SECTION 449 The Laws Pertaining to Chametz Found in a Store Belonging to a Jew when the Workers are Non-Jewish or the Converse (1-3)

סימן תמט דִּין חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בַּחֲנוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהַפּוֹעֲלִים נָכְרִים אוֹ בְּהֵפֶךְ וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 When a store and its inventory (i.e., its merchandise, for example, the bread or wine that is sold there) belong to a Jew and the employees who work in the sale of the inventory are non-Jews, it is forbidden to even benefit from the chametz that is found in this store after Pesach.1 [The presumption is that the chametz] certainly came from the inventory that belongs to the Jew. We do not make an assumption that [would] lead to a lenient [ruling,] and say that [the chametz] fell there from the non-Jewish workers. [The rationale is that] the inventory is continually in the store at all times. The workers, by contrast, are not continually there at all times. Instead, they come and go.

א חֲנוּת וּמְלַאיא (פֵּרוּשׁ: סְחוֹרָה,ב כְּגוֹן פַּת וְיַיִן הַנִּמְכָּר בְּתוֹכָהּג) שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפוֹעֲלִים הַמִּשְׁתַּדְּלִים בָּהּד בִּמְכִירַת הַמְלַאי הֵן נָכְרִים – חָמֵץ הַנִּמְצָא בַּחֲנוּת זוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה,1 שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הוּא מִן הַמְּלַאיה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְאֵין תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל לוֹמַר שֶׁמִּן נָכְרִים הַפּוֹעֲלִים נָפַל שָׁמָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמְּלַאי קָבוּעַ בַּחֲנוּת תָּמִיד, וְהַפּוֹעֲלִים אֵינָן קְבוּעִים תָּמִיד אֶלָּא נִכְנָסִין וְיוֹצְאִין:ו

2 [Conversely,] if the store and the inventory belong to a non-Jew and the workers are Jewish, the chametz discovered there after Pesach is permitted even to be eaten,2 for it certainly came from the inventory that belongs to the non-Jew.

ב חֲנוּת וּמְלַאי שֶׁל נָכְרִי וְהַפּוֹעֲלִים הֵם יִשְׂרָאֵל – חָמֵץ הַנִּמְצָא שָׁם לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,2 שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הוּא מִן הַמְּלַאי שֶׁל נָכְרִי:ז

3 All the above applies when there is chametz in the inventory sold in the store, for then it can be assumed that the chametz found [after Pesach] came from the [store’s] inventory. If, however, [the situation] is such that it is impossible to assume that the chametz came from the inventory, [the decision whether to permit the chametz after Pesach] depends entirely on [the identity of] the workers. If they are Jewish, even if the store and its inventory belong to a non-Jew, it is forbidden even to benefit from the chametz, because it certainly fell there from the workers. True, when the workers left the store before Pesach, they certainly despaired [of recovering] any chametz that had fallen from them in the store belonging to the non-Jew, for [they assumed that] the non-Jew would find it and partake of it.3 If so, that chametz was entirely ownerless during all the days of Pesach,4 and the workers did not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in their domain] and possessing [chametz]. Nevertheless, it was already explained in sec. 448[:29], that after Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from chametz that had belonged to a Jew, even when he had declared it ownerless before Pesach.

If the workers are not Jewish, even if the store and its inventory belong to a Jew, the chametz is permitted even to be eaten. True, when the workers left the store before Pesach, they certainly despaired [of recovering] any chametz that had fallen from them. [If so,] that chametz was entirely ownerless, and any ownerless object that is present in the domain of a Jew is acquired for [the Jewish owner] by [virtue of its presence in] his domain. Thus, [ordinarily,] the ownerless object would be acquired by [the Jewish owner] and would actually become his property.5 Even so, [this is not the case in this instance, for] the chametz that was in the Jew’s store during all the days of Pesach is not acquired by him, for the reason explained in sec. 448[:3]. Consult that source.6

ג וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ חָמֵץ בַּמְּלַאי הַנִּמְכָּר בְּתוֹךְ הַחֲנוּת, שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִתְלוֹת שֶׁחָמֵץ זֶה הַנִּמְצָא הוּא מִן הַמְּלַאי, אֲבָל אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִתְלוֹת שֶׁחָמֵץ זֶה הוּא מִן הַמְּלַאי – הֲרֵי הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אַחַר הַפּוֹעֲלִים: אִם הֵן יִשְׂרָאֵל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֲנוּת וּמְלַאי שֶׁל נָכְרִי – הֲרֵי הֶחָמֵץ אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי מִן הַפּוֹעֲלִים נָפַל שָׁמָּה.ח וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁיָּצְאוּ הַפּוֹעֲלִים מִן הַחֲנוּת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּוַדַּאי כְּבָר נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ מִן הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנָּפַל מֵהֶם בְּתוֹךְ הַחֲנוּת שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי יִמְצָאֵהוּ וְיֹאכְלֵהוּ,ט,3 וְאִם כֵּן הָיָה חָמֵץ זֶה כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הֶפְקֵר גָּמוּר4 וְלֹא עָבְרוּ עָלָיו הַפּוֹעֲלִים בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי כְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"חי שֶׁאַף חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהִפְקִירוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.

וְאִם הַפּוֹעֲלִים הֵן נָכְרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֲנוּת וּמְלַאי שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל – הֲרֵי הֶחָמֵץ מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁיָּצְאוּ הַפּוֹעֲלִים מִן הַחֲנוּת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּוַדַּאי נִתְיָאֲשׁוּ מִן הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנָּפַל מֵהֶן וְנַעֲשָׂה הֶחָמֵץ הֶפְקֵר גָּמוּר, וְכָל דְּבַר הֶפְקֵר הַמֻּנָּח בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל זָכְתָה לוֹ רְשׁוּתוֹיא וְנִקְנָה לוֹ הַהֶפְקֵר וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ,5 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִקְנָה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁהָיָה בַּחֲנוּתוֹ כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח,יב מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"חיג עַיֵּן שָׁם:6