SECTION 448 The Laws Pertaining to Chametz that Existed [in a Jew’s Possession] During Pesach (1-31)

סימן תמח דִּין חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וּבוֹ ל"א סְעִיפִים:

1 It is forbidden for all Jews to benefit from grain or grain products that are definitely chametz1 belonging to a Jew that existed [in his possession] during Pesach2 – whether throughout the entire Pesach or only during a portion of it – even [if the chametz existed in his possession for only] a portion of the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated] in the Diaspora. [The rationale is that] the Sages penalized the owner of the chametz for violating the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain during Pesach] and possessing [chametz during Pesach].3 The Sages did not desire to make any distinctions with [regard to] their decrees and forbade [not only the owner, but] all Jews [from benefiting from this chametz].4

Moreover, even if the owner of the chametz [transgressed] due to forces beyond his control – [e.g.] he was not able to obliterate [the chametz] or he was not aware of its existence until after Pesach – [the Sages] nevertheless prohibited benefiting from [the chametz] so that a person would not leave his chametz [intact] until after Pesach and then [excuse himself], saying, “I was prevented [from obliterating it] by forces beyond my control.”5

א חָמֵץ דָּגָן גָּמוּר1 שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,א בֵּין שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו כָּל הַפֶּסַח וּבֵין שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר עָלָיו אֶלָּא מִקְצָת הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָת יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹתב – הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָהג לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל,2 לְפִי שֶׁקְּנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים לְבַעַל הֶחָמֵץ עַל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא".ד,3 וְלֹא רָצוּ חֲכָמִים לַחֲלֹק בִּגְזֵרָתָם, וַאֲסָרוּהוּ עַל כָּל אָדָם.ה,4 וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ אָנוּס שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָכוֹל לְבַעֲרוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלָל עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֲסָרוּהוּ בַּהֲנָאָה,ו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַנִּיחַ כָּל אָדָם חֲמֵצוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְיֹאמַר: "אָנוּס הָיִיתִי":ז,5

2 By contrast, chametz that belonged to a non-Jew6 during Pesach is permitted, even to be eaten, if it is dough or bread in places where it is customary to permit bread baked by a non-Jew.7 [The rationale is that] since a transgression was not violated in maintaining [possession of the chametz] until after Pesach, the Sages did not prohibit it.

ב אֲבָל חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח מֻתָּרח אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָהט,6 אִם הוּא בָּצֵק, אוֹ פַּת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר בְּפַת שֶׁל נָכְרִי,י,7 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשָׂה בּוֹ עֲבֵרָה בִּשְׁהִיָּתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – לֹא אֲסָרוּהוּ חֲכָמִים:

3 [When] a non-Jew brings chametz as a present to a Jew8 – even if he brought it on the final festive day [of Pesach] close to nightfall – [the Jew] should not accept [the present] from him.9 [The rationale is that] by accepting the present, [the Jew] acquires [the chametz] through a formal act of acquisition. It [thus] becomes chametz that belonged to a Jew [during Pesach], and he violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] from the moment [he accepts it] until the night [following the final festive day].10

Similarly, the Jew should not tell [the non-Jew] to place the present in a private place, or make similar statements that indicate that he desires the present, for if [the Jew] desires [the present], he acquires it by virtue of its presence in his house or courtyard. [The rationale is that] every article that is deposited in a person’s domain is acquired by him; it is as if [the article] actually lies in his hand, for [a person’s] domain serves as his agent in all contexts.11

If, however, it is not apparent from [the Jew’s] words or actions that he desires the present, his domain does not acquire it on his behalf. [The rationale is that] it can be assumed that [a person] does not want to acquire something that he is forbidden to acquire.12 Since [the person] has no desire to acquire [this chametz], his domain does not become his agent to acquire something he is unwilling [to acquire], for a person may not become another person’s agent against [that person’s] will.13

ג נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל דּוֹרוֹן שֶׁל חָמֵץ,8 אֲפִלּוּ הֱבִיאוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה – לֹא יְקַבְּלֶנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵליא מִיָּדוֹ,יב,9 שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּקַבָּלָה זוֹ נִקְנֶה לוֹ הַדּוֹרוֹן בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר וְנַעֲשֶׂה חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, וְעוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" בְּרֶגַע זוֹ שֶׁעַד הַלַּיְלָה.10 וְכֵן לֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ הַדּוֹרוֹן בְּמָקוֹם צָנוּעַ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בִּדְבָרִים כָּאֵלּוּ שֶׁנִּכָּר מֵהֶן שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ בַּדּוֹרוֹן,יג שֶׁאִם הוּא חָפֵץ בּוֹ הוּא נִקְנֶה לוֹיד עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוּא מֻנָּח בְּבֵיתוֹ אוֹ בַּחֲצֵרוֹ, שֶׁכָּל הַדָּבָר הַמֻּנָּח בַּחֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם נִקְנֶה לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מֻנָּח בְּיָדוֹ מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁחֲצֵרוֹ הוּא כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ לְכָל דָּבָר.טו,11

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵין נִכָּר מִתּוֹךְ דְּבָרָיו אוֹ מַעֲשָׂיוטז שֶׁהוּא חָפֵץ בְּהַדּוֹרוֹן – אֵין חֲצֵרוֹ קוֹנָה לוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם אֵין נוֹחַ לְאָדָם לִקְנוֹת לוֹ דָּבָר הָאָסוּר לוֹ לִקְנוֹתוֹ,יז,12 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין נוֹחַ לוֹ לִקְנוֹתוֹ אֵין חֲצֵרוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה כִּשְׁלוּחוֹ לִקְנוֹת לוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין נוֹחַ לוֹ,יח שֶׁאֵין אָדָם נַעֲשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ:13

4 [In the above instance,] it is nevertheless desirable [for one] to be stringent and to explicitly state that he does not desire that his property acquire on his behalf the present [brought by] the non-Jew.

[If the non-Jew nonetheless leaves the chametz in the Jew’s property, the Jew] must be careful to cover it with a utensil until the evening if it is Shabbos or a festival [so that he does not forget and partake of it. This law] even [applies] if [the non-Jew left the chametz on] the final festive day, as explained in sec. 440[:5. An exception is made] only if [the non-Jew] brought it on the final festive day [of Pesach] close to nightfall, for during the brief time [remaining before chametz becomes permitted], there is no concern that [the Jew] will forget and partake of it.

If [the non-Jew brings the gift of chametz] on Chol HaMoed, a barrier ten-handbreadths high must be erected in front of it,14 as stated in the above source. Consult that source for all the particular [relevant] laws.

ד וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וּלְפָרֵשׁ בְּפִיו שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה שֶׁיִּקְנֶה לוֹ חֲצֵרוֹ אֶת הַדּוֹרוֹן שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי.יט

וְצָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לִכְפּוֹת עָלָיו אֶת הַכְּלִי עַד הָעֶרֶב אִם הוּא שַׁבָּת אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב,כ אֲפִלּוּ יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מ,כא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֱבִיאוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה,כב שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה מוּעֶטֶת אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ. וְאִם הוּא חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים,כג,14 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם, עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

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5 All the above applies with regard to a present or the like, in which instance, the Jew is not responsible if the chametz is stolen or lost. If, however, the non-Jew brings [chametz] to a Jew’s home to sell or for safe keeping, the Jew must explicitly tell the non-Jew that he does not desire to accept it. [In this way, the Jew] will not be liable at all for any responsibility for [the chametz], and the non-Jew will not be able to compel him to pay [for the chametz in the event the chametz is stolen or lost] even if [the non-Jew] is a man of force.15

If [the non-Jew] is not a man of force and the Jew is not at all compelled to accept his entrusted object, [the Jew] should not allow the non-Jew to deposit his chametz in [the Jew’s] domain under any circumstances.16 [The only exception is if] it is close to nightfall on the final festive day [of Pesach].17 See sec. 440[:3, 5, and 7].18

ה וְכָל זֶה בְּדוֹרוֹן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ שֶׁאֵין הָאַחֲרָיוּת עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אִם יִגָּנֵב הֶחָמֵץ אוֹ יֹאבַד, אֲבָל אִם הַנָּכְרִי מֵבִיא לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִמְכֹּר אוֹ לְהַפְקִיד אֶצְלוֹ – צָרִיךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לוֹמַר בְּפֵרוּשׁ לְהַנָּכְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְקַבְּלוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ כְּלָל, וְלֹא יוּכַל הַנָּכְרִי לִכְפּוֹתוֹ לְשַׁלֵּם אַף אִם הוּא אַלָּם.כד,15 וְאִם אֵינוֹ אַלָּם וְאֵין הֶכְרֵחַ כְּלָל לְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל פִּקְדוֹנוֹ – לֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ הֶחָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ בְּכָל עִנְיָן,כה,16 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא סָמוּךְ לַחֲשֵׁכָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן,כו,17 עַיֵּן סִימָן ת"מ:כז,18

6 [The following laws apply when] a Jew owns a large amount of chametz on the day before Pesach, and desires to sell it or give it as a gift to a non-Jew whom he knows and with whom he is familiar, even though he knows that the non-Jew will not touch his chametz at all. Instead, [the non-Jew] will watch [the chametz] for [the Jew] until after Pesach and then [the non-Jew] will return it to him. [Such a sale or gift] is permitted.19 [The rationale is that] if the non-Jew did not desire to return [the chametz] to [the Jew, the Jew] could not sue [the non-Jew] in [a court of] law [and require the non-Jew] to return [the chametz] to him if [the non-Jew] already acquired [the chametz] through one of the [formal] means of acquisition that will be explained.20 Thus, throughout the days of Pesach, the chametz will be possessed by the non-Jew, [who] acquired it through an entirely valid transaction. When [the non-Jew] returns [the chametz] after Pesach, he is giving it to [the Jew] as a present.21

ו יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חָמֵץ הַרְבֵּהכח בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְרוֹצֶה לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי הַמַּכִּירוֹ וּמְיֻדָּעוֹכט אוֹ לִתְּנוֹ לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה,ל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ בְּהַנָּכְרִי שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בַּחֲמֵצוֹ כְּלָל אֶלָּא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ לוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְאָז יַחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר,לא,19 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאִם לֹא הָיָה הַנָּכְרִי רוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לוֹ לֹא הָיָה יָכוֹל לִתְבֹּעַ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּדִין שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹלב אִם כְּבָר קָנָהוּ הַנָּכְרִי בְּאֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיָּה שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,לג,20 נִמְצָא שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הֶחָמֵץ קָנוּי לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר, וְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא מַחֲזִירוֹ לוֹ – מַתָּנָה הוּא שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן לוֹ:21

7 Nevertheless, the Jew must be careful not to sell or give [his chametz] to a servant whom he owns permanently [as his property].22 [This ruling applies] even if [the servant] lives outside the Jew’s domain and draws the chametz from the Jew’s domain into his own domain.23 However, the chametz is not acquired by [the servant] at all, since everything that a servant acquires is acquired by his master.24

If, however, the physical person of the servant is not owned [by the Jew] as his permanent property, but instead, the servant is a hired worker,25 [the Jew] is permitted to sell or give [his chametz] to [the non-Jewish servant] even if [that servant] lives in the Jew’s home.26 [The above applies] provided the non-Jew draws the chametz from the Jew’s domain into a domain belonging to him or into a domain that is ownerless, so that he will acquire the chametz by this act.

Even if the non-Jew acquires the chametz through another one of the other formal contractual acts that will be explained, it is nevertheless desirable for the non-Jew to remove the chametz from the Jew’s domain before Pesach if possible. [The rationale is that] if the chametz remains in the Jew’s domain, it will appear that the Jew received the chametz as an entrusted object from the non-Jew, and is responsible for the entrusted object.27 However, according to the letter of the law, there is no need to be concerned about this.

Nonetheless, if the situation is such that if the non-Jew does not remove [the chametz] from the domain of the Jew, the Jew will become obligated and responsible for it, i.e., if the chametz was stolen or lost, [the Jew] would be obligated to repay the non-Jew for the money [the non-Jew] gave him at the time he purchased the chametz from [the Jew],28 the Jew must adjure the non-Jew to remove the chametz from his domain so that he will not become obligated to repay [the non-Jew’s] money if [the chametz] is stolen from him or lost.29

ז וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ וְיִתְּנֶנּוּ לְעַבְדּוֹ הַקָּנוּי לוֹ לִצְמִיתוּת,לד,22 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא דָּר מִחוּץ לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּמוֹשֵׁךְ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִרְשׁוּתוֹ,23 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הֶחָמֵץ קָנוּי לוֹ כְּלָל,לה שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁקָּנָה עֶבֶד קָנָה רַבּוֹ.לו,24 אֲבָל אִם אֵין גּוּף הָעֶבֶד קָנוּי לוֹ לִצְמִיתוּת אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא שָׂכִיר אֶצְלוֹ25 – מֻתָּר לְמָכְרוֹ לוֹ וְלִתְּנוֹ לוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא דָּר בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל.לז,26 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּמְשֹׁךְ הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִרְשׁוּתוֹ אוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר,לח כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּקְנֶה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בִּמְשִׁיכָה זוֹ.לט,23

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם קָנָה הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בְּאֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר דַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיּוֹת שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֲרוּ,מ אַף עַל פִּי כֵן, אִם אֶפְשָׁר טוֹב הוּא שֶׁיּוֹצִיא הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁאִם יִשָּׁאֵר הֶחָמֵץ מֻנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – יְהֵא נִרְאֶה כְּאִלּוּ קִבֵּל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בְּפִקָּדוֹן מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי, וְאַחֲרָיוּת הַפִּקָּדוֹן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל.מא,27 אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין לָחֹשׁ לָזֶה.מב

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם לֹא יוֹצִיאֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יִתְחַיֵּב הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ הֶחָמֵץ אוֹ יֹאבַד יִתְחַיֵּב לְהַחֲזִיר לְהַנָּכְרִי דְּמֵי הַמְּכִירָה שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ בְּעֵת קְנִיָּתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת הֶחָמֵץמג,28 – צָרִיךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְהַזְהִיר אֶת הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ,מד כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַיֵּב לְהַחֲזִיר לוֹ דָּמָיו אִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ יֹאבַד:מה,29

8 Despite [the above guidelines],30 even though the non-Jew took the chametz out of the Jew’s domain and [brought it] to his domain or to an ownerless domain, nevertheless, as an initial preference,31 the Jew should [also] take from [the non-Jew] money or objects of value32 equivalent to the entire worth of the chametz according to its full market value.33 Alternatively, [the Jew] should take from [the non-Jew] a minimal amount of money or objects of value, and have [the non-Jew] provide a guarantor ([i.e.] an areiv kablan)34 for the remainder of the sum, i.e., [the guarantor will agree to be responsible] to pay [the Jew that sum] at the date agreed upon, so that [the Jew] will have no claim whatsoever against the non-Jew, only against the guarantor.35 [The rationale for this requirement is that] there are authorities who maintain that a non-Jew may not acquire movable [property] by [merely performing] meshichah, drawing it into his domain. [Instead, a non-Jew may acquire moveable property] only through [both meshichah and the payment of] money.

After the fact, however, if the non-Jew acquired the chametz only through meshichah or only through the payment of money36 and [the chametz] remained in [the non-Jew’s domain] during Pesach, [should the non-Jew return it to the Jew after Pesach, the Jew] is permitted even to partake of it. [Indeed,] a similar [law applies if the Jew sold his chametz and the non-Jew performed only one of the two actions; paying money or meshichah, and the Jew only] realized after the beginning of the sixth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan] – from which time [onward, the Jew] is not able to transfer ownership [of the chametz] to the non-Jew, as stated in sec. 443[:3. Even so the Jew] is not required to redeem [the chametz] from the non-Jew and obliterate it [before or during Pesach].37

True, there are authorities who maintain that a non-Jew does not acquire movable [property] through the payment of money alone; he must perform meshichah, as explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 194.38 Thus, [since the non-Jew] did not draw the chametz out of the domain of the Jew, [the non-Jew] did not [formally] acquire it at all. [Hence,] even though [the non-Jew] paid [the Jew] the entire value [of the chametz, the chametz] remains the chametz of a Jew.39 Nevertheless, (there are [other] authorities who maintain that a non-Jew can acquire movable [property] by either paying money alone or by performing meshichah alone, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 132.40 One may rely on their words and rule leniently with regard to chametz that [would otherwise have been owned by a Jew] during Pesach. [The rationale is that after Pesach this chametz] is only forbidden by virtue of a Rabbinic decree, and with regard to [differences of opinion in matters of] Rabbinic Law, the more lenient ruling should be followed.41

Furthermore,)42 [there is additional room for leniency] since once the time when the chametz was to be obliterated arrives, even if the chametz were not to be sold to a non-Jew, the chametz would [in any event] not belong to the Jew and would not be called his at all, [as evidenced by the fact that] he is not allowed to benefit from it. It is only that the Torah determined that the chametz would be considered [the Jew’s] property, and it would be identified with him, so that he would violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] if he neither removed the chametz from his domain before the time for its obliteration arrived, nor obliterated it from existence after the time for its obliteration. Accordingly, merely making his intent known, i.e., before the time for the obliteration of chametz, [the owner] makes it known that he does not at all desire for the chametz to be his, suffices to free him [from liability for] the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].43 By making known his intent, [the owner] transfers ownership of [the chametz] to the non-Jew, even though [such an act] is not a totally valid transfer of ownership that would be effective according to Scriptural Law in preventing either party from reneging and nullifying the sale.

ח וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם,30 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹצִיא הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִרְשׁוּתוֹ אוֹ לִרְשׁוּת שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לְכַתְּחִלָּהמו,31 צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כֶּסֶף אוֹ שְׁוֵה כֶּסֶףמז,32 כְּפִי שִׁוּוּי כָּל הַמִּקָּח שֶׁל כָּל הֶחָמֵץ בְּשַׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק,33 אוֹ שֶׁיִּקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט כֶּסֶף אוֹ שְׁוֵה כֶּסֶף, וּבְעַד הַשְּׁאָר יַעֲמִיד לוֹ עָרֵב קַבְּלָן34 בְּעַד כָּל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ לִזְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן שֶׁקָּבַע לוֹ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה לוֹ שׁוּם טַעֲנָה וּמַעֲנֶה עַל הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַד הַמָּעוֹת כִּי אִם עַל הֶעָרֵב קַבְּלָן,מח,35 לְפִימט שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנ שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה מִטַּלְטְלִין בִּמְשִׁיכָה אֶלָּא בְּכֶסֶף.

אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁלֹּא קָנָה הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא בִּמְשִׁיכָה בִּלְבַד אוֹ בְּכֶסֶף בִּלְבַד36 וְעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּרנא אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה. וְכֵן אִם נִזְכַּר לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, שֶׁאָז אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַקְנוֹתוֹ לְנָכְרִי כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"גנב – אֵין צָרִיךְ לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מֵהַנָּכְרִי וּלְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם.37

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנג שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה מִטַּלְטְלִין בְּכֶסֶף בִּלְבַד אֶלָּא בִּמְשִׁיכָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן קצ"ד,38 וְזֶה שֶׁלֹּא מָשַׁךְ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֹא קָנָהוּ כְּלָל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּתַן לוֹ כָּל דָּמָיו, וַהֲרֵי הוּא חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,39 מִכָּל מָקוֹם (הֲרֵי יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנד שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי קוֹנֶה מִטַּלְטְלִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּכֶסֶף בִּלְבַד אוֹ בִּמְשִׁיכָה בִּלְבַד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קל"ב,נה,40 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, שֶׁבְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל,41 וְעוֹד)42 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן בִּעוּרוֹ אַף אִם לֹא הָיָה מוֹכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי לֹא הָיָה בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְלֹא נִקְרָא שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין רַשַּׁאי לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה הֶעֱמִידָה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ לִהְיוֹת שְׁמוֹ נִקְרָא עָלָיו שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" אִם לֹא הוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, לְפִיכָךְ בְּגִלּוּי דַּעַת בִּלְבַד שֶׁהוּא מְגַלֶּה דַּעְתּוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר שֶׁאֵין רְצוֹנוֹ כְּלָל שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ דַּי בָּזֶה לְהַפְקִיעַ מֵעָלָיו אִסּוּר "בַּל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",נו,43 וְגִלּוּי דַּעַת זֶה הוּא מַה שֶּׁמַּקְנֶה אוֹתוֹ לַנָּכְרִי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קִנְיָן גָּמוּר הַמּוֹעִיל מִדִּין תּוֹרָה שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ וּלְבַטֵּל הַמִּקָּח:

9 All the above applies when [the Jew] sells his chametz [to a non-Jew]. If, however, he gives [his chametz] to the non-Jew as a gift, all authorities agree that only meshichah is necessary.44 The statement that a non-Jew’s acquisition of property is achieved by [the payment of] money applies only with regard to a sale, when the non-Jew must give the purchase price to the seller and in that way, finalizes the purchase. With regard to a gift, by contrast, there is no purchase price. [Hence,] meshichah alone is sufficient.

ט וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמּוֹכֵר חֲמֵצוֹ, אֲבָל אִם נוֹתְנוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה לְנָכְרִי – אֵין צָרִיךְ אֶלָּא מְשִׁיכָה בִּלְבַד לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,44 שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ שֶׁקִּנְיָנוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי הוּא בְּכֶסֶף אֶלָּא בְּמֶכֶר, שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן כֶּסֶף מִקְנָתוֹ לְהַמּוֹכֵר וּבָזֶה נִקְנֶה לוֹ הַמֶּכֶר, אֲבָל בְּמַתָּנָה שֶׁאֵין שָׁם כֶּסֶף מִקְנֶה דַּי בִּמְשִׁיכָה בִּלְבַד:נז

10 If the non-Jew to whom [the Jew] transfers ownership of the chametz did not draw the chametz out of the Jew’s domain himself, but instead instructed another Jew or non-Jew to bring him the chametz from the domain of the Jew, [the other person’s act] is of no consequence.45 [The rationale is that] the principle, “[The actions of] a person’s agent are considered as [if they were performed by] the person himself,” applies only when a Jew becomes the agent of a Jew,46 as was explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 188.47

י אִם אוֹתוֹ הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁהוּא מַקְנֶה לוֹ חֲמֵצוֹ לֹא מָשַׁךְ בְּעַצְמוֹ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, אֶלָּא צִוָּה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר אוֹ לְנָכְרִי אַחֵר שֶׁיָּבִיא לוֹ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם,45 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים11 שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה שָׁלִיחַ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל,נח,46 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן קפ"ח:נט,47

11 Accordingly, if [a)] there was such a large amount of chametz that it was impossible for the non-Jew himself to take all of it out of the Jew’s domain before Pesach, [b)] similarly, if the non-Jew did not desire to remove [the chametz] from the Jew’s domain, or [c)] the chametz was not located in [the same place] as the Jew [and the non-Jew were located, thus preventing] the non-Jew from [performing the act of] meshichah, e.g., [the Jew] was in another city or in midst of a journey, [the Jew] must transfer ownership [of the chametz] to the non-Jew through one of the other contractual acts [recognized] as an effective act of contract [that prevents] one of [the principals] from retracting, e.g., any contractual act that is customary among [local] merchants [to finalize] a transaction.48 For example, making a mark [on the merchandise] as is customary in some places, [i.e.,] the purchaser makes a mark on the merchandise he has purchased, so that mark will serve him as a recognizable sign that [the merchandise] has been acquired by him in a completely [binding] transaction.49 [Alternatively, a transaction may be finalized] by means of a handshake, or by giving a perutah50in those places where it is customary that the purchaser gives a perutah to the seller, or by [the principals] slapping their hands against each other’s. [Once such an act is performed,] neither of [the principals] may retract.51

Another [option] is that the Jew give the non-Jew the key to the room where the chametz is deposited, if in that locale it is customary to [recognize] transferring a key as a binding contractual act.52

Another [option to transfer the ownership of the chametz is to transfer] landed property, and by virtue [of its acquisition, the ownership of the chametz within the property is also transferred], i.e., [the Jew] should also sell the non-Jew the room53 in which the chametz is located,54 telling [him]: “By virtue of [your acquisition of] the room, you will also acquire the chametz in it.” If, however, [the Jew] does not make a statement to [the non-Jew] using such wording, even though he first sells the room to the non-Jew and then sells him the chametz in it, the chametz is not acquired by the non-Jew by virtue of its presence in the room [now] owned by the non-Jew. [The rational is that our Sages’] statement that a person’s property acquires [objects] on his behalf [applies] only to [the property of] a Jew, for [a Jew’s] property serves as his agent55 and [actions associated with] a Jew’s agent are considered as [if performed by] the principal himself. However, [the actions associated with] a non-Jew’s agent [or his property] are not considered as [if performed by] the principal himself, as explained.56

יא לְפִיכָךְ, אִם הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ רַב שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּעַצְמוֹ לְהוֹצִיא אֶת כֻּלּוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,ס וְכֵן אִם אֵין הַנָּכְרִי רוֹצֶה לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, וְכֵן אִם אֵין הֶחָמֵץ כָּאן אֵצֶל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיּוּכַל הַנָּכְרִי לְמָשְׁכוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא בְּעִיר אַחֶרֶת אוֹ עַל הַדֶּרֶךְסא – צָרִיךְ לְהַקְנוֹתוֹ לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּאֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר דַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיָּה שֶׁהֵן קִנְיָן גָּמוּר הַמּוֹעִיל שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל אֶחָד מֵהֶן לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ, כְּגוֹן בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ הַסּוֹחֲרִים לִקְנוֹת בּוֹ,סב,48 דְּהַיְנוּ עַל יְדֵי הָרֹשֶׁם שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ בִּקְצָת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁכְּשֶׁהַלּוֹקֵחַ רוֹשֵׁם עַל הַמִּקָּח כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ סִימָן יָדוּעַ שֶׁהוּא קָנוּי לוֹ קִנְיָן גָּמוּר,סג,49 אוֹ עַל יְדֵי תְּקִיעַת כַּף, אוֹ עַל יְדֵי נְתִינַת פְּרוּטָה,50 בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין שֶׁכְּשֶׁהַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן פְּרוּטָה לַמּוֹכֵר,סד אוֹ שֶׁמַּכִּין בְּכַפֵּיהֶן זֶה עַל גַּבֵּי זֶהסה – נִגְמַר הַמִּקָּח וְאֵין אֶחָד מֵהֶם יָכוֹל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ.51

אוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּמְסֹר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְהַנָּכְרִי אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִן הַחֶדֶר שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מֻנָּח בְּתוֹכוֹ, אִם הוּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין שֶׁמְּסִירַת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ קוֹנָה קִנְיָן גָּמוּר.סו,52

אוֹ עַל יְדֵי אַגַּב קַרְקַע,סז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּמְכֹּר לְהַנָּכְרִי גַּם הַחֶדֶר53 שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מֻנָּח בְּתוֹכוֹ,סח,54 וְיֹאמַר: "אַגַּב הַחֶדֶר תִּזְכֶּה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ", אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר כַּלָּשׁוֹן הַזֶּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַחֶדֶר וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ – אֵין הֶחָמֵץ נִקְנֶה לְהַנָּכְרִי עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהוּא מֻנָּח בְּחַדְרוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ11 חֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם קוֹנָה לוֹ אֶלָּא בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֶחָצֵר הוּא כִּשְׁלוּחוֹסט,55 וּשְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּמוֹתוֹ, אֲבָל אֵין שְׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי כְּמוֹתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:ע,56

12 When [the Jew] sells the room [where the chametz is located] to the non-Jew, he must take from the non-Jew money or objects of value whose worth is equivalent to the entire price [agreed] for the sale [of the room]. Alternatively, he should take a small amount of money or objects of value [from the non-Jew] and have [the non-Jew] provide a guarantor ([i.e.,] an areiv kablan)57 who [will agree to be responsible] to pay [the Jew that balance owed] on the date when it was [agreed] that the non-Jew [would pay the sum owed].

A deed of sale [for the room] should also be drawn up for [the non-Jew], for a non-Jew does not acquire landed property by merely paying money, nor by chazakah ([i.e.] asserting his ownership over it) [alone].58 Instead, a deed of sale [must be transferred] together with [the payment of] the money, as explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 194.59 (See also op. cit., sec. 191,60 [which explains] the wording that should be used in the deed of sale.)

However, anyone whose heart is touched by the fear of G‑d who wishes to fulfill [his obligation to divest himself of chametz] according to all opinions regarding the sale of chametz, so that the sale of chametz will be totally valid according to all opinions, should compose a deed of sale for [his] chametz according to the text found in the Siddur.61

יב כְּשֶׁמּוֹכֵר לְהַנָּכְרִי אֶת הַחֶדֶר – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּטֹּל מֵהַנָּכְרִי כֶּסֶףעא אוֹ שְׁוֵה כֶּסֶף בְּעַד כָּל דְּמֵי הַמְּכִירָה, אוֹ שֶׁיִּקַּח מְעַט כֶּסֶף אוֹ שְׁוֵה כֶּסֶף וּבְעַד הַשְּׁאָר יַעֲמִיד לוֹ עָרֵב קַבְּלָן57 שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ לִזְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן שֶׁקָּבַע לְהַנָּכְרִי.עב וְגַם יִכְתֹּב לוֹ שְׁטַר מְכִירָה,עג שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי קוֹנֶה קַרְקַע לֹא בְּכֶסֶף בִּלְבַד וְלֹא בַּחֲזָקָה,58 אֶלָּא בִּשְׁטָר עִם הַכֶּסֶף, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן קצ"דעד,59 (וְעַיֵּן שָׁם בְּסִימָן קצ"א60 הַאֵיךְ יִכְתֹּב לְשׁוֹן הַמְּכִירָה בִּשְׁטָרעה).

אַךְ כָּל אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִרְאַת ה' נָגַע בְּלִבּוֹ לָצֵאת יְדֵי כָּל הַדֵּעוֹת בִּמְכִירַת חָמֵץ שֶׁתִּהְיֶה מְכִירָה גְּמוּרָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל – יִכְתֹּב הַשְּׁטַר מְכִירָה כַּנֹּסַח הַכָּתוּב בַּסִּדּוּר:עו,61

13 Even if [the Jew] transferred ownership of the chametz to the non-Jew through one of the other means of finalizing a transaction and did not sell him the room [where the chametz is located,62 the Jew] must nevertheless give the non-Jew the key to the room where the chametz is located63 so that the non-Jew can enter the room and take his chametz any time he desires throughout the days of the Pesach [holiday].64 Similarly, it is necessary to be careful that the Jew not leave his seal on the chametz so that the non-Jew would fear taking any of the chametz without the Jew knowing of it.

[Indeed,] if [the Jew] did not give [the non-Jew] the key [to the room where the chametz was located] before [the beginning of] the sixth hour [on the day before Pesach], or he placed a seal over the chametz before or at the time of the sale, even after the fact, it is forbidden to benefit from the chametz after Pesach.65 [The rationale is that] since the Jew revealed his intent to the non-Jew at the time of transaction – that he did not desire that the non-Jew take the chametz from the domain of the Jew without [the Jew’s] knowledge – [the Jew] did not [really] sell anything to [the non-Jew]. He is merely perpetrating a deception.

If, however, [the Jew] sold [his] chametz to [the non-Jew] as required by law [and formalized the sale] by giving [him] the key [to the room where the chametz is located], should the Jew later place a seal on the chametz66 – even though he is forbidden to do so and it is necessary to admonish anyone who does so – nevertheless, after the fact, the chametz does not become forbidden after Pesach. [The rationale is that] since [the Jew] sold the chametz to the non-Jew as required by law, the chametz was immediately acquired by the non-Jew through an absolutely binding act of contract. Thus, [the chametz] actually belongs to [the non-Jew]. Although the Jew later sealed the chametz with his seal, this [act] did not remove the chametz from [being considered] the property of the non-Jew. It is just as if [the Jew] placed a seal on chametz that actually belonged to the non-Jew, that the Jew never owned or had [any] right to. Such [an act] would not cause the chametz to become forbidden, because whenever the non-Jew desires, he may remove the seal and take as much of the chametz as he wants.

יג אֲפִלּוּ אִם הִקְנָה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּאֶחָד מִשְּׁאָר דַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיָּה וְלֹא מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הַחֶדֶר,62 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לִמְסֹר לְהַנָּכְרִי אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִן הַחֶדֶר שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מֻנָּח בְּתוֹכוֹ,63 כְּדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל הַנָּכְרִי לִכָּנֵס לְהַחֶדֶר וְלִטֹּל אֶת חֲמֵצוֹעז בְּכָל עֵת שֶׁיִּרְצֶה מִכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח.64 וְכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יַנִּיחַ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת חוֹתָמוֹ עַל הֶחָמֵץ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּירָא הַנָּכְרִי לִטֹּל מִן הֶחָמֵץ כְּלוּם שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל.עח

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד אָסוּר הֶחָמֵץ בַּהֲנָאָה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אִם לֹא מָסַר לוֹ אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַעט קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחַ חוֹתָמוֹ עַל הֶחָמֵץ קֹדֶם מְכִירָתוֹ אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת מְכִירָתוֹ,פ,65 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת מְכִירָה גִּלָּה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל דַּעְתּוֹ לְהַנָּכְרִי שֶׁאֵין רְצוֹנוֹ שֶׁיִּטֹּל הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ – הֲרֵי לֹא מָכַר לוֹ כְּלוּם, וְאֵין זֶה אֶלָּא הַעֲרָמָה בְּעָלְמָא.פא

אֲבָל אִם מָכַר לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ כְּדִינוֹ בִּמְסִירַת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הִנִּיחַ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל חוֹתָמוֹ עַל הֶחָמֵץ,66 אַף שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, וְצָרִיךְ לִמְחוֹת בְּיַד הָעוֹשֶׂה כֵּן, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּדִיעֲבַד לֹא נֶאֱסַר הֶחָמֵץ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמָּכַר הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי כְּדִינוֹ – מִיָּד נִקְנָה הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי קִנְיָן גָּמוּר, וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, וְאַף שֶׁאַחַר כָּךְ חֲתָמוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּחוֹתָמוֹ לֹא יָצָא הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי עַל יְדֵי כָּךְ, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ חָתַם אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל נָכְרִי מַמָּשׁ וְלֹא הָיָה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק וּזְכוּת בּוֹ מֵעוֹלָם, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא נֶאֱסַר הֶחָמֵץ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ, כִּי כָּל אֵימַת וּמָתַי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי רוֹצֶה הוּא מֵסִיר אֶת הַחוֹתָם וְנוֹטֵל מִן הֶחָמֵץ כָּל מַה שֶּׁיִּרְצֶה:פב

14 (If, however, after giving the key to the non-Jew at the time of the sale, [the Jew] took [the key] back from [the non-Jew] against [the non-Jew’s] will so that the non-Jew will not enter the room and take any of the chametz, it is forbidden for any Jewish person to benefit from this chametz after Pesach. [The rationale is that] since [the Jew] prevented the non-Jew from entering the room where the chametz is located, the non-Jew is freed from responsibility for the chametz, i.e., if the chametz is stolen from [the room], the Jew is responsible for the loss and the non-Jew is not obligated to pay him the debt he accepted for the chametz the Jew sold him.67 Whenever a Jew will suffer a loss if chametz is stolen or lost, the Jew violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz because of that chametz. Accordingly,] after Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from [that chametz] just like [it is forbidden to benefit from] chametz that actually belonged [to a Jew] during Pesach, as explained in sec. 440[:9 ff.])68

יד (אֲבָל אִם לְאַחַר שֶׁמָּסַר אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ לַנָּכְרִי בִּשְׁעַת מְכִירָה חָזַר וּנְטָלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִכָּנֵס הַנָּכְרִי לְתוֹךְ הַחֶדֶר וְיִטֹּל כְּלוּם מֵהֶחָמֵץ – הֲרֵי חָמֵץ זֶה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הִנִּיחַ אֶת הַנָּכְרִי לִכָּנֵס לְתוֹךְ הַחֶדֶר שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מֻנָּח שָׁם – הֲרֵי נִפְטָר הַנָּכְרִי מֵאַחֲרָיוּת הֶחָמֵץ, שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב מִשָּׁם הֶחָמֵץ חָל הַהֶפְסֵד עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ הַנָּכְרִי לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ חוֹבוֹ שֶׁחַיָּב לוֹ בְּעַד הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמָּכַר לוֹ,פג,67 וְכָל חָמֵץ שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ מִמֶּנּוּ הֶפְסֵד לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד – עוֹבֵר עָלָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", וּלְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה כַּחֲמֵצוֹ מַמָּשׁ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מפד,68):

15 It is necessary to caution people at large to tell the non-Jew, “I am selling you all the chametz that I own.” They should not tell him, “I am selling you the key [to the room].” [Such a sale] is of no consequence. [Were the Jew to make such a statement, then] even after the fact it is forbidden to benefit from the chametz after Pesach, because [the Jew] did not sell [the chametz] at all.69

טו צָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לַהֲמוֹן עַם שֶׁיֹּאמְרוּ לְהַנָּכְרִי: "הֲרֵינִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ אֶת כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי", וְלֹא יֹאמַר לוֹ: "הֲרֵינִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ", שֶׁזֶּה אֵינוֹ כְּלוּם, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדִיעֲבַד אָסוּר הֶחָמֵץ בַּהֲנָאָה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא מְכָרוֹ כְּלָל:פה,69

16 When the day before Pesach falls on Shabbos and [a Jew] forgot and did not sell his chametz to a non-Jew before Shabbos, he may not sell it to the non-Jew on Shabbos. This prohibition applies even if [the Jew] does not take money from [the non-Jew] at all, but merely establishes a price [for the chametz] with him or [agrees to] sell it to him at market value without establishing a fixed price, and formalizes [the non-Jew’s] acquisition of the chametz through a contractual act. [Indeed, it applies] even when a severe [financial] loss is involved. Even though this sale [is being carried out] for the sake of [observing] the mitzvah of obliterating chametz,70 the Sages did not permit [the sale] on Shabbos, [for] as explained in sec. 306[:15-17, the Sages] did not permit an actual commercial transaction on Shabbos, even for the sake of a mitzvah. Consult that source.71

What then should [the Jew] do? He should give [the chametz] as an outright gift to a non-Jew with whom he is familiar and well-acquainted, and whom he knows will return [the chametz] to him after Pesach.72 [The Jew] must be careful to transfer ownership to the non-Jew by having the non-Jew lift up [the chametz] or through performing meshichah,73 drawing it into his domain, if [the non-Jew] does not have to take [the chametz] through the public domain, as explained in sec. 444[:9-10]; consult that source.

If [the Jew possesses] a large amount of chametz and it is impossible [for the non-Jew] to draw it into his domain, [the Jew] should transfer ownership over it to [the non-Jew] by giving him the key [to the room where the chametz is located].74 Even though it is forbidden to give a present on Shabbos, [the Sages] nevertheless permitted [doing so] for the sake of a mitzvah, as explained in sec. 306:[loc. cit.]; consult that source.75

טז עֶרֶב פֶּסַח שֶׁחָל בְּשַׁבָּת וְשָׁכַח וְלֹא מָכַר חֲמֵצוֹ לְנָכְרִי בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת – לֹא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ לוֹקֵחַ מִמֶּנּוּ מָעוֹת כְּלָל אֶלָּא קוֹצֵץ עִמּוֹ סְכוּם הַמִּקָּח אוֹ מוֹכְרוֹ לוֹ כְּשַׁעַר שֶׁבַּשּׁוּק בְּלֹא קְצִיצַת סְכוּם מִקָּח וּמַקְנֶה לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ בְּאֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיָּה – הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּכִירָה זוֹ הִיא לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוַת בִּעוּר חָמֵץ70 – לֹא הִתִּירוּהָ חֲכָמִים בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ו,פו שֶׁמִּקָּח וּמִמְכָּר גָּמוּר לֹא הִתִּירוּ אֲפִלּוּ לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, עַיֵּן שָׁם.71

אֶלָּא כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה? יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָה לְנָכְרִי הַמַּכִּירוֹ וּמְיֻדָּעוֹ, שֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ בּוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,72 וְיִזָּהֵר לְהַקְנוֹת לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ בְּהַגְבָּהָה אוֹ בִּמְשִׁיכָהפז,73 שֶׁיִּמְשְׁכֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי לִרְשׁוּתוֹ אִם אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַעֲבִירוֹ דֶּרֶךְ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"דפח עַיֵּן שָׁם. וְאִם הֶחָמֵץ רַב שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְמָשְׁכוֹ – יִזָּהֵר לְהַקְנוֹת לוֹ בִּמְסִירַת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ.פט,74 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לִתֵּן מַתָּנָה בְּשַׁבָּת, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה הִתִּירוּ,צ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"ו,צא עַיֵּן שָׁם:75

17 A Jew is permitted to tell a non-Jew at [the onset of] the fifth hour on the day before Pesach or before [that time], “Instead of purchasing chametz for a maneh76from a non-Jew or another Jew, buy it for 200 [silver pieces] from me, and I will purchase it [back] from you after Pesach. [Not only] will I return your money, I will [also] give you [an] additional profit.”77

True, the non-Jew is obligated to return the chametz to [the Jew] after Pesach since he purchased it from [the Jew] for more than its value. Nevertheless, since [the Jew] sold the chametz to [the non-Jew] in a completely valid sale and formalized it with a contractual act, it belongs to [the non-Jew] throughout the time that the Jew does not buy it back from him.78

יז רַשַּׁאי יִשְׂרָאֵל לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי בְּשָׁעָה ה' בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אוֹ קֹדֶם:צב "עַד שֶׁאַתָּה לוֹקֵחַ חָמֵץ מִנָּכְרִי אוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר בְּמָנֶה,76 קַח מִמֶּנִּי בְּמָאתַיִם,צג וְאֶקָּחֶנּוּ מִמְּךָצד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְאַחֲזִיר לְךָ מָעוֹתֶיךָ, וְאוֹסִיף לְךָ עוֹד רֶוַח עַל זֶה".צה,77 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הוּא מֻכְרָח לְהַחֲזִיר לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי לָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ בְּיוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי שָׁוְיוֹ,צו מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר מָכַר לוֹ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בִּמְכִירָה גְּמוּרָהצז וְהִקְנָה לוֹ בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא חָזַר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וּלְקָחוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ:78

18 Even though with regard to all matters of Torah [Law], when a person gives a gift with a stipulation that it be returned to him afterwards, the gift is entirely valid and it belongs [to the recipient] in the interim,79 nevertheless, with regard to chametz on Pesach, the Sages ruled stringently and forbade giving [one’s] chametz to a non-Jew with the stipulation that he return it after Pesach.80

[The Sages ruled stringently] even when [the Jew] does not [explicitly] stipulate to the non-Jew [that he is giving him the chametz as a gift] “on the condition that you return it to me,” but he gives it to [the non-Jew] and tells him, “See that you return it to me after Pesach, but even if you do not return it to me, it is yours as an outright gift during all the days of Pesach.”81 Even [in this instance], since [the Jew] explicitly told the non-Jew to return [the chametz] to him, the Sages ruled stringently because of the severity of [the prohibition against possessing] chametz. One should [therefore] not derive conclusions from [this ruling regarding Pesach] to other situations82 [involving a conditional gift].

יח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל הַתּוֹרָה כֻּלָּהּ הַנּוֹתֵן מַתָּנָה עַל מְנָת שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנָּה לוֹ לְאַחַר זְמַן הֲרֵי הִיא מַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָהצח וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַזְּמַן,79 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח הֶחֱמִירוּ חֲכָמִים וְאָסְרוּ לִתֵּן הֶחָמֵץ בְּמַתָּנָה לְנָכְרִי עַל מְנָת שֶׁיַּחֲזִירוֹ לוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.צט,80 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹמֵר לַנָּכְרִי: "עַל מְנָת שֶׁתַּחֲזִירוֹ לִי", אֶלָּא נוֹתְנוֹ לוֹ וְאוֹמֵר לוֹ: "רְאֵה שֶׁתַּחֲזִירוֹ לִי לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,ק וְאַף אִם לֹא תַּחֲזִירוֹ לִי הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁלְּךָ בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָה כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח",קא,81 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּפֵרוּשׁ שֶׁיַּחֲזִירוֹ לוֹ, הֶחֱמִירוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים מֵחֲמַת חֻמְרַת חָמֵץ, וְאֵין לִלְמֹד מִכָּאן לִמְקוֹמוֹת אֲחֵרִים:קב,82

19 Initially, it is even forbidden to give or sell [chametz] conditionally, for example, for [a Jew] to tell [a non-Jew]: “I am selling to you…” – or “giving you as a gift…” – “…outright [my chametz] from the present time83 on the condition that you do such-and-such during Pesach” or “…after Pesach.” [This prohibition applies] even though when the non-Jew performs the said act at the time specified, the chametz will retroactively be considered as having become his before Pesach. [Making such a conditional arrangement] involves the possibility of [the violation of] a Scriptural prohibition, [for] perhaps the non-Jew will not perform the specified act at the time that was stipulated and thus post factum, the chametz will never have been acquired by the non-Jew.84 [Its status during Pesach] will thus have been chametz belonging to a Jew that was entrusted to a non-Jew, for which the Jew violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz], as explained in sec. 440[:1].

יט וַאֲפִלּוּ לִתֵּן אוֹ לִמְכֹּר עַל תְּנַאי, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ: "הֲרֵינִי מוֹכְרוֹ אוֹ נוֹתְנוֹ לְךָ בְּמַתָּנָה לַחֲלוּטִין מֵעַכְשָׁו83 עַל מְנָת שֶׁתַּעֲשֶׂה דָּבָר פְּלוֹנִי בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּשֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה הַנָּכְרִי אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר בַּזְּמַן שֶׁקָּבַע לוֹ נִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ מִקֹּדֶם הַפֶּסַח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן,קג וְיֵשׁ כָּאן סְפֵק אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, שֶׁמָּא לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה הַנָּכְרִי אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר בַּזְּמַן שֶׁקָּבַע, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ לֹא נִקְנָה הֶחָמֵץ לַנָּכְרִי מֵעוֹלָם,קד,84 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמֻּפְקָד בְּיַד נָכְרִי שֶׁעוֹבֵר עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",קה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מ:קו

20 [A more stringent ruling applies,]85 however, if [the Jew] does not specify [that the gift or the sale will take effect retroactively] “from the present time,” but rather gives [the chametz] to [the non-Jew] without making such a statement, saying [merely], “If you do such-and-such during Pesach” – or “after Pesach” – “the chametz will be yours.”

Even though the non-Jew performs the act specified at the said time, the chametz is only acquired by him from the time [he performed that act] and onward. Before that time, [however,] the chametz [belonged to the Jew, and] its status was that of an article entrusted to a non-Jew for safekeeping. [Hence,] the Jew violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] because of it. As a result, after Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from this chametz, and all Jews are forbidden to purchase it from the non-Jew.86

כ אֲבָל85 אִם לֹא אָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו", אֶלָּא נְתָנוֹ לוֹ בִּסְתָם, וְאָמַר לוֹ: "אִם תַּעֲשֶׂה דָּבָר פְּלוֹנִי בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח יִהְיֶה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלְּךָ", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָשָׂה הַנָּכְרִי אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר בַּזְּמַן שֶׁקָּבַע לוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא נִקְנָה לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא מֵאוֹתוֹ זְמַן וָאֵילָךְ, וְקֹדֶם אוֹתוֹ זְמַן הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ כְּמֻפְקָד בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי, וְעָבַר עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא".קז וּלְפִיכָךְ חָמֵץ זֶה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, וְאָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִקְנוֹתוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי:קח,86

21 Similarly, if [the Jew] tells [the non-Jew], “Behold, I am selling you [the chametz] on the condition that you return it to me when I have the money to redeem it from you,” this is not a sale at all. [This ruling applies] even if the non-Jew gave [the Jew] the entire monetary value of the chametz. [The rationale is that] if the Jew will come to redeem his chametz on any of the days of Pesach, the non-Jew could not prevent him from doing so. Thus, the chametz has not been acquired by the non-Jew [in a binding manner] at all and it is not truly his.87 Therefore, after Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from this chametz, for the Jew violated [the prohibitions] against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] because of it.

כא וְכֵן אִם אָמַר לוֹ: "הֲרֵינִי מוֹכְרוֹ לְךָ עַל מְנָת שֶׁתַּחֲזִירֵהוּ לִי כְּשֶׁיִּהְיֶה לִי דָּמִים לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִמְּךָ" – אֵין זוֹ מְכִירָה כְּלָל, אַף אִם נָתַן לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי כָּל דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּכָל יוֹם וָיוֹם מִימֵי הַפֶּסַח אִם יָבֹא הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִפְדּוֹת חֲמֵצוֹ אֵין הַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עַל יָדוֹ, נִמְצָא שֶׁאֵין הֶחָמֵץ קָנוּי לְהַנָּכְרִי כְּלָל וְאֵינוֹ כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ,87 וּלְפִיכָךְ חָמֵץ זֶה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי עָבַר עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא":קט

22 By contrast, if [the Jew] tells [the non-Jew], “[I am giving the chametz to you] on the condition that you return it to me after Pesach,” [the gift is valid. The rationale is that] since throughout the days of Pesach, [the non-Jew] was not obligated to return [the chametz] to the Jew, it belonged to the non-Jew throughout those days. Therefore, after Pesach, it is permitted even to partake of [this chametz] since the Jew did not violate [the prohibitions] against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] because of it. It is only that, as an initial preference, it is forbidden to do so, as explained [above].88

כב אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ: "עַל מְנָת שֶׁתַּחֲזִירֵהוּ לִי לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח", כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח לֹא הָיָה מְחֻיָּב לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, וּלְפִיכָךְ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הוּא מֻתָּרקי אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:קיא,88

23 It is, however, permitted for [the Jew] to tell [the non-Jew] initially, “I am selling you [the chametz] outright, as a completely binding transaction, but I reserve the right that if you desire to sell it, you do not sell it to anyone other than me.” [Indeed,] it is desirable that every person who sells his chametz to a non-Jew explicitly make such a statement to [the non-Jew. This statement] will be effective in preventing any person other than [the former owner] from buying the chametz from the non-Jew after Pesach.89

Nevertheless, even if [the Jew] did not explicitly make such a statement to [the non-Jew], no other person may purchase the chametz from the non-Jew. [The rationale is that] it was certainly [the Jew’s] intent when selling [his chametz] to the non-Jew to reserve this right concerning his chametz – that no one else be able to purchase it from the non-Jew.

כג אֲבָל מֻתָּר לוֹמַר לוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּה: "הֲרֵינִי מוֹכְרוֹ לְךָ בִּמְכִירָה גְּמוּרָה לַחֲלוּטִין, אֲבָל זְכוּת זֶה שִׁיַּרְתִּי לִי בּוֹ שֶׁאִם תִּרְצֶה לְמָכְרוֹ לֹא תִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְשׁוּם אָדָם חוּץ מִמֶּנִּי". וְטוֹב שֶׁכָּל אָדָם הַמּוֹכֵר חֲמֵצוֹ לְנָכְרִי יֹאמַר לוֹ כֵּן בְּפֵרוּשׁ, וְיוֹעִיל בָּזֶה שֶׁשּׁוּם אָדָם חוּץ מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא יוּכַל לִקְנוֹת חֲמֵצוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.89

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אַף אִם לֹא אָמַר לוֹ כֵּן בְּפֵרוּשׁ – אֵין שׁוּם אָדָם יָכוֹל לִקְנוֹתוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ כֵּן כְּשֶׁמָּכַר לַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיִּשָּׁאֵר לוֹ זְכוּת זֶה בַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁשּׁוּם אָדָם לֹא יוּכַל לִקְנוֹתוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי:קיב

24 At the time of the sale, however, [the Jew] should not stipulate to the non-Jew that he is selling [the chametz] to him, “on the condition that you do not sell it to anyone other than me.” [That is undesirable] lest the non-Jew violate this stipulation and sell it to another person. [Were that to occur,] the chametz would retroactively never have been acquired by the non-Jew and the Jew would have violated [the prohibitions] against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].90 [As a result,] it would be forbidden [for anyone] to benefit from the chametz.

כד אֲבָל לֹא יַתְנֶה עִם הַנָּכְרִי בִּשְׁעַת מְכִירָה שֶׁ"עַל מְנָת כֵּן אֲנִי מוֹכֵר לְךָ שֶׁלֹּא תִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְשׁוּם אָדָם חוּץ מִמֶּנִּי", שֶׁמָּא יַעֲבֹר הַנָּכְרִי עַל תְּנַאי זֶה וְיִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְאָדָם אַחֵר, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ לֹא הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ קָנוּי לְהַנָּכְרִי מֵעוֹלָם,קיג וְעָבַר עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵלקיד בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",90 וְיֶאֱסֹר הֶחָמֵץ בַּהֲנָאָה:

25 If the non-Jew does not desire to return the chametz to [the Jew] after Pesach, but instead desires to maintain possession of it and pay the Jew its value, it is forbidden [for the Jew] to sue him in the secular court91 or use any other means of coercion [so that] he returns [the chametz] to [the Jew], for [the chametz] was already sold to [the non-Jew] outright.

כה אִם אֵין הַנָּכְרִי רוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִיר לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא רוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִיקוֹ לְעַצְמוֹ וּלְשַׁלֵּם דָּמָיו לְיִשְׂרָאֵל – אָסוּר לִתְבֹּעַ אוֹתוֹ בְּדִינֵיהֶם91 אוֹ לְכֻפּוֹ בִּשְׁאָר כְּפִיּוֹת עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר נִמְכַּר לוֹ לַחֲלוּטִין:קטו

26 [A Jew] should not sell [his] chametz to an apostate Jew. Even though [the apostate] has sinned, he is [still] a Jew.92 [Hence,] it is forbidden to benefit from [any] chametz that remained in his possession during Pesach, as [is the law regarding] the chametz of any [other] Jew. If [a Jew] transgressed and sold his chametz to [an apostate Jew] for a minimal amount because he is familiar with [the apostate] and knows that he will return it after Pesach, but [the Jew] did not know that it would be forbidden to benefit from the chametz, [the following leniency] is permitted if a severe [financial] loss is involved: [The original owner of the chametz] may tell the apostate to exchange the chametz with a non-Jew for other chametz or for another object.93 Alternatively, [the apostate] may sell [the chametz] to a non-Jew. [An article] or the money given in exchange [for the chametz] is permitted to [be used] by the Jew, as explained in sec. 443[:9-10];94 consult that source.

כו אֵין לִמְכֹּר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לְמוּמָר,קטז שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָטָא יִשְׂרָאֵל הוּא,קיז,92 וַחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה כַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל. וְאִם עָבַר וּמָכַר לוֹ חֲמֵצוֹ בְּדָבָר מוּעָט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַכִּירוֹ וְיוֹדֵעַ בּוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ יְהֵא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, אִם יֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה בַּדָּבָר – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לוֹ שֶׁיֹּאמַר לְהַמּוּמָר שֶׁיַּחֲלִיף אֶת הֶחָמֵץ עִם נָכְרִי עַל חָמֵץ אַחֵר אוֹ עַל דָּבָר אַחֵר,93 אוֹ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי, וְהַחֲלִיפִין אוֹ הַמָּעוֹת מֻתָּרִין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל,קיח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"גקיט,94 עַיֵּן שָׁם:

27 [The following laws apply when] a Jew and a non-Jew operated a partnership that possessed chametz [and] that [chametz] remained [in the possession of the partnership] during Pesach: Even though it is forbidden to benefit from the half [of the chametz] that is owned by the Jew, and that half is mixed together with the [other] half belonging to the non-Jew, when they divide [the assets of the partnership] after Pesach, it is nevertheless even permitted to eat from [the chametz] in the portion belonging to the non-Jew. [By contrast,] it is even forbidden to benefit from [the chametz] in the portion belonging to the Jew.95

כז יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִי שֶׁהָיָה לָהֶם שֻׁתָּפוּת בְּחָמֵץ וְעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֵצִי שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל נֶאֱסָר בַּהֲנָאָה וְהוּא מְעֹרָב עִם הַחֵצִי שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֶׁיַּחֲלֹקוּ אַחַר הַפֶּסַח הֲרֵי הַחֵצִי שֶׁל נָכְרִי מֻתָּרקכ אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָהקכא וְחֵצִי שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה:95

28 [The following ruling applies when] a Jew owned grain that was not chametz [that he had deposited] before Pesach in a mill [belonging to a non-Jew with the intent that the non-Jew] grind [it into flour. The non-Jew] did not grind it before Pesach; he did so only after the commencement [of the holiday] and, [at that time, the non-Jew] baked bread with [the Jew’s flour]. After Pesach, [the non-Jew] brought the bread to the Jew to show him its quality. The Jew is permitted to take money from the non-Jew in exchange for his grain. He is not deemed as one who is benefiting from chametz that belonged [to a Jew] during Pesach. [The rationale is that] when the non-Jew made a dough from [the Jew’s grain] and allowed it to leaven, it is as if he burned [the dough], for from that time onward it is no longer fit to be used by a Jew.96 [Since the grain] was still permitted for a Jew before [the non-Jew] caused it to leaven, [the Jew] is receiving payment for a permitted substance from the non-Jew.

The Jew is not required to purchase the bread from the non-Jew and obliterate it from existence in order to prevent the non-Jew from selling it to another Jew who will not know that it is chametz that belonged to a Jew during Pesach and [the purchaser] will eat it [in error].97

[The rationale is that] the Jewish [owner of the grain] is not obligated to suffer a financial loss because of a stumbling block [that might be created for] others.98 For [the Jew] is not placing the stumbling block before them; he is not selling the chametz to the non-Jew. The non-Jew is merely paying him for damages [the non-Jew caused by leavening the dough] and as a result, the chametz remained in the non-Jew’s possession. See sec. 440[:17].99

כח יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בְּבֵית הָרֵחַיִם תְּבוּאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְחֻמֶּצֶת לְטָחֲנָהּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא נִטְחֲנָה עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח שֶׁאָז טְחָנָהּ הַנָּכְרִי בַּעַל הָרֵחַיִם וְאָפָה מִמֶּנָּה פַּת וּלְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הֵבִיא אֶת הַפַּת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְהַרְאוֹת לוֹ טוֹבָתוֹ – מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִקַּח דָּמִים מִן הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַד הַתְּבוּאָה, וְאֵין זֶה נֶהֱנֶה מֵחָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, לְפִי שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָשָׂה מִמֶּנָּה עִסָּה וְחִמְּצָהּ הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ שְׂרָפָהּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה עוֹד לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,96 וְקֹדֶם שֶׁחִמְּצָהּ הָיְתָה עֲדַיִן מֻתֶּרֶת לַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, אִם כֵּן דְּמֵי הֶתֵּר הוּא מְקַבֵּל מִן הַנָּכְרִי.קכב

וְאֵין מְחַיְּבִין אֶת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִקַּח הַפַּת מִן הַנָּכְרִי וּלְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהוּא חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ,97 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְחֻיָּב לְהַפְסִיד מָמוֹנוֹ מִפְּנֵי תַּקָּלַת אֲחֵרִים,98 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן לִפְנֵיהֶם תַּקָּלָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי, אֶלָּא הַנָּכְרִי מְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ נִזְקוֹ, וּמִמֵּילָא נִשְׁאָר הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי,קכג עַיֵּן סִימָן ת"מ:קכד,99

29 When chametz is discovered in a Jew’s domain immediately after Pesach and it is known that it existed there during Pesach, it is nevertheless forbidden to benefit from it. [This stringency applies] even though [the Jewish owner] searched [for chametz] on the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan] as ordained by the Sages and nullified [his possession of] all the chametz that remained in his domain that he did not find in his search. [Although the owner nullified his chametz, and,] thus, he did not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] even according to Rabbinic Law, [it is nonetheless forbidden to benefit from it,] for this chametz was discovered in his domain [immediately] after Pesach.100 [This stringency applies] even if [the owner] has witnesses that he nullified [his possession of] all his chametz or declared it ownerless in their presence, [not merely nullifying his possession of it, but] stating [explicitly] that he declared it ownerless.

[The rationale for this severe ruling is that] were it to be permitted to benefit from [the chametz], there is concern that every person will leave his chametz until after Pesach and say that he declared it ownerless before Pesach so that he will be allowed to benefit from it.101 Even when chametz is found cast away in an ownerless place, having been cast there by a Jew before the sixth hour on the day before Pesach so that he will not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] – something that is permitted to be done even as an initial preference,102 as explained in sec. 445[:1] – nevertheless, after Pesach, it is forbidden for all Jews to benefit from [this chametz].103

כט חָמֵץ הַנִּמְצָא בִּרְשׁוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח מִיָּד וְיָדוּעַ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,קכה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּדַק בְּלֵיל י"ד כְּתַקָּנַת חֲכָמִיםקכו וּבִטֵּל כָּל חֲמֵצוֹקכז שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מְצָאוֹ בַּבְּדִיקָה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים עַל חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁנִּמְצָא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,100 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לוֹ עֵדִים שֶׁבִּטֵּל כָּל חֲמֵצוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהִפְקִירוֹ בִּפְנֵיהֶםקכח בִּלְשׁוֹן הֶפְקֵר מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁאִם יְהֵא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁקכט שֶׁמָּא יַנִּיחַ כָּל אָדָם חֲמֵצוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְיֹאמַר שֶׁהִפְקִירוֹקל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁנַּתִּיר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ.101 וַאֲפִלּוּ חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא מֻשְׁלָךְ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְקֵר, שֶׁהִשְׁלִיכוֹ שָׁם יִשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" בְּפֶסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ה,קלא שֶׁמֻּתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן לְכַתְּחִלָּה,102 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ:קלב,103

30 When does the above apply? When one knows that [the chametz] belonged to a Jew or the majority of the passersby in that place are Jewish104 [and thus] it can be assumed that [the chametz that] fell there [belonged to and] fell from [one of] the majority [of the local population].105 If, however, the majority of the passersby in that place are non-Jews or even if [the number of Jews and non-Jews are] equal,106 we operate under a presumption that leads to leniency and say that [the chametz that] fell there [belonged to and] fell from a non-Jew.107 [Therefore, a Jew] is permitted even to partake of [this chametz. The rationale is that] whenever a doubt [arises regarding a question of] Rabbinic Law,108 leniency is granted.

All the above [stringencies] apply when [the chametz] was found immediately after Pesach and [thus] it is impossible to postulate that [the chametz] fell there after Pesach. If, however, it is possible to presume that [the chametz] fell there after Pesach, it is permitted to partake of it in all contexts. [This leniency applies] even if [the chametz] was found in a Jew’s home. [The rationale is that] whenever a doubt [arises regarding a question of] Rabbinic Law,109 leniency is granted.

Therefore, there are grounds to permit purchasing beer, alcoholic beverages, and other chametz from an apostate Jew after Pesach if it can be presumed that [the substances] became [chametz] after Pesach and they did not exist in the Jew’s domain for even a portion of the holiday.110 There are authorities who [advise acting] stringently with regard to any doubt that arises with regard to chametz that existed [in a Jew’s domain] during Pesach, and forbid partaking of it. One should give weight to their words in an instance where a severe [financial] loss is not involved. However, all authorities agree that it is permitted to benefit from [such chametz].111

ל בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אוֹ שֶׁרֹב עוֹבְרֵי מָקוֹם הַהוּא הֵן יִשְׂרָאֵל,104 שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם נָפַל שָׁמָּה מִן הָרֹב,105 אֲבָל אִם רֹב עוֹבְרֵי מָקוֹם הַהוּא הֵן נָכְרִים,קלג אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מֶחֱצָה עַל מֶחֱצָה106 – תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל לוֹמַר שֶׁמִּן נָכְרִי נָפַל שָׁמָּה,107 וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,קלד שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים108 לְהָקֵל.קלה

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנִּמְצָא מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִתְלוֹת שֶׁנָּפַל שָׁמָּה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לִתְלוֹת שֶׁנָּפַל שָׁמָּה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה בְּכָל עִנְיָן,קלו אֲפִלּוּ נִמְצָא בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,קלז שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְהָקֵל.109

לְפִיכָךְ, יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר לִקְנוֹת מִן הַמּוּמָר אַחַר הַפֶּסַח שֵׁכָר וְיֵין־שָׂרָף וּשְׁאָר חָמֵץ אִם יֵשׁ לִתְלוֹתקלח שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה אַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא עָבַר עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ מִקְצָת הַפֶּסַח.קלט,110

וְיֵשׁ מַחֲמִירִיןקמ בְּכָל סְפֵק חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח לְאָסְרוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה. וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה. אֲבָל בַּהֲנָאָה מֻתָּר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל:111

31 When chametz remained in a Jew’s possession during Pesach, [after Pesach,] it is even forbidden to feed it to animals belonging to non-Jews or [to animals] which are ownerless, as stated in sec. 443[:3] with regard to chametz on Pesach; consult that source.

לא חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר לְהַאֲכִילוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לִבְהֵמוֹת נָכְרִים אוֹ שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר,קמא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"גקמב לְעִנְיַן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, עַיֵּן שָׁם: