, all authorities agree that it is necessary [to purge whatever flavor has been absorbed] through hag’alah [i.e. by immersing the bowl]in a k’li rishon. [Accordingly,] even after the fact, if one performed hag’alah by [merely] pouring [boiling water from a k’li rishon over the bowl] without using a glowing stone,142 [the bowl] causes the hot food [poured] in it within 24 hours of it being used with a k’li rishon to become forbidden.

לא וְכָל זֶה139 כְּשֶׁהַקְּעָרָה אֵינָהּ בַּת יוֹמָהּ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא כָּפוּהָ עַל אִלְפָּס רוֹתֵחַ בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת לְהַגְעָלָה זוֹ, שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁנִּבְלַע בָּהּ עַל יְדֵי כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן קֹדֶם מֵעֵת לְעֵת לְהַגְעָלָה זוֹ הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָהּ וּלְהַפְלִיטָהּ כְּלָל מִן הַקְּעָרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קצד וַחֲכָמִים הֵקֵלּוּ לֵילֵךְ אַחַר רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַכְּלִי,141 לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.,140 אֲבָל אִם הִיא בַּת יוֹמָהּ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָהּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן מַמָּשׁ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד אוֹסֶרֶתקצו הַחַמִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהּ בְּתוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת לְתַשְׁמִישׁ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, אִם הִגְעִילָהּ עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי בְּלֹא אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן:142

32 [The following laws apply regarding] utensils that were used with – and thus chametz was absorbed in them through – the heat of a k’li sheni143throughout the year. For example, spoons that are not designated to stir [food cooking] in a pot or to take cooked food from a pot, but instead, they are designated primarily to be used to eat with from a bowl (after the flow from the k’li rishon has been interrupted).144 [The bowl] is classified a k’li sheini [and thus,]such [utensils]145 may be kashered through hag’alah in a k’li sheni, i.e., one should pour boiling water from a k’li rishon into a k’li sheni and immerse the spoons in the boiling water of the k’li sheni.146

According to those authorities who maintain that the primary manner in which a utensil is used does not determine [how hag’alah should be performed to kasher it],147 it is necessary to immerse each spoon in a k’li rishon. [The rationale is that] at times, spoons are used to stir a pot or to take food from a pot.148 It is customary [to follow this stringency]. One should not deviate from it.149

לב וְכֵלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְנִבְלַע בָּהֶן חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי שֵׁנִי,143 כְּגוֹן כַּפּוֹת שֶׁאֵינָן מְיֻחָדִין לְהָגִיס הַקְּדֵרָה אוֹ לְהוֹצִיא בָּהֶן תַּבְשִׁיל מֵהַקְּדֵרָה, אֶלָּא רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמְיֻחָד לָהֶם הוּא לֶאֱכֹל בָּהֶם מֵהַקְּעָרָה, שֶׁהִיא נִקְרֵאת כְּלִי שֵׁנִי (לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּפְסַק הַקִּלּוּחַ מֵהַכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹןקצח)144 – הֲרֵי הֵן145 נִכְשָׁרִין עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּעָרֶה רוֹתְחִין מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֵׁנִי, וְיָשִׂים הַכַּפּוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי.,146

וּלְהָאוֹמְרִיםר שֶׁאֵין הוֹלְכִים בְּכֵלִים אַחַר רֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן147 – צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִיל כָּל כַּף וְכַף בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מְגִיסִין בּוֹ הַקְּדֵרָה אוֹ מוֹצִיאִין בּוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל מֵהַקְּדֵרָה.148 וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין, וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת:149

33 All the above150 applies as an initial and preferred option. After the fact, by contrast, even if one did not perform hag’alah on the spoons at all, and inserted them into a k’li rishon on Pesach, [the food in the k’li rishon] may be permitted to be eaten if [forbidding it] would lead to a severe [financial] loss or would prevent celebrating the festival [joyously. The rationale is that] it is possible to rely on [the cumulative strength of the combination of two approaches that lead to leniency: a) the ruling of the proponents of] the first opinion [mentioned in subsections 26 and 32] who maintain that the primary manner in which a utensil is used determines [how hag’alah should be performed to kasher it],151 and b) the ruling of those authorities who maintain that whenever a forbidden substance was absorbed in a utensil through the heat of a k’li sheni, [the utensil] does not require hag’alah at all, because the heat of a k’li sheni is not powerful [enough] to cause [flavor] to be absorbed at all.152

Nevertheless, leniency may not be granted unless the spoons were not used within 24 hours [in food that was boiling hot],153 in which instance, one may rely on the authorities who maintain that an impaired flavor is also permitted on Pesach,154 because fundamentally, [the halachah]follows that view. If, however, [the spoons] were used within 24 hours of absorbing chametz, leniency may not be taken.

לג וְכָל זֶה150 לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִגְעִיל כְּלָל אֶת הַכַּפּוֹת וּתְחָבָן בְּפֶסַח לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּירוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה אִם יֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב,רב לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁהוֹלְכִין בְּכָל כְּלִי אַחַר רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ,151 וְעַל דִּבְרֵירד הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶם אִסּוּר עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי שֵׁנִי – אֵין צָרִיךְ הַגְעָלָה כְּלָל, לְפִי שֶׁחֹם כְּלִי שֵׁנִי אֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לְהַבְלִיעַ כְּלָל.152

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְהָקֵל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁאֵין הַכַּפּוֹת בְּנֵי יוֹמָן,רו,153 שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁנּוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם מֻתָּר אַף בְּפֶסַח,154 כִּי כֵן עִקָּר. אֲבָל אִם הֵן בְּנֵי יוֹמָן מִבְּלִיעַת חָמֵץ – אֵין לְהָקֵל:

34 To what does the above apply? [To utensils that absorbed chametz due to] the heat of a k’li sheni itself, i.e., spoons that absorbed chametz due to the heat of a k’li sheni, [for they were used] in a bowl that was a k’li sheni. By contrast, stringency is not required when [liquid] was poured from a k’li sheni,155 for example, sauce that was chametz and was so hot that a hand would recoil from it was poured [from] a bowl [that was a k’li sheni] on [to] a permitted [substance] during Pesach.156 Washing [the forbidden liquid] off is sufficient, even though [the poured sauce] does not impair the flavor [of the permitted substance]. Needless to say, the heat of a tertiary or a quaternary utensil157 does not bring about a prohibition even if [the liquid in it] is so hot that a hand would recoil from it.

[Even when all the factors mentioned in the previous subsection are present,] leniency should only be granted when a severe [financial] loss is involved or [when not using the food] will prevent celebrating the festival [joyously. The rationale is that] there are authorities who rule stringently even with regard to other forbidden substances,158 [maintaining that] whenever [a liquid] is so hot that a hand would recoil from it, even when it is in a tertiary or a quaternary utensil – although it does not have the power to cook – it has the power to [cause a substance to be] absorbed and released.159 If so, their [stringency] should be followed at least with regard to chametz on Pesach, since there are authorities who rule stringently with regard to chametz on Pesach even when [it was used with] cold liquids, as will be explained in sec. 467[:12, 29].

לד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּחֹם כְּלִי שֵׁנִי עַצְמוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ הַכַּפּוֹת שֶׁבָּלְעוּ חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי שֵׁנִי, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי שֵׁנִי, אֲבָל עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי שֵׁנִי,155 כְּגוֹן רֹטֶברח חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַקְּעָרָה שֶׁנִּשְׁפַּךְ עַל דְּבַר הֶתֵּר בְּפֶסַח156 – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בּוֹ, וְדַי לוֹ בַּהֲדָחָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין כָּאן נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁחֹם כְּלִי שְׁלִישִׁי וּרְבִיעִי157 אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּפֶסַח אַף שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְהָקֵל בָּזֶה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ מְנִיעַת שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַחֲמִירִיןרי אַף בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִים158 בְּכָל חֹם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ אַף שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי שְׁלִישִׁי וּרְבִיעִי, שֶׁאַף שֶׁאֵין לוֹ כֹּחַ לְבַשֵּׁל מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לוֹ כֹּחַ לְהַבְלִיעַ וּלְהַפְלִיט,159 אִם כֵּן עַל כָּל פָּנִים בְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח יֵשׁ לִנְהֹג כְּמוֹתָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ מַחֲמִירִין בְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז:ריב

35 [The following laws apply regarding] baskets in which meat is salted throughout the year with salt that was not checked [to make sure it did not contain] chametz. ([These laws apply] both regarding baskets that have holes [that enable] meat to be salted [to prepare it] for cooking, to kasher it from its blood,160 as well as to baskets which do not have holes in which meat is salted after it has been kashered from its blood.)161

[In both instances,] if a person desires to salt meat for Pesach in [such baskets], it is desirable to be stringent and perform hag’alah on [the baskets] by pouring [boiling water] on them from a k’li rishon so that they release the flavor of [any] tiny crumb of chametz162 [that existed] between the [granules of] salt that was absorbed when salting the meat in them throughout the year.163 [The rationale for this stringency is:] The flavor of this tiny bit [of chametz] absorbed in the substance of the basket is not nullified [despite the fact that the basket is more than] 60 times its volume, for the reason explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 99.164

Nevertheless, if one did not perform hag’alah [on the baskets] at all and salted meat in them during Pesach, it is permitted to eat this meat on Pesach. Even if [the person] knows that chametz was absorbed in the baskets many times through salting or through [water] heated by fire,165 it is nevertheless permitted to eat this meat on Pesach. [The rationale is that] salt does not release flavor that is absorbed in a utensil, as explained in sec. 447[:26].166 Consult that source for all the [relevant] particulars of this law.

לה סַלִּים שֶׁמּוֹלְחִים בָּהֶם בָּשָׂר כָּל הַשָּׁנָה בְּמֶלַח שֶׁלֹּא נִבְדַּק מֵחָמֵץ (בֵּין סַלִּים מְנֻקָּבִים שֶׁמּוֹלְחִין בָּהֶן בָּשָׂר לִקְדֵרָה לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ מִדָּמוֹ,160 וּבֵין סַלִּים שֶׁאֵינָן מְנֻקָּבִין שֶׁמּוֹלְחִין בָּהֶם הַבָּשָׂר לְאַחַר שֶׁהִכְשִׁירוּהוּ מִדָּמוֹ161), אִם רוֹצֶה לִמְלֹחַ בָּהֶן בָּשָׂר לְפֶסַח – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְהַגְעִילָןריד עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן לְהַפְלִיט מֵהֶם טַעַם פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ162 שֶׁבֵּין הַמֶּלַח שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי מְלִיחַת הַבָּשָׂר בְּתוֹכָם כָּל הַשָּׁנָה,163 שֶׁטַּעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה הַבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ גּוּף הַסַּל אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכָם בְּשִׁשִּׁים,רטז מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ט.,164

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם לֹא הִגְעִילָן כְּלָל וּמָלַח בָּהֶן בָּשָׂר בְּפֶסַח – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר זֶה בְּפֶסַח,ריח אֲפִלּוּ אִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶן חָמֵץ הַרְבֵּה פְּעָמִים עַל יְדֵי מְלִיחָה אוֹ עַל יְדֵי חַמֵּי הָאוּר,165 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר זֶה בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁאֵין הַמֶּלַח מַפְלִיט מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ כֵּלִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,,166 עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

36 [There is a difference of opinion among the halachic authorities regarding how to kasher] a frying pan in which a dough that is chametz is fried throughout the year with oil or with fat.167 There are authorities who maintain that libbun gamur as required by law168 is necessary in order to use [such a frying pan] on Pesach. [The rationale is that] at times all the oil or fat under the entire dough – or [at least under] part of it – is entirely consumed, and [thus,] the flavor of the dough is absorbed into the frying pan by fire alone without any [intervening] liquid. Such flavor will not be released from [the frying pan] by hag’alah, only by libbun, [based on the principle,] “a utensil releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance].”

There are authorities who differ with the above. They maintain that if concern would be shown for such [a possibility], then hag’alah would not be effective for any metal utensil in which chametz was cooked the entire year, for at times the sauce of a cooked food is overcooked and greatly reduced to the extent that the cooked food is burnt and becomes stuck to the sides of the utensil. The reason this [possibility] does not arouse concern is that even though the cooked food becomes burnt and sticks to the sides of the utensil, the moisture of the liquid [it is cooked in] still remains inside [the food]. It is only its external surface that is next to the side of the utensil that dried out. [Moreover,] even in such an instance, there is still some moistness due to the liquid, [it is just that the actual liquid] has dried out. This is not a sufficient reason to consider a pot as a utensil that is used with fire [alone] and to require it to undergo libbun to kasher it. This same law and this same rationale apply with regard to a frying pan in which food is fried.

By contrast, [different rules apply to] a frying pan in which a dough was baked, even though the frying pan was glazed with oil or fat under the dough so that it will not burn. This is called “baking,” not frying, since the dough is not bathing in the oil or fat.169 Thus, the chametz is absorbed into [the frying pan] by fire alone. Hence,] libbun gamur as required by law is needed [to kasher it]. This law also applies to baking pans in which cakes are baked.

לו מַחֲבַת שֶׁמְּטַגְּנִין בָּהּ עִסַּת חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה בְּשֶׁמֶן אוֹ בְּשֻׁמָּן167 – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרכ שֶׁצְּרִיכָה לִבּוּן גָּמוּר כְּדִינוֹ168 לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים נִשְׂרָף וְנִכְלֶה הַשֶּׁמֶן אוֹ הַשֻּׁמָּן שֶׁתַּחַת כָּל הָעִסָּה אוֹ שֶׁתַּחַת מִקְצָתָהּ וְנִבְלָע בָּהּ טַעַם הָעִסָּה בַּמַּחֲבַת עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקֶה, וְטַעַם זֶה אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מִמֶּנָּה עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי לִבּוּן, דִּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ".רכב,49

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאִם בָּאנוּ לָחֹשׁ לָזֶה אִם כֵּן כָּל קְדֵרוֹת שֶׁל מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁמְּבַשֵּׁל בָּהֶן חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה לֹא תּוֹעִיל לָהֶן הַגְעָלָה, כִּי לִפְעָמִים מַקְדִּיחַ הָרֹטֶב וְנֶחְסָר הַרְבֵּה עַד שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל נִשְׂרָף וְנִדְבָּק לְדָפְנֵי הַכְּלִי, וְהַטַּעַם שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁים לָזֶה לְפִי שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַתַּבְשִׁיל נִשְׂרָף וְנִדְבָּק לְדָפְנֵי הַכְּלִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לַחְלוּחִית מַשְׁקֶה יֵשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ וּבִפְנִימִיּוּתוֹ, וְלֹא נִתְיַבֵּשׁ אֶלָּא צַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁאֵצֶל דֹּפֶן הַקְּדֵרָה, וְגַם שָׁם יֵשׁ קְצָת לַחְלוּחִית מַשְׁקֶה אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא יָבֵשׁ, וְאֵין הַקְּדֵרָה נִקְרֵאת בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ "תַּשְׁמִישָׁהּ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר" לְהַצְרִיכָהּ לִבּוּן, וְהוּא הַדִּין וְהוּא הַטַּעַם לְמַחֲבַת שֶׁמְּטַגְּנִין בָּהּ.רכד

אֲבָל מַחֲבַת שֶׁאָפוּ בָּהּ עִסָּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמָּשַׁח אֶת הַמַּחֲבַת בְּשֶׁמֶן אוֹ בְּשֻׁמָּן תַּחַת הָעִסָּה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תִּשָּׂרֵף – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא טִגּוּן אֶלָּא אֲפִיָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הָעִסָּה רוֹחֶשֶׁת בְּשֶׁמֶן אוֹ בְּשֻׁמָּן,,169 וַהֲרֵי נִבְלָע בָּהּ הֶחָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד, וּצְרִיכָה לִבּוּן גָּמוּר כְּדִינוֹ, וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּאַגָּנוֹת שֶׁאוֹפִין בָּהֶן עוּגוֹת:רכו

37 With regard to the halachah: Regarding a frying pan that absorbed other forbidden substances, one should rule stringently as an initial preference, as prescribed by the first opinion. However, regarding a frying pan that absorbed chametz, one may rule leniently, following the latter opinion, for there are authorities who maintain that all utensils [that absorbed chametz before Pesach], even those that are used with fire alone, may be kashered for Pesach through hag’alah.170

If the frying pan is [so] long [that] it is impossible to insert it into a k’li rishon all at once, [first one] half of it should be inserted and then it should be turned around and the other half [should be] inserted.171 If [the frying pan] is so long that even when one half is inserted after the other there will still remain a place in its center which did not undergo hag’alah, that portion should be subjected to fire until it becomes glowing hot.172 Alternatively, coals should be placed on [that part of the frying pan and left in place] until a person’s hand would recoil if he touched the other side [of the utensil] at that place.

This process should also be employed [to kasher] all other utensils that are very long.

לז וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּמַחֲבַת הַבָּלוּעַ מִשְּׁאָר אִסּוּרִין – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. אֲבָל מַחֲבַת הַבָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץ – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה,רכח שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁכָּל הַכֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ תַּשְׁמִישָׁן עַל יְדֵי הָאוּר בִּלְבַד דַּי לָהֶם בְּהַגְעָלָה לְפֶסַח.,170

וְאִם הַמַּחֲבַת הִיא אֲרֻכָּה וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַכְנִיסָהּ כֻּלָּהּ כְּאַחַת בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן – יַכְנִיס חֶצְיָהּ וְהוֹפְכָהּ וּמַכְנִיס חֶצְיָהּ הָאַחֶרֶת.רל,171 וְאִם הִיא אֲרֻכָּה בְּיוֹתֵר שֶׁאַף אִם יַכְנִיסֶנָּה חֲצָאִין יִשָּׁאֵר בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ מָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא נִגְעַל – יְלַבֵּן אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם בָּאוּר,,172 אוֹ יָשִׂים עָלָיו גֶּחָלִים עַד שֶׁאִם יִגַּע אָדָם בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם יִהְיֶה הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,רלב,172

וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁהֵן אֲרֻכִּין בְּיוֹתֵר:

38 Any utensil that is patched173 (when the patch is on the inner side of the utensil)174may not be kashered through hag’alah, unless the patch is removed before hag’alah is performed. [The rationale is that] the absorbed substance in the thickness of the sides [of the utensil] under the patch will not be released entirely from the utensil via hag’alah because the patch will hinder the boiling water in the utensil, and [therefore, the water] will not have the power to purge the absorbed substances on the other side of the patch. ([This applies] even if one immerses the entire utensil into boiling water175 and thus, the boiling water also reaches the outer side of the utensil where there is no patch. Even so, [the water] does not have the power to release [the flavor] absorbed [under the patch], because “[a utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same way as it absorbs [the forbidden substance].” The forbidden substance was absorbed from the inside of the utensil, for that is the manner in which it is used. [Hence,] the forbidden substance must also be purged from the inside of the utensil via the boiling [water] in the utensil. Since there is a patch there, the boiling [water] in the utensil does not have the power to release all the forbidden [flavor absorbed in the inside of the utensil] under the patch) at one time. Instead, [that forbidden flavor] is released little by little. [Only] some [of the forbidden flavor] will be released through this hag’alah, and when [the utensil] is used on Pesach, a little [more of the flavor of chametz] will be released.

Therefore, there is no way of rectifying the matter except by subjecting the patched portion [of the utensil] to libbun gamur as required by law, for the fire will burn all the [forbidden substance that was] absorbed,176 even [whatever is] on the other side of the patch inside the utensil. If the utensil is made of wood, there is no way [the situation] can be rectified except by removing the patch before [performing] hag’alah.177

When does the above apply? When the utensil absorbed the forbidden substance before it was patched, i.e., the utensil was used before the patch was attached to the utensil and [thus,] the utensil absorbed the forbidden substance in the place where the patch [was later attached. Consequently, once] the patch was attached there, the absorbed substance will not be released entirely from the utensil via hag’alah.

[Different rules apply,] by contrast, if the utensil was patched before it absorbed the forbidden [substance], i.e., the patch was placed on the utensil when it was “new,” [i.e.,] a forbidden [substance] had yet to be absorbed by it,178 or even if [the utensil] absorbed a forbidden [substance], but it was kashered through hag’alah before it was patched and then it was used for a forbidden [substance] again. Similarly, [it is governed by different laws] even when hag’alah was not performed until after the patch was placed there, but when hag’alah was performed, the place of the patch had [already] been subjected to libbun as required and then the utensil was used again and absorbed a forbidden [substance]. All of these instances are included in the description of the utensil being patched before it absorbed the forbidden [substance].

[In such instances, the utensil] may be kashered through hag’alah; even the absorbed [forbidden substance] under the patch is released by this hag’alah. [The rationale is that] since [the forbidden substance] was absorbed there when the patch was already attached to the utensil in that place, it is also released when the patch is attached to the utensil, for “[a utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same way as it absorbs [that substance].”

Nevertheless, [more stringent rules may apply] if the patch is not tightly attached to the utensil; instead, there is a small crack and [/or] crevice [below it, generating] concern that perhaps a small trace of the actual forbidden [substance] entered under the patch.179 [Therefore, in that instance] it is necessary to place burning coals on the patch (and leave them [there] until [the utensil becomes so hot that] a person’s hand would recoil if he touched the other side of that area [of the utensil], or if he placed straw or a strand there, it would be burnt, as is the custom described above),180 so that if there is any of the actual forbidden [substance] beneath [the patch], it would be burnt. Alternatively, [the person] should widen the crack to the extent that he could scrape it out thoroughly and remove everything that is there.

There are authorities who maintain that even if [the utensil] absorbed the forbidden [substance] before it was patched, it could be kashered through hag’alah, for hag’alah even purges any [flavor] absorbed on the inside of the patch. Instead, [the difficulty is as follows]: If [the utensil] was used for a forbidden [substance] before [it was] patched, and the patch was [attached] in a place where [the utensil] is used in an ongoing manner, i.e., the inner side of the utensil, there is concern that some of the actual substance of the chametz remained in the utensil under the patch. Therefore, even if the patch is attached tightly to the utensil, [burning] coals must be placed [upon the patch] to burn [any of] the actual forbidden [substance that might be] under it. Alternatively, [the person] could lift the patch slightly so that he would be able to scrape thoroughly under it. If, however, the utensil was patched before it absorbed the forbidden [substance], it is not necessary to place [burning] coals upon [the patch] unless it is not attached tightly to the utensil.

With regard to the actual halachic ruling, one should rule leniently, following the second opinion. Nevertheless, where possible, it is desirable to give weight to the first opinion.

לח כָּל כְּלִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ טְלַאי173 (אִם הַטְּלַאי הוּא בְּצַד פְּנִימִי שֶׁל הַכְּלִי) – אֵינוֹ נִכְשָׁר בְּהַגְעָלָה עַד שֶׁיָּסִיר אֶת הַטְּלַאי קֹדֶם הַהַגְעָלָה,174 לְפִי שֶׁהַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁבָּעֳבִי הַכֹּתֶל תַּחַת הַטְּלַאי אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט לְגַמְרֵי מִן הַכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה,רלד שֶׁהַטְּלַאי מְעַכֵּב עַל הָרוֹתְחִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי וְאֵין בָּהֶם כֹּחַ לְהַפְלִיט הַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁמֵּעֵבֶר לַטְּלַאי (וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מַכְנִיס כָּל הַכְּלִי לְתוֹךְ רוֹתְחִין וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהָרוֹתְחִין מַגִּיעִין גַּם בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם טְלַאי, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין בָּהֶן כֹּחַ לְהַפְלִיט הַבָּלוּעַ מִשָּׁם, לְפִי שֶׁ"כְּבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ",49 וְהָאִסּוּר נִבְלָע בְּצַד הַכְּלִי מִצַּד הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁלּוֹ שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא דֶּרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ, וְצָרִיךְ לְהַפְלִיט הָאִסּוּר גַּם כֵּן מִצַּד הַפְּנִימִירלו שֶׁל הַכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי הָרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם טְלַאי אֵין כֹּחַ בָּרוֹתְחִין שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי לְהַפְלִיט כָּל הָאִסּוּר שֶׁמֵּעֵבֶר לַטְּלַאי) בְּפַעַם אַחַת, אֶלָּא נִפְלָט הוּא מְעַט מְעַט, וְעַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה זוֹ נִפְלָט מְעַט, וּכְשֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח יִהְיֶה חוֹזֵר וְנִפְלָט מְעַט.

וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא שֶׁיְּלַבֵּן מְקוֹם הַטְּלַאי לִבּוּן גָּמוּר כְּדִינוֹ,רלח,168 שֶׁהָאֵשׁ שׂוֹרֵף אֶת כָּל הַבָּלוּעַ,176 אַף שֶׁמֵּעֵבֶר לַטְּלַאי שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי. וְאִם הוּא כְּלִי שֶׁל עֵץרמ – אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה עַד שֶׁיָּסִיר הַטְּלַאי קֹדֶם הַהַגְעָלָה.177

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁקָּדְמָה בְּלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר בַּכְּלִי לְהַטְּלַאי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁקֹּדֶם שֶׁשָּׂמוּ הַטְּלַאי בַּכְּלִי כְּבָר נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְנִבְלַע אִסּוּר בַּכְּלִי בִּמְקוֹם הַטְּלַאי, וְאוֹתוֹ בָּלוּעַ כְּשֶׁמְּשִׂימִין עָלָיו טְלַאי אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט לְגַמְרֵי מִן הַכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה,רמב אֲבָל אִם קָדַם הַטְּלַאי לִבְלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר בַּכְּלִי, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁשָּׂמוּ הַטְּלַאי בַּכְּלִי כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַכְּלִי חָדָשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִבְלַע בּוֹ אִסּוּר עֲדַיִן,178 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ נִבְלַע בּוֹ אִסּוּר אֶלָּא שֶׁהִגְעִילוֹ וְהִכְשִׁירוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁשָּׂמוּ בּוֹ אֶת הַטְּלַאי וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזַר וְנִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אִסּוּר, וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא הִגְעִילוֹ עַד לְאַחַר שִׂימַת הַטְּלַאי אֶלָּא שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִגְעִילוֹ לִבֵּן אֶת מְקוֹם הַטְּלַאי כְּדִינוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ חָזַר וְנִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ וְנִבְלַע בּוֹ אִסּוּר – כָּל זֶה נִקְרָא "קָדַם הַטְּלַאי לִבְלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר בַּכְּלִי",רמד וַהֲרֵי הוּא נִכְשָׁר עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה. וְאַף הַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁתַּחַת הַטְּלַאי נִפְלָט עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה זוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא נִבְלַע שָׁם כְּשֶׁהָיָה הַטְּלַאי כְּבָר שָׁם מֻדְבָּק בַּכְּלִי – הֲרֵי הוּא נִפְלָט גַּם כֵּן כְּשֶׁהַטְּלַאי מֻדְבָּק בַּכְּלִי, דִּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ".49

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין הַטְּלַאי מֻדְבָּק לַכְּלִי יָפֶה אֶלָּא יֵשׁ שָׁם קְצָת סֶדֶק וְגֻמָּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִכְנַס שָׁם תַּחַת הַטְּלַאי קְצָת מַשֶּׁהוּ מִמַּמָּשׁוּת הָאִסּוּר,179 – צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ גֶּחָלִים בּוֹעֲרוֹת עַל הַטְּלַאירמו (וְיַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם עַד שֶׁאִם יִגַּע אָדָם בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם יִהְיֶה הַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, אוֹ עַד שֶׁאִם יַנִּיחַ שָׁם קַשׁ אוֹ חוּט יִהְיוּ נִשְׂרָפִין לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהרמח,180) כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׂרֹף מַמָּשׁוּת הָאִסּוּר שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו אִם יֶשְׁנוֹ שָׁם. אוֹ יַרְחִיב הַסֶּדֶק הַרְבֵּה כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁיּוּכַל לְנַקֵּר בְּתוֹכוֹ יָפֶה וּלְהוֹצִיא כָּל מַה שֶּׁבְּתוֹכוֹ.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרנ שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אִם קָדְמָה בְּלִיעַת אִסּוּר לְהַטְּלַאי הֲרֵי הוּא נִכְשָׁר בְּהַגְעָלָה, שֶׁהַהַגְעָלָה מַפְלֶטֶת אַף הַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁמֵּעֵבֶר לַטְּלַאי, אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם קָדַם תַּשְׁמִישׁ הָאִסּוּר בַּכְּלִי לְהַטְּלַאי, וְהַטְּלַאי הוּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ בְּקֶבַע, דְּהַיְנוּ מִצַּד הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁל הַכְּלִירנב – אָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאָר מַשֶּׁהוּ מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ בַּכְּלִי תַּחַת הַטְּלַאי, וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף אִם הוּא מֻדְבָּק יָפֶה לְהַכְּלִי צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ גֶּחָלִים עַל הַטְּלַאי כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׂרֹף מַמָּשׁוּת הָאִסּוּר שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו, אוֹ יַגְבִּיהֶנּוּ מְעַט בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לְנַקֵּר תַּחְתָּיו יָפֶה. אֲבָל אִם קָדַם הַטְּלַאי לִבְלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר בַּכְּלִי – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ עָלָיו גֶּחָלִים, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מֻדְבָּק יָפֶה לְהַכְּלִי.רנד

וּלְעִנְיַן פְּסַק הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר טוֹב לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:רנו

39 All the above181 applies to a patch that is a metal plate attached to the utensil via rivets, as is common in large urns and stewpots. In contrast, [different laws apply] to patches that are not attached to utensils via rivets, but are [soldered to them] via fire, [i.e.,] molten tin is dripped over the hole [and then solidifies], as is common [when repairing] tin utensils that have perforated. [Such utensils] may be kashered through hag’alah. It is unnecessary to place [burning] coals on the patch, even when the utensil absorbed the forbidden substance before [being patched. The rationale is that when the patch was soldered to the utensil], the heat of the [molten] tin [already] burnt away any actual forbidden substance that might be below the patch. [Moreover,] even [the flavor] absorbed on the other side of the patch will be purged when hag’alah [is performed].182 The patch does not hinder [the purging process] at all. [The rationale is that] since [the patch] is not attached to the utensil via rivets, but through the heat of the fire, [the patch and the utensil] become a single entity; it is one [unified] utensil.183

Needless to say, [the above applies] if libbun with fire was performed on the place where the patch was [attached] while the patch was being attached,184 as is common when [patching] a perforated metal utensil by placing a metal plate over the hole. The metal plate is [then] attached to the body of the utensil by [soldering it with] fire. Thus, it all becomes a single entity. In this instance, it is not necessary to perform hag’alah on the place that became glowing hot through fire if [the utensil] was not used with a forbidden [substance] afterwards.

לט וְכָל זֶה181 בִּטְלַאי שֶׁהוּא כְּעֵין טַס וּמְדֻבָּק לַכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי מַסְמְרִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לְהִמָּצֵא בְּיוֹרוֹת וּבְאִלְפָּסִין, אֲבָל טְלַאי שֶׁלֹּא נִדְבַּק בַּכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי מַסְמְרִים אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי הָאֵשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּכְלֵי בְּדִיל שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ שֶׁמַּטִּיפִין עֲלֵיהֶם בְּדִיל שֶׁנִּתַּךְ בָּאֵשׁ – הֲרֵי הֵם נִכְשָׁרִים בְּהַגְעָלָה, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ גֶּחָלִים עַל הַטְּלַאי אַף אִם קָדְמָה בְּלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר בַּכְּלִי, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי חֹם הַבְּדִיל נִשְׂרָף כָּל מַמָּשׁוּת הָאִסּוּר שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו אִם יֶשְׁנוֹ שָׁם, וְגַם הַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁמֵּעֵבֶר לַטְּלַאירנח נִפְלָט בְּהַגְעָלָה,,182 וְאֵין הַטְּלַאי מְעַכֵּב כְּלָל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻדְבָּק לַכְּלִי עַל יְדֵי מַסְמְרִים אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי חֹם הָאֵשׁ – הֲרֵי נַעֲשָׂה הַכֹּל גּוּף אֶחָדרס וּכְלִי אֶחָד מַמָּשׁ.183

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם בְּעֵת שִׂימַת הַטְּלַאי לִבֵּן אֶת מְקוֹם הַטְּלַאי בָּאוּר184 כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּכְלֵי בַּרְזֶל שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ שֶׁמְּשִׂימִין חֲתִיכַת בַּרְזֶל עַל הַנֶּקֶב וְעַל יְדֵי הָאֵשׁ מִתְחַבֶּרֶת חֲתִיכָה זוֹ לְגוּף הַכְּלִי וְנַעֲשָׂה הַכֹּל גּוּף אֶחָד, שֶׁאָז אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִיל כְּלָל אֶת הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְלַבֵּן בָּאוּר אִם לֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אִסּוּר אַחַר כָּךְ:

40 A mark that craftsmen make in a utensil so that their handiwork will be recognized185 may be kashered through hag’alah, since it was made when the utensil was new. Thus it existed before the forbidden substance was absorbed, and [any forbidden substance will be released through hag’alah since “a utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance],” provided [the mark] is scraped clean thoroughly or coals are placed upon it.186

מ רֹשֶׁם שֶׁהָאֻמָּנִים עוֹשִׂים בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי לְהַכִּיר מַעֲשֵׂה יְדֵיהֶם185 – הֲרֵי הוּא נִכְשָׁר בְּהַגְעָלָה, מֵאַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כְּשֶׁהַכְּלִי הָיָה חָדָשׁ – הֲרֵי קָדַם הוּא לִבְלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר בַּכְּלִירסב וּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ". וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיְּנַקֵּר אוֹתוֹ הֵיטֵברסד אוֹ יַנִּיחַ עָלָיו גֶּחָלִים:,186

41 An iron pot-cover used throughout the year to cover pots [which contain chametz] must [be kashered] through hag’alah in a k’li rishon. Since liquid collects on it [from the steam that comes] from the heat of the cooked food in the pot, and thus, [the pot cover] absorbed chametz via the heat of a k’li rishon, [it also must be purged by the heat of a k’li rishon, since “a utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same manner as it absorbs [that substance].”

[The following laws apply] if [a person] did not perform hag’alah [on the cover] and [nevertheless,] placed it on a pot containing boiling food during Pesach. If he recalled immediately [that the pot cover was previously used for chametz], removed the cover from the pot, and saw [that the cover] was still dry – i.e., liquid had yet to begin collecting on it because of the heat of the food in the pot – it is permitted even to eat the food, as long as [the food] did not touch the cover.187 Similarly, the pot is permitted even though it[s edge] touched the cover, because a forbidden substance is not transferred from utensil to utensil without liquid, as explained in Yoreh Deah, section 105.188

[Different rules apply,] however, if the cover remained on the pot for a brief time, [i.e., long enough to generate] concern that condensation began to collect on the inner side of the cover and a hand would recoil from this liquid, [even if] later, [the liquid] dried because of the heat.189 Needless to say, if, when one removed the cover, he saw some moisture that [is so hot] that a hand would recoil from it [on the cover], because the moisture collected on [the cover] due to [the steam that comes from] the heat of the cooked food in the pot, [both] the food and the pot are forbidden. [In such instances, both the food and the pot are forbidden] (if the cover had been used within 24 hours, or even if it had not been used within 24 hours according to the custom in these countries where a flavor that is impaired is forbidden on Pesach.190 [This ruling also applies] according to the custom followed in some places that rule stringently regarding the cover of a pot even with regard to other forbidden [substances], and forbid [the use of the food and the pot] even if the cover had not been used within 24 hours, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 93;191 consult that text.) [The rationale is that] the vapor that ascends from the food to the cover connects the condensation that collects on the cover to the food. Thus, it is as if the liquid that collects on the cover is mixed with the food.192 Now, this condensation contains the flavor of chametz that is released from the cover as it emits liquid. [Therefore, since it is considered as if this liquid has mixed with the food, the food – and as a result, the pot – are forbidden.]193

מא כִּסּוּי שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁמְּכַסִּים בּוֹ הַקְּדֵרָה כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – צָרִיךְ הַגְעָלָהרסו בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מַזִּיעַ מֵחֹם הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָהרסח – הֲרֵי נִבְלָע בּוֹ הֶחָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי חֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, וּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ".

וְאִם לֹא הִגְעִילוֹ וְשָׁכַח וְשָׂמוֹ בְּפֶסַח עַל הַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ תַּבְשִׁיל רוֹתֵחַ, אִם נִזְכַּר מִיָּד וֶהֱסִירוֹ מִן הַקְּדֵרָה וְרָאָה שֶׁהוּא יָבֵשׁ עֲדַיִן שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל לְהַזִּיעַ מֵחֹם הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה – הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה אִם לֹא נָגַע בּוֹ הַכִּסּוּי,187 וְגַם הַקְּדֵרָה מֻתֶּרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהּ הַכִּסּוּי, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר יוֹצֵא מִכְּלִי לִכְלִי בְּלֹא רֹטֶב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ה.ער,188 אֲבָל אִם שָׁהָה הַכִּסּוּי מְעַט עַל הַקְּדֵרָה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא כְּבָר הִתְחִיל צַד הַפְּנִימִי שֶׁל הַכִּסּוּי לְהַזִּיעַ עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹערב בְּזֵעָה זוֹ וְחָזַר וְנִתְיַבֵּשׁ מֵחֲמַת חֹם,189 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם כְּשֶׁמֵּסִיר הַכִּסּוּי מֵהַקְּדֵרָה רוֹאֶה בּוֹ קְצָת לַחְלוּחִית שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ שֶׁהִזִּיעַ מֵחֹם הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרָה – הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל וְהַקְּדֵרָה אֲסוּרִיןעדר (אִם הַכִּסּוּי הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאוֹסְרִין נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּפֶסַח,190 אוֹ לְפִי מִנְהַג קְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמַּחֲמִירִים בְּכִסּוּי קְדֵרָה אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין וְאוֹסְרִין אַף שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"גרעו,191 עַיֵּן שָׁם), לְפִי שֶׁהַהֶבֶל הָעוֹלֶה מֵהַתַּבְשִׁיל לְהַכִּסּוּי הוּא מְחַבֵּר אֶת זֵעַת הַכִּסּוּי עִם הַתַּבְשִׁיל, וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּאִלּוּ נִתְעָרְבָה הַזֵּעָה בַּתַּבְשִׁיל,,192 וְזֵעָה זוֹ יֵשׁ בָּהּ טַעַם חָמֵץ שֶׁהוּא נִפְלָט מִן הַכִּסּוּי כְּשֶׁהוּא מַזִּיעַ:193

42 An iron cover that [throughout the year] is placed over a cake that is baked on a range may [be kashered only] by subjecting it to libbun gamur, as required by law.194 [The rationale is that,] by and large, [the cover] will touch the body of the cake under it and will [thus] absorb the flavor of chametz [directly], without [the medium of] liquid, but rather because of the heat of the fire alone.

מב כִּסּוּי שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל שֶׁמְּשִׂימִין עַל חֲרָרָה כְּשֶׁנֶּאֱפֵת עַל הַכִּירָה – צָרִיךְ לְלַבְּנוֹרעח לִבּוּן גָּמוּר כְּדִינוֹ,194 לְפִי שֶׁבְּרֹב הַפְּעָמִים הוּא נוֹגֵעַ בְּגוּף הַחֲרָרָה שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו וּבוֹלֵעַ מִמֶּנָּה טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלֹּא עַל יְדֵי מַשְׁקֶה אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי חֹם הָאֵשׁ בִּלְבַד:רפ

43 All utensils, even those of earthenware, that were used throughout the year [only] with cold chametz may be used with matzah on Pesach even when [the matzah] is hot.195 [The rationale is that] since [these utensils] were used only with cold [food], they did not absorb anything. Washing them thoroughly is sufficient to remove [any] actual [chametz] that is stuck to the sides of the utensil.

The [only] exception is a beis s’or, [i.e.,] a container in which a woman leaves yeast to be placed in dough. At times, the yeast remains in that container for a long time, and because of its sharpness, its flavor will be absorbed in that container even though [the yeast] is cold.196 Therefore, it is forbidden to use [that container] for matzah when [the matzah] is hot.

It is, however, permitted [to use such a container on Pesach] for cold [foods]. One may temporarily and incidentally even place in it a baked matzah that is cold or other cold [foods] even when they are moist.197 (One should not, however, use [such a container] in an ongoing manner [on Pesach] except for laundry and for washing, as explained in sec. 450[:13].) [The above leniency is granted because] cold [food], even when moist, will not cause [the flavor] absorbed in a utensil to be released unless it remains in [the utensil] for 24 hours, as explained above.198

Nevertheless, it is forbidden to knead matzah in [such a container. The rationale is that] even though [the container] is being used [only when its contents are] cold,199 the fragrance of chametz that is absorbed in the container hastens the leavening process of a dough kneaded in it, unless hag’alah [is first performed on the container].

After hag’alah [is performed], however, it is permitted to use the container even for hot food. [The rationale is that] hag’alah purges all the flavor and fragrance of chametz absorbed in a utensil unless it is made of earthenware. [In that instance,] hag’alah is not effective in allowing it to be used for hot [foods] or [for dough to be] kneaded in it.200

In these later generations, it has become universal Jewish custom not to use earthenware utensils on Pesach unless they are new. Earthenware utensils that have been used,201 even if they were never used for chametz except for cold [food], are not used on Pesach, even for cold [food].202

מג כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁל חֶרֶסרפב שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה בְּצוֹנֵן – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ [בָּהֶן] מַצָּה בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין,,195 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהֶם אֶלָּא בְּצוֹנֵן – לֹא בָּלְעוּ כְּלוּם,רפד וְדַי לָהֶם בַּהֲדָחָה לְהַעֲבִיר מַה שֶּׁדָּבוּק בְּעֵין לְדָפְנֵי הַכְּלִי. חוּץ מִבֵּית שְׂאוֹר,רפו דְּהַיְנוּ כְּלִי שֶׁהָאִשָּׁה שׁוֹרָה (וּמַנַּחַת) בּוֹ אֶת הַשְּׂאוֹר לִתְּנוֹ בָּעִסָּה, וּפְעָמִים שֶׁהַשְּׂאוֹר שׁוֹהֶה הַרְבֵּה בְּאוֹתוֹ כְּלִי וּמֵחֲמַת חֲרִיפוּתוֹ נִבְלָע טַעְמוֹ בְּאוֹתוֹ כְּלִי אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן,רפח,196 וּלְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ מַצָּה בְּחַמִּין.

אֲבָל בְּצוֹנֵן מֻתָּר, כְּגוֹן לִתֵּן בְּתוֹכָהּ מַצָּה אֲפוּיָה צוֹנֶנֶת,רצ אוֹ שְׁאָר דָּבָר צוֹנֵן אֲפִלּוּ לַח דֶּרֶךְ עֲרַאי וּמִקְרֶה,197 (אֲבָל אֵין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בִּקְבִיעוּתרצב כִּי אִם לִכְבִיסָה וְלִרְחִיצָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"נ), שֶׁהַצּוֹנֵן אֲפִלּוּ הוּא לַח אֵינוֹ מַפְלִיט מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שׁוֹהֶה בְּתוֹכוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.רצד,198 אֲבָל אָסוּר לָלוּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ מַצָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁ בְּצוֹנֵן הוּא,199 מִכָּל מָקוֹם רֵיחַ הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי גּוֹרֵם לְמַהֵר חִמּוּץ הָעִסָּה הַנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּתוֹכוֹרצו קֹדֶם הַגְעָלָה.

אֲבָל לְאַחַר הַגְעָלָה מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין, שֶׁהַהַגְעָלָה מַפְלֶטֶת כָּל טַעַם וְרֵיחַ הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא שֶׁל חֶרֶס, שֶׁאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לוֹרחצ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּחַמִּין אוֹ לָלוּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ.200

וְעַכְשָׁו בַּדּוֹרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנִים נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ כְּלָל בְּפֶסַח בִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס כִּי אִם בַּחֲדָשִׁים, אֲבָל כְּלֵי חֶרֶס הַיְשָׁנִים אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ מֵעוֹלָם כִּי אִם בְּצוֹנֵןש – אֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בָּהֶם בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן:,202

44 [The following laws apply regarding] a beis charoses, i.e., a container in which vinegar or other sharp and pungent substances are placed [and] in which flour is also regularly placed. [This flour] would leaven because of the pungency [of the other substances that were placed there] and would [then] be used to season meat. Because of the sharpness of the charoses, ([i.e.,] any pungent substance is called charoses,)203 the flavor of the chametz is also absorbed in the container. Therefore, [the container] is governed by the same laws as a beis s’or, [and as such] may not be used for hot food, nor may [dough] be kneaded in it except after hag’alah. [The latter are permitted after hag’alah] when [the utensil] is not made from earthenware.

There are authorities who maintain that hag’alah is not effective at all for a beis s’or or a beis charoses,204because the chametz in them is very powerful since it was absorbed due to the sharpness of the pungent substanceor the yeast. Therefore, there is no way of rectifying the matter.

Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion. [The rationale is that the extent of] the absorption [of chametz] due to the sharpness [of these substances] is no greater or more powerful than [the extent of] its absorption resulting from the heat of fire. [The chametz absorbed through fire] is purged through hag’alah in boiling water; how much more so [should this apply to chametz that was only] absorbed due to a sharp [flavor] while [the chametz] was cold. Nevertheless, the custom in these countries is to rule stringently, following the latter opinion, where possible. For example, if the container is made of iron, copper, or the like, which can be subjected to libbun with fire, stringency is followed and they are subjected to libbun kal, i.e., [the utensil is heated] until a piece of straw or a strand would be burned on the other side [of the utensil].205 However, it is sufficient to perform hag’alah in a k’li rishon on a k’li charoses made of tin or wood, since [such substances] cannot be subjected to libbun.206 A beis s’or, however, [is governed by the same laws] as other utensils used for kneading, [i.e.,] it is customary to be stringent and not to use [such a utensil] on Pesach [at all], even when hag’alah [was performed on it], as will be explained.207

מד וּבֵית חֲרֹסֶת,שב דְּהַיְנוּ כְּלִי שֶׁנּוֹתְנִין בּוֹ חֹמֶץ וּשְׁאָר דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ קִיּוּהָא וַחֲרִיפוּת, וּרְגִילִין לִתֵּן בְּתוֹכָהּ קֶמַח וְהוּא מִתְחַמֵּץ מֵחֲמַת הַקִּיּוּהָא, וְעָשׂוּי לְטַבֵּל בּוֹ בָּשָׂר, וּמֵחֲמַת חֲרִיפוּת הַחֲרֹסֶת (פֵּרוּשׁ כָּל דְּבַר קִיּוּהָא נִקְרָא חֲרֹסֶתדש,203) נִבְלָע גַּם טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי, וּלְפִיכָךְ דִּינוֹ כְּדִין בֵּית שְׂאוֹר, שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ בְּחַמִּין וְלֹא לָשִׁין בְּתוֹכוֹ אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הַגְעָלָה אִם אֵינוֹ כְּלִי חֶרֶס.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםשו שֶׁאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם לְבֵית שְׂאוֹר וּבֵית חֲרֹסֶת,204 הוֹאִיל וְחִמּוּצָן קָשֶׁה, שֶׁנִּבְלָע בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי חֲרִיפוּת הַחֲרֹסֶת אוֹ הַשְּׂאוֹר, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה.

וְהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהַבְּלִיעָה שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת הַחֲרִיפוּת אֵינָהּ גְּדוֹלָה וַחֲזָקָה מֵהַבָּלוּעַ שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת חַמֵּי הָאוּר, שֶׁהִיא נִפְלֶטֶת עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בְּרוֹתְחִין, וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן הַבְּלִיעָה בְּצוֹנֵןשח שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת הַחֲרִיפוּת.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא כְּלִי שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל אוֹ נְחֹשֶׁת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁרשי לְלַבְּנוֹ בָּאוּר – מַחֲמִירִין לְלַבְּנוֹ לִבּוּן קַל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא קַשׁ אוֹ חוּט נִשְׂרָף עָלָיו מִבַּחוּץ.,205 אֲבָל כְּלִי חֲרֹסֶת שֶׁל בְּדִיל אוֹ שֶׁל עֵץ שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְלַבְּנוֹ206 – דַּי לוֹ בְּהַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן. אֲבָל בֵּית שְׂאוֹר דִּינוֹ כִּשְׁאָר כָּל כְּלֵי הַלִּישָׁה,שיב שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:,207

45 A mortar that is customarily used to crush garlic and other pungent substances with crumbs of leavened bread, is governed by the same laws as a beis charoses.208If it is made of tin or wood, it is sufficient to perform hag’alah in a k’li rishon.209If, however, [the mortar] is made of wood, [an additional step should first be taken] – its outer surface should be removed with a carpenter’s plane, so as to smooth it before hag’alah. [The rationale is that wooden utensils] frequently have crevices and cracks.210 If [the mortar] is so large that it cannot be inserted into a k’li rishon for hag’alah to be performed, the person should fill [the mortar] with boiling water and then place a glowing-hot stone in it so that the water will rise up, boil, ascend, and cover the entire edge [of the mortar]. Since the water boiled because of the glowing-hot stone placed in it, [the water’s] heat is great, comparable to that of a k’li rishon.

(By contrast, it is desirable to boil water in all other large utensils [made from substances] other than wood or tin, following the guidelines that will be explained in the end of sec. 452.211 One should not pour boiling water into them from another k’li rishon and [then insert] a glowing-hot stone. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that a glowing-hot stone does not have the power to heat water [to a temperature] equivalent to [that of] the heat of a k’li rishon. Therefore, hag’alah in this manner is not considered equivalent to hag’alah in a k’li rishon.)

If [the mortar] is [made of] iron, it is customary to subject it to [fire,212 performing] libbun kal.213

מה מְדוֹכָה שֶׁרְגִילִין לָדוּךְ בְּתוֹכָהּ שׁוּמִים וּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים חֲרִיפִיםשיד עִם פֵּרוּרֵי לֶחֶם חָמֵץ – הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּבֵית חֲרֹסֶת.208 וְאִם הוּא שֶׁל בְּדִיל אוֹ שֶׁל עֵץ – דַּי לָהֶם בְּהַגְעָלָהשטז בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן.209 אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם הִיא שֶׁל עֵץ – יֵשׁ לְקַלְּפָהּ בִּכְלִי אֻמָּנוּת לְהַחֲלִיקָהּ קֹדֶם הַגְעָלָה, לְפִי שֶׁמְּצוּיִין בָּהּ גֻּמּוֹת וּבְקָעִים.,210 וְאִם הִיא גְּדוֹלָה מְאֹד שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַכְנִיסָהּ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן לְהַגְעִילָהּ – יְמַלְּאֶנָּה מַיִם רוֹתְחִין וְיַכְנִיס בְּתוֹכָהּ אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן עַד שֶׁיִּגְבְּרוּ הַמַּיִם וְיַרְתִּיחוּ וְיַעֲלוּ וִיכַסּוּ עַל כָּל שְׂפָתָהּ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִרְתִּיחוּ הַמַּיִם מֵחֲמַת הָאֶבֶן הַמְלֻבָּן שֶׁבְּתוֹכָם – הֲרֵי חֻמָּן גָּדוֹל כְּחֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן.שיח

(אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים הַגְּדוֹלִים שֶׁאֵינָן שֶׁל עֵץ וּבְדִיל – טוֹב שֶׁיַּרְתִּיחַ מַיִם בָּהֶן עַצְמָן, וְיַעֲשֶׂה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסוֹף סִימָן תנ"ב,,211 וְאַל יְעָרֶה לְתוֹכוֹ רוֹתְחִין מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן אַחֵר וְאֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםשכ שֶׁהָאֶבֶן הַמְלֻבָּן אֵין לוֹ כֹּחַ לְחַמֵּם הַמַּיִם חֹם גָּדוֹל כְּחֹם כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין זוֹ הַגְעָלָה חֲשׁוּבָה כְּהַגְעָלַת כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן).

וְאִם הִיא שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל – נוֹהֲגִין לְלַבְּנָהּ212 לִבּוּן קַל:,213

46 By contrast, our mortars in which bread crumbs or other types of chametz are never crushed214 need not be subjected to libbun at all, even if they are made of iron or copper. [Indeed,] according to the fundamental principles of the law, they do not even require hag’alah. Nevertheless, there is concern that perhaps once a crumb of chametz fell into [a mortar] and afterwards, pungent spices were crushed in it and the crumb of chametz was then crushed with them. [Accordingly,] as a result of the sharpness [of the spices, the flavor of] chametz was also absorbed into the mortar. Therefore, it is desirable to be stringent and to perform hag’alah [on the mortar] in a k’li rishon.215

If one crushed spices in [such a mortar] during Pesach without first performing hag’alah on it, and used [the spices] in cooked food, it is permitted to eat the cooked food on Pesach with the spices in it. [The rationale is that] since there is only a suspicion that perhaps a crumb of chametz fell into our mortars, after the fact, [the food] should not be forbidden because of such a suspicion, for according to the fundamental principles of the law, one should not be concerned about [such a factor]. It is not presumed that a forbidden [factor is present only because] there is but a [mere] possibility [that such a factor exists], as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 39.216

(Nevertheless, if one has yet to put [these spices] into a cooked food, it is preferable not to put them into a cooked food until after Pesach. [The rationale is that] since it is possible to store [the spices] away until after Pesach, [using them on Pesach is not considered as an ex post facto situation where leniency could be granted. Instead,] it is considered as if one is acting initially. If, however, before Pesach, spices were crushed in [a mortar that] was not [kashered through] hag’alah, it is permitted to partake of them on Pesach for the reason explained in sec. 447[:55]; consult that source.)217

מו אֲבָל מְדוֹכוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁלְּעוֹלָם אֵין דָּכִין בָּהֶם פֵּרוּרֵי לֶחֶם וְלֹא שְׁאָר חָמֵץ,שכב,214 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל בַּרְזֶל וּנְחֹשֶׁת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְלַבְּנָהּ כְּלָל. וְאַף לְהַגְעִילָהּ אֵין צָרִיךְ מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נָפַל לְתוֹכָהּ פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ פַּעַם אַחַת וְאַחַר כָּךְ דָּכוּ בָּהּ תְּבָלִין חֲרִיפִים וְנִדַּךְ גַּם הַפֵּרוּר חָמֵץ עִמָּהֶם וּמֵחֲמַת חֲרִיפוּתָם נִבְלַע גַּם הוּא עִמָּהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הַמְּדוֹכָה, לְפִיכָךְ טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְהַגְעִילָהּשכד בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן.215

וְאִם דָּכוּ בָּהּ תְּבָלִין בְּפֶסַח בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה וּנְתָנָם בַּתַּבְשִׁיל – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּפֶסַח עִם הַתְּבָלִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבַּמְּדוֹכוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ אֵין בָּהֶן אֶלָּא חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא נָפַל לְתוֹכָהּ פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ, וּבִשְׁבִיל חֲשָׁשׁ זֶה אֵין לֶאֱסֹר בְּדִיעֲבַד, שֶׁמֵּעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין לָחֹשׁ כְּלָל לָזֶה, שֶׁאֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵקשכו כַּמְּבֹאָר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ל"ט.,216

(וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא נְתָנָם בַּתַּבְשִׁיל – טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא יִתְּנֵם בַּתַּבְשִׁיל עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,שכח דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְהַצְנִיעָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה. אֲבָל אִם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח דָּכוּ בָּהּ תְּבָלִין בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָם בְּפֶסַח, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"זשל עַיֵּן שָׁם217):

47 A kneading trough in which dough is kneaded and left until it leavens218 is considered like a beis s’or,219which absorbs [chametz] even when it is cold.220 Therefore, one may not knead matzah in [such a kneading trough] without [first] performing hag’alah on it in a k’li rishon. Similarly, a board on which [bread that is] chametz is shaped and/or arranged in an ongoing manner throughout the year is governed by the same laws as a beis s’or. Matzah should not be arranged on [such a board] unless one performs hag’alah on it in a k’li rishon. (In contrast, tabletops on which chametz is not regularly arranged, [but on which chametz is] only occasionally [arranged], are not governed by the laws of a beis s’or, as will be explained.)221

Even if [a person] desires to remove the surface of [a bread board] with a carpenter’s plane, [doing so] is not effective for it or for any wooden utensil that requires hag’alah.222[The rationale is that] hag’alah purges all the absorbed flavor from the entire thickness of the utensil, from one side to the other. This is not the case when one [merely] removes the surface of [the utensil] with a carpenter’s plane.

מז עֲרֵבָה שֶׁלָּשִׁין בָּהּ וּמַשְׁהִין בָּהּ הָעִסָּה עַד שֶׁתַּחְמִיץשלב,218 – הֲרֵי הִיא כְּבֵית שְׂאוֹר219 שֶׁבּוֹלֵעַ אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן.220 וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לָשִׁין בָּהּ מַצָּה עַד שֶׁיַּגְעִילֶנָּה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן. וְכֵן הַדַּף שֶׁעוֹרְכִין עָלָיו הֶחָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה בִּתְדִירוּת – דִּינוֹ כְּבֵית שְׂאוֹר, וְאֵין עוֹרְכִין עָלָיו מַצָּה עַד שֶׁיַּגְעִילֶנּוּ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן.

(אֲבָל הַשֻּׁלְחָנוֹת שֶׁאֵין עוֹרְכִין עֲלֵיהֶם חָמֵץ בִּתְדִירוּת אֶלָּא לִפְרָקִים – אֵין דִּינָם כְּבֵית שְׂאוֹר,שלד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,221).

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לְקַלְּפוֹ בִּכְלִי אֻמָּנוּת – אֵין מוֹעִיל לוֹ וְלֹא לִשְׁאָר כְּלֵי עֵץ הַצָּרִיךְ הַגְעָלָה,שלו,222 לְפִי שֶׁהַהַגְעָלָה מַפְלֶטֶת מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל הַגִּעוּל הַבָּלוּעַ בְּכָל עָבְיוֹ מֵעֵבֶר לְעֵבֶר, מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן קִלּוּף בִּכְלִי אֻמָּנוּת:

48 In these countries, it is customary not to knead [dough for Pesach matzah] or shape or arrange it on the bread boards and kneading troughs used throughout the year, even after hag’alah was performed on them. [The rationale is that] weight is given to the words of those authorities who maintain that hag’alah is not effective for a beis s’or.223 Moreover, it can be assumed that it is impossible to scrape [these utensils clean to the extent that] there will not be any trace of actual chametz stuck to them. Even if one desires to plane off their surface, smooth them with a carpenter’s plane, and perform hag’alah on them afterwards, this is not effective for [such utensils] or for all other [similar ones], such as wooden rolling pins and the like that were used [directly] with dough.224 One should not deviate from this custom. (If one did not remove their outer surface and they have cracks and [/or] grooves, it is desirable to cover [the cracks and grooves] with mortar or sell [these utensils] to a non-Jew before Pesach, as explained in sec. 442[:31].)225

If one places a sheet226 in the kneading trough or on the [bread] board after they were subjected to hag’alah, it is permitted to place hot matzah on the sheet – whether the surfaces [of these utensils] were planed or not – because the sheet intervenes between the matzos and the crumbs of chametz that might be in the crevices and cracks. And a cold matzah may be placed on a sheet [covering such a utensil] in a temporary and incidental manner227 even before performing hag’alah [on the utensil]. By contrast, [dough] should not be kneaded or arranged on a sheet [covering such a utensil. The rationale is that] because of its weight, [it is as if the dough being] kneaded or arranged reaches the very substance of the kneading trough or bread board. Thus, it is as if one is kneading or arranging [the dough] on [the utensils] themselves.228 This is forbidden according to the fundamental principles of the law if one did not perform hag’alah on them. [Moreover,] even if one did perform hag’alah, leniency should not be taken in this matter in light of the custom mentioned above.229

מח וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לָלוּשׁ וְלַעֲרֹךְ בְּדַפִּים וַעֲרֵבוֹת שֶׁל כָּל הַשָּׁנָה אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה,שלח לְפִי שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁים לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםשמ שֶׁאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לְבֵית שְׂאוֹר,223 וְעוֹד שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקְּרָם הֵיטֵב שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה שׁוּם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ דָּבוּק בָּהֶן בְּעֵין. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לְקַלְּפָן וּלְהַחֲלִיקָן בִּכְלִי אֻמָּנוּת וּלְהַגְעִילָן אַחַר כָּךְשמב – אֵין מוֹעִיל לָהֶם וְלֹא לִשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בָּעִסָּה,224 כְּגוֹן עֲצֵי מְגַלְגְּלִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַמִּנְהָג.

(וְאִם לֹא קִלְּפָן וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן בְּקִיעִים וַחֲרִיצִים – טוֹב לְטוּחָם בְּטִיט אוֹ לְמָכְרָם לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,שמד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב,225).

וְאִם מֵשִׂים סָדִין226 בַּעֲרֵבָה אוֹ עַל הַדַּף לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגְעִיל – מֻתָּרשמו לְהַנִּיחַ מַצּוֹת חַמּוֹת עַל הַסָּדִין בֵּין שֶׁקִּלְּפָן בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא קִלְּפָן, לְפִי שֶׁהַסָּדִין מַפְסִיק בֵּין הַמַּצּוֹת וּבֵין פֵּרוּרֵי הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַגֻּמּוֹת וּבְקָעִים. אֲבָל מַצָּה צוֹנֶנֶת מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ עַל הַסָּדִין דֶּרֶךְ עֲרַאי וּמִקְרֶהשמח,227 אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגְעִילָן. אֲבָל אֵין לָלוּשׁ וְלַעֲרֹךְ עַל הַסָּדִין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכֹּבֶד הַלִּישָׁה וְהָעֲרִיכָה מַגִּיעַ אֶל גּוּף הָעֲרֵבָה וְהַדַּף – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּלָשׁ וְעוֹרֵךְ עַל הָעֲרֵבָה וְהַדַּף עַצְמָם,228 שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן אִסּוּר מֵעִקַּר הַדִּיןשנ אִם לֹא הִגְעִילָן. וְאַף אִם הִגְעִילָן – אֵין לְהָקֵל בַּדָּבָר לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:229

49 According to the fundamental principles of the law, it is not necessary even to perform hag’alah on all the utensils used for flour throughout the year, as is the law regarding utensils used for chametz while [the chametz was] cold. It is permitted to use such utensils on Pesach even for hot foods without hag’alah.230Needless to say, it is permitted to knead [dough] in [these utensils] or perform other tasks that do not involve heat; one must only be careful to wash them thoroughly and rub them with water very well before one uses them.231

Even a sifter with which flour that is chametz was sifted throughout the year is permitted to be used to sift flour on Pesach without hag’alah being performed upon it232 despite being made up entirely of holes and grooves. It is only that one must be very precise in cleaning [the sifter] from the flour that is chametz that is attached and clinging to the holes of [its] mesh and [that is] stuck to the piece of wood that surrounds the mesh. [These parts] must be washed thoroughly and rubbed with water very well. This law applies to all utensils used for flour and for kneading;233 rubbing them [clean] is of fundamental importance.

מט כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בְּקֶמַח כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – אֲפִלּוּ לְהַגְעִילָן אֵין צָרִיךְ מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, כְּדִין כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם חָמֵץ בְּצוֹנֵן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה.שנב,230 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לָלוּשׁ בָּהֶם אוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שְׁאָר תַּשְׁמִישֵׁי צוֹנֵן, רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לַהֲדִיחָם וּלְשַׁפְשְׁפָם בְּמַיִם יָפֶה יָפֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם.231 וַאֲפִלּוּ הַנָּפָה שֶׁרִקְּדוּ בָּהּ קֶמַח שֶׁל חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהִיא כֻּלָּהּ מְלֵאָה נְקָבִים וַחֲרִיצִים – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְרַקֵּד בָּהּ קֶמַח בְּפֶסַח בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה.,232 אֶלָּא שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְדַקְדֵּק בָּהּ מְאֹד לְנַקּוֹתָהּ מִן הַקֶּמַח שֶׁל חָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק וְנִסְרָךְ בְּנִקְבֵי אֲרִיגַת הַנָּפָה וְהַדָּבוּק בָּעֵץ הַמְסַבֵּב אֶת הָאֲרִיגָה, וְיָדִיחַ וִישַׁפְשֵׁף אוֹתָם בְּמַיִם יָפֶה יָפֶה.שנד וְהוּא הַדִּין לִשְׁאָר כָּל כְּלֵי הַקֶּמַח וּכְלֵי הַלִּישָׁה,233 שֶׁהַשִּׁפְשׁוּף בָּהֶם עִקָּר גָּדוֹל:

50 All the above applies according to the fundamental principles of the law. Nevertheless, it has already become accepted custom in these countries not to use any wooden utensil that contained flour on an ongoing basis even if it was [first] washed thoroughly, rubbed [clean], and subjected to hag’alah. [The stringency is imposed because] there is concern that a trace of chametz may have remained stuck to the utensil.234

If, however, one left water in the utensil for a time before Pesach, the custom is to use the utensil after subjecting it to hag’alah. [The rationale is that] the water left in [the utensil] cleansed and washed away all the chametz attached to it. Similarly, any wooden container that held the beverage made from barley soaked in water (which is called borscht235 in Russian) should not be used [on Pesach] even it was washed thoroughly, rubbed [clean with water], and subjected to hag’alah, unless water was left in it for a time.

By contrast, it is customary to use utensils made from copper, tin, and other metals after hag’alah was performed on them even though water was not left in them, since one can remove chametz from [these utensils] by washing them thoroughly and rubbing them [clean with water].

נ וְכָל זֶה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁשנו בִּכְלִי עֵץ שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ קֶמַח תָּמִידשנח אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה וְשִׁפְשׁוּף וְהַגְעָלָה,שס שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאָר מַשֶּׁהוּ קֶמַח דָּבוּק בַּכְּלִי.234

אֲבָל אִם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח הֶחֱזִיק בּוֹ מַיִם אֵיזֶה זְמַן – נוֹהֲגִין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, שֶׁהַמַּיִם שֶׁשָּׁהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ הֵדִיחוּ וְהֶעֱבִירוּ כָּל הֶחָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בּוֹ. וְכֵן כְּלִי עֵץ שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ מַשְׁקֶה הֶעָשׂוּי מִמֵּי סֻבִּין (שֶׁקּוֹרִין בָּארְשְׁ"ט235 בִּמְדִינוֹת רוּסְיָא) – אֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה וְשִׁפְשׁוּף וְהַגְעָלָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֶחֱזִיקוּ בּוֹ מַיִם אֵיזֶה זְמַן.

אֲבָל אִם הוּא כְּלִי נְחֹשֶׁת אוֹ בְּדִיל אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַתָּכוֹת – נוֹהֲגִין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה אַף שֶׁלֹּא הֶחֱזִיקוּ בּוֹ מַיִם, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לְהַעֲבִיר הֶחָמֵץ מֵהֶם עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה וְשִׁפְשׁוּף:שסב

51 Similarly, it has become customary not to use woven baskets236 in which bread or other substances that are definitely chametz had been placed. (If, however, they were used for substances that were merely suspected [to contain] chametz, for example, [baskets] in which meat was salted with salt that was not checked for chametz, hag’alah is effective for them, as explained above.)237

[The stringency regarding bread baskets applies] even if they were soaked in water for many days, because there is concern that a crumb of chametz remained between the holes of the weave.238 Therefore, even hag’alah is not effective in allowing [these baskets] to be used for hot [matzah], or even for cold [matzah], without [first] spreading out a sheet in them.

(If, however, one spread out a sheet in [a bread basket], it is permitted to place cold matzah on the sheet before Pesach.239 During Pesach, however, it is preferable not to use [these baskets] at all. Instead, [the baskets] should be sold to a non-Jew240 or covered with mortar before Pesach, as explained in sec. 442[:31]; consult that source.)

נא וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּסַלִּים אֲרוּגִים236 שֶׁהָיָה מֻנָּח בָּהֶם פַּת אוֹ שְׁאָר חָמֵץ וַדַּאי (אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא חֲשַׁשׁ חָמֵץ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמָּלַח בָּהֶם בָּשָׂר בְּמֶלַח שֶׁלֹּא נִבְדַּק מֵחָמֵץ – מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם הַגְעָלָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהשסד,237), אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁרוּ בְּמַיִם יָמִים רַבִּים, לְפִי שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאַר פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ בֵּין נִקְבֵי הָאֲרִיגָה,,238 וּלְכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ הַגְעָלָה אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּחַמִּיןשסו אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן בְּלֹא פְּרִיסַת סָדִין בְּתוֹכָם.

(אֲבָל אִם פָּרַס סָדִין בְּתוֹכָם – מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ מַצָּה צוֹנֶנֶת עַל הַסָּדִין קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.239 אֲבָל בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח טוֹב שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם כְּלָל, אֶלָּא יִמְכְּרֵם לְנָכְרִי240 אוֹ יְטוּחֵם בְּטִיט קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"בשסח עַיֵּן שָׁם):

52 Similar practices are followed with regard to other utensils that have holes, for example, the receptacle of a mill or a sifter. The custom is not to use [such utensils] even if they were [first] washed thoroughly, rubbed [clean], and subjected to hag’alah.241

Even when water fell on merely a portion of a new sifter242 that had begun to be used for sifting flour for Pesach,243 there is no way – even through hag’alah – to correct the situation and use it further [for Pesach]. Instead, a new sifter must be purchased.

נב וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה מִשְּׁאָר כֵּלִים הַנְּקוּבִים, כְּגוֹן הַכִּיס שֶׁל רֵחַיִם אוֹ הַנָּפָה, נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה וְשִׁפְשׁוּף וְהַגְעָלָה.,241

וַאֲפִלּוּ נָפָה חֲדָשָׁה242 שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ לְנַפּוֹת בָּהּ קֶמַח לְפֶסַח וְנָפַל עָלֶיהָ מַיִם אֲפִלּוּ עַל מִקְצָתָהּ243 – אֵין לָהּ תַּקָּנָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ עוֹד אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת נָפָה אַחֶרֶת חֲדָשָׁה:שע

53 If one violated [the above instructions]244 and sifted flour for Pesach with a sifter that was used for chametz [after] washing it thoroughly and rubbing [it clean], but without performing hag’alah – even if [the flour] was sifted during Pesach – [the flour] is permitted even to be eaten. [The rationale is that] after the fact, the matter is judged according to the fundamental principles of the law.245

Similarly, in a pressing situation, for example, [when] it is impossible to find a new sifter and it is also impossible to knead [the dough] without [first] sifting the flour [because] the mill did not grind it thoroughly, and if the flour is not sifted, cracked kernels of wheat will be found in the dough,246 the situation is considered as after the fact, and the matter is judged according to the fundamental principles of the law. [Thus, in this situation] it is permitted to sift [flour for Pesach] using an old sifter after it has been rubbed clean and subjected to hag’alah.247

נג וְאִם עָבַר וְרִקֵּד קֶמַח לְפֶסַח בְּנָפָה שֶׁל חָמֵץ244 עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה וְשִׁפְשׁוּף בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה, אֲפִלּוּ רִקְּדוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד מַעֲמִידִין עַל עִקַּר הַדִּין.245

וְכֵן אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק כְּגוֹן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא נָפָה חֲדָשָׁה, וְגַם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לָלוּשׁ בְּלֹא רִקּוּד הַקֶּמַח, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין הָרֵחַיִם טוֹחֲנוֹת יָפֶה וְאִם לֹא יְרַקְּדוּ הַקֶּמַח יִמָּצְאוּ בְּהָעִסָּה חִטִּים שְׁבוּרוֹת246 – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּדִיעֲבַד, וּמַעֲמִידִין עַל עִקַּר הַדִּין, וּמֻתָּר לְנַפּוֹת בְּנָפָה יְשָׁנָה עַל יְדֵי שִׁפְשׁוּף וְהַגְעָלָה:,247

54 Similarly, it is customary not to use a grater (referred to as a rib izen [in Yiddish]) – even if it was washed [clean] and hag’alah was performed upon it – unless it was subjected to libbun with fire.248 Even after the fact, if hag’alah was performed on [the grater] and it was used on Pesach, [the food] with which it was used should be prohibited to be eaten.249 [The rationale is that] at times, [a grater] is used to grate bread which is chametz, and it is impossible that a small crumb [of chametz] did not remain [stuck] in its holes. Furthermore, [it is likely that] the horseradish (referred to as a chrain [in Yiddish]) that was grated in [the grater] throughout the year was cut with a knife used for chametz, andhorseradish is a sharp substance. See sec. 447[:59].250

However, [foods grated in the grater] before Pesach (are permitted to be eaten on the day before Pesach until nightfall). Even if [one is certain that] a crumb of chametz251 became mixed with [the food that was grated], the presence [of the chametz] becomes nullified because there is 60 [times more permitted food].252 (After nightfall, however, the crumb becomes significant again.253 [Even though it is a mere] trace, [the crumb causes all the food to become] forbidden, as will be explained in sec. 466[:9].)

The laws that apply to sacks [used for] flour will be explained in sec. 453[:23-25]; consult that source.

נד וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּמוֹרַג חָרוּץ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין ריב אייזן) אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה וְהַגְעָלָה,שעב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן לִבְּנוֹ בָּאוּר.248 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁהִגְעִילוֹ וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יֵשׁ לֶאֱסֹר בַּאֲכִילָה מַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ,249 לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מְגָרְרִין עָלָיו לֶחֶם חָמֵץ, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּיֵּר פֵּרוּר מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּתוֹךְ נְקָבָיו. וְגַם הַתַּמְכָא (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קרי"ן) שֶׁגָּרְרוּ עָלָיו כָּל הַשָּׁנָה נֶחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ, וְהַתַּמְכָא הוּא דָּבָר חָרִיף, עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"ז.,250

אֲבָל מַה שֶּׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אַף אִם נִתְעָרֵב בְּתוֹכוֹ פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ251 – הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁיםשעד,252 (וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח עַד הַלַּיְלָה, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַלַּיְלָה – הֲרֵי הַפֵּרוּר חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר,253 וְאוֹסֵר בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"[ו]שעו).

דִּין הַשַּׂקִּים שֶׁל קֶמַח – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ג עַיֵּן שָׁם:

55 A baker’s peel254 (referred to as a [baker’s] shovel [in German]) with which [loaves of] bread are put into and removed from an oven may not be kashered through hag’alah. [The rationale is that the peel] absorbs chametz from the heat of fire alone, without any liquid.255 Therefore, it is necessary to subject the peel to fire, performing libbun gamur as required by law, [for “A utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same way as it absorbs [that substance].” If [the baker’s peel] is made of wood, it cannot be kashered [for Pesach use]. Instead, a new one must be purchased. Even if one desires to remove the outer surface of a [peel that was used with chametz] with a carpenter’s plane and subject it to hag’alah, [those actions] are not effective [in kashering it].256

If, however, one desires to use the baker’s peel from the previous Pesach, there is no need to even subject it to hag’alah, provided:

[a) the one who desires to use] the peel knows that it was not used throughout the year for chametz, [i.e.,] it was stored away in a designated place and he was careful to keep it [free of any contact with chametz, so as to be able to use it] for the following Pesach, [and

b)] when he finished using [the peel] the previous Pesach, he was careful to scrape it thoroughly [clean], so that no dough was sticking to it and at this time, when he desires to use it, he sees that it is clean.

[Indeed,] one who desires to act stringently and subjects [the peel] to hag’alah is not acting desirably, because [of the false impression that he creates]. The observers who see [the person] subjecting [the peel] to hag’alah will not know that it is from last Pesach; they will think that hag’alah is effective [in kashering] a baker’s peel used for chametz. Instead, if a person desires to act stringently, he should purchase a new [peel. Indeed,] it is proper to do so, for there are authorities who rule stringently.257 A person who cannot [purchase a new one] should perform hag’alah in private.

נה הָרַחַת254 (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שובי"לשעח) שֶׁמַּכְנִיסִין בָּהּ הַלֶּחֶם לַתַּנּוּר וּמוֹצִיאִין בָּהּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר – אֵינָהּ נִכְשֶׁרֶת עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, לְפִי שֶׁהִיא בּוֹלַעַת מִן הֶחָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי חֹם הָאוּר בִּלְבַדשפ בְּלִי שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה,255 וּלְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְלַבְּנָהּ בָּאוּר לִבּוּן גָּמוּר194 כְּדִינוֹ – "כְּבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ". וְאִם הִיא שֶׁל עֵץ – אֵין לָהּ תַּקָּנָה, וְצָרִיךְ לִקְנוֹת חֲדָשָׁה.שפב וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לִקְלֹף הַיְשָׁנָה בִּכְלִי אֻמָּנוּת וּלְהַגְעִילָהּ אַחַר כָּךְ – אֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם.,256

אֲבָל אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּרַחַת שֶׁל פֶּסַח הֶעָבָר, אִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, שֶׁהִצְנִיעַ אוֹתָהּ בְּמָקוֹם מְיֻחָד וְנִזְהַר לְשָׁמְרָהּ לַפֶּסַח הַבָּא – אֵין צָרִיךְ אֲפִלּוּ לְהַגְעִילָהּשפד אִם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁגָּמַר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ בְּפֶסַח הֶעָבָר נִזְהַר לְנַקְּרָהּ הֵיטֵב שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה מַשֶּׁהוּ בָּצֵק דָּבוּק בָּהּ, וְגַם עַכְשָׁו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ רוֹאֶה אוֹתָהּ שֶׁהִיא נְקִיָּה. וּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ וּלְהַגְעִילָהּ – לֹא טוֹב הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, מִפְּנֵי הָרוֹאִים שֶׁיִּרְאוּ אוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא מַגְעִילָהּ וְאֵינָן יוֹדְעִין שֶׁהִיא שֶׁל פֶּסַח הֶעָבָר, וְיֹאמְרוּ שֶׁהַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לְרַחַת שֶׁל חָמֵץ. אֶלָּא אִם רוֹצֶה לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמוֹ – יִקְנֶה לוֹ חֲדָשָׁה. וְנָכוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן לְמִי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לוֹ, כִּי יֵשׁ מַחֲמִירִין.שפו וּמִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ – יַגְעִילֶנָּה בְּצִנְעָה:

56 Even during Pesach, if one removed a warm matzah from an oven with a peel used for chametz, it is sufficient to remove [the outer surface of the matzah,258 i.e.,] he should remove the bottom of the matzah, [the part] that touched the peel.259 True, when a loaf of chametz touches hot matzah, a thumbbreadth’s [thickness] must be removed [from the matzah] at the point of contact. Nevertheless, in this instance, when there is no chametz actually present – [the concern is only with regard to the chametz] absorbed in the peel – [removing] the outer surface is sufficient. Therefore, if the peel was not clean and thoroughly washed, but there was [some] actual [residue] of chametz present, it is necessary to remove a thumbbreadth’s [thickness from] the entire bottom of the matzah.

If one removed other matzos from the oven using this peel, it is not necessary to remove a thumbbreadth’s [thickness] from them; [removing] the outer surface is sufficient. [The rationale is that the residue] on the peel was already wiped off by the first matzah.

If there is concern that this [residue] was fatty, e.g., cakes that were chametz that contained fat were baked [and put into and taken out of the oven] with this peel, the first matzah is entirely forbidden, even if it is much thicker than a thumbbreadth, for the reason explained in sec. 447[:6].260 [However,] it is sufficient [to merely remove] the outer surface [of the matzos that were subsequently removed with this peel].

If [matzos that were removed from the oven with such a peel] became mixed with many kosher-[for-Pesach] matzos on the day before Pesach or before then, they become batel [if mixed with] a majority [of kosher-for-Pesach matzos].261 If one desires, [he may] eat [these matzos] before the commencement of the night of the fifteenth [of Nissan],262 (i.e., he desires to cook [these matzos] before eating them [so that he may be allowed] to eat them, for it is forbidden to eat uncooked matzah on the day preceding Pesach).263 All this is explained in sec. 447[:21-22].

נו אִם הוֹצִיא מַצָּה חַמָּה מֵהַתַּנּוּר בְּרַחַת שֶׁל חָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – דַּי בִּקְלִיפָה258 שֶׁיִּקְלֹף תַּחְתּוֹנִית הַמַּצָּה שֶׁנָּגַע בָּרַחַת.,259 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם נָגַע כִּכָּר שֶׁל חָמֵץ בְּכִכָּר שֶׁל מַצָּה חַם צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ בְּעֹבִי כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל,שפח מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּאן שֶׁאֵין הֶחָמֵץ בְּעֵין אֶלָּא בָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הָרַחַת – דַּי בִּקְלִיפָה.

לְפִיכָךְ, אִם לֹא הָיְתָה הָרַחַת נְקִיָּה וּמוּדַחַת יָפֶה אֶלָּא הָיָה בָּהּ לִכְלוּךְ חָמֵץ בְּעֵין – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל בְּכָל תַּחְתּוֹנִית הַמַּצָּה בְּעֹבִי כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל. וְאִם הוֹצִיא בְּרַחַת זוֹ עוֹד מַצּוֹת מִן הַתַּנּוּר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל מֵהֶן כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל, אֶלָּא דַּי לָהֶם בִּקְלִיפָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַלִּכְלוּךְ שֶׁעַל פְּנֵי הָרַחַת כְּבָר נִתְקַנֵּחַ בַּמַּצָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.

וְאִם יֵשׁ בְּלִכְלוּךְ זֶה חֲשַׁשׁ שַׁמְנוּנִית, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָפוּ בְּרַחַת זוֹ עוּגוֹת שֶׁל חָמֵץ עִם שֻׁמָּןשצ – הֲרֵי מַצָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה כֻּלָּהּ אֲסוּרָה אַף אִם יֵשׁ בְּעָבְיָהּ הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מֵרֹחַב גּוּדָל, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,,260 וְהָאַחֲרוֹנִים דַּי לָהֶם בִּקְלִיפָה.שצב

וְאִם נִתְעָרְבוּ בְּהַרְבֵּה מַצּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת כְּשֵׁרוֹת – הֲרֵי הֵן בְּטֵלוֹת בְּרֹב,261 אִם נִתְעָרְבוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַחשצד אוֹ קֹדֶם וְרוֹצֶה לְאָכְלָם קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת לֵיל ט"ו262 (פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְבַשְּׁלָם קֹדֶם שֶׁיֹּאכְלֵם, שֶׁאָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מַצָּה שֶׁאֵין מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת),263 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר כָּל זֶה בְּסִימָן תמ"ז:שצו

57 When a matzah became chametz in an absolute sense and one removed it from the oven with a peel designated for Pesach, the peel is deemed chametz.264 It is forbidden to remove other matzos with [this peel]. If one violated [these instructions] and [used it to] remove [other matzos], their outer surface must be removed, as explained.265

[Different rules apply,] however, if the matzah did not become chametz in an absolute sense, [i.e.,] it was only forbidden as a stringency, for example, a matzah in which a bubble formed, or a matzah whose edge folded over in the oven, as will be explained in sec. 461[:16, 23].266 Although as an initial preference, one should not use this [peel] any longer, nevertheless, after the fact, when one violated [this instruction] and used [the peel] to remove other matzos from the oven, there is no need to remove [their outer surface]. Similarly, in a pressing situation when another new peel cannot easily be found, it is considered as after the fact, and it is permitted to remove other matzos even as an initial preference.

נז מַצָּה שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר וְהוֹצִיאָהּ מִן הַתַּנּוּר בְּרַחַת שֶׁל פֶּסַח – הֲרֵי נִתְחַמְּצָה הָרַחַת,264 וְאָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא בָּהּ עוֹד מַצּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת. וְאִם עָבַר וְהוֹצִיאָם – צָרִיךְ לְקַלְּפָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.265

אֲבָל אִם הַמַּצָּה לֹא הָיְתָה חֲמוּצָה חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר, אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּחֲמִירִין לְאָסְרָהּ, כְּגוֹן מַצָּה נְפוּחָה אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְכַּפְּלָה בַּתַּנּוּר, שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"א,שצח,266 אַף שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ עוֹד, מִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר וְהוֹצִיא בָּהּ עוֹד מַצּוֹת מֵהַתַּנּוּר – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְקַלְּפָם. וְכֵן אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא בְּקַל רַחַת אַחֶרֶת חֲדָשָׁה – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּדִיעֲבַד, וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא בָּהּ עוֹד מַצּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה:ת

58 The entire Jewish people have adopted the custom of kashering [the following items] by hag’alah, [i.e.,] pouring [boiling water] from a k’li rishon upon them: Tables on which [food] is eaten throughout the year and cabinets in which food is stored [prior to its being served] throughout the year. [The rationale is that] sometimes soup from a pot is spilled upon them, and [we follow the principle: “A utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same way as it absorbs [that substance].” It is necessary to be careful [and follow] all the guidelines for [kashering through] pouring [hot water] mentioned above.267

At present, it is customary in these countries to perform hag’alah [on these surfaces]by pouring [boiling water over them] and [passing] a glowing hot stone268 [on these tables and counters afterwards] because at times a hot pie269 ([or] hot bread) is placed upon them. However, ordinary cabinets where hot foods are not stored need not be [kashered by] hag’alah.270

נח הַשֻּׁלְחָנוֹת שֶׁאוֹכְלִים עֲלֵיהֶם כָּל הַשָּׁנָהתב וְהַתֵּבוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהַצְנִיעַ בָּהֶן אֳכָלִים כָּל הַשָּׁנָהתד – נָהֲגוּ כָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַגְעִילָן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן, לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים נִשְׁפָּךְ עֲלֵיהֶם מָרָק מִן הַקְּדֵרָה,תו וּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ".49 וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בְּכָל מִשְׁפְּטֵי הָעֵרוּי שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.,267

וְעַכְשָׁו נוֹהֲגִיןתח בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לְהַגְעִילָן עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי עִם אֶבֶן מְלֻבָּן,268 לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מַנִּיחִים עֲלֵיהֶם פַּשְׁטִידָ"א חַמָּה (פַּת חַמָּה).269

אֲבָל סְתָם תֵּבוֹת שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהַצְנִיעַ בָּהֶן מַאֲכָלִין חַמִּין – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָן:תי,270

59 Women follow the custom of refraining on Pesach from using the pot from which the boiling [water] was poured under the [glowing] stone.271 There are authorities who offer a rationale for the custom272 based on the explanation in Yoreh Deah, sec. 105,273 [where it is stated that] initially, one should not pour [molten] kosher fat from a kosher utensil that contains kosher fat into a burning lamp [that contains] non-kosher fat. [The rationale is that] vapor ascends from the lower [utensil]274 to the upper one275 via the column [of liquid being] poured that joins them. The same law applies here; the vapor of chametz that emerges from the utensil below that is undergoing hag’alah ascends to the upper [utensil] via the column [of liquid] that connects them. (According to this rationale, one should only forbid [the upper utensil] when one pours [hot water] from the pot itself on the utensil that is being [kashered through] hag’alah and the column of water being poured is not interrupted.)

If one violated [these instructions] and used that pot on Pesach, the food [cooked in it] is permitted even to be eaten.276

נט נוֹהֲגוֹת הַנָּשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁעֵרוּ מִמֶּנָּה רוֹתְחִין תַּחַת הָאֶבֶן.,271 וְיֵשׁ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ טַעַם לְמִנְהָג זֶהתיב,272 לְפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ה,273 שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לְעָרוֹת מִכְּלִי כָּשֵׁר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שֻׁמָּן כָּשֵׁר לְתוֹךְ נֵר דּוֹלֵק מִשֻּׁמַּן טְרֵפָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַהֶבֶל עוֹלֶה מֵהַתַּחְתּוֹן274 לָעֶלְיוֹןתיד,275 דֶּרֶךְ עַמּוּד הַנִּצּוֹק הַמְחַבְּרָם, וְהוּא הַדִּין כָּאן, הֶבֶל הֶחָמֵץ הַנִּפְלָט מִכְּלִי הַתַּחְתּוֹן הַנִּגְעָל עוֹלֶה לְהָעֶלְיוֹן דֶּרֶךְ עַמּוּד הַנִּצּוֹק הַמְחַבְּרָם. (וּלְפִי טַעַם זֶה אֵין לֶאֱסֹר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּעָרֶה עַל כְּלִי הַנִּגְעָל מִתּוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה עַצְמָהּ וְלֹא נִפְסַק הַקִּלּוּחַתטז).

וְאִם עָבַר וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בְּאוֹתָהּ קְדֵרָה – הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה:,276

60 Whenever chametz was soaked or pickled in a utensil for 24 hours straight277 – even if [the chametz] was soaked in cold liquid, for example, one soaked pieces of bread in cold water and [the pieces of bread] remained in that utensil for 24 hours – it is considered as if [the chametz] was cooked in that [utensil],278 for any [food] that soaks [for this long] is considered as cooked.279 [For the utensil to be kashered for Pesach, it] must undergo hag’alah in a k’li rishon. ([This is required by] the fundamental principles of the law280 [if the utensil] absorbed the forbidden [substance] within [the previous] 24 hours, as explained. [Moreover,] there are authorities who [differ and] maintain that [this ruling applies] even if more than 24 hours passed.)

Needless to say, if the utensil contained a liquid that is chametz, e.g., beer made from wheat or barley, or the like, the utensil must undergo hag’alah in a k’li rishon if [the beverage] remained in the utensil continuously for 24 hours (provided [the utensil] was used within 24 hours. [The same rule applies] even if [the utensil] was not used within 24 hours, but the primary use of this utensil throughout the year was to hold beverages that are chametz for 24 hours or longer. There are authorities who [differ and] maintain that [the utensil] is governed by these laws even if it is not primarily used for this purpose and it was not used within 24 hours, as stated [above].)281

Even if the inside of the utensil is covered with pitch,282 hag’alah is effective. If one is concerned that the pitch will loosen because of the boiling [water used in the hag’alah process], and wants to kasher [the utensil] using [an alternative method], he should kasher it by filling it [with water] and pouring it out three times,283 i.e., [the person] should fill [the utensil] with water, even cold [water], until it overflows on all sides, and leave [the water] inside [the utensil] continuously for 24 hours or longer. Afterwards, [the person] should pour out the water, fill [the utensil] with different water, and leave [that water in the utensil] continuously for 24 hours or longer. He should then pour out [that water], fill [the utensil] with other water, and leave it inside [the utensil] continuously for 24 hours or longer. These three 24-hour periods need not be consecutive. Even when they are interrupted, [it is acceptable,] as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 135.284 Consult that source for all the underlying principles [upon which] this law [is based].

ס כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה וְנִכְבַּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ כ"ד שָׁעוֹת רְצוּפִים,תיח,277 אֲפִלּוּ נִכְבַּשׁ בְּמַשְׁקֶה צוֹנֵן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁרָה פְּתִיתֵי לֶחֶם בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִים וְשָׁהוּ מֵעֵת לְעֵת בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ,278 שֶׁכָּל הַכָּבוּשׁ הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל,תכ,279 וְצָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילוֹ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן (מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין280 אִם הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ מִבְּלִיעַת הָאִסּוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[נִּ]תְבָּאֵר.תכב וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ).

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם עָמַד בְּתוֹכוֹ מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁל חָמֵץ,תכד כְּגוֹן שֵׁכָר שֶׁל חִטִּים וּשְׂעוֹרִים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילוֹ בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן אִם עָמַד בְּתוֹכוֹ כ"ד שָׁעוֹת רְצוּפִים (וְהוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, אֶלָּא שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁ כְּלִי זֶה כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הוּא לְהַשְׁהוֹת מַשְׁקֶה חָמֵץ בְּתוֹכוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵת אוֹ יוֹתֵר. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ אֵינוֹ כֵּן וְאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ הַדִּין כֵּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,281).

וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי מְזֻפָּף מִתּוֹכוֹ282 – מוֹעֶלֶת לוֹ הַגְעָלָה.תכו וְאִם חוֹשֵׁשׁ שֶׁלֹּא יִתְרַפֶּה הַזֶּפֶת עַל יְדֵי הָרוֹתְחִין וְרוֹצֶה לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה – יַכְשִׁירֶנּוּ עַל יְדֵי מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים,תכח,283 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּמַלְּאֶנּוּ מַיִם אֲפִלּוּ צוֹנְנִין עַל כָּל גְּדוֹתָיו וְיִשְׁהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ כ"ד שָׁעוֹת רְצוּפִין אוֹ יוֹתֵר, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְעָרֶה מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת הַמַּיִם וִימַלְּאֶנּוּ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים וְיִשְׁהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ כ"ד שָׁעוֹת רְצוּפִין אוֹ יוֹתֵר, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יְעָרֶה אוֹתָם מִמֶּנּוּ וְיַחֲזֹר וִימַלְּאֶנּוּ מַיִם אֲחֵרִים וְיִשְׁהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ כ"ד שָׁעוֹת רְצוּפִין אוֹ יוֹתֵר, וְג' מֵעֵת לְעֵת הַלָּלוּ אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לִהְיוֹת רְצוּפִין, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ מְפֻזָּרִין, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קל"ה,,284 עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל טַעֲמֵי דִּין זֶה:

61 [When chametz was absorbed because it soaked in a utensil], filling [the utensil with water] and pouring it out285or [performing] hag’alah is effective [in kashering] even an earthenware utensil.286 [Our Sages’ statement287 that] an earthenware utensil will never be purged of its disqualifying factor applies only when the forbidden [substance] was absorbed due to heat or due to [a substance’s] sharpness, i.e., through salting288 or because the utensil was a beis s’or289or a beis charoses.290[The rationale is that] the sharpness of salt, s’or, and of charoses [produce an effect similar to that of] heat. Similarly, only hag’alah and libbun are effective [in purging] all other utensils that absorbed forbidden substances through heat or through pungency.

However, when the forbidden substance is absorbed [in a utensil] while cold, [i.e., due to soaking in cold water] for 24 hours, it is also released through [a process involving] cold [water, i.e.,] by filling [it with cold water for 24 hours] and [then] pouring out [the water. Moreover,] even if it is an earthenware utensil, hag’alah is effective [in purging the chametz that it absorbed] while cold, even if the chametz remained in it for days and for years, for example, a barrel that held beer [over an extended period].

How can one perform hag’alah on a barrel, since [a barrel] cannot be placed in a k’li rishon?291 [The person] should heat stones until they are glowing hot and insert them into the barrel. He should [then] pour boiling water over the stones, as explained above,292 and [close] the barrel and roll it to ensure that [the boiling] water reaches every part of it.

Before performing hag’alah, [the person] should wash [the barrel] thoroughly.293 If [the barrel] is made from wood, he should open one of its ends so that he can scrape clean and remove all the filth present between one slat and another.294

In the present era, it has become customary to act stringently and on Pesach not to use a barrel [used for] beer, even [if one were to purge whatever chametz it absorbed] through filling [it with water] and pouring out [the water] or through hag’alah. [The rationale is that] it is impossible to scrape thoroughly between the slats so that no residue will remain, and [this residue] is chametz in an absolute sense.

In contrast, one may kasher a barrel [that contained] mead that had been cooked in a kettle in which beer had been cooked – even if beer had been cooked in [the kettle] less than 24 hours [before the mead was cooked] – through hag’alah or by filling [it with water] and pouring out [the water. The rationale is that] there are authorities who permit drinking the mead itself on Pesach, because [the flavor of the chametz absorbed] in it is a secondary flavor, as explained in sec. 447[:45]. Consult that text.295

(According to the explanations in that source, the barrel would be permitted without kashering it at all. All that would be necessary is to scrape it thoroughly [to clean any traces of residue], for what is absorbed [in the barrel] is merely a secondary flavor, and that is permitted according to all authorities, as will be explained in sec. 452[:13].296 Nevertheless, [additional stringency is required] since there is room for concern that perhaps this barrel once contained beer,297 or that the mead was fermented with dregs of [a previous batch of] mead that were fermented with dregs of beer,298 or that [the mead] was cooked in a kettle [used for] strong alcoholic beverages;299 see sec. 442[:10] and sec. 447[:45-46]. Therefore, [the barrel] must be kashered.)

סא וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי חֶרֶס מוֹעִיל לוֹ מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּיתל,285 אוֹ הַגְעָלָה.,286 וְלֹא אָמְרוּתלב,287 שֶׁכְּלִי חֶרֶס אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִידֵי דָּפְיוֹ לְעוֹלָם, אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ הָאִסּוּר עַל יְדֵי חַמִּין, אוֹ עַל יְדֵי חֲרִיפוּת, דְּהַיְנוּ עַל יְדֵי מְלִיחָה,288 אוֹ שֶׁהוּא בֵּית שְׂאוֹר289 וּבֵית חֲרֹסֶת,תלד,290 שֶׁחֲרִיפוּת הַמֶּלַח אוֹ הַשְּׂאוֹר וַחֲרֹסֶת דּוֹמֶה לְרוֹתֵחַ. וְכֵן שְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶן אִסּוּר עַל יְדֵי חַמִּין אוֹ עַל יְדֵי חֲרִיפוּת – אֵין מוֹעִיל לָהֶם אֶלָּא הַגְעָלָה וְלִבּוּן.תלו

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶן הָאִסּוּר בְּצוֹנֵן עַל יְדֵי כְּבִישָׁה מֵעֵת לְעֵת, הוּא נִפְלָט גַּם כֵּן בְּצוֹנֵן עַל יְדֵי מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי. וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי חֶרֶס מוֹעֶלֶת לוֹ הַגְעָלָה אַף אִם שָׁהָה הֶחָמֵץ בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּצוֹנֵן יָמִים וְשָׁנִים, כְּגוֹן חָבִית שֶׁל שֵׁכָר.

וְכֵיצַד יַגְעִיל אֶת הֶחָבִית שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַכְנִיסָהּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן?291 יְלַבֵּן אֲבָנִים וְיַכְנִיסֵם לְתוֹךְ הֶחָבִית, וְיִשְׁפֹּךְ לְתוֹכָהּ עַל הָאֲבָנִים מַיִם רוֹתְחִין,תלח וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.,292 וִיגַלְגֵּל הֶחָבִית כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ הַמַּיִם עַל כֻּלָּהּ.

וְקֹדֶם הַהַגְעָלָה יְדִיחֶנָּה בְּמַיִם יָפֶה יָפֶה.תמ,293 וְאִם הִיא שֶׁל עֵץ – יִפְתַּח אֶחָד מִשּׁוּלֶיהָ כְּדֵי לְנַקֵּר וּלְהָסִיר כָּל הַזֻּהֲמָא שֶׁבֵּין נֶסֶר לְנֶסֶר.,294

וְעַכְשָׁו נָהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בְּחָבִית שֶׁל שֵׁכָר אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי וְהַגְעָלָה, לְפִי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקֵּר הֵיטֵב בֵּין הַנְּסָרִים שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֵר שָׁם מַשֶּׁהוּ זֻהֲמָא בְּעֵין וְהוּא חָמֵץ גָּמוּר.תמב

אֲבָל חָבִית שֶׁל מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּיוֹרָה שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהּ שֵׁכָר, אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה בַּת יוֹמָהּ מִבִּשּׁוּל הַשֵּׁכָר – מַכְשִׁירִין הֶחָבִית לְפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה אוֹ מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ מַתִּירִין לִשְׁתּוֹת הַמֵּי דְּבַשׁ עַצְמוֹ בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"זתמד עַיֵּן שָׁם.295

(וּלְפִי מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית מֻתֶּרֶת בְּלֹא שׁוּם הֶכְשֵׁר, רַק שֶׁיְּנַקְּרָהּ הֵיטֵב, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בָּהּ הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם, וְהוּא מֻתָּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ב.תמו,296 אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא פַּעַם אַחַת הָיָה שֵׁכָר בְּחָבִית זוֹ,297 אוֹ שֶׁמָּא נִתְחַמֵּץ מֵי דְּבַשׁ זֶה בִּשְׁמָרִים שֶׁל מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר,298 אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּיוֹרָה שֶׁל יֵין־שָׂרָף,,299 עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"בתמח ותמ"ז, לְכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַכְשִׁירָהּ):

62 On Pesach, it is customary not to use containers that held strong alcoholic beverages300 on an ongoing basis, e.g., barrels and pouches in which such alcoholic beverages were held over a lengthy period. [In such an instance,] the flavor and the fragrance of these alcoholic beverages are not released from [their containers] even via hag’alah in a k’li rishon. [Their status] is worse than [that of] a beis s’or and a [beis] charoses.301Nevertheless, if one cooked [these containers] thoroughly in water [mixed] with ashes to the extent that the fragrance of [the alcoholic beverage] is expunged from them entirely, hag’alah is effective in kashering them afterwards.302

סב וְנָהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בְּכֵלִים שֶׁהָיָה בָּהֶן יֵין־שָׂרָף300 תָּמִיד, כְּגוֹן חָבִיּוֹת וְנוֹדוֹת שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶן יֵין־שָׂרָף לְקִיּוּם, וְאֵין טַעַם וְרֵיחַ יֵין־שָׂרָף נִפְלָט מֵהֶן אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן,תנ וּגְרוּעִים הֵם מִבֵּית שְׂאוֹר וַחֲרֹסֶת.,301

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם בִּשֵּׁל אוֹתָם הֵיטֵב בְּמַיִם עִם אֵפֶר עַד שֶׁנִּסְתַּלֵּק מֵהֶם הָרֵיחַ לְגַמְרֵי – מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם הַגְעָלָה אַחַר כָּךְ:תנב,302

63 All the above applies as an initial preference. After the fact, however, when one forgot and [poured] mead [made] for Pesach into a barrel [that had been used] for a strong alcoholic beverage that had been kashered with hag’alah as required by law – even if [the person poured the mead] into [the barrel] during Pesach, and [the mead] remained in it for several days, it is permitted to drink [the mead] on Pesach (if the fragrance of the alcoholic beverage is not detectable;303 see sec. 443[:3]). Nevertheless, immediately after remembering [that the barrel had been used for such alcoholic beverages, the person] should pour [the mead] from this barrel into another barrel that is [kosher] for Pesach.304

If, however, one poured [mead] into a barrel [that had been used] for a strong alcoholic beverage, that had not undergone hag’alah as required by law, and [the mead] remained in [the barrel] for 24 hours, even [if he did so] before Pesach, it is forbidden to drink [the mead] even on the final day of the holiday [celebrated] in the Diaspora.305 [This prohibition applies] even when [the mead was poured into the barrel] more than 24 hours after the barrel had absorbed [the flavor and fragrance of] the strong alcoholic beverage. [The rationale is that] the flavor of the [strong] alcoholic beverage is not impaired even after the passage of several days, and [the alcoholic beverage therefore] imparts a desirable flavor to the mead.

If, however, one poured [mead] into a barrel where beer306 had been kept – [even] if it had not been [kashered by] hag’alah at all, but, before [the mead was poured there, the person] only washed it out thoroughly from the dregs clinging to its sides and base – it is permitted to drink [the mead] on Pesach although [the mead] remained in [the barrel] for several days. [This ruling applies] (even when the barrel) absorbed the beer within 24 hours [of when the mead was poured into it. The rationale is that] at the time the mead absorbed the flavor of the beer from the barrel – i.e., 24 hours after [the mead] was poured into it – it is then more than 24 hours after the barrel absorbed the flavor of the beer, and [hence] the flavor [of the beer] has already been impaired.307

Needless to say, if one [poured] wine into a barrel where beer had been kept – [even] if [the barrel] had not been [kashered by] hag’alah and even if it [had absorbed the flavor of beer] within 24 hours – it is permitted to drink [the wine] on Pesach, even if the wine remained in [the barrel] for several days. [The rationale is that] all beer impairs the flavor of wine.

When does the above308 apply? When one poured the wine or the mead from the barrel [that had absorbed the beer] into another barrel before Pesach, for whenever [chametz] impairs flavor before Pesach, [the flavor of chametz] does not become significant again on Pesach. If, however, one did not pour these [beverages from the barrel that had absorbed the beer into another barrel] before Pesach commenced, it is forbidden to drink [these beverages on Pesach], even on the final day of the holiday [celebrated] in the Diaspora, according to our custom that forbids an impaired flavor [of chametz] on Pesach, as explained in sec. 447[:8].

סג וְכָל זֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְהִכְנִיס מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁל פֶּסַח לְתוֹךְ חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין־שָׂרָף300 שֶׁהִגְעִילָהּ כְּדִינוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הִכְנִיסוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וְשָׁהָה בָּהּ כַּמָּה יָמִים – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח (אִם אֵין מַרְגִּישִׁין בּוֹ רֵיחַ יֵין־שָׂרָףתנד עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"ג,303). וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִיָּד שֶׁנִּזְכָּר יְעָרֶה אוֹתוֹ מֵחָבִית זוֹ לְחָבִית אַחֶרֶת שֶׁל פֶּסַח.304

אֲבָל אִם הִכְנִיסָהּ לְתוֹךְ חָבִית שֶׁל יֵין־שָׂרָף שֶׁלֹּא הֻגְעֲלָה כְּדִינָהּ, אֲפִלּוּ הִכְנִיסוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְשָׁהָה בְּתוֹכָהּ מֵעֵת לְעֵת – אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת,305 אַף אִם לֹא הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית בַּת יוֹמָהּ מִבְּלִיעַת הַיֵּין־שָׂרָף, שֶׁטַּעַם הַיֵּין־שָׂרָף אֵינוֹ נִפְגָּם אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים, וְהוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לְשֶׁבַח בְּמֵי דְּבַשׁ.תנו

אֲבָל אִם הִכְנִיסוֹ לְתוֹךְ חָבִית שֶׁל שֵׁכָר306 שֶׁלֹּא הֻגְעֲלָה כְּלָל, רַק שֶׁהֱדִיחָהּ הֵיטֵב תְּחִלָּה מִן הַשְּׁמָרִים הַדְּבוּקִים בְּדָפְנוֹתֶיהָ וְשׁוּלֶיהָ,תנח אֲפִלּוּ שָׁהָה בְּתוֹכָהּ כַּמָּה יָמִים – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח (אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה הֶחָבִית) בַּת יוֹמָהּ מִבְּלִיעַת הַשֵּׁכָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּשָׁעָה זוֹ שֶׁהַמֵּי דְּבַשׁ בּוֹלֵעַ טַעַם הַשֵּׁכָר מִן הֶחָבִית, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּסוֹף מֵעֵת לְעֵת אַחַר כְּנִיסָתוֹ לְתוֹכָהּ, אֲזַי בָּרֶגַע הַהוּא יֵשׁ יוֹתֵר מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵת לִבְלִיעַת הַשֵּׁכָר בְּתוֹךְ הֶחָבִית, וּכְבָר נִפְגַּם בָּלוּעַ זֶה.תס,307

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם הִכְנִיס יַיִן לְחָבִית שֶׁל שֵׁכָר שֶׁלֹּא הֻגְעֲלָה, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא בַּת יוֹמָהּ, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ שָׁהָה בְּתוֹכָהּ כַּמָּה יָמִים, שֶׁכָּל שֵׁכָר הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּיַיִן.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?308 כְּשֶׁעֵרָה הַיַּיִן אוֹ הַמֵּי דְּבַשׁ מֵחָבִית זוֹ לְחָבִית אַחֶרֶת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,תסב שֶׁכָּל נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח. אֲבָל אִם לֹא עֵרָה אוֹתָם עַד כְּנִיסַת הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת, לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹסְרִין נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּפֶסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז:

64 When does the above apply?309 When the barrel had not been [kashered] by hag’alah at all. When, however, it was washed out thoroughly before hag’alah and [then kashered] by hag’alah, even though [the person] did not open one of its bases to scrape [clean] and remove the filth between the slats, after the fact, this is not significant enough to cause the wine or the mead kept in [the barrel] to be forbidden.

[Moreover,] even when one did not [kasher the barrel by] performing hag’alah in a k’li rishon, but only through pouring [boiling water] from a k’li rishon without using glowing hot stones, one may permit the use [of the wine or mead] after the fact (in the event of a severe [financial] loss or in a pressing situation). [The rationale is that] one many rely on the authorities who maintain that pouring [boiling water] from a k’li rishon is sufficient even as an initial option, since [the barrel] absorbed [the chametz] when [the beer] was cold. See Yoreh Deah, sec. 135.310

סד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?309 כְּשֶׁלֹּא הֻגְעֲלָה הֶחָבִית כְּלָל, אֲבָל אִם הִגְעִילָהּ וֶהֱדִיחָהּ הֵיטֵב קֹדֶם הַהַגְעָלָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּתַח אֶחָד מִשּׁוּלֶיהָ לְנַקֵּר וּלְהָסִיר הַזֻּהֲמָא שֶׁבֵּין הַנְּסָרִים – אֵין זֶה מְעַכֵּב בְּדִיעֲבַד לֶאֱסֹר בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ אֶת הַיַּיִן אוֹ מֵי דְּבַשׁ אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכָהּ.תסד

וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִגְעִילָהּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן בְּלֹא אֲבָנִים מְלֻבָּנוֹת – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר בְּדִיעֲבַד (בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק), שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִסְמֹךְתסו עַל הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאַף לְכַתְּחִלָּה דַּי לָהּ בְּעֵרוּי מִכְּלִי רִאשׁוֹן,תסח כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּלִיעָתָהּ הָיְתָה בְּצוֹנֵן,תסט עַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קל"ה:310

65 It is forbidden on Pesach to place any [food or pots] on top of an oven [that heats] a winter home (i.e., a large oven surrounded by ceramic [tiles] that heat the winter home). [Similarly, food and pots may not be placed] inside the small oven [that exists] inside [the large one]. (To explain: In some of the ovens [that heat] winter homes, an empty space is left within the tiles. This [empty space] is surrounded by tiles on three sides and a covering from above is fashioned for that space; thus, something like a small oven is produced. [See fig. 1.]) [The cover of the large oven and this small oven are governed by] the laws that apply to an earthenware utensil that was used for hot chametz explained above.311 [The rationale is that meat] pies and other chametz are placed [in both places] throughout the year while the oven is warming [the home].312 Thus, the chametz will have been absorbed [in the ceramic tiles] through the heat of fire, and it will never be [possible to] purge [the tiles] of [their] disqualifying factor.

Even if one would desire to heat the oven to extreme temperatures, the chametz absorbed [on the upper surface and in the small oven] will not be purged as a result of [the heat from the fire] kindled inside the [large] oven. [The rationale is that] the chametz was not absorbed from the inside of the [large] oven, but rather on its upper surface [or inside the small oven. Hence, heating it from inside the large oven is not effective, based on the principle] explained above,313 “[A utensil] releases [a forbidden substance] in the same way as it absorbs [that substance].”

A person who desires to use the top of such an oven during Pesach should place a sheet of iron or another article that is not used [throughout the year] over it314 on Pesach.315 It is even permitted to place hot foods on this intervening substance while the oven is heating on Pesach. If, however, one placed a sheet [of cloth] over [the upper surface of the oven], he may only place cold foods on [that surface] while the oven is cold, as explained above.316

One may not, however, place a cooked dish (that is boiling [hot]) inside the small oven that is inside [the larger one], even if [the cooked dish is placed] on a sheet of iron, and even when the oven is cold.317 [The rationale is that] even the roof of this small oven has absorbed chametz, since throughout the year boiling [hot] pots are placed inside of it, and the vapors from the food in the pots ascend and are absorbed in the roof of [the small oven]. Even though condensation that is so hot that a hand will recoil from it did not collect on this roof – and therefore, after the fact, if a boiling [hot] pot was placed318 under [this roof] on Pesach, [the food in the pot] is not forbidden319 – nevertheless, initially, [hot food] should not be placed there.320 [An exception is made only] when one covered the entire small oven – its roof, all its surrounding walls, and its floor – with mortar that is a thumbbreadth321 thick, as will be explained in sec. 461[:2].



Fig. 1: A small oven inside an oven that heats a winter home
Fig. 1: A small oven inside an oven that heats a winter home


סה תַּנּוּר שֶׁל בֵּית הַחֹרֶף (פֵּרוּשׁ תַּנּוּר גָּדוֹל הַמֻּקָּף קכלי"ן סָבִיב שֶׁמְּחַמְּמִין בּוֹ בֵּית הַחֹרֶף) – אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ בְּפֶסַח שׁוּם דָּבָר עַל גַּבָּיו מִלְמַעְלָה אוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר קָטָן שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹתעא (פֵּרוּשׁ כְּמוֹ שֶׁעוֹשִׂין בְּמִקְצָת תַּנּוּרֵי בֵּית הַחֹרֶף שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין חָלָל בֵּין הַקכלי"ן וּמַקִּיפִין אוֹתוֹ בְּקכלי"ן מִג' רוּחוֹתָיו וְעוֹשִׂין כִּסּוּי מִלְּמַעְלָה עַל אוֹתוֹ חָלָל וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּתַנּוּר קָטָן), כְּדִין כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,תעג,311 שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל הַשָּׁנָה רְגִילוּת לְהַנִּיחַ שָׁם פַּשְׁטִידָ"א וּשְׁאָר חָמֵץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַתַּנּוּר מִתְחַמֵּם,312 וְנִבְלָע שָׁם טַעַם חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי חֹם הָאוּר, וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִידֵי דָּפְיוֹ לְעוֹלָם.תעה

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לְהַסִּיק אֶת הַתַּנּוּר הֶסֵּק גָּדוֹל – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הֶחָמֵץ נִפְלָט מִשָּׁם עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק זֶה שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ חֲלַל הַתַּנּוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הֶחָמֵץ נִבְלָע שָׁם דֶּרֶךְ חֲלַל הַתַּנּוּר אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ גַּבָּיו, וּ"כְבוֹלְעוֹ כָּךְ פּוֹלְטוֹ",,49 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.תעז,313

וּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח עַל גַּבֵּי הַתַּנּוּר – מַנִּיחַ עָלָיו315 חֲתִיכַת בַּרְזֶל אוֹ שְׁאָר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח,תעט,314 וְעַל גַּבֵּי זֶה הַדָּבָר הַמַּפְסִיק מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחַ אֲפִלּוּ מַאֲכָלִים חַמִּים בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַתַּנּוּר מִתְחַמֵּם בְּפֶסַח. אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחַ סָדִין עָלָיו – אֵין לְהַנִּיחַ עַל הַסָּדִין אֶלָּא מַאֲכָל צוֹנֵן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַתַּנּוּר צוֹנֵן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.,316

אֲבָל בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר קָטָן שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ אֵין לְהַנִּיחַ תַּבְשִׁיל (רוֹתֵחַתפא) אֲפִלּוּ עַל גַּבֵּי חֲתִיכַת בַּרְזֶל, וַאֲפִלּוּ הַתַּנּוּר הוּא צוֹנֵן,317 לְפִי שֶׁאַף גַּגּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּר קָטָן זֶה הוּא בָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל הַשָּׁנָה מַנִּיחִין בְּתוֹכוֹ קְדֵרוֹת רוֹתְחוֹת, וְעוֹלֶה הַהֶבֶל מֵהַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבַּקְּדֵרוֹת וְנִבְלָע בְּגַגּוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּג זֶה לֹא הִזִּיעַ זֵעָה חַמָּה שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּדִיעֲבַדתפג אִם הֶעֱמִיד תַּחְתָּיו קְדֵרָה רוֹתַחַת שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּ תַּחְתָּיו,318 בְּפֶסַח,319 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין לְהַעֲמִידָהּ שָׁם320 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵטִיחַ בְּטִיט אֶת כָּל הַתַּנּוּר קָטָן זֶה מִתּוֹכוֹ וְאֶת גַּגּוֹ וְאֶת קִירוֹתָיו סָבִיב וְאֶת קַרְקָעִיתוֹ,תפה וִיהֵא עֳבִי הַטִּיט כְּרֹחַב גּוּדָל,,321 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"א:תפז

66 If one forgot and placed a hot matzah322 inside this small oven or on top of the oven that heats the winter home without there being an intervening substance between them, the lower surface of the matzah that came in contact with the oven’s surface must be removed, even when the oven was cold. (Since the forbidden [substance, i.e., the chametz,] is absorbed in the oven, it does not cause anything other than the [outer] surface323 [of the matzah] to become forbidden, even during Pesach, as explained above.)324 If the oven was hot, even when the food placed on it was cold, the [lower] surface [of the food placed on it] must be removed.

If the food is fatty, [the food] is forbidden entirely.325 According to the custom in these regions not to make distinctions between [foods that are] lean and [those that are] fatty, [the food] is forbidden entirely regardless. [The only exception to this rule is if] it is a food that is not at all fatty, like matzah or the like, as explained in sec. 447[:7].

סו וְאִם שָׁכַח וְהִנִּיחַ מַצָּה חַמָּה בְּתוֹךְ תַּנּוּר קָטָן זֶה אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי תַּנּוּר בֵּית הַחֹרֶף בְּלִי שׁוּם דָּבָר הַמַּפְסִיק בֵּינְתַיִם – צָרִיךְ לִקְלֹף תַּחְתּוֹנִיּוּת הַמַּצָּה שֶׁנָּגַע בְּגוּף הַתַּנּוּר (דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהָאִסּוּר הוּא בָּלוּעַ בַּתַּנּוּר אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי קְלִיפָהתפט,323 אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,324), אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַתַּנּוּר צוֹנֵן.תצא וְאִם הָיָה הַתַּנּוּר חַם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמַּאֲכָל שֶׁהִנִּיחַ עָלָיו הָיָה צוֹנֵן – צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּדֵי קְלִיפָה.323

וְאִם הוּא מַאֲכָל שָׁמֵן – כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר.,325

וּלְמִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין מְחַלְּקִין בֵּין כָּחוּשׁ לְשָׁמֵן – בְּכָל עִנְיָן כֻּלּוֹ אָסוּר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא מַאֲכָל שֶׁאֵין שַׁיָּךְ בּוֹ שַׁמְנוּנִית, כְּגוֹן מַצָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז:תצג

67 If, however, one placed food there in a pot, the food is permitted, even if the oven is hot. [This ruling applies] even if the place where the pot rested was soiled with actual chametz. [The rationale is that as long as] there is no concern that [the residue was] fatty,326 it only causes the surface [of the food or utensil with which it comes in contact] to become forbidden, and the thickness of the pot is greater than that of the surface [of the food or utensil that would otherwise have to be removed].

[Moreover,] if one is certain that the place where the pot rested was clean, i.e., there was no trace of actual substance of chametz present, the pot is also permitted [to be used on Pesach. The rationale is that] the forbidden [substance] absorbed in the oven is not released to the pot above it, for as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 92,327 a forbidden [substance] absorbed [in a utensil] is not transferred from the sides of one utensil to [those of] another [utensil] without liquid. Consult that source.

סז אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחַ שָׁם תַּבְשִׁיל בִּקְדֵרָה, אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה הַתַּנּוּר חַם – הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר. אֲפִלּוּ אִם מְקוֹם מוֹשַׁב הַקְּדֵרָה הָיָה מְלֻכְלָךְ מֵחָמֵץ בְּעֵין, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אִם אֵין בּוֹ חֲשַׁשׁ שַׁמְנוּנִית326 – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי קְלִיפָה,323 וּבָעֳבִי שׁוּלֵי הַקְּדֵרָה יֵשׁ יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי קְלִיפָה.תצד

וְגַם הַקְּדֵרָה יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אִם בָּרִי לוֹ שֶׁמְּקוֹם מוֹשָׁבָהּ הָיָה נָקִי, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה שָׁם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ בְּעֵין, שֶׁהָאִסּוּר הַבָּלוּעַ בַּתַּנּוּר אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט לַקְּדֵרָה שֶׁעָלָיו,תצה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ב,תצו,327 שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר בָּלוּעַ יוֹצֵא מִדֹּפֶן לְדֹפֶן בְּלֹא רֹטֶב, עַיֵּן שָׁם:

68 Similarly, if on Pesach one left a boiling pot in the oven of a winter house328 after [the oven] was already heated, the food [inside the pot] is permitted even to be eaten, although there are times when a pot of chametz was left in that place. [Moreover,] the pot is also permitted if the place where it was resting was clean, [without any] actual chametz [being there]. True, condensation collected on the inner surface of the roof of the oven because of the heat of the food [in the oven] below it, and this liquid contains the flavor of chametzthat was released into it from the roof of the oven in which the flavor of chametz had been absorbed when liquid collected on it when boiling pots [of food containing chametz] were below it. Nevertheless, since the oven was already heated, the roof [of the oven] became glowing hot because of the flames [of the oven], and all the chametz absorbed in it was consumed by fire.329 Even though the person did not intend to kasher the roof [of the oven]when he heated the oven, this [lack of] intent is of no consequence after the fact.330 See sec. 461[:1].

סח וְכֵן אִם הִנִּיחַ קְדֵרוֹת רוֹתְחוֹת בְּפֶסַח בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁל בֵּית הַחֹרֶף328 לְאַחַר שֶׁהֻסַּק כְּבָר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מַנִּיחִין שָׁם קְדֵרָה שֶׁל חָמֵץ – הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, וְגַם הַקְּדֵרָה מֻתֶּרֶת אִם הָיָה מְקוֹם מוֹשָׁבָהּ נָקִי מֵחָמֵץ בְּעֵין. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּג הַתַּנּוּר הִזִּיעַ תַּחְתָּיו מִבִּפְנִים מֵחֲמַת חֹם הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁתַּחְתָּיו, וּבְזֵעָה זוֹ יֵשׁ טַעַם חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּפְלַט לְתוֹכָהּ מִגַּג הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ טַעַם חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי הַזֵּעָה שֶׁהִזִּיעַ כְּשֶׁהָיוּ תַּחְתָּיו קְדֵרוֹת רוֹתְחוֹת,תצז מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר – הֲרֵי נִתְלַבֵּן גַּגּוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַשַּׁלְהֶבֶת וְנִשְׂרַף כָּל הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בּוֹ.תצח,329 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִסִּיק אֶת הַתַּנּוּר לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַכְשִׁיר גַּגּוֹ לְפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הֶסֵּק זֶה – אֵין כַּוָּנָה זוֹ מְעַכֶּבֶת בְּדִיעֲבַד,תצט,330 עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"א:תק

69 Earthenware utensils that are glazed with molten glass331 are not governed by the laws applying to glass utensils,332 which – according to some authorities – may be kashered without hag’alah because they do not absorb [any substances].333 Instead, [glazed earthenware] is considered like [other] earthenware, [and thus] even hag’alah is not effective for it if it was used for hot chametz. [The rationale is that] since the glass covers the earthenware and was fired together with it in a kiln, [the glass] absorbs [food] like [the earthenware].

There are places where it is customary not to use earthenware utensils glazed with glass on Pesach even when they are new [and they] were never used with chametz. [The rationale is that] some artisans perform the glazing process with bran. Thus, there is chametz absorbed within the glaze. By contrast, when earthenware utensils that are not glazed – but some glass from the glazing of another utensil dripped on them – are new, it is permitted to use them on Pesach.334 [The rationale is that] after [the glass drips on these utensils, they] are placed into a kiln or an oven filled with fire, and any bran in [the glass] will be consumed by fire, because the artisan will not be concerned [and refrain] from subjecting them to fire; he will thoroughly expose them to heat, because they will not be ruined by the fire since they are not glazed. By contrast, [the artisan] will be concerned regarding [exposing] earthenware utensils that are glazed with glass [to extreme heat], lest the glass in [the glaze] be ruined by the heat of the fire. Therefore, he will hurry to remove them from the fire.335 Therefore, [the custom is to] be stringent and not use them on Pesach.

סט כְּלֵי חֶרֶס הַמְצֻפִּים מִתּוֹכָם בְּהִתּוּךְ זְכוּכִית שֶׁקּוֹרִין (גיגלייזר"ט)331 – אֵין דִּינָם כִּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית332 שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַכְשִׁירִין אוֹתָם בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָהתקא לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָם בּוֹלְעִים כְּלוּם,333 אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵם כִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס,תקב שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הַגְעָלָה אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם אִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַזְּכוּכִית הוּא מְחֻפֶּה עַל הַחֶרֶס וְנִצְרָף עִמּוֹ בַּכִּבְשָׁן – הֲרֵי הוּא בּוֹלֵעַ כָּמוֹהוּ.תקג

וְיֵשׁ מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס הַמְצֻפִּים בְּתוֹכָם בִּזְכוּכִית, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם חֲדָשִׁים שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ מֵעוֹלָם,תקד לְפִי שֶׁמִּקְצָת הָאֻמָּנִים עוֹשִׂים פְּעֻלַּת הַצִּפּוּי עַל יְדֵי סֻבִּין,תקה וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ כָּאן חָמֵץ בָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַצִּפּוּי.

אֲבָל כְּלֵי חֶרֶס שֶׁאֵינָן מְצֻפִּים אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּטַּף עָלָיו מְעַט זְכוּכִית מִצִּפּוּי כְּלִי אַחֵר – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אִם הוּא חָדָשׁ,334 לְפִי שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ מַכְנִיסִין אוֹתוֹ לְכִבְשָׁן אוֹ לְתַנּוּר מָלֵא אֵשׁ וְנִשְׂרָף הַסֻּבִּין שֶׁבּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין הָאֻמָּן חָס עָלָיו לְשָׂרְפוֹ וּלְצָרְפוֹ הֵיטֵב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְצֻפֶּה בִּזְכוּכִית אֵינוֹ מִתְקַלְקֵל כְּלוּם בָּאֵשׁ. אֲבָל אוֹתוֹ כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁהוּא מְצֻפֶּה בִּזְכוּכִית חָס עָלָיו שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַלְקֵל הַזְּכוּכִית שֶׁבּוֹ מֵחֲמַת חֹם הָאֵשׁ, וּלְכָךְ מְמַהֵר הוּא לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הָאֵשׁ,335 וּלְפִיכָךְ מַחֲמִירִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בְּפֶסַח:תקו

70 Nevertheless, stringency is required only in those places where there is an established custom to that effect. [Moreover,] even in those places, if one is certain that the artisan did not mix bran in the glazing for a particular earthenware utensil, there is room for leniency and [the utensil] may be used on Pesach, unless there is a widely known custom to also rule stringently regarding such a situation. For this reason, it is customary in some places not to use [such utensils] on Pesach even though they are new, unless a Jew observed the artisan to ensure that he did not affix a coating of tin and coloring [to the utensil] using bran.336

[Nevertheless,] one [need] not [have any qualms about not] following this stringency, except in a place where this is the custom, because according to the fundamentals of the law, there is no need to be concerned about this. [The rationale is that] the tin and the coloring become attached to the utensil only as a result of heating [the utensil] until it becomes glowing hot with fire, and [it can be assumed that, in that process,] the substance of the bran will be consumed.337

Moreover, even a used metal utensil in which chametz had been cooked the entire year, but which was coated with tin afterwards, may be permitted to be used on Pesach without hag’alah [being performed on it] according to the fundamentals of the law. [The rationale is that] while the utensil is being coated [with tin], it is heated [to the extent that it becomes] glowing hot. [This heating process] purges the prohibited [substance, i.e., the chametz,] from it just as hag’alah would. For the fire heats [the utensil] from the outside to the extent that the tin is melted within it on the inside.338 Subjecting it to such heat is no less effective than hag’alah, for the entire area of both sides of the utensil – the inside and the outside – will become so hot that a hand would recoil from touching them.339 Nevertheless, sometimes this coating is done quickly and it does not cover the entire area of the utensil because [the utensil] was not heated thoroughly. [Indeed,] this is a very common occurrence. Therefore, it is proper to rule that hag’alah be performed on the utensils after they were coated.

(If the artisan who coated them was a non-Jew, [the utensils] must be immersed in a mikveh without a blessing after [they were] coated, [but]340 before performing hag’alah, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 120.)341

By contrast, even hag’alah and libbun are not effective in kashering used earthenware utensils that are coated with tin or lead, as is the law regarding [all other] earthenware utensils that cannot be kashered [in this manner.342 This applies even when the utensil] was coated while it was still new, before it had been used, and [thus,] nothing had been absorbed by the earthenware until after it was coated with lead. As such, the lead [coating] intervened between the earthenware and the chametz that was used in [the utensil. Nevertheless, this factor] is not [sufficient] to cause [the utensil] to be considered a metal utensil that can be kashered through hag’alah. [The rationale is that] when chametz is used in [the utensil] while hot, the chametz is absorbed within the entire thickness of the utensil [including] also the earthenware that is below the lead [coating]. Afterwards, [the chametz that has been absorbed] will never be [fully] released.343

ע וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר.תקז וְגַם בְּאוֹתָן מְקוֹמוֹת, אִם בָּרִי לוֹ שֶׁכְּלִי חֶרֶס זֶה לֹא עֵרַב הָאֻמָּן סֻבִּין בַּצִּפּוּי – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַחתקח אִם אֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג יָדוּעַ לְהַחֲמִיר גַּם בָּזֶה.

וּלְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגִים בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ הֵם חֲדָשִׁים, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָמַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עַל גַּבֵּי הָאֻמָּן לִרְאוֹת שֶׁלֹּא יְתַקֵּן צִפּוּיתקט הַבְּדִילתקי וְהַצֶּבַעתקיא עַל יְדֵי סֻבִּין.336

וְאֵין לְהַחֲמִיר בָּזֶה אֶלָּא בִּמְקוֹם הַמִּנְהָג,תקיב שֶׁמֵּעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין לָחֹשׁ לָזֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַבְּדִיל אוֹ הַצֶּבַע מִתְדַּבְּקִין בַּכְּלִי אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי לִבּוּן הַכְּלִי בָּאֵשׁ, וַאֲזַי נִשְׂרָף כָּל מַמָּשׁוּת הַסֻּבִּין.תקיג,337

וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ כְּלִי מַתֶּכֶת יָשָׁן שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ חִפָּהוּ בִּבְדִיל – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה, לְפִי שֶׁהַלִּבּוּן שֶׁמְּלַבְּנִים אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁעַת צִפּוּי מַפְלִיט הָאִסּוּר מִמֶּנּוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁאִם הָיָה מַגְעִילוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הָאֵשׁ מְחַמְּמוֹ כָּל כָּךְ מִבַּחוּץ עַד שֶׁהַבְּדִיל נִתָּךְ בְּתוֹכוֹ מִבִּפְנִים,338 וְלִבּוּן כָּזֶה אֵינוֹ גָּרוּעַ מֵהַגְעָלָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ מִשְּׁנֵי עֲבָרָיו מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ בְּכָל שֶׁטַח הַכְּלִי.תקיד,339 אֶלָּא לְפִי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים עוֹשִׂים זֶה הַצִּפּוּי בִּמְהִירוּת וְאֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה בְּכָל שֶׁטַח הַכְּלִי לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הִרְתִּיחוּ אוֹתוֹ יָפֶה, וְזֶה מָצוּי מְאֹד,תקטו לְפִיכָךְ נָכוֹן לְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁיַּגְעִילוּ אוֹתָם אַחַר הַצִּפּוּי.תקטז

(וְאִם הָאֻמָּן שֶׁצִּפָּהוּ הוּא נָכְרִי – צָרִיךְ לְהַטְבִּילוֹתקיז בְּלֹא בְּרָכָהתקיח אַחַר הַצִּפּוּי340 קֹדֶםתקיט הַהַגְעָלָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"כתקכ,341).

אֲבָל כְּלִי חֶרֶס יָשָׁן הַמְחֻפֶּה בִּבְדִיל אוֹ עוֹפֶרֶת – אֲפִלּוּ הַגְעָלָה וְלִבּוּן אֵין מוֹעִילִין לוֹ לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ, כְּדִין כְּלִי חֶרֶסתקכא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכְשָׁר עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה וְלִבּוּן.342 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחִפָּהוּ כְּשֶׁהָיָה חָדָשׁ שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ וְלֹא נִבְלַע כְּלוּם בְּהַחֶרֶס עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁחִפָּהוּ בְּעוֹפֶרֶת וְאָז עוֹפֶרֶת הוּא מַפְסִיק בֵּין הַחֶרֶס וּבֵין הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם לִהְיוֹת נִדּוֹן כִּכְלֵי מַתָּכוֹת הַנִּכְשָׁרִים עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה, לְפִי כְּשֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין נִבְלַע הֶחָמֵץ בְּכָל עֳבִי הַכְּלִי, וְנִבְלַע גַּם בַּחֶרֶס שֶׁתַּחַת הָעוֹפֶרֶת,תקכב וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ לְעוֹלָם:343

71 Wooden utensils coated with [a coating made from] herbs are governed by the same laws as earthenware utensils, [i.e.,] hag’alah is not effective [in kashering] them if they were used for hot chametz. [The rationale is that] the herbal [coating] prevents the water used for hag’alah from purging [the chametz] absorbed in the wood below it. (If, however, [these utensils] were not used for chametz, they are not forbidden on Pesach344 unless the local custom is to be stringent, as explained above.)345

עא כְּלֵי עֵץ הַמְצֻפִּים בְּסַמְמָנִים דִּינָם כִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס, שֶׁאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לָהֶם אִם נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם חָמֵץתקכג בְּחַמִּין,תקכד שֶׁהַסַּמְמָנִים מְעַכְּבִים עַל מֵי הַהַגְעָלָה שֶׁלֹּא יַפְלִיטוּ מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הָעֵץ שֶׁתַּחְתֵּיהֶם.תקכה

(אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם חָמֵץ – אֵינָם אֲסוּרִים בְּפֶסַח344 אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ לְהַחֲמִיר,תקכו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהתקכז,345):

72 Since all utensils used for drinking – [i.e.,] cups, flasks, containers, even those made of earthenware346 – were used for cold [liquids] throughout the year, they have not absorbed any [chametz].347 Therefore, it is not necessary to perform hag’alah upon them. Instead, washing them [thoroughly] is sufficient according to the fundamentals of the law. (Nevertheless, as explained above,348 it is customary on Pesach to refrain from using earthenware utensils that had been used previously.) [The procedure of kashering these utensils according to the fundamentals of the law is as follows:] they should be washed and rubbed thoroughly in water to remove and wash away any forbidden substance whose [traces may] remain. Afterwards, one should wash them again in water without rubbing [them[, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 121.349 Afterwards, it is permitted to use [these earthenware utensils], even with hot liquids.

True, there are times when [these drinking utensils] are placed near a fire to warm wine in them, and small pieces of leavened bread are dipped in the warm wine in [the utensils].350 Also, hot beer is sometimes poured into wooden mugs together with cold beer. [Moreover,] sometimes [beverages that are chametz] remain in these utensils for 24 hours, and soaking [for this long] is equivalent to cooking, as explained above.351 Nevertheless, since throughout the year, [the utensils] are primarily used for cold [liquids, and the liquids generally remain in the utensils] for less than 24 hours, the Sages did not rule stringently and require hag’alah, provided that, within 24 hours, [the utensils] had not absorbed chametz via heat or through [chametz] soaking in them for 24 hours.

In contrast, [a different rule applies to] utensils that are primarily used throughout the year to store liquids that are chametz in them for 24 hours or more, like barrels or pitchers of beer. [These utensils] must be kashered by filling them with water, [leaving the water in them for 24 hours and then] pouring it out,352 or by performing hag’alah [on them] in a k’li rishon. [This ruling applies] even when [these utensils] have not been used within 24 hours.

According to those authorities who maintain that [the purpose for which a utensil] is primarily used does not determine its status vis-à-vis the method it is kashered,353 even cups or flasks must be kashered by filling them with water, [leaving the water in them for 24 hours and then] pouring it out, or by performing hag’alah in a k’li rishon. This is the overwhelmingly accepted custom in these countries and one should not deviate [from it].354 Nevertheless, if one violated [these instructions] and did not kasher [drinking utensils] at all, but merely washed them and rubbed them thoroughly [until clean] and [then] used them on Pesach even for hot [liquids], these hot [liquids] are permitted, because after the fact, the first opinion is relied upon.355

עב כָּל כְּלֵי הַשְּׁתִיָּה, בֵּין כּוֹסוֹת בֵּין צְלוֹחִיּוֹת בֵּין קַנְקַנִּים,תקכח אֲפִלּוּ הֵם שֶׁל חֶרֶס,תקכט,346 כֵּיוָן שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישָׁן בְּצוֹנֵן כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – הֲרֵי לֹא נִבְלַע בָּהֶם כְּלוּם,347 וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִילָן כְּלָל, אֶלָּא דַּי לָהֶם בִּשְׁטִיפָה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין (אֲבָל הַמִּנְהָג הוּא שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח כְּלָל בִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס יְשָׁנִים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהתקל,348), דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּדִיחֵם וִישַׁפְשְׁפֵם הֵיטֵב בְּמַיִם כְּדֵי לְהָסִיר וּלְמָרֵק הָאִסּוּר הַדָּבוּק בָּהֶם בְּעֵין, וְאַחַר כָּךְ חוֹזֵר וְשׁוֹטְפָן בְּמַיִם בְּלִי שִׁפְשׁוּף,תקלא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קכ"א,349 וּמֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן אַחַר כָּךְ אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים מַנִּיחִין אוֹתָם אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ לְחַמֵּם בָּהֶן יַיִן וְנוֹתְנִים פְּתִיתֵי לֶחֶם חָמֵץ בַּיַּיִן הַחַם שֶׁבְּתוֹכָן,תקלב,350 וְגַם כּוֹסוֹת שֶׁל עֵץ לִפְעָמִים מְעָרִין לְתוֹכָם שֵׁכָר חַם עִם שֵׁכָר צוֹנֵן,תקלג וְלִפְעָמִים שׁוֹהֶה בְּתוֹכָם מֵעֵת לְעֵת וְנַעֲשֶׂה כָּבוּשׁ כִּמְבֻשָּׁלתקלד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,תקלה,351 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הוּא בְּצוֹנֵן פָּחוֹת מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵת – לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ בָּהֶן חֲכָמִים לְהַגְעִילָםתקלו אִם אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ מִבְּלִיעַת הֶחָמֵץתקלז שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהֶן עַל יְדֵי חַמִּין אוֹ עַל יְדֵי כְּבִישָׁה מֵעֵת לְעֵת.

אֲבָל כֵּלִים שֶׁרֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הוּא לְהַשְׁהוֹת מַשְׁקֶה חָמֵץ בְּתוֹכָם מֵעֵת לְעֵת אוֹ יוֹתֵר, כְּגוֹן חָבִית וְכַדִּים שֶׁל שֵׁכָר – צָרִיךְ לְהַכְשִׁירָם עַל יְדֵי מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי352 אוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן אַף אִם אֵינָם בְּנֵי יוֹמָן.תקלח

וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםתקלט שֶׁאֵין הוֹלְכִים בְּהַגְעָלַת כֵּלִים אַחַר רֹב תַּשְׁמִישָׁן353 – אַף כּוֹסוֹת וּצְלוֹחִית צָרִיךְ לְהַכְשִׁיר עַל יְדֵי מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי אוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בִּכְלִי רִאשׁוֹן. וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג פָּשׁוּט בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ,תקמ וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת.354 אֲבָל אִם עָבַר וְלֹא הִכְשִׁירָם כְּלָל רַק שֶׁהֱדִיחָם וְשִׁפְשְׁפָם הֵיטֵב וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין – הֲרֵי חַמִּין הַלָּלוּ מֻתָּרִין, לְפִי שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד סוֹמְכִין עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:תקמא,355

73 All glass utensils356 – even those which were used for hot chametz throughout the entire year and even those in which beverages that are chametz remained for several days or years, for example, flasks with narrow openings in which beer is kept for long periods – need not be kashered at all for Pesach. It is sufficient to wash them, as required by law.357 [The rationale is that] they are smooth and firm and do not absorb any [substances].358

Other authorities maintain that even hag’alah is not effective in kashering glass utensils that were used for chametz while [the chametz was] hot or in which liquids stood for [at least] 24 hours. [These authorities maintain that] since the raw materials [from which glass is made] is sand, they are deemed to be earthenware utensils. This is the overwhelmingly accepted custom in these countries.359

Therefore, it is customary on Pesach not to use any glass utensil into which one might suspect that a hot beverage that is chametz was poured, or in which a beverage that was chametz was kept for 24 hours.360 Nevertheless, if [a person] violated [this directive] and on Pesach used [a glass utensil that might have been used with hot chametz liquids, or which may have held chametz liquids for at least 24 hours] – even [if he used the utensil on Pesach] with hot [food] without kashering it, this hot [food] is permitted, provided that this utensil was primarily used throughout the year for cold [food and] for less than 24 hours.361

If, however, the utensil was primarily used for hot [food], or even [if it was used] for cold [beverages], but generally, a beverage that is chametz was kept in [the utensil] for 24 hours or longer – for example, flasks with narrow openings in which strong alcoholic beverages are kept for long periods362 – the hot [food] with which [the utensil] was used or the beverages that were kept in it for [at least] 24 hours are forbidden even after the fact. [The only exception is if] the utensil was kashered before it was used, either by hag’alah or by filling it with water, [leaving the water in it for 24 hours and then] pouring it out.363

עג כָּל כְּלֵי זְכוּכִית,356 אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אוֹתָם שֶׁשָּׁהָה מַשְׁקֶה חָמֵץ בְּתוֹכָם כַּמָּה יָמִים וְשָׁנִים, כְּגוֹן צְלוֹחִיּוֹת שֶׁפִּיהֶם צַר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶם שֵׁכָר לְקִיּוּם – אֵין צְרִיכִים שׁוּם הֶכְשֵׁר לְפֶסַח, אֶלָּא דַּי לָהֶם בִּשְׁטִיפָה כְּדִינָהּ,357 לְפִי שֶׁהֵם חֲלָקִים וְקָשִׁים וְאֵינָן בּוֹלְעִים כְּלוּם.תקמב,358

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתקמג שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הַגְעָלָה אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת לִכְלֵי זְכוּכִית שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין אוֹ עַל יְדֵי כְּבִישָׁה מֵעֵת לְעֵת,תקמד דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁתְּחִלַּת בְּרִיָּתָן הוּא מִן הַחוֹל – הֲרֵי הֵן כִּכְלֵי חֶרֶס. וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג פָּשׁוּט בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.תקמה,359

לְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁלֹּא לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בְּשׁוּם כְּלִי זְכוּכִית שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא עֵרוּ לְתוֹכוֹ מַשְׁקֶה חָמֵץ חַם אוֹ שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁתַּהָה בְּתוֹכוֹ מַשְׁקֶה חָמֵץ מֵעֵת לְעֵת.360 אֲבָל אִם עָבַר וְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַחתקמו אֲפִלּוּ בְּחַמִּין בְּלֹא שׁוּם הֶכְשֵׁר – הֲרֵי חַמִּין הַלָּלוּ מֻתָּרִין אִם רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁ כְּלִי זֶה כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הוּא בְּצוֹנֵן פָּחוֹת מֵעֵת לְעֵת.תקמז,361

אֲבָל אִם רֹב תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הוּא בְּחַמִּין, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּצוֹנֵן אֶלָּא שֶׁרֹב הַפְּעָמִים דֶּרֶךְ לְהַשְׁהוֹת מַשְׁקֶה חָמֵץ בְּתוֹכוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵתתקמח אוֹ יוֹתֵר, כְּגוֹן צְלוֹחִיּוֹת שֶׁפִּיהֶם צַר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהַכְנִיס בָּהֶן יֵין־שָׂרָףתקמט לְקִיּוּם362 – אַף בְּדִיעֲבַד אֲסוּרִין הַחַמִּין שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בּוֹ אוֹ הַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁעָמַד בּוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִכְשִׁירוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָהתקנ אוֹ עַל יְדֵי מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי:תקנא,363

75 364 According to the custom in our region, as an initial preference, one should refrain from using silver utensils on which designs were glazed with molten glass (referred to in Yiddish as geshmeltzt) on their inside, even when hag’alah was performed [upon them].365 [The rationale is that our custom] follows the stringency of the authorities who maintain that hag’alah is not effective for glass [utensils].366

Nevertheless, if [the glazing] is [only] on the outside of the utensil, it is permitted to make use of [the utensil] on Pesach [after purging the chametz from it] by hag’alah, or by filling [the utensil] with water, [leaving the water in it for 24 hours and then] pouring it out.367 [The rationale is that] the molten glass on the outside [of the utensil] did not absorb any of the chametz that was used inside [the utensil].368

True, at times, boiling [hot] chametz may have been poured into this [utensil], and a metal utensil [is governed by the principle],369 “When a portion [of it] is hot, the entire [utensil] is hot.” Thus, the outer side of the utensil will also have become hot and chametz will have been absorbed in the glass that is attached to it. (As mentioned above,370 there are authorities who follow this understanding.) Nevertheless, if one uses [the utensil] on Pesach, none [of the substances absorbed in the glass] will be released into the liquid in [the utensil], even if the liquid is boiling [hot] and as a result, the outer surface of the utensil will also be heated since a metal utensil [is governed by the principle], “When a portion [of it] is hot, the entire [utensil] is hot.” [The rationale for this is that] the heat of [the outer surface of the utensil] comes about only because of the heat of [the inner portion. Hence, that heat] does not have the power to release the substances absorbed there and cause them to be transmitted to the other side, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 94.371

(There is no concern that one will boil a liquid in [this utensil] over fire during Pesach and [thus] the outer side of the utensil will [also] become very hot because of the fire and release the flavor of the chametz that is absorbed in the molten glass attached to it, because ordinary practice is not to heat valuable ornamental silver utensils over fire at all.)372

עה תקנב,364 כְּלֵי כֶּסֶף הַמְצֻיָּרִים בַּצַּד הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁלָּהֶם בְּהִתּוּךְ זְכוּכִיתתקנג (שֶׁקּוֹרִין גישמעלצ"ט) – אֵין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינָתֵנוּ365 שֶׁמַּחֲמִירִין כְּהָאוֹמְרִיםתקנד שֶׁאֵין הַגְעָלָה מוֹעֶלֶת לִזְכוּכִית.366 אֲבָל אִם הוּא בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִי – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָהתקנה אוֹ עַל יְדֵי מִלּוּי וְעֵרוּי,תקנו,367 שֶׁהֲרֵי הַהִתּוּךְ זְכוּכִית שֶׁמִּבַּחוּץ לֹא בָּלַע כְּלוּם מֵהֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ מִבִּפְנִים.תקנז,368

וְאַף שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים עֵרוּ לְתוֹכוֹ חָמֵץ רוֹתֵחַ, וּכְלִי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁחַם מִקְצָתוֹ חַם כֻּלּוֹ,369 וְנִתְחַמֵּם גַּם צַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִי וְנִבְלַע שָׁם טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בַּזְּכוּכִית הַקָּבוּעַ שָׁם (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהתקנח,370 שֶׁיֵּשׁ סוֹבְרִין כֵּן), מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח לֹא יִהְיֶה נִפְלָט כְּלוּם מֵהַזְּכוּכִית לַמַּשְׁקֶה שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, אַף אִם יִהְיֶה מַשְׁקֶה רוֹתֵחַ וְעַל יְדֵי כֵּן יִתְחַמֵּם גַּם צַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִי, שֶׁכְּלִי מַתָּכוֹת שֶׁחַם מִקְצָתוֹ חַם כֻּלּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִקְצָת חֹם זֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ חַם אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת חֹם מִקְצָת הַשֵּׁנִי – אֵין לוֹ כֹּחַ לְהַפְלִיט גִּעוּל הַבָּלוּעַ שָׁם וּלְהוֹלִיכוֹ לַמִּקְצָת הַשֵּׁנִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ד.תקנט,371

(וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַרְתִּיחַ בּוֹ מַשְׁקֶה אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וְיִתְחַמֵּם צַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁל הַכְּלִי חֹם גָּדוֹל מֵחֲמַת הָאֵשׁ וְיִפְלֹט טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בְּהִתּוּךְ זְכוּכִית הַקְּבוּעָה בּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ כְּלָל לְהַרְתִּיחַ אֵצֶל הָאֵשׁ כְּלֵי כֶּסֶף חֲשׁוּבִים הַמְצֻיָּרִיםתקס,372):

76 [The following law applies when] fowl were roasted on Pesach using a spit that had been used previously, i.e., throughout the year it was used for roasting meat that had been salted with salt that was not checked for crumbs of chametz that are commonly found between [the grains of] salt. [Nevertheless,] the fowl are permitted, because it is not certain that there is chametz [absorbed] in the spit; there is only a concern that perhaps there were crumbs of chametz between [the grains of] salt. After the fact, [the fowl] should not be forbidden, for a forbidden factor should not be presumed to exist [merely] because of the possibility [of its existence].373

If, however, this spit was once used to roast fowl stuffed [with chametz], or other chametz – even [if] only the slightest amount [of chametz] – and on Pesach meat was roasted on [the spit] without it being kashered374 in the interim, it is forbidden even to benefit from this meat. ([According to the fundamentals of the law, this ruling applies only when the spit] was used [for chametz] within 24 hours [of the time it was used on Pesach].375 And according to the prevailing custom [in our region, this ruling applies even when the spit] was used [for chametz] more than 24 hours [before its use on Pesach].)376 [The rationale is that] the trace of chametz that was absorbed in the spit before Pesach was not nullified because of the presence of 60 [times its volume of permitted substances absorbed] in [the utensil], for the reason explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 99;377 consult that source.

עו עוֹפוֹת שֶׁנִּצְלוּ בְּפֶסַח בְּשַׁפּוּד יָשָׁן שֶׁכָּל הַשָּׁנָה צָלוּ בּוֹתקסא בָּשָׂר מָלוּחַ בְּמֶלַח שֶׁלֹּא נִבְדַּק מִפֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ שֶׁדַּרְכָּם לְהִמָּצֵא בֵּין הַמֶּלַח – הֲרֵי עוֹפוֹת הַלָּלוּ מֻתָּרִין,תקסב כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בַּשַּׁפּוּד חָמֵץ וַדַּאי אֶלָּא חֲשַׁשׁ סְפֵק פֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ שֶׁבֵּין הַמֶּלַח, וּמִסָּפֵק אֵין לֶאֱסֹר בְּדִיעֲבַד,תקסג כִּי אֵין מַחֲזִיקִין אִסּוּר מִסָּפֵק.תקסד,373

אֲבָל אִם פַּעַם אַחַת צָלוּ בְּשַׁפּוּד זֶה מוּלְיְתָא אוֹ שְׁאָר חָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ וּבְפֶסַח צָלוּ בּוֹ בָּשָׂר בְּלֹא הֶכְשֵׁרתקסה,374 בֵּינְתַיִם – הֲרֵי בָּשָׂר זֶה אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָהתקסו (אִם הַשַּׁפּוּד הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ,תקסז,375 וּלְמִנְהָגֵנוּתקסח אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ),376 שֶׁמַּשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּבְלַע בַּשַּׁפּוּד קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח לֹא נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים,תקסט מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"טתקע,377 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

77 It is customary to thoroughly wash the bungs in the barrels of wine through which wine is drawn the entire year and which one seeks to use on Pesach.378 [The rationale is that] throughout the year, these bungs are used with hands that are soiled from chametz.

עז נוֹהֲגִין לְהָדִיחַ הַבְּרָזוֹת שֶׁבְּחָבִיּוֹת שֶׁל יַיִןתקעא שֶׁמִּסְתַּפְּקִין מֵהֶן כָּל הַשָּׁנָה וְרוֹצֶה לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מֵהֶן בְּפֶסַח,378 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל הַשָּׁנָה מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁין בַּבְּרָזוֹת בְּיָדַיִם הַמְלֻכְלָכוֹת מֵחָמֵץ:תקעב

78 Wooden pegs over which are hung cups for beer have certainly become soiled from the moisture of the beer in the cups, because the wooden [pegs] are inserted into the inside of the cups.379 Therefore, utensils should not be inserted in them during Pesach unless they are washed out thoroughly.380

עח הָעֵצִים שֶׁתּוֹחֲבִים בָּהֶם כְּלֵי שְׁתִיָּהתקעג שֶׁל שֵׁכָרתקעד בְּוַדַּאי נִתְלַכְלֵךְ הָעֵץ מִלִּכְלוּכִית הַשֵּׁכָר שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָעֵץ נִתְחָב לְתוֹךְ חֲלַל הַכְּלִי,תקעה וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לִתְחֹב בּוֹ כֵּלִים בְּפֶסַח379 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֱדִיחוֹ יָפֶה:380