SECTION 450 The Laws Pertaining to [Chametz Owned by] a Jew and a Non-Jew in Partnership (1-27)

סימן תנ דִּין יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם שֻׁתָּפוּת וּבוֹ כ"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 [When] a Jew borrowed a loaf of chametz from [a fellow Jew] and did not pay him before Pesach arrived, [the borrower] is obligated to repay [the lender] after Pesach. [Indeed,] it is considered as theft if [the borrower] does not repay [the lender. The debt is binding] because he borrowed [the chametz] from [the lender] at a time when it was permitted to do so.

If [the borrower] comes to repay [the lender] during Pesach with money or with other objects, the lender is permitted to receive [the payment] and benefit from it even during Pesach. True, [the borrower] borrowed a loaf of chametz [with the intent that he] repay [the lender] with a loaf of chametz. Hence, the money [the borrower] is paying [the lender] is in exchange for the loaf of chametz that he is obligated to pay [the lender], and it is forbidden to benefit from anything given in exchange for chametz during Pesach. [Indeed, this prohibition applies] even after Pesach, as explained in sec. 443[:10]. Nevertheless, [this instance does not fall into the scope of that prohibition. The rationale is that] at the time the borrower is paying the money to the lender, [i.e., during Pesach,] the borrower does not possess a loaf of chametz that he could give [the lender] in payment of his debt. Therefore, this money is not considered as having been given in exchange [for the actual chametz], for the term “exchange” applies only when one gives an entity in exchange for another [entity that is] at hand.1

א יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלָּוָה כִּכָּר שֶׁל חָמֵץ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח – חַיָּב לִפְרֹעַ לוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם גָּזֵל אִם אֵינוֹ פּוֹרֵעַ לוֹ,א כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִלְוָה לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר.ב וְאִם בָּא לִפְרֹעַ לוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח בְּמָעוֹת אוֹ בִּשְׁאָר דְּבָרִים – רַשַּׁאי הַמַּלְוֶה לְקַבְּלָם מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם אֲפִלּוּ בְּפֶסַח.ג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לָוָה מִמֶּנּוּ כִּכָּר שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁיִּפְרַע לוֹ כִּכָּר שֶׁל חָמֵץ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁמָּעוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן חֲלִיפֵי הַכִּכָּר שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לִפְרֹעַ לוֹ, וְאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵחֲלִיפֵי חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ג,ד מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהַלֹּוֶה פּוֹרֵעַ הַמָּעוֹת לְהַמַּלְוֶה אֵין בִּרְשׁוּת הַלֹּוֶה שׁוּם כִּכָּר שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁיּוּכַל לִתְּנוֹ לְהַמַּלְוֶה בְּפִרְעוֹן חוֹבוֹ,ה לְכָךְ אֵין שֵׁם חֲלִיפִין נִקְרָא עַל מָעוֹת הַלָּלוּ, שֶׁלָּשׁוֹן חֲלִיפִין אֵינוֹ נוֹפֵל אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמַּחֲלִיף דָּבָר עַל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא בְּעֵין:ו,1

2 [The Jewish lender is permitted to receive payment for the loaf of chametz that he lent even] when the borrower is a non-Jew. Even if the [non-Jewish] borrower has loaves of chametz at hand, in his possession, at the time he pays money to the lender during Pesach, it is nevertheless permitted for the lender to take money from [the non-Jew] for the loaf [of chametz] that [the non-Jew] owes him.2 True, several days of Pesach had already passed while this loaf which [the non-Jewish borrower] owes [the Jew] was in existence [during Pesach], and it would have been forbidden to benefit from [this loaf] had it been possessed by a Jew. [Moreover,] anything given in exchange for [this loaf] would also have been forbidden, as is the law with regard to chametz that existed in a Jew’s possession during Pesach.3 Nevertheless, [since] at this time, the chametz is the possession of the non-Jew, it is governed by the laws applying to chametz that existed in a non-Jew’s possession during Pesach [from which one is permitted to benefit].4

True, the Jew has a lien [on the non-Jew’s property], for [the non-Jew] borrowed a loaf from [the Jew on the condition] that he repay a loaf to [the Jew]. Nevertheless, the lien did not specifically apply to those loaves that are owned by the non-Jew on Pesach, for the non-Jew could purchase a loaf in the market-place and repay his debt [to the Jewish lender with it], and eat the loaves he has in his possession during Pesach or use them for whatever purpose he desires without the consent of the Jewish [lender]. Thus, the Jewish [lender] has no claim to the loaves in the non-Jew’s possession during Pesach, which would [cause them to] be prohibited as chametz that was owned by a Jew during Pesach.5 [The Jewish lender’s] claim against the non-Jew is only a debt for chametz. And a debt for chametz is not forbidden [although] it existed during Pesach, since the chametz itself belonged to the non-Jew and the Jewish [lender] had no claim to it.6

ב וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל חָמֵץ בְּעֵין בִּרְשׁוּת הַלֹּוֶה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא פּוֹרֵעַ הַמָּעוֹת לְהַמַּלְוֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,2 כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַלֹּוֶה הוּא נָכְרִי, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְהַמַּלְוֶה לְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ הַמָּעוֹת בְּעַד הַכִּכָּר שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לוֹ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר עָבַר מִקְצָת הַפֶּסַח עַל כִּכָּר זֶה שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב, וְנֶאֱסַר בַּהֲנָאָה אִם הָיָה בִּרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְגַם חֲלִיפָיו הָיוּ אֲסוּרִין כְּדִין חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,3 מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַכְשָׁו שֶׁהוּא בִּרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי דִּינוֹ כַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח.ז,4

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְשֻׁעְבָּד לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי לָוָה מִמֶּנּוּ כִּכָּר שֶׁיִּפְרַע לוֹ כִּכָּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְיַחֵד שִׁעְבּוּדוֹ עַל כִּכָּרוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁמֻּנָּחִים בִּרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי בְּפֶסַח,ח שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לִקְנוֹת כִּכָּר מִן הַשּׁוּק וְלִפְרֹעַ לוֹ חוֹבוֹ,ט וְכִכָּרוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁמֻּנָּחִים בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ בְּפֶסַח יָכוֹל הוּא לְאָכְלָם וּלְהוֹצִיאָם לְכָל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, נִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שׁוּם זְכִיָּה בַּכִּכָּרוֹת הַמֻּנָּחִים בִּרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי בְּפֶסַחי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נֶאֱסָרִין מִשּׁוּם חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,יא,5 וְאֵין לוֹ עַל הַנָּכְרִי אֶלָּא חוֹב שֶׁל חָמֵץ בִּלְבַד, וְהַחוֹב שֶׁל חָמֵץ אֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָר מֵחֲמַת שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁל נָכְרִי, וְאֵין לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שׁוּם זְכִיָּה בּוֹ:6

3 For this reason,7 when a Jew lent money to a non-Jew [on the condition that he pay him] chametz as interest – i.e., as long as [the non-Jew] has not repaid the money [the Jew lent him, the non-Jew] will give him several loaves of chametz each week – after Pesach, [the Jewish lender] is permitted to receive the loaves he is due for the week of Pesach. [This license applies] even if the non-Jew gives [the Jewish lender] loaves that became chametz on Pesach or before Pesach, and thus they are considered chametz that existed during Pesach. Nevertheless, since throughout Pesach [these loaves] existed in the domain of the non-Jew and the Jew did not have any [specific] claim to them,8 they are governed by the laws applying to chametz that was owned by a non-Jew during Pesach.

There are authorities who differ with the above rationale. Therefore, as an initial preference, before Pesach, [the Jewish lender] must stipulate with the non-Jew that after Pesach, [the non-Jew] should not give him loaves that became chametz during Pesach or before Pesach [as payment] for the week of Pesach. Instead, [the non-Jew] should give him money, flour, or loaves that became chametz after Pesach. In this way, [the Jewish lender] will not have any lien at all on the chametz of the non-Jew throughout the days of Pesach.

Once [the Jewish lender] made such a stipulation, even if after Pesach the non-Jew gives him loaves that became chametz on Pesach or before Pesach, it is permitted for [the Jewish lender] to accept them from [the non-Jew] and to partake of them.9 [The rationale is that] these loaves were given in exchange for the money [the non-Jew agreed] to give [the Jewish lender as interest] for the week of Pesach. Nevertheless, after the fact, if [the Jewish lender] did not make such a stipulation before Pesach, and after Pesach the non-Jew brought him loaves that became chametz on Pesach [as payment] for the week of Pesach, it is permitted for [the Jew] to accept [these loaves] and to partake of them, for fundamentally, [the halachah follows] the first opinion.

ג וּמִטַּעַם זֶה7 יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהִלְוָה מָעוֹת לְנָכְרִי בְּרִבִּית שֶׁל חָמֵץ, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא יִפְרַע לוֹ מָעוֹתָיו יִתֵּן לוֹ בְּכָל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ כַּמָּה כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל חָמֵץיב – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבֵּל מִן הַנָּכְרִי לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אֶת הַכִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לוֹ בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח.יג וַאֲפִלּוּ נוֹתֵן לוֹ כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ בְּפֶסַח אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וַהֲרֵי הֵן חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הָיוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי וְלֹא הָיָה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שׁוּם זְכִיָּה בָּהֶן8 – הֲרֵי דִּינָם כַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח.יד

וּלְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ חוֹלְקִיןטו עַל טַעַם זֶה, לְפִיכָךְ לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְהַתְנוֹתטז עִם הַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחיז שֶׁלֹּא יִתֵּן לוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ בְּפֶסַח אוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,יח אֶלָּא יִתֵּן לוֹ מָעוֹת אוֹ קֶמַח אוֹ כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח לֹא יִהְיֶה לוֹ שׁוּם שִׁעְבּוּד עַל חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ תְּנַאי זֶה, אֲפִלּוּ אִם לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח נוֹתֵן לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ בְּפֶסַח אוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלָם מִמֶּנּוּיט וּלְאָכְלָם,כ,9 לְפִי שֶׁכִּכָּרוֹת הַלָּלוּ הֵן חֲלִיפֵי הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ לָתֵת לוֹ בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח.כא אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁלֹּא הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ תְּנַאי זוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וּלְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הֵבִיא לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ בְּפֶסַח – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלָם וּלְאָכְלָם, שֶׁהָעִקָּר כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:כב

4 The same law applies to a Jew who purchased the allotment [of bread] given to [non-Jewish] priests (i.e., the king grants an allotment of bread to the [non-Jewish] priests every week; at the beginning of the year, [the priests] sold a Jew all the bread that would be given to them week after week for the entire year). As an initial preference, [the Jewish purchaser of these rights] must be careful to stipulate before Pesach that [the non-Jewish priests] should not give him bread that became chametz during Pesach [as recompense] for the week of Pesach. Instead, [they should give him] money, other objects that are not chametz, or chametz that became leavened after Pesach. When [the Jew] makes such a stipulation with [the non-Jewish priests], even if after Pesach the [non-Jewish] priests would give him leavened bread that became chametz during Pesach [as recompense] for the week of Pesach, it is permitted for him to accept [this bread] and to partake of it. After the fact, if [the Jewish purchaser] did not make such a stipulation with [the non-Jewish priests], and after Pesach the [non-Jewish priests] gave him leavened bread that became chametz during Pesach [as recompense] for the week of Pesach, it is permitted for [the Jew] to accept [the bread] and to partake of it for the reason explained [above].10

ד וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁקָּנָה חֹק הַכֹּמָרִיםכג (פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁהַמֶּלֶךְ נוֹתֵן לַכֹּמָרִים לֶחֶם חֻקָּם בְּכָל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ,כד וְהֵן מָכְרוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בִּתְחִלַּת הַשָּׁנָה כָּל הַלֶּחֶם שֶׁיִּנָּתֵן לָהֶם בְּכָל שָׁבוּעַ וְשָׁבוּעַ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה), שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיַּתְנֶה עִמָּהֶם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחכה שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח לֹא יִתְּנוּ לוֹ בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח לֶחֶם חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, אֶלָּא מָעוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָר דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָמֵץ אוֹ חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, וּכְשֶׁמַּתְנֶה עִמָּהֶם כָּךְ, אַף אִם לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח יִתְּנוּ לוֹ הַכֹּמָרִים בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח לֶחֶם חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יִהְיֶה מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלוֹ וּלְאָכְלוֹ. וּבְדִיעֲבַד שֶׁלֹּא הִתְנָה עִמָּהֶם כְּלוּם, וּלְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח נָתְנוּ לוֹ בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח לֶחֶם חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלוֹ וּלְאָכְלוֹכו מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:10

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 When a Jew owns an oven and a non-Jew baked chametz in it on Pesach without the knowledge [or consent] of the Jewish [owner],11 it is forbidden for [the Jewish owner] to accept money from the non-Jew as payment for [the use of] the oven.12 [This ruling applies] even [to accepting money from the non-Jew for his use of the oven] after Pesach.

If [the Jewish owner] transgressed and accepted money from the non-Jew [for the use of the oven], even [if he accepted it] during Pesach, he may [still] benefit from [the money]. True, the non-Jew gave [the Jew] the money for baking chametz in his oven on Pesach, when it is forbidden to benefit from chametz.13 Thus, [the Jewish owner of the oven] is benefiting from a substance from which it is forbidden to benefit. Nevertheless, the money [the non-Jew gave the Jew] is not payment for chametz, nor an exchange for chametz;14it is merely that chametz causes the money to come into the Jew’s possession. Therefore, a Scriptural prohibition is not involved, only a Rabbinic [prohibition], for as an initial preference, it is forbidden to derive [even indirect] profit from objects from which it is forbidden to benefit. Accordingly, initially [the Jewish owner of the oven] is forbidden to accept the money [from the non-Jew]. Nevertheless, [after the fact,] if [the Jew] already accepted the money, [the Sages] did not penalize him and cause him to forfeit his money. [Such a penalty was imposed] only [when profiting from] yayin nesech, [wine used as a libation,15] as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 133.16

If, however, after Pesach, the non-Jew brought [the Jewish owner of the oven] loaves of chametz that he baked on Pesach in the Jew’s oven as payment for [the use of] the oven, even [after the fact, i.e.,] if the Jew transgressed and accepted [the loaves], he and all other Jews are forbidden to benefit from them. [The rationale is that] the practice of all those who rent ovens is to give the owner of the oven a loaf from the loaves baked in the oven as remuneration. Thus, at the time the non-Jew baked [the loaves] in the Jew’s oven, the Jew [had] already acquired one of the loaves that the non-Jew baked in [his] oven. Accordingly, the loaf is considered as] chametz that belonged to a Jew during Pesach, which all Jews are forbidden [to benefit from].

ה יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תַּנּוּר וְאָפָה בּוֹ נָכְרִי חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל11 – אָסוּר לוֹ לְקַבֵּל מָעוֹת מִן הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַתַּנּוּרכז,12 אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.כח

וְאִם עָבַר וְקִבֵּל מָעוֹת מִן הַנָּכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם.כט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי נוֹתֵן לוֹ מָעוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּעַד אֲפִיַּת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁאָפָה בְּתַנּוּרוֹ בְּפֶסַח בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה,13 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהוּא נֶהֱנֶה מֵאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה,ל מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁמָּעוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵינָן לֹא דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ וְלֹא חֲלִיפֵי הֶחָמֵץ,14 אֶלָּא שֶׁחָמֵץ גּוֹרֵם לַמָּעוֹת שֶׁיָּבֹאוּ לְיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין כָּאן אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, שֶׁאָסוּר לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָהלא לְכַתְּחִלָּה, וּלְכָךְ אָסְרוּ לְקַבֵּל הַמָּעוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר קִבְּלָם – לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ לְהַפְסִיד מָעוֹתָיו, אֶלָּא בִּשְׂכַר יֵין נֶסֶךְ15 בִּלְבַד,לב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קל"ג.לג,16

אֲבָל אִם הֵבִיא הַנָּכְרִי לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַתַּנּוּר כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁאָפָה אוֹתָם בְּפֶסַח בְּתַנּוּרוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֲפִלּוּ עָבַר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְקִבְּלָם – אָסוּר לוֹ וּלְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם,לד דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ כָּל שׂוֹכְרֵי תַּנּוּר לִתֵּן לְבַעַל הַתַּנּוּר בִּשְׂכָרוֹ כִּכָּרלה מִן הַכִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁאוֹפִין בְּתַנּוּרוֹ,לו נִמְצָא שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאָפָה הַנָּכְרִי בְּתַנּוּר שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּבָר זָכָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּכִכָּר מִן הַכִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁאָפָה אוֹתָן בַּתַּנּוּר, וַהֲרֵי זֶה חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,לז שֶׁאָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל:לח

6 Therefore, when a Jew and a non-Jew own an oven in partnership, [the Jewish partner] should not tell the non-Jew, “Take for yourself alone the earnings of [the use of the] oven from what the non-Jews will bake [in our oven] during the week of Pesach and I will take for myself alone the earnings from the week after Pesach [in compensation.” The rationale is that] since the Jewish [partner] owns a portion of the oven himself, thus, from the very beginning of the partnership, [he has already] acquired [a right to] half the chametz the non-Jewish [partner] will receive for [the use of] the oven on Pesach.17 [Hence,] when [the Jewish partner] later tells the non-Jewish [partner] that he alone should take [the profits of] the week of Pesach and [the Jewish partner] will receive the profits of the week after Pesach, [the Jewish partner] is exchanging the chametz that he acquired on Pesach for other chametz.18

License [to profit from the week of Pesach] is granted only when, at the beginning of [the establishment of] the partnership, [the Jewish partner] stipulates to the non-Jewish [partner] that [the non-Jewish partner] alone should take [the profits earned during] the week of Pesach and [the Jewish partner] should take [the profits earned during] the week after Pesach. Thus, the Jewish [partner] never acquired the half [share] of the chametz [earned on] Pesach because he already divested himself of [his right to that chametz] from the beginning of the partnership.19

ו לְפִיכָךְ,לט יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם תַּנּוּר בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת – לֹא יֹאמַר לְהַנָּכְרִי: "טֹל אַתָּה בִּלְבַדְּךָ שְׂכַר הַתַּנּוּר מִמַּה שֶּׁיֹּאפוּ בּוֹ הַנָּכְרִים חָמֵץ בַּשָּׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח וַאֲנִי אֶטֹּל בִּלְבַדִּי כְּנֶגֶד זֶה שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח",מ דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק בְּגוּף הַתַּנּוּר, אִם כֵּן מִתְּחִלַּת הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת זָכָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּמַחֲצִית הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַתַּנּוּר בְּפֶסַח,17 וּמַה שֶּׁאוֹמֵר לְהַנָּכְרִי אַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁיִּטֹּל הוּא בִּלְבַדּוֹ בַּשָּׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְהוּא יִטֹּל כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בַּשָּׁבוּעַ שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַחֲלִיף חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁזָּכָה בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח עַל חָמֵץ אַחֵר.מא,18

וְאֵין הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא שֶׁבִּתְחִלַּת הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת יַתְנֶה עִם הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיִּטֹּל הוּא בִּלְבַדּוֹ בַּשָּׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח וְהוּא יִטֹּל כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בַּשָּׁבוּעַ שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, דְּנִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא זָכָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מֵעוֹלָם בְּמַחֲצִית הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁל פֶּסַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר סִלֵּק אֶת עַצְמוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בִּתְחִלַּת הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת:מב,19

7 If [the Jewish partner] did not make such a stipulation at the beginning [of] the partnership, he has [the following] means of correcting [the situation]; (see [also] sec. 245[:15] which suggests another option to correct the matter):20

He should sell his half-[share] of the oven to the non-Jewish [partner] for all the days of Pesach, i.e., throughout the days of Pesach, the oven will belong entirely to the non-Jewish [partner. The Jewish partner] should receive the money for his half–[share] in the oven before Pesach.21 Alternatively, [the Jew] should transfer to the non-Jewish [partner] his half–[share] in the oven through one of the means of formalizing a transaction22 to be explained in Choshen Mishpat, Hilchos Mekach U’Memkar.23[The Jewish partner should] stipulate that after Pesach, [the non-Jewish partner] will pay him money, other objects [of value] that are not chametz, or chametz that became leavened after Pesach for his half–[share in the oven]. When [the Jewish partner] makes such a stipulation, even if after Pesach the non-Jew will give him bread that is chametz that was baked in his oven on Pesach [as payment for his share in the oven], it is permitted for [the Jew] to accept it and partake of it. [The rationale is that] the Jewish [partner] did not acquire [a share in] this bread before the non-Jew gave it to him, since he stipulated that [the non-Jew pay] him [with] money or other objects [of value].24

ז וְאִם לֹא הִתְנָה עִמּוֹ כָּךְ בִּתְחִלַּת הַשֻּׁתָּפוּת (וְעַיֵּן בְּסִימָן רמ"המג שֶׁיֵּשׁ עוֹד תַּקָּנָה לָזֶה20) – יֵשׁ לוֹ תַּקָּנָה שֶׁקֹּדֶם הַפֶּסַח יִמְכֹּר אֶת מַחֲצִית הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁלּוֹ לְהַנָּכְרִי עַל כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח,מד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח יִהְיֶה כָּל גּוּף הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי וִיקַבֵּל דָּמִים מִן הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַד מַחֲצִית תַּנּוּרוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,מה,21 אוֹ יַקְנֶה לְהַנָּכְרִי אֶת מַחֲצִית תַּנּוּרוֹ בְּאֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיָּה22 שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט הִלְכוֹת מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר,מו,23 וְיַתְנֶה עִמּוֹ שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח יִתֵּן לוֹ בְּעַד מַחֲצִיתוֹ מָעוֹתמז אוֹ שְׁאָרֵי דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן חָמֵץ אוֹ חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,מח וּכְשֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ כָּךְ אַף אִם לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח נוֹתֵן לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי לֶחֶם חָמֵץ שֶׁנֶּאֱפָה בְּפֶסַח בְּתַנּוּרוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלוֹ וּלְאָכְלוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא זָכָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּלֶחֶם זֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁנְּתָנוֹ הַנָּכְרִי לְיָדוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ מָעוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָרֵי דְּבָרִים:24

8 It is forbidden to hire a donkey to a non-Jew [for him to use] to carry chametz on Pesach or [to rent] a room [to a non-Jew] so that [he can] place chametz in it on Pesach.25 [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to derive [even indirect] profit from entities from which it is forbidden to benefit.26

It is, however, permitted to rent a donkey to [a non-Jew] for the week of Pesach when no specification is made, i.e., the non-Jew does not explicitly [say that] he will use [the donkey] to transport chametz on Pesach. Even though [the Jew] knows that the non-Jew will use [the donkey] to carry chametz, that is not of consequence. [The rationale is that] even if [the non-Jew] will not use [the donkey] to carry anything, he is [nevertheless] obligated to pay the Jew the entire fee [for the donkey] because he hired [the donkey] to him for the week, whether he uses it to carry [burdens] all the days of the week (with the exception of Shabbos and festivals, as stated in sec. 246[:7])27 or whether he does not use it to carry [burdens] at all. Accordingly, the Jew is not benefiting at all from the fact that the non-Jew is using [the donkey] to carry chametz on Pesach.28

ח אָסוּר לְהַשְׂכִּיר לְנָכְרִי חֲמוֹר לְהוֹלִיךְ עָלָיו חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, אוֹ חֶדֶר לָשׂוּם בְּתוֹכוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח,מט,25 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה.נ,26 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַשְׂכִּיר לוֹ חֲמוֹר עַל שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח בִּסְתָם, שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מְפָרֵשׁ לוֹ שֶׁיּוֹלִיךְ עָלָיו חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח.נא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יוֹלִיךְ עָלָיו חָמֵץ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא יוֹלִיךְ עָלָיו כְּלוּם יִצְטָרֵךְ לִפְרֹעַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל שְׂכָרוֹ מִשָּׁלֵם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִשְׂכִּירוֹ לוֹ לְשָׁבוּעַ, בֵּין שֶׁיּוֹלִיךְ עָלָיו כָּל יְמֵי הַשָּׁבוּעַ (חוּץ מִשַּׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן רמ"ונב,27), בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא יוֹלִיךְ עָלָיו כְּלָל, אִם כֵּן אֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִשְׂתַּכֵּר כְּלוּם בְּמַה שֶּׁהַנָּכְרִי מוֹלִיךְ עָלָיו חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח:נג,28

9 Similarly, one may rent a room to a non-Jew to dwell in during Pesach even though [the Jewish landlord] knows that [the non-Jew] will bring chametz into it. Nevertheless, the Jewish [owner] is not receiving a wage for [allowing the non-Jew to] bring chametz in; he is receiving rent for [the use of] a dwelling. Even if the non-Jew would not bring chametz into [the room] during all the days of Pesach, he would not pay any less rent.

ט וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְהַשְׂכִּיר לוֹ חֶדֶר שֶׁיָּדוּר בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁיַּכְנִיס לְתוֹכוֹ חָמֵץ,נד מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ שְׂכַר הַכְנָסַת הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא שְׂכַר הַדִּירָה, שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא יַכְנִיס חָמֵץ לְתוֹכוֹ כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח לֹא יְנַכֶּה לוֹ כְּלוּם מִשְּׂכָרוֹ:נה

10 [A Jew] may not, by contrast, rent [a non-Jew] an oven to use for baking on Pesach. Even though the non-Jew does not explicitly say that he will use [the oven] to bake chametz, it can nevertheless be assumed that a non-Jew will bake chametz [in it]. Accordingly, it is as if [the non-Jew] explicitly said that he would bake chametz in [the oven], and it appears29 that [the Jew] is benefiting from entities from which it is forbidden to benefit.30

For this reason, at the time he rents [the oven] to [the non-Jew], the Jew must stipulate that the non-Jew not bake chametz in [the oven] on Pesach. Instead, [the non-Jew] may only cook his meals [that are not chametz] in [the oven] and bake matzah in [the oven]. Once [the Jewish owner] makes such a stipulation with [the non-Jew], even if the non-Jew bakes chametz in [the oven] on Pesach, [the Jewish owner] need not admonish him.31 [Furthermore, the Jew] is even permitted to accept the fee for the oven from [the non-Jew] during Pesach. [The Jewish owner] is not [considered to be] profiting from entities from which it is forbidden to benefit, since even if the non-Jew would not bake anything in the [oven], he would [still] be obligated to pay the Jew the entire fee [for the oven. The rationale is that the Jewish owner] rented [the oven] to him for a week whether he would bake many [baked goods] in it or whether he would not bake anything in it at all. If so, the Jew is not benefiting at all from [the fact that] the non-Jew baked chametz in [his oven]. Nevertheless, initially, [the Jewish owner] must stipulate with [the non-Jew not to bake chametz in the oven over Pesach] so that it will not appear that [the Jew] is profiting from an entity from which it is forbidden to benefit, since it is known that the non-Jew would not rent an oven unless he [could use it] to bake chametz.

י אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַשְׂכִּיר לוֹ תַּנּוּר לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח,נו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מְפָרֵשׁ לוֹ שֶׁיֹּאפֶה בּוֹ חָמֵץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם סְתָם אֲפִיַּת הַנָּכְרִי הוּא חָמֵץ, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְפָרֵשׁ לוֹ שֶׁיֹּאפֶה בּוֹ חָמֵץ, וְנִרְאֶה29 כְּמִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה.נז,30 לְפִיכָךְ, צָרִיךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְהַתְנוֹת עִם הַנָּכְרִי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּשְׂכִּיר לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאפֶה בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, אֶלָּא יְבַשֵּׁל בּוֹ תַּבְשִׁילוֹ וְיֹאפֶה בּוֹ מַצָּה, וּכְשֶׁמַּתְנֶה עִמּוֹ כָּךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אוֹפֶה בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדוֹ.נח,31 וּמֻתָּר לְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ שְׂכַר הַתַּנּוּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, וְאֵין זֶה מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף אִם לֹא הָיָה הַנָּכְרִי אוֹפֶה בּוֹ כְּלוּם הָיָה צָרִיךְ לִפְרֹעַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל שְׂכָרוֹ מִשָּׁלֵם, שֶׁהֲרֵי הִשְׂכִּירוֹ לוֹ לְשָׁבוּעַ, בֵּין יֹאפֶה בּוֹ הַרְבֵּה בֵּין לֹא יֹאפֶה בּוֹ כְּלוּם, אִם כֵּן אֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִשְׂתַּכֵּר כְּלוּם בְּמַה שֶּׁהַנָּכְרִי אוֹפֶה בּוֹ חָמֵץ. אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְהַתְנוֹת עִמּוֹ כָּךְ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּמִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה,נט כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי שׂוֹכֵר הַתַּנּוּר אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לֶאֱפוֹת בּוֹ חָמֵץ:ס

11 All [the restrictions mentioned above]32 apply when one rents to [the non-Jew] during Pesach or on the day preceding Pesach, even before the fifth hour.33 However, prior to the day preceding Pesach, it is permitted to rent [anything] – a donkey, an oven, or a room – to a non-Jew even though the non-Jew explicitly tells [the Jewish owner] that he is going to use them for chametz on Pesach, and it is for that reason that he is renting [the items] from [the Jew].34

[The reason for the leniency is that] since the non-Jew could use these entities for chametz for [at least] a day while [chametz] is permitted – i.e., from the time of the rental until the beginning of the sixth hour on the day preceding Pesach,35 if so, the fee that the Jew takes from [the non-Jew] is not obviously and apparently for [the use of the entity during] a forbidden time, namely, the week of Pesach. [It could be said that the non-Jew is paying to use the entity] during a permitted time, [i.e., during] the time when the non-Jew could use [the entity he is renting] for chametz, from the time that [the Jew] rented [the entity] to him until the sixth hour on the day preceding Pesach.36

יא וְכָל זֶה32 כְּשֶׁמַּשְׂכִּיר לוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית,33 אֲבָל קֹדֶם עֶרֶב פֶּסַח מֻתָּר לְהַשְׂכִּיר לְנָכְרִי בֵּין חֲמוֹר בֵּין תַּנּוּר בֵּין חֶדֶר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי מְפָרֵשׁ לוֹ שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח וְעַל מְנָת כֵּן הוּא שׂוֹכְרָם מִמֶּנּוּ,סא,34 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ יוֹם אֶחָד בָּהֶם חָמֵץ בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר,סב דְּהַיְנוּ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁמַּשְׂכִּירָם לוֹ עַד שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח,35 אִם כֵּן הַשָּׂכָר שֶׁנּוֹטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ נִכָּר וְנִרְאֶה שֶׁהוּא בְּעַד שְׁעַת אִסּוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּעַד שָׁבוּעַ שֶׁל פֶּסַח, אֶלָּא בְּעַד שְׁעַת הֶתֵּר, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּעַד מַה שֶּׁהַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁמַּשְׂכִּירָם לוֹ עַד שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח:36

12 In which instances does [the leniency mentioned above] apply? With regard to a donkey, a room, an oven, or the like, in which instance, the Jewish [owner] does not derive any benefit from the non-Jew’s use [of the entity] for chametz on Pesach. It is, however, forbidden to rent to a non-Jew a utensil in which [food] is cooked over a fire, for example, a pot or a kettle, or the like, – even several days before Pesach, if [the lender] knows that [the non-Jew] will cook chametz in [the utensil] on Pesach.37 [The prohibition applies] even though the non-Jew does not explicitly say that he will cook chametz in [the utensil. Indeed,] it is even forbidden to lend [the non-Jew one’s utensil for such a purpose] without charge.38

[The reason for the stringency is that] if [the non-Jew] would cook chametz [in the utensil] on Pesach, the Jew would derive benefit from the chametz in the following manner: Were the non-Jew to pour out the chametz cooking in the utensil and leave the empty utensil over the fire, the utensil would crack because of the fire’s [heat]. When, [by contrast,] the chametz is being cooked [and remains] in [the utensil] while [the utensil is] on the fire, the utensil will not crack. Thus, the Jew receives some [measure of] benefit from the chametz on Pesach.39

If, however, it is not known whether the non-Jew will cook chametz in [the utensil, the Jew] is permitted to rent it to [the non-Jew] even during Pesach. [This leniency applies] even to a utensil that was not koshered for Pesach and [which before Pesach] had absorbed much chametz from which it is forbidden to benefit. Nevertheless, [the fact that chametz is absorbed in the utensil does not cause] benefiting from the actual substance of the utensil to be forbidden. [The rationale is that] the non-Jew is not renting and paying for the chametz absorbed in the utensil, but rather for the substance of the utensil itself [– and] it is permitted to benefit from [the utensil itself].

יב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בַּחֲמוֹר וְחֶדֶר וְתַנּוּר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם הֲנָאָה מַגַּעַת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל מִמַּה שֶּׁהַנָּכְרִי יִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַשְׂכִּיר לְנָכְרִי כְּלִי שֶׁמְּבַשְּׁלִין בּוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר, כְּגוֹן קְדֵרָה וְיוֹרָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה יָמִים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁיְּבַשֵּׁל בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח,סג,37 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מְפָרֵשׁ לוֹ שֶׁיְּבַשֵּׁל בּוֹ חָמֵץ. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁאִיל לוֹ בְּחִנָּם אָסוּר,סד,38 לְפִי שֶׁאִם יְבַשֵּׁל בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח יַגִּיעַ לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הֲנָאָה מֵהֶחָמֵץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם הַנָּכְרִי הָיָה מְעָרֶה מִן הַכְּלִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּתוֹכוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר וְהָיָה הַכְּלִי נִשְׁאָר רֵיקָן עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר הָיָה הַכְּלִי מִתְבַּקֵּעַ מֵחֲמַת הָאוּר, וְעַכְשָׁו שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מִתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּתוֹכוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר אֵין הַכְּלִי מִתְבַּקֵּעַ, נִמְצָא שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל קְצָת הֲנָאָה מֵהֶחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח.סה,39

אֲבָל אִם אֵין יָדוּעַ לָנוּ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יְבַשֵּׁל בּוֹ חָמֵץ – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׂכִּיר לוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכְּלִי לֹא הֻכְשַׁר לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח, וַהֲרֵי הוּא בָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץ הַרְבֵּה שֶׁאָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם גּוּף הַכְּלִי לֹא נֶאֱסַר בַּהֲנָאָה, וְאֵין הַנָּכְרִי שׂוֹכֵר מִמֶּנּוּ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ דָּמִים בְּעַד הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי אֶלָּא בְּעַד גּוּף הַכְּלִי הַמֻּתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה:סו

13 For this reason, it is permitted on Pesach to heat water in a cooking utensil that absorbed chametz in order to use this water for bathing, laundry, or for cleansing one’s head. [As mentioned in the previous subsection, this is permitted, since] one is only deriving benefit from the utensil and not from the chametz it absorbed. True, [the chametz] will be released from the utensil into this hot water and [the water] will have [a trace of] the flavor of chametz. Nevertheless, since [the water] is not intended to be drunk, but rather to be used for bathing and for laundry, the person is not deriving any benefit at all from the flavor of the chametz released into it.

When does the above apply? When the utensil [in which the water is heated] is designated to be used exclusively for bathing and/or for laundry, and it is not commonly used for eating or drinking. By contrast, a utensil that is [even only] occasionally used for eating and drinking should be hidden away in a concealed place where the person does not usually go throughout the days of Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 551[:1. Such a utensil] should not even be used for bathing and/or for laundry, even [when bathing and laundering] only with cold water. [This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest one forget and use [the utensil] for eating and drinking.

When does the above [restriction] apply? When one desires to use [the utensil that absorbed chametz] in an ongoing manner during Pesach. It is, however, permitted to temporarily use [such a utensil] with cold water, even for the purpose of eating and drinking, provided it is not an earthenware utensil.40 [Similarly, it is permitted to temporarily use the utensil] with hot water for the purpose of bathing and laundry, even if it is an earthenware utensil,41 as explained in sec. 551[:2, 43, 72]. Consult that source for all the relevant particulars regarding this law.

יג וּמִטַּעַם זֶה מֻתָּר לְהָחֵם חַמִּין בְּפֶסַח בִּכְלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץ כְּדֵי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּחַמִּין אֵלּוּ לִרְחִיצָה וְלִכְבִיסָהסז וְלָחֹף בָּהֶן אֶת הָרֹאשׁ,סח שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה אֶלָּא מִן הַכְּלִי וְלֹא מִן חָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא נִפְלָט מִן הַכְּלִי לְתוֹךְ חַמִּין הַלָּלוּ וְיֵשׁ בָּהֶן טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹמֵד לִשְׁתִיָּה אֶלָּא לִרְחִיצָה וּכְבִיסָה הֲרֵי אֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלוּם מִן טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּפְלָט לְתוֹכָן.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּכְלִי הַמְיֻחָד לִרְחִיצָה וְלִכְבִיסָה שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ לַאֲכִילָה וְלִשְׁתִיָּה,סט אֲבָל כְּלִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ לִפְעָמִים לַאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה – צָרִיךְ לְהַצְנִיעוֹ בְּמָקוֹם צָנוּעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א,ע וְאֵין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹעא אֲפִלּוּ לִרְחִיצָה וּכְבִיסָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי צוֹנֵן, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ לַאֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּה.עב

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח בִּקְבִיעוּת, אֲבָל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ דֶּרֶךְ עֲרַאי בְּמִקְרֶה עַל יְדֵי צוֹנֵן – מֻתָּרעג אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה וּשְׁתִיָּהעד אִם אֵינוֹ כְּלִי חֶרֶס,עה,40 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי חַמִּין לְצֹרֶךְ רְחִיצָה וּכְבִיסָהעו אֲפִלּוּ הוּא כְּלִי חֶרֶס,41 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א,עז עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

14 [The following laws apply to a person] who maintains possession of large kettles owned by the ruler of the city, and the ruler has a standing rule that applies to all the inhabitants of the city that anyone who cooks in these kettles must give [the proprietor] a fixed measure of [the food that] is cooked [in them]. If the [agreement between the Jew who serves as the proprietor of the kettles and the ruler of the city] is such that if the kettles become dilapidated or damaged, the Jew who receives the fee [for their use] must fix them or fashion new ones, the utensils are considered as if they actually [belong to the Jewish proprietor. Hence,] he is forbidden to allow non-Jews to cook chametz in [these kettles] on Pesach for the reason explained above.42

If [the Jewish proprietor] does not have the power to prevent [the non-Jews from cooking chametz in the kettles], and they will cook chametz [in them] against his will, [the proprietor] is forbidden after Pesach to take the portions of the cooked chametz food that the non-Jews set aside [for him] as payment for [the use of] the kettles in which chametz was cooked on Pesach. Even if the person transgressed or forgot, and took these portions [after Pesach], he is forbidden to benefit from them. [The rationale is that] since it is the practice of [the people using the kettles] to give a portion of the food cooked [in them] as payment for [their] use, the Jewish [proprietor] acquired this portion during Pesach, at the time [the food] was cooked.43 Thus, [the portion] is considered chametz that existed in a Jew’s possession during Pesach. [Moreover,] it is even forbidden for [the Jewish proprietor] to accept money after Pesach as payment for [the use of] the kettles in which chametz was cooked on Pesach, so that he will not be profiting from substances from which it is forbidden to benefit. Nevertheless, if [the proprietor] transgressed and accepted [money for these portions], it is permitted for him to benefit from it, as explained above.44

What should such a Jewish [proprietor] do? When Pesach arrives, he should sell to a non-Jew, for all the days of Pesach, all the kettles and [the rights to] all the portions [of food to be given him, employing] one of the means of finalizing a transaction that are explained in Choshen Mishpat, Hilchos Mekach U’Memkar,45 stipulating with [the non-Jew] that after Pesach, [the non-Jew] should give him money or other objects [of value] in exchange [for the rights received]. When [the Jewish proprietor] makes such a stipulation with [the non-Jew], even if after Pesach the non-Jew gives [the Jewish proprietor] the portions of chametz that he received on Pesach as payment for [the use of] the kettles, [the Jewish proprietor] is permitted to accept them and partake of them, as explained above.46

יד מִי שֶׁמַּחֲזִיק יוֹרוֹת מִמּוֹשֵׁל הָעִיר וְיֵשׁ לוֹ חֹק קָבוּעַ מֵהַמּוֹשֵׁל עַל כָּל בְּנֵי הָעִיר שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁמְּבַשֵּׁל בְּיוֹרוֹת אֵלּוּ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן לוֹ מִדָּה אַחַת מִכָּל בִּשּׁוּל, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁכְּשֶׁמִּתְיַשְּׁנִים הַיּוֹרוֹת אוֹ שֶׁמִּתְקַלְקְלִין צָרִיךְ יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה הַנּוֹטֵל שְׂכָרָן לְתַקְּנָם אוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת חֲדָשִׁים – הֲרֵי יוֹרוֹת אֵלּוּ הֵן כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, וְאָסוּר לוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ לְהַנָּכְרִים שֶׁיְּבַשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַחעח מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.עט,42

וְאִם אֵין לוֹ כֹּחַ לִמְנֹעַ אוֹתָן וְהֵן מְבַשְּׁלִין חָמֵץ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ – עַל כָּל פָּנִים אָסוּר לוֹ לִטֹּל לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אֶת הַמִּדּוֹת שֶׁל בִּשּׁוּלֵי חָמֵץ שֶׁהִפְרִישׁוּ הַנָּכְרִים בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַיּוֹרוֹת שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם עָבַר אוֹ שָׁכַח וְנָטַל מִדּוֹת אֵלּוּ – אָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶן, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁדַּרְכָּן לְעוֹלָם לָתֵת מִדָּה מִן הַבִּשּׁוּל בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַיּוֹרוֹת – הֲרֵי זָכָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּמִדָּה זוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַבִּשּׁוּל בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,43 וְנַעֲשָׂה חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח. וַאֲפִלּוּ מָעוֹת אָסוּר לוֹ לְקַבֵּל לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַיּוֹרוֹת שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה.פ אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם עָבַר וְקִבְּלָם – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.פא,44

וְכֵיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה? כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח? יִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי עַל כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח אֶת כָּל הַיּוֹרוֹת עִם כָּל הַמִּדּוֹתפב בְּאֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיָּה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט הִלְכוֹת מִקָּח וּמִמְכָּר,45 וְיַתְנֶה עִמּוֹ שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח יִתֵּן לוֹ בְּעַד זֶה מָעוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָרֵי דְּבָרִים. וּכְשֶׁמַּתְנֶה עִמּוֹ כָּךְ, אַף אִם לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח נוֹתֵן לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הַמִּדּוֹת שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁקִּבֵּל בְּפֶסַח בִּשְׂכַר הַיּוֹרוֹת – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלָם וּלְאָכְלָם,פג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:פד,46

15 If, however, the Jewish [proprietor] is not required to fix the kettles if they become dilapidated or damaged, they are considered to be [entirely] the property of the [non-Jewish] ruler, and the Jewish [proprietor] is not adjured [to prevent] the non-Jews [from] cooking chametz in them on Pesach. [The rationale is that the Jewish proprietor] is not deriving any benefit from the chametz cooked in [the kettles], for even if the chametz would be removed from them and they would remain empty on the fire and break, the Jewish [proprietor] would not be required to fix them.

If [the Jewish proprietor] is familiar with the non-Jews who will cook chametz on Pesach, he should stipulate with them before Pesach that after Pesach they should give him money, other objects that are not chametz, or chametz that became leavened after Pesach as payment for [the use of] the kettles. [In this way, the non-Jews] will not owe the Jew any chametz as a debt.47 When [the Jewish proprietor] makes such a stipulation with [the non-Jews], even if after Pesach the non-Jews give him portions of the chametz food that they cooked on Pesach, it is permitted for him to accept them.48

[The Jewish proprietor] is not considered to be benefiting from substances from which it is forbidden to benefit, since the actual substance of the kettles belongs entirely to the [non-Jewish] ruler. The Jewish [proprietor] does not have any right to them, for he did not rent the actual physical substance of the kettles, only [the right to collect] the standard fee. The non-Jews who cook [in these kettles] are paying only the fee for the rental of the kettles in which they cooked the chametz. Since the kettles belong to the ruler, the ruler acquired [the food that is] the rental fee immediately when [the non-Jews] cooked in them. [The non-Jewish ruler] alone is [the one] profiting from an object from which it is forbidden to benefit. The Jewish [proprietor,] in turn, is acquiring [the fee the non-Jews paid] the ruler. [However, the Jew] is not profiting from an object from which it is forbidden to benefit at all, but rather [is receiving his fee from the ruler in return] for the money which he gave or will give to the ruler [to purchase the right to administer the use of these kettles].

טו אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מֻטָּל עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְתַקֵּן הַיּוֹרוֹת כְּשֶׁמִּתְקַלְקְלִין אוֹ כְּשֶׁמִּתְיַשְּׁנִין – הֲרֵי הֵן בִּרְשׁוּת הַמּוֹשֵׁל,פה וְאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מֻזְהָר שֶׁלֹּא יְבַשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶן נָכְרִים חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין לוֹ שׁוּם הֲנָאָה מִן הֶחָמֵץ הַמִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּתוֹכָן, שֶׁאַף אִם יִנָּטֵל הֶחָמֵץ מִתּוֹכָן וְיִשָּׁאֲרוּ רֵיקָנִין עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר וְיִתְבַּקְּעוּ לֹא יִצְטָרֵךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְתַקְּנָן.

וְאִם הוּא יוֹדֵעַ וּמַכִּיר אֶת הַנָּכְרִים שֶׁיְּבַשְּׁלוּ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח – יַתְנֶה עִמָּהֶם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח יִתְּנוּ לוֹ בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַיּוֹרוֹת מָעוֹת אוֹ שְׁאָרֵי דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָמֵץ, אוֹ חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, כְּדֵי שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח לֹא יִהְיֶה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שׁוּם חוֹב שֶׁל חָמֵץ.פו,47 וּכְשֶׁהִתְנָה עִמָּהֶם תְּנַאי זֶה, אַף אִם לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח נוֹתְנִים לוֹ הַנָּכְרִים הַמִּדּוֹת מִן הַבִּשּׁוּלִים שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בְּפֶסַח – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלָם.פז,48

וְאֵין זֶה מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה,פח כֵּיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הַיּוֹרוֹת הֵן שֶׁל הַמּוֹשֵׁל לְגַמְרֵי, וְאֵין לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שׁוּם זְכִיָּה בָּהֶן, שֶׁלֹּא שָׂכַר גּוּף הַיּוֹרוֹת אֶלָּא חֹק הַמַּגִּיעַ בִּלְבַד,פט וְהַנָּכְרִים הַמְבַשְּׁלִים אֵינָן נוֹתְנִין מַה שֶּׁנּוֹתְנִין אֶלָּא בְּעַד שְׂכַר הַיּוֹרוֹת שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶן אֶת הֶחָמֵץ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהַיּוֹרוֹת הֵן שֶׁל הַמּוֹשֵׁל נִמְצָא שֶׁהַמּוֹשֵׁל זָכָה בִּשְׂכָרָן מִיָּד שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהֶן, וְהוּא הַמִּשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה, וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל חוֹזֵר וְזוֹכֶה מִן הַמּוֹשֵׁל, וְאֵינוֹ מִשְׂתַּכֵּר כְּלָל בְּעַד אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה, אֶלָּא בְּעַד הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁנָּתַן אוֹ שֶׁיִּתֵּן לְהַמּוֹשֵׁל:

16 After the fact, however, if [the Jewish proprietor] transgressed or forgot, and did not make such a stipulation with [the non-Jews] before Pesach, and after Pesach the non-Jews gave him portions of the chametz that they cooked on Pesach, it is permitted for him to accept them.49 Similarly, if [the Jewish proprietor] does not know which non-Jew will cook chametz [in these kettles] on Pesach so that he can make this stipulation with [the non-Jew] before Pesach, [the situation] is considered as after the fact.50

Nevertheless, if possible, before Pesach, it is desirable for [the Jewish proprietor] to sell to a non-Jew all the portions [of food] that the [non-Jews] who cook [in the kettles] on Pesach will set aside, [following the guidelines] described above.51 Alternatively, he should direct all the non-Jews working in [the cooking establishment] where the kettles are found and [who are] charged with separating the portions of the cooked foods, not to separate anything from chametz cooked on Pesach. Instead, they should write down the names of the people who cooked [chametz on Pesach] and collect the portions from them after Pesach. [Collecting these portions after Pesach is permitted, because] as long as [the portions of food] were not separated, the Jewish [proprietor] did not acquire them. [The rationale is that] the Jewish [proprietor] only purchased from the ruler the portions that [the non-Jews] will separate from the food cooked in the kettles of the ruler.52

טז אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁעָבַר אוֹ שָׁכַח וְלֹא הִתְנָה עִמָּהֶם תְּנַאי זֶה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וּלְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח נוֹתְנִין לוֹ הַנָּכְרִים הַמִּדּוֹת מִן הַבִּשּׁוּלִים שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בְּפֶסַח – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְקַבְּלָם.צ,49 וְכֵן אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אֵיזֶה נָכְרִי יְבַשֵּׁל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח שֶׁיַּתְנֶה עִמּוֹ תְּנַאי זֶה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּדִיעֲבַד.צא,50

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶפְשָׁר, טוֹב לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח כָּל הַמִּדּוֹת שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁוּ הַמְבַשְּׁלִים בְּפֶסַח עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,51 אוֹ יְצַוֶּה לַנָּכְרִים הַמְשָׁרְתִים בְּבֵית הַיּוֹרוֹת וּמְמֻנִּים לְהַפְרִישׁ הַמִּדּוֹת מִן הַבִּשּׁוּלִים שֶׁלֹּא יַפְרִישׁוּ כְּלוּם מִבִּשּׁוּל חָמֵץ שֶׁיְּבַשְּׁלוּ בְּפֶסַח, אֶלָּא יִכְתְּבוּ שֵׁם הַמְבַשְּׁלִים וְיִגְבּוּ מֵהֶן הַמִּדּוֹת לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִפְרִישׁוּ הַמִּדּוֹת לֹא זָכָה בָּהֶן הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא קָנָה מֵהַמּוֹשֵׁל אֶלָּא הַמִּדּוֹת שֶׁיַּפְרִישׁוּ מִן הַבִּשּׁוּלִים שֶׁיְּבַשְּׁלוּ בַּיּוֹרוֹת שֶׁל הַמּוֹשֵׁל:צב,52

17 [Similar concepts apply with regard to a Jew] who serves as the proprietor of [the city’s] mills53 on behalf of the ruler of the city, when there is a fixed rule incumbent on all the inhabitants of the city that anyone who grinds grain in these mills must give [the proprietor] a designated allotment of the flour ground [there]. The laws that apply on Pesach with regard to grinding ground grain that has fermented, which is called malt,54 are the same as the laws pertaining to one who serves as the proprietor of kettles with regard to chametz cooked [in them], as explained [in the previous subsections].

יז מִי שֶׁמַּחֲזִיק רֵחַיִם53 מִמּוֹשֵׁל הָעִיר וְיֵשׁ לוֹ חֹק קָבוּעַ מֵהַמּוֹשֵׁל עַל כָּל בְּנֵי הָעִיר שֶׁכָּל מִי שֶׁיִּטְחֹן תְּבוּאָה בְּרֵחַיִם אֵלּוּ יִתֵּן לוֹ מִדָּה אַחַת קֶמַח מִקֶּמַח הַנִּטְחָן – דִּינוֹ בְּפֶסַח לְעִנְיַן טְחִינַת תְּבוּאָה מְחֻמֶּצֶת שֶׁקּוֹרִין (מאל"ץ)54 כְּדִין מִי שֶׁמַּחֲזִיק יוֹרוֹת לְעִנְיַן בִּשּׁוּלֵי חָמֵץ,צג וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:

18 [A Jew] is forbidden to give his animal to a non-Jew to feed during Pesach55 if he knows that the non-Jew will feed it barley dregs that are chametz.56 [The rationale is that having his] animal eat is of benefit to a person because as a result [the animal] progressively improves and its value increases. True, [the animal] would also have progressively improved [and its value would have increased] if it had eaten other foods that were not chametz. Nevertheless, since [the animal’s] improvement and increase in value came about because of chametz on Pesach, it is forbidden, even though the chametz belonged to a non-Jew.57

([After the fact, however, even] if a Jew transgressed and fed his animal chametz himself on Pesach, it is permitted to slaughter [the animal] and partake of it on Pesach. It is not necessary to cast the financial value of the benefit [the person] derived from the chametz58 to oblivion. See Yoreh Deah, sec. 60 and sec. 142.59 Consult those sources for the rationale.)60

Nevertheless, if [the Jewish owner of the animal] does not know with certainty that [the non-Jew] will feed his animal chametz, he is permitted to give [his animal] to [the non-Jew to feed]. There is no concern that perhaps he will feed it chametz.61

יח אָסוּר לִתֵּן בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לְנָכְרִי לְהַאֲכִילָהּ בִּימֵי הַפֶּסַח55 אִם יָדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יַאֲכִילֶנָּה פְּסֹלֶת שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים שֶׁהוּא חָמֵץ,צד,56 לְפִי שֶׁאֲכִילַת הַבְּהֵמָה הִיא הֲנָאַת הָאָדָם, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵן הִיא מִתְעַלָּה וּמַשְׁבַּחַת וּמִתְוַסֶּפֶת בְּדָמִים.צה וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם הָיְתָה אוֹכֶלֶת דְּבָרִים אֲחֵרִים שֶׁאֵינָן חָמֵץ הָיְתָה גַּם כֵּן מִתְעַלָּה וּמַשְׁבַּחַת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַכְשָׁו שֶׁשֶּׁבַח וְעִלּוּי זֶה בָּא לָהּ עַל יְדֵי חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר,צו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁל נָכְרִי.צז,57

(וְעַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ס'צח וְסִימָן קמ"בצט,59 שֶׁאִם עָבַר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְהֶאֱכִילָהּ בְּעַצְמוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְשָׁחֲטָהּ וּלְאָכְלָהּ בְּפֶסַח, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַשְׁלִיךְ דְּמֵי הֲנָאַת הֶחָמֵץ58 לְאִבּוּד,ק עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַםקא,60).

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין יָדוּעַ לוֹ בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁיַּאֲכִילֶנָּה חָמֵץ – מֻתָּר לִתְּנָהּ לוֹ, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יַאֲכִילֶנָּה חָמֵץ:קב,61

19 One may, however, tell his non-Jewish servant on Pesach,62 “Here is this dinar;63buy [food] and eat,” even though he knows that the servant will buy chametz and eat it. [The rationale is that] a servant’s partaking [of food] is not considered [as] a benefit to his master [to the same degree] as his animal eating,64 for the reason explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 221.65

יט אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר בְּפֶסַח לְעַבְדּוֹ נָכְרִי:קג,62 "הֵילָךְ דִּינָר63 זֶה וּקְנֵה וֶאֱכֹל", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהָעֶבֶד יֵלֵךְ וְיִקְנֶה חָמֵץ וְיֹאכַל,קד לְפִי שֶׁאֲכִילַת הָעֶבֶד אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה הֲנָאָה לְרַבּוֹקה כְּמוֹ אֲכִילַת הַבְּהֵמָה,קו,64 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רכ"א:קז,65

20 However, a person should not tell a non-Jew – whether or not [the non-Jew] is his servant66 – “Here is this dinar; buy chametz from a storekeeper and eat.”67 Since the Jew himself is forbidden to purchase chametz on Pesach, he is forbidden to tell a non-Jew to purchase it. Even though the non-Jew is purchasing [the chametz] for himself and not for the Jew, nevertheless, since the Jew is giving the non-Jew a dinar and telling him to buy chametz, and the non-Jew does so [in response to] the Jew’s words, he appears to be [the Jew’s] agent, for the reason explained in sec. 307[:35. The Jew] may, however tell [the non-Jew]: “Buy chametz with your own dinar and eat.”

כ אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר אָדָם בְּפֶסַח לְנָכְרִי, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא עַבְדּוֹ66 בֵּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ עַבְדּוֹ: "הֵילָךְ דִּינָר זֶה וּקְנֵה לְךָ חָמֵץ מִן הַחֶנְוָנִי וֶאֱכֹל",קח,67 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּעַצְמוֹ אָסוּר לוֹ לִקְנוֹת חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח – אָסוּר לוֹ לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לִקְנוֹתוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי קוֹנֶה אוֹתוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נוֹתֵן דִּינָר לְהַנָּכְרִי וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ שֶׁיִּקְנֶה בּוֹ חָמֵץ וְהַנָּכְרִי קוֹנֶה אוֹתוֹ בְּדִבּוּרוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵלקט – הֲרֵי זֶה נִרְאֶה כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ,קי מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ז.קיא אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ: "קְנֵה לְךָ חָמֵץ בְּדִינָר שֶׁלְּךָ וֶאֱכֹל":קיב

21 Similarly, it is permitted on Pesach [for a Jew] to tell a non-Jew – even one who is his servant whom he is obligated to provide with meals – “Go and purchase chametz on my account from the storekeeper.68 Eat it and I will pay him.”69 [The Jewish employer] is permitted to pay the storekeeper even while the chametz still exists, before the servant eats it. The Jew does not acquire the chametz by paying for it, since the chametz is not in [his] possession at this time, but rather is in the servant’s possession.

(Even though the servant places the chametz in the Jew’s domain, nevertheless, [the Jew does not acquire the chametz by virtue of its presence in his domain since] a person’s domain does not acquire an object for him that he does not desire to acquire, for example, chametz on Pesach, as explained in sec. 448[:3].)

Moreover, at the time the servant drew the chametz [out of the domain of] the storekeeper,70 he intended through drawing it out solely to acquire it for himself, not for the Jewish [employer]. Similarly, the storekeeper intended to transfer ownership of the chametz to the non-Jew through [the servant’s] drawing it out; [the storekeeper did] not [intend that] the Jew [acquire this chametz]. He merely [intended] to seek payment from the Jew for [what the Jew’s] servant [took]. Thus, the servant is eating chametz that belonged to the storekeeper, not chametz that belongs to the Jew.

כא וְכֵן מֻתָּר לוֹמַר בְּפֶסַח לְנָכְרִי,קיג אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עַבְדּוֹ שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלָיו:קיד "לֵךְ וְקַח עָלַי חָמֵץקטו מִן הַחֶנְוָנִי68 וֶאֱכֹל וַאֲנִי אֶפְרַע לוֹ".69 וּמֻתָּר לוֹ לִפְרֹעַ לַחֶנְוָנִי אֲפִלּוּ בְּעוֹד שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ בָּעוֹלָם שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא אֲכָלוֹ הָעֶבֶד,קטז וְאֵין הֶחָמֵץ נִקְנֶה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּפֵרָעוֹן זֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה זוֹ אֵין הֶחָמֵץ בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא בְּיַד הָעֶבֶד.קיז

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָעֶבֶד הִנִּיחַ הֶחָמֵץ בַּחֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין חֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קוֹנָה לוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין נוֹחַ לוֹ, כְּגוֹן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"חקיח).

וְגַם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ הָעֶבֶד אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מִן הַחֶנְוָנִי70 לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן בִּמְשִׁיכָתוֹ אֶלָּא לִזְכּוֹת בּוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ וְלֹא בִּשְׁבִיל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל. וְגַם הַחֶנְוָנִי נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהַקְנוֹת הֶחָמֵץ לְהָעֶבֶד בִּמְשִׁיכָתוֹ וְלֹא לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, רַק שֶׁיַּחֲזֹר עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּפְרַע לוֹ בְּעַד עַבְדּוֹ,קיט נִמְצָא שֶׁחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל חֶנְוָנִי הוּא שֶׁאוֹכֵל הָעֶבֶדקכ וְלֹא חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רַבּוֹ:

22 However, it is forbidden for a Jew to give a dinar to a non-Jewish storekeeper in advance and tell him to give food to his servant on Pesach, [promising] to make a reckoning with him after Pesach, for perhaps [the storekeeper] will give [the servant] chametz. [The rationale is that[ since the Jew already gave a dinar to the storekeeper for [the non-Jew’s food], this chametz belongs to the Jew.

([This ruling applies] even according to those authorities who maintain that a Jew does not acquire movable property from a non-Jew merely by paying money.71 Nevertheless, [in this instance,] since the storekeeper already received the dinar from the Jew,72 his intent is to transfer possession of food equal to [the value of] the dinar to the Jew. Thus, afterwards when the storekeeper gives chametz to the [non-Jewish] servant, it is not that he is selling his [chametz] to the non-Jew. Instead, [the storekeeper] is, [as it were,] giving the Jew’s chametz to [the Jew’s non-Jewish servant], and [the storekeeper] is [merely] acting as the agent of the Jew who instructed him to give food to [the Jew’s] servant.)

כב אֲבָל אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַקְדִּים דִּינָר לְחֶנְוָנִי נָכְרִי וְלוֹמַר לוֹ שֶׁיִּתֵּן מְזוֹנוֹת לְעַבְדּוֹ בְּפֶסַחקכא וְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח יַעֲשֶׂה עִמּוֹ חֶשְׁבּוֹן,קכב שֶׁמָּא יִתֵּן לוֹ חָמֵץ,קכג וְחָמֵץ זֶה הוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,קכד כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נָתַן עָלָיו דִּינָר לְהַחֶנְוָנִי.

(וַאֲפִלּוּ לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםקכה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה מִטַּלְטְלִין מִנָּכְרִי בְּכֶסֶף בִּלְבַד,71 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַחֶנְוָנִי כְּבָר קִבֵּל הַדִּינָר מִן הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל72 הֲרֵי דַּעְתּוֹ לְהַקְנוֹת לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְזוֹנוֹת כְּנֶגֶד דִּינָרוֹ, וּכְשֶׁהַחֶנְוָנִי נוֹתֵן אַחַר כָּךְ חָמֵץ לְהָעֶבֶד אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן לוֹ בְּתוֹרַת מְכִירַת חָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ אֶלָּא בְּתוֹרַת נְתִינַת חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְהוּא עוֹשֶׂה שְׁלִיחוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁצִּוָּה לוֹ לִתֵּן מְזוֹנוֹת לְעַבְדּוֹ):

23 If, however, [the Jew] does not give [the non-Jewish storekeeper] a dinar in advance, he is permitted to tell [the storekeeper]: “Give chametz to my servant and I will pay you.”73 [The rationale is that] as long as the Jew did not pay [the storekeeper] before he gave chametz to [the Jew’s] servant, [the storekeeper] is giving [the chametz] to [the servant] as a sale, selling his chametz74 [to the servant], and the Jew is paying [the storekeeper] on behalf of [the servant].

(See Yoreh Deah, sec. 132,75 [which states] that if [a Jewish employer] is obligated to give his [non-Jewish] servant food that is chametz, and he cannot absolve himself from [that obligation] by giving [the non-Jewish servant] food that is not chametz against [the servant’s] will, he is forbidden to tell a non-Jewish storekeeper, “Free me [from my obligation to provide] food to my servant. Give him chametz on Pesach and I will pay you after Pesach.”)76

All [the leniencies mentioned above] apply according to the letter of the law. Nevertheless, there are authorities who maintain that because of the severity of [the prohibition against] chametz,77 one should be stringent and not tell a non-Jew on Pesach, “Purchase chametz from a storekeeper and I will pay him.” Needless to say, one should not tell the storekeeper, “Give chametz to this non-Jew and I will pay you.” It is desirable to give weight to their words.78

כג אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מַקְדִּים לוֹ דִּינָר – מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ: "תֵּן חָמֵץ לְעַבְדִּי וַאֲנִי אֶפְרַע לְךָ",קכו,73 שֶׁכָּל שֶׁלֹּא פָּרַע לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם שֶׁנּוֹתֵן הֶחָמֵץ לְעַבְדּוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא נוֹתְנוֹ לוֹ בְּתוֹרַת מְכִירַת חָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ74 וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יִפְרַע לוֹ בַּעֲדוֹ.

(וְעַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קל"בקכז,75 שֶׁאִם הוּא חַיָּב לִתֵּן לְעַבְדּוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת שֶׁל חָמֵץ וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְטֹר אֶת עַצְמוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ מְזוֹנוֹת אֲחֵרִים שֶׁאֵינָן חָמֵץ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ שֶׁל הָעֶבֶד – אָסוּר לוֹ לוֹמַר לְחֶנְוָנִי נָכְרִי: "פָּטְרֵנִי מִמְּזוֹנוֹת עַבְדִּי וְתֵן לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח וַאֲנִי אֶפְרַע לְךָ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח").76

וְכָל זֶה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקכח שֶׁמֵּחֲמַת חֻמְרוֹת חָמֵץ77 יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִירקכט שֶׁלֹּא לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי בְּפֶסַח: "קְנֵה לְךָ חָמֵץ מִן הַחֶנְוָנִי וַאֲנִי אֶפְרַע ל[וֹ]". וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לַחֶנְוָנִי: "תֵּן חָמֵץ לְנָכְרִי זֶה וַאֲנִי אֶפְרַע לְךָ". וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם:78

24 Therefore,79 if someone has a child who is slightly ill80 and must [therefore] eat or drink chametz, he should be careful not to tell the non-Jew, “Give chametz to this child and I will pay you.” Instead, [the parent] should ask [the non-Jew] to give the chametz to the child as a present. If, however, [the parent] cannot easily81 find anyone who will give [the chametz] to the child as a present, one may rely on the first opinion.82 It is permitted to repay [the non-Jew] after he gives the child the chametz or after he leaves the chametz in the home of the Jew. [The rationale for the leniency is that] the chametz left the domain of the non-Jew before [the Jew] paid for it and it had yet to enter the domain of the Jew. Although [physically, the non-Jew] left [the chametz] in [the Jew’s] home, a person’s domain does not acquire property for him against his will [and the Jew has no desire to acquire the chametz].83 Moreover, the non-Jewish [owner of the chametz] did not sell [the parent] the chametz; [he sold it] to the child.84

It is, however, forbidden [for the Jew] to accept the chametz from the non-Jew85 even before [the Jew] paid him, unless the child already acquired [the chametz] by lifting it up.86 For as long as the child does not acquire [the chametz] – even if the non-Jew left it in the Jew’s house – if [the non-Jew] picks it up again, it still remains his, as it was before. [Consequently,] when the Jew takes [the chametz] from [the non-Jew], this resembles acquiring chametz on Pesach.

כד לְפִיכָךְ,79 מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תִּינוֹק חוֹלֶה קְצָת80 שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת חָמֵץ – יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי: "תֵּן חָמֵץ לְתִינוֹק זֶה וַאֲנִי אֶפְרַע לְךָ", אֶלָּא יְבַקֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ שֶׁיִּתֵּן הֶחָמֵץ בְּמַתָּנָה לְהַתִּינוֹק.קל וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא בְּקַל81 מִי שֶׁיִּתֵּן בְּמַתָּנָה – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קלא,82 וּמֻתָּר לִפְרֹעַ לוֹקלב אַחַר שֶׁנָּתַן הֶחָמֵץ לְיַד הַתִּינוֹק, אוֹ אַחַר שֶׁהִנִּיחַ חָמֵץ בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכְּבָר יָצָא הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֵּרָעוֹן וְלִרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עֲדַיִן לֹא בָּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ, שֶׁאֵין חֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קוֹנָה לוֹ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ,קלג,83 וְגַם הַנָּכְרִי לֹא מָכַר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לוֹ אֶלָּא לְהַתִּינוֹק.84

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְקַבֵּל הֶחָמֵץ בַּיָּד מִן הַנָּכְרִיקלד,85 אֲפִלּוּ קֹדֶם הַפֵּרָעוֹן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן זָכָה בּוֹ כְּבָר הַתִּינוֹק בְּהַגְבָּהָה,קלה,86 שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא זָכָה בּוֹ הַתִּינוֹק, אֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְחָזַר וּנְטָלוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ כְּשֶׁהָיָה, וּכְשֶׁנּוֹטְלוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִיָּדוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּקוֹנֶה חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח:

25 Even after the child acquired the chametz, it is forbidden for an adult Jew to feed him the chametz or give it to him to drink. [This is] a decree, [instituted as a safeguard] lest the adult forget the prohibition against chametz and partake of it. [There are grounds for this decree,] for even touching chametz is forbidden because of such a decree, as stated in sec. 446[:7].87 Instead, [the parent] should tell a non-Jew88 or even a Jewish child to feed the chametz to the child [who is ill] or give it to him to drink.

[In this instance, the child’s father or guardian] is, however, permitted to allow chametz to remain in [his] house even though there is reason for concern that one will forget and partake of it. Nevertheless, [leniency is granted] since the child is sick, it is impossible to remove [the child] from the house,89 and it can be assumed that it is impossible to find a non-Jew who will bring a small amount of chametz every time the child will desire to eat or drink. Therefore, [the Sages] permitted [the child’s father or guardian] to have chametz remain in his house during Pesach. Nevertheless, if it is possible, it is desirable [for the father or guardian] to erect a partition ten handbreadths high in front of the chametz, or to cover it with a utensil if it is Shabbos or a festival.90

All the above applies when it is impossible to find a non-Jew who will bring a small amount of chametz every time the child will desire to eat or drink. Similarly, if it is impossible to have a non-Jew or a [Jewish] minor feed [the chametz to the child] or give it to him to drink, it is permitted to have an adult Jew feed [the chametz] to [the child] or give it to him to drink.91 If, however, it is possible [to find] a non-Jew who will bring a small amount of chametz every time the child will desire to eat or drink, a large amount [of chametz] should not be brought to [the Jew’s] home at one time. If, however, the child is not so sick that it is impossible to take him out of his own home, he should be taken from his home [and brought] to the house of the non-Jew [to enable the non-Jew] to feed [the chametz to the child] or give it to him to drink there, and thus not bring chametz into [the Jew’s] home at all.

כה וַאֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁזָּכָה הַתִּינוֹק בֶּחָמֵץ – אָסוּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל גָּדוֹל לְהַאֲכִילוֹ וּלְהַשְׁקוֹתוֹ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח הַגָּדוֹל עַל אִסּוּר חָמֵץ וְיִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲפִלּוּ לִגַּע בְּחָמֵץ אָסוּר מֵחֲמַת גְּזֵרָה זוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ו,קלו,87 אֶלָּא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי אוֹ לְקָטָן אֲפִלּוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל88 שֶׁיַּאֲכִיל וְיַשְׁקֶה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לְהַתִּינוֹק.קלז

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹת חָמֵץ זֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַבַּיִת. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכְּחוּ וְיִסְתַּפְּקוּ מִמֶּנּוּ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַתִּינוֹק הוּא חוֹלֶה וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הַבַּיִת,קלח,89 וְגַם מִן הַסְּתָם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא נָכְרִי שֶׁיָּבִיא מְעַט חָמֵץ בְּכָל פַּעַם וּפַעַם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הַתִּינוֹק לֶאֱכֹל אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת, לְפִיכָךְ הִתִּירוּ לוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹת חָמֵץ בְּבֵיתוֹ בְּפֶסַח. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶפְשָׁר טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת בִּפְנֵי הֶחָמֵץ מְחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים,קלט אוֹ לִכְפּוֹת עָלָיו כְּלִי אִם הוּא שַׁבָּת אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב.קמ,90

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא נָכְרִי שֶׁיָּבִיא מְעַט מְעַט בְּכָל פַּעַם וּפַעַם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה הַתִּינוֹק לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת. וְכֵן אִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ וּלְהַשְׁקוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אוֹ קָטָן – מֻתָּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ וּלְהַשְׁקוֹתוֹ עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל גָּדוֹל.קמא,91 אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְהָבִיא לוֹ חָמֵץ עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי מְעַט מְעַט בְּכָל פַּעַם וּפַעַם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת – אֵין לְהָבִיא הַרְבֵּה בְּבַת אַחַת.

וְאִם אֵין הַתִּינוֹק חוֹלֶה כָּל כָּךְ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִן הַבַּיִת – יוֹצִיאֶנּוּ מִבֵּיתוֹ לְבֵית הַנָּכְרִי וְשָׁם יַאֲכִילוּהוּ וְיַשְׁקוּהוּ חָמֵץ, וְאַל יַכְנִיס חָמֵץ לְבֵיתוֹ כְּלָל:קמב

26 All the above [restrictions] apply regarding a [child] whose illness does not present a threat [to life].92 If, however, [the child’s] illness presents a threat to life, there is no need to be careful about the above. It is even permitted to purchase chametz from the market place in order to provide [the child] with food as quickly [as possible] if he must eat chametz. There is no concern regarding the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in one’s domain] and possessing [chametz] that a person who purchases chametz would [otherwise] violate, for there is no prohibition that supersedes a threat to [a Jew’s] life,93 as explained in sec. 328[:2] and Yoreh Deah, sec. 155.94 Consult those sources.

כו וְכָל זֶה בְּחוֹלֶה שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ סַכָּנָה,92 אֲבָל בְּחוֹלֶה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ סַכָּנָה – אֵין לְדַקְדֵּק בְּכָל זֶה.קמג וַאֲפִלּוּ לִקְנוֹת חָמֵץ מִן הַשּׁוּק מֻתָּר כְּדֵי לְמַהֵר בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ אִם הוּא צָרִיךְ לַאֲכִילַת חָמֵץ, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין לְלָאו שֶׁל "בַּל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" שֶׁהַקּוֹנֶה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו,קמד שֶׁאֵין לְךָ דָּבָר שֶׁעוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי פִּקּוּחַ נֶפֶשׁ,93 וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שכ"חקמה וּבְיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קנ"ה94 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

27 It is forbidden to act as an agent for a non-Jew to purchase chametz for him on Pesach even when using the non-Jew’s money. [This prohibition applies] even when [the Jew] does not draw the chametz out of the seller’s domain;95 rather, he only pays [the seller] the money on Pesach. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that a Jew acquires movable property from a non-Jew merely by paying money.96 Thus, [according to these authorities] the chametz is acquired by the Jew on Pesach, and [hence] he violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].

Even though [the Jew] explicitly tells the seller that he is not purchasing the chametz for himself but for the non-Jew who charged him [with purchasing it], nevertheless, the chametz is acquired by the Jew who actually gave the money to the seller. It is not said that since the money belonged to the non-Jew and the Jew paid it as his agent, it is as if the non-Jew paid [the money. The rationale is that the principle, “The actions performed by] a person’s agent are considered as if he [performed them himself],”97 applies only when a Jew acts as an agent for his fellow Jew, as explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 188.98

כז אָסוּר לִהְיוֹת שָׁלִיחַ לְנָכְרִי לִקְנוֹת לוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ בְּמָעוֹתָיו שֶׁל נָכְרִי,קמו וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מוֹשֵׁךְ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַמּוֹכֵר95 אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ דָּמִים בִּלְבַד בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקמז שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל קוֹנֶה מִטַּלְטְלִין מִנָּכְרִי בְּכֶסֶף בִּלְבַד,96 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ נִקְנֶה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּפֶסַח, וְעוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא". וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְפָרֵשׁ לְהַמּוֹכֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לְעַצְמוֹ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁשְּׁלָחוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן נִקְנֶה הֶחָמֵץ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּתַן הַמָּעוֹת מִיָּדוֹ לְיַד הַמּוֹכֵר. וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמָּעוֹת הֵן שֶׁל נָכְרִי וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נְתָנָם בִּשְׁלִיחוּתוֹ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ נְתָנָם הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַצְמוֹ, שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים "שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ"97 אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרוֹ,קמח,97 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן קפ"ח:קמט,98