SECTION 447 The Laws [Governing] Mixtures of Chametz in the Midst of Pesach (1-63)

סימן תמז דִּין תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וּבוֹ ס"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 All substances forbidden by the Torah [other than chametz] that became mixed [with other foods] only cause the mixture to be forbidden when they impart flavor to the mixture.1 [The Sages determined that flavor of a forbidden substance is imparted when the permitted substance is less than] sixty times [the volume of the forbidden substance.2 More stringent laws apply, however, with regard to] chametz that became mixed [with permitted substances] during Pesach, i.e., from the night of the fifteenth [of Nissan] until the night after the final festive day [of Pesach].3 The reason for this is:

[a)] the Torah ruled stringently concerning [chametz, decreeing that one who partakes of chametz on Pesach] is liable for kareis;4 even having [chametz]seen [in one’s domain] and possessing [chametz] is forbidden,5and

[b)] people regularly [partake of chametz] throughout the year and hence, are likely to forget its [prohibition].6

Therefore, our Sages therefore ruled stringently [regarding chametz] and prohibited [both] partaking of and benefiting7 from [any] mixture that contains even the slightest amount [of chametz.8 This prohibition applies] whether:

[a)] dry [chametz9 became mixed] with dry [matzah] (i.e., [the substances] became mixed [while they were] both cold or both hot, but no liquid was present;10 if, however, [the chametz and kosher for Pesach food] are placed in hot liquid, [the mixture] is considered to be a mixture [of two] liquids, because the flavor of the forbidden substance will be released into the permitted substance, as will be explained);11 an example [of a dry mixture] is a piece from a loaf [made] from leavened grain that became mixed with 1000 pieces of matzah,or

[b) the substances became mixed while] both were moist, for example, beer produced from grain that had leavened12 that fell into mead [that had been prepared] for [use on] Pesach, whether, [as in the instance mentioned,] the substances were not of the same type, or whether they were of the same type,13 i.e., the two [substances] have the same flavor,14 for example, a piece of a loaf that was kneaded with leavened grain that fell into a pot where matzah had been cooked.15 Even in the instance where no actual substance of chametz remains in the mixture, e.g., [the person] recognized the piece of chametz that fell in the pot and removed it from the pot immediately, even so, [prior to its removal] at least a minute amount of the flavor [of the chametz] was [already] released into the pot, causing it to be forbidden to benefit [from everything in] the pot, even the matzah, [although it] has the same flavor [as the chametz].16

Nevertheless, if none – not even the very slightest amount – of the actual substance of chametz17 is present in the mixture, there are authorities who permit selling the entire mixture to a non-Jew,18 (provided [the mixture] is such that there is no concern that the non-Jew will then sell the mixture to another Jew, who will not know that it contains chametz and [hence, that Jew] may partake of it on Pesach,19 as explained in sec. 442[:19]). [The rationale for the leniency is that] the non-Jew is not paying any additional money for the minute amount of the flavor of chametz [in the mixture]. Hence, [the Jew selling it] is not deriving any benefit at all from the [the flavor of] chametz [contained within the mixture].

[The Jew] must, however, take care to sell the entire mixture immediately after the chametz became mixed together with it, for it is forbidden to maintain possession of [the chametz] on Pesach, (unless it is the eighth day of Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 467[:28]),20 lest he forget and partake of it. Although it is permitted to maintain possession of all [other] forbidden substances for a short while, for example, [for] a month or two, and there is no concern that [the owner] will forget [that the substance is prohibited and] partake of it, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 57,21 nevertheless, [greater stringency is applied with regard to chametz] since a person regularly [partakes of] it throughout the year, there is greater concern that he may forget [its prohibition on Pesach and partake of it]. Therefore, [the Sages] applied many stringencies and enacted several restrictions to distance [the Jewish people] from its [consumption]. Accordingly, one should not deduce from [the numerous safeguards required for chametz on Pesach] that [similar strictures] should be applied [regarding] other substances forbidden by the Torah.

[Different rules apply], however, if there is even the slightest amount of the substance of chametz in the mixture and it is thoroughly mixed in, in a manner resembling a mixture of liquids, which become mixed so thoroughly that they cannot be separated one from the other, for example, flour from leavened grain that became mixed and thoroughly blended with unleavened flour. [Such a mixture is considered as if it is a liquid mixture] since the [forbidden] flour dissolves into and blends entirely within the permitted flour, and it is impossible that [even] the most minimal amount of the flour of the mixture will not contain [at least a trace of] the forbidden flour. [Therefore,] it is forbidden to sell the entire mixture to a non-Jew even when [the owner] subtracts the value of the forbidden substance contained within it, i.e., he will only receive payment for the value of the mixture prior to the chametz becoming mixed with it.22

[This stringency is required] because the Sages only [granted] license [to sell a mixture of chametz and non-chametz to a non-Jew without benefiting from the value of the chametz] when the chametz became mixed [with permitted substances] in a dry mixture,] i.e., a loaf that was chametz became mixed with two loaves of matzah. [In that instance,] the forbidden and permitted [substances] are not blended together. Instead, each one remains a distinct entity; it is merely that we are unable to identify the forbidden [entity. Indeed,] were we able to identify it, it would be possible to separate [the forbidden entity] from [the mixture]. Therefore, since [the Jew] does not receive payment for the forbidden substance when he sells [the mixture] to a non-Jew without [charging him for] the value of the forbidden substance, it is as if [the Jew] is separating the [forbidden substance] from the permitted [substance].

When, by contrast, the entire [amount of the] forbidden [substance] is mixed with the permitted [substance] in a manner similar to a liquid mixture, in which instance, it is impossible to separate them one from the other, [the Sages] did not grant such license. Instead, it is necessary to immediately obliterate the entire mixture from existence entirely. The only exception is when the mixture does not contain any of the substance of the chametz; it is only that some of its flavor was released into the mixture.

There are authorities who [rule more leniently and] maintain that a mixture of flour is not governed by the laws pertaining to a liquid mixture – in which instance, it is forbidden to sell the mixture to a non-Jew [even] without [charging for] the value [of the chametz mixed] into it. Instead, [these authorities maintain that such a mixture] is governed by the laws pertaining to a dry mixture.23 [The exception to this rule is if] leavened grain became mixed with unleavened grain and [the owner] ground the [entire] mixture together. In that instance, [even these authorities agree that] the flour that results is governed by the laws pertaining to a liquid mixture. [The rationale is that] the forbidden flour is thoroughly mixed and blended with the permitted flour through the grinding process. One may rely on [the leniency of] their words in the case of a severe [financial] loss.

א אַף עַל פִּיא שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּרִין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ אֵינָן אוֹסְרִין תַּעֲרָבְתָּן אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לִתֵּן טַעַם בַּתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת,ב,1 דְּהַיְנוּ עַד שִׁשִּׁים,ג,2 אֲבָל חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַחד,3 דְּהַיְנוּ מִלֵּיל ט"וה עַד מוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח,ו כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶחֱמִירָה בּוֹ תּוֹרָה לַעֲנֹשׁ כָּרֵתז,4 וְלַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",5 וּבְנֵי אָדָם מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהֵן רְגִילִין בּוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה הֵן קְרוֹבִין לְשִׁכְחָה,ח,6 לְפִיכָךְ הֶחֱמִירוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים7 שֶׁאוֹסֵר תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ,ט בֵּין בַּאֲכִילָה בֵּין בַּהֲנָאָה,י,8 (א) בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁיא,9 (פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב צוֹנֵן בְּצוֹנֵן אוֹ חַם בְּחַם בְּלֹא רֹטֶב,10 אֲבָל אִם הֵן מֻנָּחִין בְּרֹטֶב רוֹתֵחַ, הַיְנוּ לַח בְּלַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי נִפְלָט טַעַם הָאִסּוּר בְּתוֹךְ הַהֶתֵּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵריב,11), כְּגוֹן פְּרוּסַתיג פַּת שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה מְחֻמֶּצֶת שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּאֶלֶף פְּרוּסוֹת שֶׁל מַצָּה,9 וּבֵין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב לַח בְּלַח, כְּגוֹן שֵׁכָר מִתְּבוּאָה מְחֻמֶּצֶתיד,12 שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁל פֶּסַח, בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ וּבֵין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמִינוֹ,טו,13 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶן שָׁוִין בְּטַעְמָן,טז,14 כְּגוֹן חֲתִיכַת פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה מִקֶּמַח שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה מְחֻמֶּצֶת שֶׁנָּפְלָה לִקְדֵרָה מַצָּה מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת,15 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת כְּלוּם מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר אֶת חֲתִיכַת חָמֵץ שֶׁנָּפְלָה לַקְּדֵרָה וֶהֱסִירָהּ מִן הַקְּדֵרָה מִיָּד, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ שֶׁנִּפְלַט מִמֶּנָּה לְתוֹךְ הַקְּדֵרָה אוֹסֵריז בַּהֲנָאָה אֲפִלּוּ אֶת הַמַּצָּה שֶׁשָּׁוָה לָהּ בַּטַּעַם.יח,16

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ כְּלוּם בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ – יֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןיט,17 לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת18 (אִם הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזֹר הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכֹּר הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה בְּפֶסַחכ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"בכא,19), שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַנָּכְרִי מוֹסִיף לוֹ דָּמִים בְּעַד טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלָל מֵהֶחָמֵץ.

רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לִמְכֹּר כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת תֵּכֶף וּמִיָּדכב שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בּוֹ הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא יוֹם שְׁמִינִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"זכג),20 שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ.כד וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל מַאֲכָלוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָןכה זְמַן מוּעָט כְּמוֹ חֹדֶשׁ אוֹ שְׁנֵי חֳדָשִׁים, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן נ"ז,כו,21 מִכָּל מָקוֹם חָמֵץ כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל בּוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ יוֹתֵר לְשִׁכְחָה.כז וּלְפִיכָךְ הֶחֱמִירוּ בּוֹ חֻמְרוֹת הַרְבֵּה וְגָדְרוּ כַּמָּה גְּדָרִים כְּדֵי לְהִתְרַחֵק מִמֶּנּוּ,כח וּלְכָךְ אֵין לִלְמֹד מִמֶּנּוּ לִשְׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה.

אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בַּתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת מַשֶּׁהוּ מַמָּשׁוּת חָמֵץכט וְהוּא מְעֹרָב בּוֹ כְּעֵין תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת לַח בְּלַח, שֶׁהֵן נִבְלָלִין יָפֶה שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַפְרִידָן זֶה מִזֶּה, כְּגוֹן קֶמַח מִתְּבוּאָה חֲמוּצָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב וְנִבְלַל עִם קֶמַח שֶׁל תְּבוּאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ חֲמוּצָה,ל שֶׁהַקֶּמַח הוּא נִמּוֹחַלא וְנִבְלָל בְּכָל הַקֶּמַח שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְעַט קֶמַח מִן הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ מַשֶּׁהוּ מִן קֶמַח שֶׁל אִסּוּר – אָסוּר לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי כָּל הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת אֲפִלּוּ חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ דָּמִים רַק מַה שֶּׁהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הָיָה שָׁוֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב הֶחָמֵץ בְּתוֹכוֹ.לב,22

לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אֶלָּא בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ,לג דְּהַיְנוּ כִּכָּר שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב עִם שְׁנֵי כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל מַצָּה,לד,9 שֶׁהָאִסּוּר וְהַהֶתֵּר אֵינָן נִבְלָלִין זֶה בָּזֶה אֶלָּא כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, רַק שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ מַכִּירִין אֶת הָאִסּוּר וְאִלּוּ הָיִינוּ מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְהַפְרִידוֹ מִשָּׁם, וּלְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁמּוֹכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל דָּמִים בְּעַד הָאִסּוּר – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ מַפְרִידוֹ מִן הַהֶתֵּר.לה אֲבָל כָּל שֶׁהָאִסּוּר מְעֹרָב בְּהֶתֵּר כְּעֵין תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת לַח בְּלַח שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְהַפְרִידָן זֶה מִזֶּה – לֹא הִתִּירוּ חֲכָמִים לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, אֶלָּא צָרִיךְ לְבַעֵר כָּל הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת מִן הָעוֹלָם מִיָּד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֵין בַּתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת כְּלוּם מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ שֶׁנִּפְלַט מִמֶּנּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלו דְּקֶמַח שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב אֵין לוֹ דִּין תַּעֲרֹבֶת לַח בְּלַח שֶׁאָסוּר לִמְכֹּר הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ, אֶלָּא יֵשׁ לוֹ דִּין תַּעֲרֹבֶת יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ,23 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְעָרֵב תְּבוּאָה מְחֻמֶּצֶת בִּתְבוּאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְחֻמֶּצֶת וְטָחַן אֶת הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, אֲזַי יֵשׁ לְהַקֶּמַח הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ דִּין תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת לַח בְּלַח, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַטְּחִינָה מִתְעָרְבִין וְנִבְלָלִין יָפֶה הַקֶּמַח שֶׁל אִסּוּר עִם הַקֶּמַח שֶׁל הֶתֵּר.לז. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה:לח

2 There are, however, authorities who differ with all the above and maintain that even if the mixture does not contain any of the substance of chametz, but merely the minutest amount of the flavor of chametz was released into it, it is forbidden to sell [the mixture] to a non-Jew. Instead, the entire mixture must be burnt24 immediately.25 This is the custom in these countries, and one should not deviate [from it] unless a (very) severe [financial] loss is involved. In such an instance, one may rely on the first opinion.26

With regard to a dry mixture, by contrast, all authorities [agree that] it is permitted to sell it to a non-Jew except for the value of the forbidden [substance] it contains,27 as explained.28 It is, however, forbidden for [the owner] to take the value of the entire mixture, [i.e.,] including the chametz it contains, from the non-Jew and cast the value of the chametz it contains into the sea. Such a means of correcting [the situation] is effective only regarding [substances forbidden because of their connection with] the worship of false deities, but not regarding other substances from which it is forbidden to benefit,29 as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 110. See the rationale [explained] in that source.30

ב אֲבָל יֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןלט עַל כָּל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים דַּאֲפִלּוּ אֵין בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת כְּלוּם מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּפְלַט לְשָׁם טַעַם חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ – אָסוּר לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי, אֶלָּא שׂוֹרְפִין24 כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶתמ מִיָּד.מא,25 וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.מב וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת הַמִּנְהָג אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד (ב) גָּדוֹל (מְאֹד), שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.מג,26

אֲבָל בְּתַעֲרֹבֶת (ג) יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל יָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ,27 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר.מד,28

אֲבָל אָסוּר לוֹ לִטֹּל מֵהַנָּכְרִי דְּמֵי כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת עִם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וּלְהַשְׁלִיךְ דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבּוֹ לַיָּם, שֶׁאֵין תַּקָּנָה זוֹ מוֹעֶלֶת אֶלָּא בַּעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה אֲבָל לֹא בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה,מה,29 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"י,מו עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם:30

3 When chametz was cooked in utensils on Pesach,31 one should scrub [the utensils clean] and wash them thoroughly so that there will be no chametz visibly [attached] to them. [Doing this is sufficient because] one does not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] for the chametz that is absorbed in the [sides of the utensils. The rationale is that] the [chametz absorbed in the sides of the utensils] is not “found” in one’s [domain]. Therefore, it is permitted to leave [the utensils] until after Pesach, at which time it is permitted to cook in them without performing hag’alah32or kashering them at all. One must, however, store [the utensils] in a concealed place throughout all the days of Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 451[:1].

Similarly, it is permitted to sell [these utensils] even in the midst of Pesach.33 It is [also] permitted to place cold [food] in [such utensils] temporarily,34 as well as to heat water in them to use for bathing or for laundry35 provisionally, even on Pesach, as is the law applying to a utensil in which chametz was cooked before Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 450[:13]. The Sages were not concerned that if [the owner] was allowed to leave [the utensils] until after Pesach, he might forget and cook in them during Pesach. [These laws differ from those applying] to food [that absorbed chametz], which was forbidden to be eaten during Pesach [and which must be sold or obliterated] because of this concern.36

ג כֵּלִים שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בָּהֶן חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַחמז מְשַׁפְשְׁפָן וּמְדִיחָן הֵיטֵבמח שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא חָמֵץ נִרְאֶה בָּהֶן בְּעֵין, שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּדְּפָנוֹת אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ מָצוּי לְךָ,מט,31 לְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁאָז מֻתָּר לְבַשֵּׁל בָּהֶן בְּלֹא הַגְעָלָה32 וְהֶכְשֵׁר כְּלָל. רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְהַצְנִיעָן בְּמָקוֹם צָנוּעַ כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א.נ וְכֵן מֻתָּר לְמָכְרָן אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח.נא,33 וְכֵן לְהַנִּיחַ בְּתוֹכָן דָּבָר צוֹנֵן דֶּרֶךְ עֲרַאי,34 אוֹ לְהָחֵם בָּהֶן מַיִם חַמִּין לִרְחִיצָה וְלִכְבִיסָה35 דֶּרֶךְ עֲרַאי – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בְּפֶסַח, כְּדִין כְּלִי שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ חָמֵץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁ[יִּ]תְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"נ,נב וְלֹא חָשׁוּ חֲכָמִים אִם יַשְׁהֶה אוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וִיבַשֵּׁל בָּהֶן בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח כְּמוֹ שֶׁחָשְׁשׁוּ בְּמַאֲכָל הַנֶּאֱסָר בַּאֲכִילָה בְּפֶסַח מִשּׁוּם חֲשָׁשָׁא זוֹ:נג,36

4 When does the above – that on Pesach, [even] the slightest amount of chametz causes a mixture to be forbidden – apply? When [the chametz] has become thoroughly mixed, and [its] flavor has spread throughout all of the permitted [food]. For example, a very small amount of chametz fell into a hot cooked dish from which a hand would recoil from touching it [yad soledes bo],37 whether [the chametz] fell in the sauce [of the cooked dish] or whether it fell on a piece of meat which is [at least] partially lying in the sauce.38 [The rationale is that] the sauce spreads the tiny amount of flavor of the chametz throughout [all the food] in the pot.

By contrast, [were the above to happen] with regard to other forbidden [substances], the flavor of this tiny amount [of the forbidden substance] would be nullified when mixed with [more than] 60 times [its volume of permitted substances]. Chametz on Pesach, however, is never nullified, even when mixed with many thousand [times its volume of permitted substances]. Therefore, the entire contents of the pot are forbidden.

ד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אוֹסֵר תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ? כְּשֶׁנִּבְלַל וְנִתְפַּשֵּׁט טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בְּכָל הַהֶתֵּר, כְּגוֹן מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ תַּבְשִׁיל חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,37 בֵּין שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹךְ הָרֹטֶב בֵּין שֶׁנָּפַל עַל גַּבֵּי חֲתִיכַת בָּשָׂר שֶׁמֻּנַּחַת מִקְצָתָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הָרֹטֶב,38 שֶׁהָרֹטֶב מוֹלִיךְ טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּכָל הַקְּדֵרָה,נד אֶלָּא שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין מִתְבַּטֵּל טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה בְּשִׁשִּׁים, אֲבָל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל אֲפִלּוּ בְּאַלְפֵי אֲלָפִים, וּלְפִיכָךְ נֶאֱסָר כָּל מַה שֶּׁבַּקְּדֵרָה:

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 If, however, the flavor of the chametz did not spread throughout all the permitted [food], only through a portion of it, only the portion into which the flavor [of the chametz] spread is forbidden. The remainder [of the food] is permitted; [indeed, one may] even partake of it.

What is implied? When a loaf of chametz that was [so hot that] a hand would recoil from touching it touched a loaf of matzah that was [so hot that] a hand would recoil from touching it,39 all that is forbidden is the place of contact, i.e., [the owner] should remove the place where the chametz touched the matzah, removing [a portion] a thumbbreadth40 deep from the [loaf of] matzah. The remainder [of the matzah] is permitted; one may even partake of it, since not even the slightest amount of the flavor of chametz was released into it. [The rationale is that] since there is no sauce to spread the flavor of the chametz, the flavor of the chametz will not penetrate [much] beyond the place of contact due to its inherent natural characteristics.41

If one cooked the matzah that touched the chametz without removing the place where it touched the matzah, the entire matzah and everything that was cooked with it in the pot is forbidden, even if [after cooking the matzah], one could remove [the portion of matzah that touched the chametz] because he recognizes its location. [The rationale is that] the flavor of the chametz that was absorbed in the portion [of the matzah] that came in contact with [the chametz] spreads throughout the entire cooked dish because of the sauce and causes the entire [dish] to be forbidden, for, on Pesach, even the slightest amount of chametz [causes food] to become forbidden.

ה אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְפַּשֵּׁט טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בְּכָל הַהֶתֵּר אֶלָּא בְּמִקְצָת מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵין אוֹסֵר אֶלָּא הַמִּקְצָת שֶׁנִּתְפַּשֵּׁט בּוֹ, וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה. כֵּיצַד? כִּכַּר חָמֵץ שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ שֶׁנָּגַע בְּכִכַּר מַצָּה חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ39 – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר אֶלָּא מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ,נה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיָּסִיר מֵהַמַּצָּה אֶת הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ הֶחָמֵץ, וְיָסִיר אוֹתָהּ בְּעֹמֶק כְּרֹחַב אֲגוּדָל,נו,40 וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִפְלַטנז לְשָׁם טַעַם חָמֵץ כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ,נח דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם רֹטֶב לְהוֹלִיךְ אֶת טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ – אֵין טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ הוֹלֵךְ מֵעַצְמוֹ בְּטִבְעוֹ יוֹתֵר מִמְּקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ.נט,41

וְאִם בִּשֵּׁל אֶת הַמַּצָּה שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהּ חָמֵץ וְלֹא הֵסִיר מְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֶפְשָׁר לַהֲסִירוֹ עַכְשָׁו שֶׁהוּא מַכִּיר אֶת מְקוֹמוֹ – הֲרֵי כָּל מַצָּה זוֹ עִם כָּל מַה שֶּׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל עִמָּהּ בַּקְּדֵרָה הַכֹּל אָסוּר, לְפִי שֶׁטַּעַם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהָיָה בָּלוּעַ בִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹ נִתְפַּשֵּׁט עַכְשָׁו בְּכָל הַתַּבְשִׁיל עַל יְדֵי הָרֹטֶב וְאוֹסֵר אֶת הַכֹּל, שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ:ס

6 All the above42 applies [only] when the permitted [substance] that touched the chametz is lean, e.g. matzah and the like. If, however, the permitted [substance] is fatty, e.g., matzah that was smeared with oil,43 fatty roasted meat, or [fatty] cooked [meat] that is lying entirely outside the sauce,44 the fat of the permitted [substance] where it [came into] contact [with the chametz] imparts fattiness to the flavor of the minute amount of chametz that is released [into the permitted substance] and, as a result, this flavor of chametz permeates and spreads throughout the entire permitted [substance],45 as is the nature of any fatty substance to permeate and spread throughout [a substance] when it is so hot that a hand would recoil from [touching] it. Since a trace of the flavor of the chametz spreads through the entire permitted [substance], this causes the entire [permitted substance] to be forbidden. [The rationale is that even a trace of] chametz never becomes nullified on Pesach no matter where it is located, [even when it has been absorbed in another entity].

ו וְכָל זֶה42 כְּשֶׁהַהֶתֵּר שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ הֶחָמֵץ הוּא כָּחוּשׁסא כְּמַצָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ, אֲבָל אִם הַהֶתֵּר הוּא שָׁמֵן, כְּגוֹן מַצָּה הַמְּשׁוּחָה בְּשֶׁמֶן,סב,43 אוֹ בָּשָׂר שָׁמֵן צָלִיסג אוֹ מְבֻשָּׁל, וְהוּא מֻנָּח כֻּלּוֹ חוּץ לָרֹטֶבסד,44 – הֲרֵי הַשַּׁמְנוּנִית שֶׁל הֶתֵּר שֶׁבִּמְקוֹם מַגָּעוֹסה הוּא מְפַטֵּםסו וּמַשְׁמִין אֶת טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ הַנִּפְלָט,סז וְעַל יְדֵי כֵן מְפַעְפֵּעַ טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה וּמִתְפַּשֵּׁט בְּכָל הַהֶתֵּר,45 כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ כָּל דָּבָר שָׁמֵן לְפַעְפֵּעַ וּלְהִתְפַּשֵּׁט כְּשֶׁהוּא חַםסח כָּל כָּךְ עַד שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּתְפַּשֵּׁט טַעַם חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּכָל הַהֶתֵּר – הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹסֵר אֶת כֻּלּוֹ, שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל לְעוֹלָם:

7 It is customary in these countries to be stringent with regard to hot meat that was touched by hot chametz and to forbid all [the meat] even if it is lean. [The rationale is that] we are not knowledgeable [enough] to distinguish between lean [meat] and fatty [meat],46 for at times meat appears lean from the outside and is [actually] fatty on the inside. Therefore, it is customary to rule stringently regarding any substance that can possibly be fatty and forbid benefiting from it entirely if it was touched by chametz when both [it and the chametz] were hot, even though there is no sauce present. We only rule leniently47 when chametz touched matzah or a similar substance, i.e., [situations where] neither substance can be considered as fatty in any way, as will be explained in sec. 461[:16ff] and sec. 467[:53]. Consult those sources for all the particular laws [relevant to this matter].

ז וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּבָשָׂר חַם שֶׁנָּגַע בּוֹ חָמֵץ חַם לֶאֱסֹר אֶת כֻּלּוֹסט אֲפִלּוּ הוּא כָּחוּשׁ, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ בְּקִיאִים לְחַלֵּק בֵּין כָּחוּשׁ לְשָׁמֵן,ע,46 שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים הַבָּשָׂר נִרְאֶה כָּחוּשׁ מִבַּחוּץ וְהוּא שָׁמֵן מִבִּפְנִים.עא לְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר בְּכָל דָּבָר שֶׁשַּׁיָּךְ בּוֹ שַׁמְנוּנִית לֶאֱסֹר אֶת כֻּלּוֹ בַּהֲנָאָה אִם נָגַע בּוֹ חָמֵץ וּשְׁנֵיהֶם חַמִּין אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין שָׁם רֹטֶב. וְאֵין אָנוּ מְקִלִּין47 אֶלָּא בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁנָּגַע בְּמַצָּה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ מִדְּבָרִים שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא בָּהֶם שׁוּם צַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּהֶם שַׁמְנוּנִית,עב כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"אעג וְתס"ז,עד עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּינִים אֵלּוּ:

8 Even though [the presence of even] the slightest amount of chametz on Pesach causes [a mixture] to be forbidden [even] when the flavor of the chametz is not discernible in the mixture, nevertheless, if the chametz imparts an undesirable taste to the mixture, it does not cause [the mixture] to be forbidden at all.48 [The mixture is] even [permitted to] be eaten [regardless of] whether:

[a)] a large amount of [chametz] is included [in the mixture] and thus [the undesirable flavor of the chametz] detracts from the flavor of the mixture, or

[b)] only a small amount [of chametz] is included [in the mixture – in which instance, the undesirable flavor of the chametz] does not detract from [the flavor of] the mixture, because it is not discernible at all.

[The rationale is that] any flavor that detracts from [the taste of] a mixture is not considered as flavor at all; it is considered as if [the substance with an unpleasant flavor] was not released into the mixture at all.

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that since on Pesach even the slightest amount of chametz causes [a mixture] to be forbidden – and there is no greater example of the flavor [of a substance] being nullified than [by] mixing a tiny amount [of the substance] into [another substance] many thousands of times its volume, and yet it is forbidden – [accordingly,] the same law applies when [chametz] imparts an undesirable flavor [to the mixture. According to these authorities, this law applies] whether there is a sufficient amount [of the chametz] to impart an undesirable flavor or whether [the mixture] does not [contain a sufficient amount of the chametz to do so]. Even [if the mixture contains] only the slightest amount [of the chametz and it was] mixed in many thousand times its volume [of permitted substances], the entire [mixture] is forbidden. [One may not] eat it or benefit from it. This is the custom [practiced] in these countries.

Nevertheless, in a place where there is no prevailing custom, one should rule that one who shows leniency in accordance with the first opinion does not forfeit [anything]. Nevertheless, may blessings light upon one who is stringent.49

ח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אוֹסֵר בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, שֶׁאֵין טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ נִרְגָּשׁ בְּתַעֲרָבְתּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הֶחָמֵץ נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר כְּלָלעה,48 אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב מִמֶּנּוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כְּדֵי לִתֵּן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת,עו, בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרֵב מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא מְעַט שֶׁאֵין טַעְמוֹ פּוֹגֵם הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְגָּשׁ כְּלָל, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל טַעַם שֶׁפּוֹגֵם בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא טַעַם כְּלָל,עז, וּכְאִלּוּ לֹא נִפְלַט כְּלָל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןעח עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים: כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אוֹסֵר בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, וְאֵין לְךָ בִּטּוּל טַעַם יוֹתֵר מִמַּשֶּׁהוּ בְּאַלְפֵי אֲלָפִים וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר, וְהוּא הַדִּין לְנוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם,עט בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כְּדֵי לִתֵּן טַעַם לִפְגָם בֵּין שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּאַלְפֵי אֲלָפִים אוֹסֵר הַכֹּלפ בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה.פא וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ.

אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִנְהָג יָדוּעַ יֵשׁ לְהוֹרוֹת שֶׁהַמֵּקֵל כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לֹא הִפְסִיד, אֲבָל הַמַּחֲמִיר תָּבֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה:פב,49

9 Other forbidden substances50 only cause a permitted [substance] to become forbidden when they impart their [actual] flavor to the permitted [substance]. If, by contrast, none of the flavor of the forbidden [substance] is present in the permitted substance – even though the fragrance of the forbidden [substance] has been absorbed in [the permitted substance], the fragrance does not cause the permitted substance to become forbidden,51 as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 108.52

[Different laws apply, however, regarding] chametz on Pesach. Since even the slightest amount [of chametz] causes a mixture to be forbidden even though the flavor of chametz cannot be tasted in the mixture, therefore, even the fragrance [of chametz] causes [a permitted substance] to become forbidden. For example, a loaf of chametz was baked in an oven, and fatty meat was being roasted in the [same] oven while [the chametz] was baking. [There is no difference] whether [the meat] was being roasted on a spit or in an uncovered pot. The aroma of the fatty roasted [meat] is absorbed in the loaf [of chametz] and imparts [a richness] to its aroma. Afterwards, the fatty fragrance brings with it the weak fragrance of the chametz and causes it to be absorbed in the roasted [meat].

The above applies [when the two foods are being prepared] in a small oven that does not hold twelve esronim53of matzah (i.e., [an oven] that is not large enough to bake twelve matzos, each [measuring] one isaron,54on its floor55 at the same time, the thickness of each loaf [of matzah] being a bit less than a handbreadth, as is the law regarding the baking of matzos, as will be explained in sec. 460[:10]). [For this law to apply,] the opening to the oven must be closed, but it need not be entirely closed; it [may] have a slight opening at the side. Also, the oven [may] have a hole that is open on its top [to enable] the smoke to [escape]. Nevertheless, since primarily, its opening is closed, the fragrance [of the chametz] will not spread outside [of the oven] and it will [thus] be absorbed by the permitted [substance].

When does the above apply? When the roasted [meat] is fatty. If, however, it is lean, [everything is permitted]. Needless to say, [this ruling applies] when a loaf of matzah is baked in one oven with loaves of chametz. Even if there is more chametz than matzah, all [the matzah] is permitted. [This ruling applies] even if the oven is closed entirely on all sides and it does not have an open hole. Even if the chametz and the permitted [food] remained in the oven for several days, since they are lean, their fragrance does not spread at all. Even if the loaves were kneaded with fat or with oil, they are nonetheless considered as lean [in this context].56

Even so, the [actual] place where the chametz baked must be subjected to fire to make it kosher to bake matzah there.57 Nevertheless, this is not necessary for the remainder of the oven, for the chametz that was absorbed does not spread throughout its entirety without liquid.58

ט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁאָר אִסּוּרִין50 אֵינָן אוֹסְרִין אֶת הַהֶתֵּר אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נָתְנוּ טַעַם בַּהֶתֵּר, אֲבָל אִם אֵין בַּהֶתֵּר כְּלוּם מִטַּעַם הָאִסּוּר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּקְלַט בּוֹ רֵיחַ הָאִסּוּר אֵין רֵיחַ זֶה אוֹסֵר אֶת הַהֶתֵּרפג,51 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ח.52

אֲבָל חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אוֹסֵר תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין טוֹעֲמִין טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת, לְפִיכָךְ גַּם רֵיחוֹ אָסוּר,פד כְּגוֹן כִּכַּר חָמֵץ שֶׁנֶּאֱפָה בְּתַנּוּר וּבְעֵת אֲפִיָּתוֹ הוּא נִצְלָה בַּתַּנּוּר בָּשָׂר שָׁמֵן, בֵּין שֶׁנִּצְלָה בְּשַׁפּוּד בֵּין שֶׁנִּצְלָה בִּקְדֵרָה מְגֻלָּהפה – הֲרֵי רֵיחַ הַשַּׁמְנוּנִית שֶׁל הַצָּלִי נִכְנָס בְּהַכִּכָּר וּמְפַטֵּם אֶת רֵיחוֹ,פו,51 וְחוֹזֵר רֵיחַ הַשַּׁמְנוּנִית וּמוֹלִיךְ עִמּוֹפז רֵיחַ הַכָּחוּשׁ שֶׁל הֶחָמֵץ וְיַבְלִיעוֹ בַּצָּלִי.פח

וְהוּא שֶׁהַתַּנּוּר קָטָןפט שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַחֲזִיק י"ב עֶשְׂרוֹנִים53 שֶׁל מַצָּהצ (דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵין יְכוֹלִין לֶאֱפוֹת בְּקַרְקָעִיתוֹ55 בְּבַת אַחַת י"ב כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל מַצָּה שֶׁל עִשָּׂרוֹןצא עִשָּׂרוֹן,54 וָעֳבִי כָּל כִּכָּר הוּא פָּחוֹת מִטֶּפַח מַשֶּׁהוּ, כְּדִין אֲפִיַּת הַמַּצּוֹתצב שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"סצג), וּפִי הַתַּנּוּר הוּא סָתוּם,צד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ סָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי אֶלָּא פָּתוּחַ קְצָת מִן הַצַּד, וְכֵן יֵשׁ בַּתַּנּוּר נֶקֶב פִּי פָּתוּחַ לְמַעְלָה בַּמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֶעָשָׁן יוֹצֵא, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעִקַּר פִּיו הוּא סָתוּם – אֵין מָקוֹם לְהָרֵיחַ לְהִתְפַּשֵּׁט לַחוּץ וְנִקְלָט בְּהַהֶתֵּר.צה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּצָלִי שָׁמֵן, אֲבָל אִם הוּא כָּחוּשׁ, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר פַּת מַצָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד עִם כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל חָמֵץ,צו אֲפִלּוּ הֶחָמֵץ מְרֻבֶּה מֵהַמַּצָּה הַכֹּל מֻתָּר, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַתַּנּוּר סָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי מִכָּל צַד וְאֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם נֶקֶב פָּתוּחַ, וַאֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁתַּהוּ הֶחָמֵץ וְהַהֶתֵּר בְּתוֹכוֹ כַּמָּה יָמִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם כְּחוּשִׁים אֵין רֵיחָם נוֹדֵף כְּלָל.צז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַכִּכָּרוֹת הֵן נִלּוֹשִׁין בְּשֻׁמָּן אוֹ בְּשֶׁמֶן, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הֵן נִקְרָאִין כְּחוּשִׁים.צח,56

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנֶּאֱפָה שָׁם הֶחָמֵץ צָרִיךְ הֶסֵּק לְהַכְשִׁירוֹ לֶאֱפוֹת שָׁם מַצָּה,57 אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל הַתַּנּוּר אֵין צָרִיךְ, שֶׁאֵין בְּלִיעַת הֶחָמֵץ מִתְפַּשֶּׁטֶת בְּכֻלּוֹ בְּלֹא רֹטֶב:צט,58

10 Similarly, if fatty meat was cooked in a pot in the oven while chametz was being baked, [the meat] does not become forbidden59 even if they remained together in the oven for several days. [The rationale is that] the aroma of food that is being cooked does not spread to the same degree as the aroma of roasted food and [thus,] it does not have the power to impart fattiness to the fragrance of the chametz and then cause [the fragrance of the chametz] to be absorbed by [the meat].

When does the above apply? When the oven was not entirely closed. If, however, the oven was entirely closed, it did not have an open hole, and [the meat that is cooking and the chametz] remained in the oven for a long time,60 [the meat is forbidden. Indeed, this ruling applies] even when a cooked dish of chametz [food] is cooked in the same oven as a permitted cooked food61 and one of them – whether the forbidden one62 or the permitted one – is fatty. If both [foods] are uncovered in the oven and the oven is entirely closed without any open hole, and both cooked dishes were left in it for a long time, like one does when keeping food warm for Shabbos [day] in a closed oven,63 [in which instance,] the food remains there for a long time,64 it is forbidden to eat and to benefit from all [the food. The rationale is that] it is patently obvious that stew that is left to warm for the Shabbos [day] has a very powerful aroma. If, however, one cooks during the week for an hour or two and the oven is closed entirely for that time, there is no concern that the fragrance of the forbidden [food] was absorbed in the permitted food, even if they are both fatty. Similarly, if one of [the dishes] is covered, its fragrance does not spread beyond [the pot], nor is the fragrance of the other [dish] absorbed in it.

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that the fragrance of chametz alone does not cause [a permitted substance] to become forbidden at all. [The rationale is that] none – not even the most miniscule amount – of the flavor of the chametz became absorbed in the permitted [substance]. Therefore, even if both cooked foods are fatty, [moreover,] they are [both] uncovered in an oven that is entirely closed, and they remained in [the oven] for several days, and the fragrance of the chametz is absorbed in the permitted cooked or roasted food, it is [nevertheless,] permitted to eat [it] on Pesach.

In an instance where a severe [financial] loss is involved, or it is a pressing situation [that will detract from one’s] rejoicing on the festival, i.e., [the person] does not have other [cooked] foods, one may rely on their words.65 This is the [accepted] custom.66 Nevertheless, may blessings light upon one who is stringent.

י וְכֵן אִם בְּעֵת אֲפִיַּת הֶחָמֵץ נִתְבַּשֵּׁל בַּתַּנּוּר בָּשָׂר שָׁמֵן בִּקְדֵרָה אֵינוֹ נֶאֱסָרק,59 אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁתַּהוּ בְּיַחַד בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר כַּמָּה יָמִים, לְפִי שֶׁדָּבָר הַמִּתְבַּשֵּׁל אֵין רֵיחוֹ נוֹדֵף כָּל כָּךְ כְּמוֹ רֵיחַ הַצָּלִי, וְאֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לְפַטֵּם אֶת רֵיחַ הֶחָמֵץ וְלַחֲזֹר וּלְהַבְלִיעוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹ.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַתַּנּוּר סָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה סָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי וְלֹא הָיָה בּוֹ שׁוּם נֶקֶב פָּתוּחַ וְנִשְׁתַּהָה בְּתוֹכוֹ זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה,60 אֲפִלּוּ תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּתַנּוּר אֶחָד עִם תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁל הֶתֵּר61 וְאֶחָד מֵהֶם הוּא שָׁמֵן, בֵּין שֶׁהָאִסּוּר הוּא שָׁמֵןקא,62 בֵּין שֶׁהַהֶתֵּר שָׁמֵן, וּשְׁנֵיהֶם מְגֻלִּין בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר וְהַתַּנּוּר הוּא סָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי וְאֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם נֶקֶב פָּתוּחַ, וְנִשְׁתַּהוּ הַתַּבְשִׁילִין בְּתוֹכוֹ זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לְהַטְמִין חַמִּין לְשַׁבָּת בְּתַנּוּר סָתוּם63 וְשׁוֹהִין בְּתוֹכוֹ הַרְבֵּה64 – הֲרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּרקב בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי עֵינֵינוּ רוֹאוֹת שֶׁחַמִּין הַטְּמוּנִים לְשַׁבָּת יֵשׁ לָהֶם רֵיחַ חָזָק.קג אֲבָל אִם מְבַשְּׁלִין בְּחֹל שָׁעָה אוֹ שְׁתַּיִם וְסוֹתְמִין הַתַּנּוּר לְגַמְרֵי לְפִי שָׁעָה – אֵין לָחֹשׁקד שֶׁמָּא נִקְלַט רֵיחַ הָאִסּוּר בְּהַהֶתֵּר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שְׁמֵנִים. וְכֵן אִם אֶחָד מֵהֶן מְכֻסֶּהקה – אֵין הָרֵיחַ שֶׁלּוֹ יוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ וְלֹא רֵיחַ אַחֵר נִקְלָט לְתוֹכוֹ.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןקו עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁרֵיחַ הֶחָמֵץ בִּלְבַד אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר כְּלָל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִקְלַט בְּהַהֶתֵּר מִטַּעַם הֶחָמֵץ כְּלוּם אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ. וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנֵי הַתַּבְשִׁילִין הֵן שְׁמֵנִים וְהֵם מְגֻלִּין בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁהוּא סָתוּם לְגַמְרֵי וְנִשְׁתַּהוּ בְּתוֹכוֹקז כַּמָּה יָמִים וְנִקְלַט רֵיחַ הֶחָמֵץ בְּתַבְשִׁיל אוֹ בְּצָלִי שֶׁל הֶתֵּר – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח.

וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, כְּגוֹן לְצֹרֶךְ שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַאֲכָלִים אֲחֵרִים – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם.קח,65 וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין.קט,66 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמַּחֲמִיר – תָּבוֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה:

11 All the above applies when both the forbidden and the permitted [substances] are not sharp. If, however, one of them is sharp and they are both uncovered in the oven, [the permitted substance] is forbidden. [This ruling applies not only to chametz, but] even with regard to other forbidden substances, and [it applies] even if the oven is large and open, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 108.67 Consult that source regarding all the particular details of this law.

יא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהָאִסּוּר וְהַהֶתֵּר שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵינָן מִדְּבָרִים הַחֲרִיפִים, אֲבָל אִם אֶחָד מֵהֶם הוּא דָּבָר חָרִיף וּשְׁנֵיהֶם מְגֻלִּין בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר, אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין אָסוּר,קי אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַתַּנּוּר גָּדוֹל וּפָתוּחַ,קיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ח,קיב,67 עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

12 All the above68 applies when the fragrance of the chametz does not impair [the flavor of] the permitted [food]. If, however, [the fragrance of the chametz] impairs [the flavor of] the permitted food, [the food that absorbed the fragrance of the chametz] may be permitted in all contexts, even when a severe [financial] loss is not involved. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who even permit [partaking of substances that absorbed] the flavor [of chametz] that impairs [the flavor of the permitted food.69 Indeed,] fundamentally, [the halachah follows this view], as explained above.70

יב וְכָל זֶה68 כְּשֶׁרֵיחַ הֶחָמֵץ אֵינוֹ פּוֹגֵם בַּהֶתֵּר, אֲבָל אִם הוּא לִפְגָם בַּהֶתֵּר – יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר בְּכָל עִנְיָן,קיג אֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין אֲפִלּוּ טַעַם לִפְגָם69 וְכֵן עִקָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:קיד,70

13 If, on Pesach, [the opening of] an oven was closed with the same block of wood with which the oven is closed throughout the entire year,71 even if that block of wood was not washed before it [was used to] close [the oven], everything [baked] in the oven is permitted.72

יג אִם סָתְמוּ פִּי הַתַּנּוּר בְּפֶסַח בְּדַף שֶׁסּוֹתְמִין בּוֹ הַתַּנּוּר כָּל הַשָּׁנָה,71 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֵדִיחוּ הַדַּף כְּלָל קֹדֶם שֶׁסָּתְמוּ בּוֹ – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כָּל מַה שֶּׁבַּתַּנּוּר מֻתָּר:קטו,72

14 When chametz became mixed [with permitted substances] on Pesach in a dry mixture, for example, a piece [of a loaf] that was chametz became mixed with 1000 pieces of matzah, and one of the pieces was eliminated entirely,73 [e.g.,] it was eaten or burnt unintentionally, the entire mixture is permitted.74 [The mixture] may even be eaten,75 [because] we presume that it was the piece of chametz that was eliminated. [The rationale is that the ruling] that on Pesach, chametz is not nullified when mixed with a majority [of permitted substances], is only a Rabbinic [stringency], and [we follow the principle that] when there is a doubt regarding a matter of Rabbinic Law, we rule leniently, as is [reflected by] the explanations given in Yoreh Deah, sec. 110.76 Consult that source regarding the reasons and all the particular details of this law.

יד חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ,קטז, כְּגוֹן חֲתִיכַת חָמֵץ בְּאֶלֶף חֲתִיכוֹת מַצָּה,9 וְנֶאֶבְדָה אַחַת מֵהַחֲתִיכוֹת מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי,73 כְּגוֹן שֶׁנֶּאֶכְלָה בְּשׁוֹגֵג אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׂרְפָה – הֲרֵי כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת מֻתָּרקיז,74 אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,קיח,75 שֶׁאָנוּ תּוֹלִין לוֹמַר אוֹתָהּ הַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁל חָמֵץ הִיא שֶׁנֶּאֶבְדָה מִן הָעוֹלָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹב אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קיט וּסְפֵק דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהָקֵל, וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"י,קכ,76 עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם עִם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

15 Even when none of the pieces [of the original mixture] were eliminated, but a [small] portion of that mixture77 became mixed with a greater number of other pieces of matzah, and then a minor portion of the second mixture was mixed with a greater number of other pieces of matzah, this third mixture78 is permitted to be eaten during Pesach for the reason explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 110.79 Consult that source regarding all the particular details of this law.

טו וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נֶאֶבְדָה שׁוּם חֲתִיכָה מֵהֶן, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב מִעוּטָן77 בְּרֹב חֲתִיכוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁל מַצָּה וּמִתַּעֲרֹבֶת זוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה נִתְעָרֵב מִעוּטָן בְּרֹב חֲתִיכוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁל מַצָּה – הֲרֵי הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת זוֹ הַשְּׁלִישִׁית78 מֻתֶּרֶתקכא בַּאֲכִילָהקכב,75 בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"י,קכג,79 עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

16 All the above80 applies with regard to a dry [mixture]. When, however, a liquid mixture [of chametz and a substance that was kosher for Pesach] came about during Pesach, even if the majority of the mixture is eliminated from existence, the remnants remain forbidden, [just] as they [previously] were.

Similarly, if some of the [original liquid] mixture became mixed into a second mixture [i.e., the original mixture mixed with permitted substances, and some of] this second mixture became mixed into a third mixture [with other permitted substances], and [subsequently some of] this third mixture [became mixed] into a fourth, and so on ad infinitum, [even the final mixture is entirely forbidden].81 For example, a cooked dish became forbidden because a minute trace of chametz [became mixed with it]. A small amount of the sauce from this cooked dish fell into another cooked dish, and [some of the sauce] from the second cooked dish [fell] into a third cooked dish, and [so on] from the third to the fourth, ad infinitum. It is forbidden to eat and to benefit from all [these cooked dishes].82 Similarly, if a piece of meat was cooked in one of these [batches of] cooked food that had become forbidden and [the meat that] became forbidden [because of the cooked food] was then cooked together with another dish, [the forbidden meat] causes the entire [other dish] to be forbidden, even though that [food] contains sixty [times the amount of] that piece [of meat.83 The rationale is that] the minute trace of chametz that was absorbed in the first cooked dish spread throughout all the portions of that cooked dish. There is no [portion of] that cooked dish that will not contain a trace of the chametz, for there is no minimum measure for “a trace”.84 [Indeed, one trace] can spread and separate into thousands upon thousands of traces. [Thus,] when some of the sauce from this cooked dish fell into another cooked dish, a trace of the flavor of chametz fell with it. That trace spread throughout all the portions of [the other] cooked dish, and so on ad infinitum.

Similarly, a piece of meat that was cooked with one of the cooked forbidden [foods] absorbed a trace of the trace of the flavor of the chametz that was in the cooked [food]. When [this meat] was cooked with another cooked dish, it releases some of the trace of the flavor of chametz it contains, and causes the entire cooked dish to become forbidden.

Even if this piece of meat became mixed with 1000 other pieces of meat in a dry mixture,85 they are all forbidden to be eaten. Instead, [the pieces of meat] should all be sold to a non-Jew without receiving the value of the forbidden [flavor contained] in them, as explained above.86 There are authorities who permit even [such a piece of meat] to be eaten if it became mixed with two other pieces of meat in a dry mixture.87 [The rationale is that] this piece [of meat] contains only a trace of the flavor of chametz. One may rely on their words when a severe [financial] loss is involved or it is a pressing situation.88 [When relying on this leniency, one should] remove one piece [of meat from the mixture],89 according to the custom explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 109.90

טז וְכָל זֶה80 בְּיָבֵשׁ, אֲבָל לַח בְּלַח שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִלּוּ נֶאֱבַד רֹב הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת מִן הָעוֹלָם – הֲרֵי הַשְּׁאָר עוֹמֵד בְּאִסּוּרוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה. וְכֵן אִם נִתְעָרֵב מִקְצָת תַּעֲרֹבֶת זֶה בְּתַעֲרֹבֶת שֵׁנִית וּמֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הַשֵּׁנִית לְתַעֲרֹבֶת שְׁלִישִׁית וּמִשְּׁלִישִׁית לִרְבִיעִית וְכֵן לְעוֹלָם,קכד,81 כְּגוֹן תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר מֵחֲמַת חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ וְנָפַל מְעַט רֹטֶב מִתַּבְשִׁיל זֶה לְתַבְשִׁיל אַחֵר וּמִתַּבְשִׁיל שֵׁנִי לְתַבְשִׁיל שְׁלִישִׁי וּמִשְּׁלִישִׁי לִרְבִיעִי וְכֵן לְעוֹלָם – כֻּלָּם אֲסוּרִיןקכה בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה.82

וְכֵן חֲתִיכַת בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה בְּאֶחָד מִתַּבְשִׁילִין הַלָּלוּ שֶׁנֶּאֶסְרוּ וְנֶאֶסְרָה הִיא עִמָּהֶם וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְבַּשְּׁלָה עִם תַּבְשִׁיל אַחֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּאוֹתוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתָהּ הַחֲתִיכָה – הֲרֵי הִיא אוֹסֶרֶת אֶת הַכֹּל,קכו,83 לְפִי שֶׁמַּשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּבְלַע בְּתַבְשִׁיל רִאשׁוֹן נִתְפַּשֵּׁט בְּכָל חֶלְקֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל, וְאֵין מַשֶּׁהוּ בַּתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ מַשֶּׁהוּ מִטַּעַם הֶחָמֵץ, שֶׁמַּשֶּׁהוּ אֵין לוֹ שִׁעוּר,84 וְיָכוֹל הוּא לְהִתְפַּשֵּׁט וּלְהִתְחַלֵּק לְאַלְפֵי אֲלָפִים מַשֶּׁהוּיִין, וּכְשֶׁנָּפַל מְעַט רֹטֶב מִתַּבְשִׁיל זֶה לְתַבְשִׁיל אַחֵר נָפַל עִמּוֹ גַּם מַשֶּׁהוּ מִטַּעַם הֶחָמֵץ וְנִתְפַּשֵּׁט מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה בְּכָל חֶלְקֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל, וְכֵן לְעוֹלָם.

וְכֵן חֲתִיכַת בָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלָה בְּאֶחָד מִתַּבְשִׁילִין הַנֶּאֱסָרִים, קִבְּלָה מַשֶּׁהוּ מִטַּעַם הֶחָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ שֶׁבַּתַּבְשִׁיל, וּכְשֶׁבִּשְּׁלָהּ בְּתַבְשִׁיל אַחֵר הִיא פּוֹלֶטֶת מְעַט מִטַּעַם חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ וְאוֹסֶרֶת כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁיל.

וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרְבָה חֲתִיכָה זוֹ בְּאֶלֶף חֲתִיכוֹת יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ85 – כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה,קכז אֶלָּא יִמְכְּרֵם לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶן כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קכח,86 וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִיןקכט אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה אִם נִתְעָרְבָה בְּב' חֲתִיכוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ,87 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בַּחֲתִיכָה זוֹ אֶלָּא טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,88 וְיָסִיר חֲתִיכָה אַחַת89 לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ט:קל,90

17 Similarly, when one stirred one of the above-mentioned cooked dishes [in which a trace of the flavor of chametz was mixed] with a spoon and then on this same day91 stirred another cooked dish [with that spoon], it is forbidden to benefit from the entire [second cooked dish] even if it is 60 [times the volume] of the spoon. ([Moreover,] according to the custom practiced in these countries to forbid on Pesach [foods to which] an undesirable flavor was imparted,92 [this law applies] even if one stirred [the second cooked dish more] than 24 hours after stirring the first [cooked dish].) Similarly, all the utensils that were used with that cooked food while it was so hot that a hand would recoil from it must be stored away until after Pesach.93

If one of these utensils became mixed with 1000 other utensils, they must all be stored away until after Pesach, because there is no way that chametz can ever become nullified on Pesach.

There are [other] authorities who maintain that if one of the utensils [that were used to stir the cooked dish] became mixed with two other utensils, [the forbidden utensil] is batel berov, nullified because it is mixed with a greater amount [of permitted utensils. These authorities rule in this manner] because [the forbidden utensil] was only forbidden since it [absorbed] a minute amount [of chametz].94 One may rely on their words when a severe [financial] loss is involved or in a pressing situation. [However,] one utensil should be removed [from the mixture], according to the custom explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 109.95

יז וְכֵן כַּף שֶׁהֵגִיס בּוֹ אֶחָד מֵהַתַּבְשִׁילִין הַלָּלוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ הֵגִיס בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם91 (וּלְמִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאוֹסְרִים נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּפֶסַחקלא,92 אֲפִלּוּ הֵגִיס בּוֹ אַחַר מֵעֵת לְעֵת לַהֲגָסָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הַדִּין כֵּן) תַּבְשִׁיל אַחֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכַּף, הַכֹּל אָסוּרקלב בַּהֲנָאָה.קלג וְכֵן כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל כְּשֶׁהוּא חַם שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ, צָרִיךְ לְהַצְנִיעָן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.קלד,93

וְאִם נִתְעָרֵב אֶחָד מֵהַכֵּלִים הַלָּלוּ בְּאֶלֶף כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִיםקלה – צָרִיךְ לְהַצְנִיעָן כֻּלָּן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵין לוֹ בִּטּוּל לְעוֹלָם בְּשׁוּם עִנְיָןקלו. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלז שֶׁאִם נִתְעָרֵב אֶחָד מִכֵּלִים הַלָּלוּ בִּשְׁנֵי כֵּלִים אֲחֵרִים – הֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל בְּרֹב, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נֶאֱסַר אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת מַשֶּׁהוּ.94 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, וְיָסִיר כְּלִי אַחַתקלח לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ט:קלט,95

18 All the above96 applies during Pesach. [Different laws apply,] however, before Pesach – even on the day preceding Pesach from the sixth hour97 until nightfall, when it is forbidden to partake of or benefit from chametz according to Scriptural Law.98 Nevertheless, since [eating chametz at this time] is not [punishable] by kareis,99 the Sages did not add more stringencies regarding it than [those pertaining to] other Scriptural prohibitions.100

Therefore, [before Pesach, chametz] is nullified in a liquid mixture when there is 60 [times as much of the permitted substance as the amount of chametz], as is true with regard to other forbidden [substances] and, in a dry mixture, [chametz is nullified] when it is [simply] mixed with a larger amount [of permitted substances], as is true with regard to other forbidden [substances]. ([At that time, chametz] is not deemed a davar sheyeish lo matirin, a substance that will be permitted [at a] later [time],101 i.e., [the chametz will be permitted] after Pesach. [The rationale is that] even after Pesach, [chametz] is only permitted when it became mixed with a greater amount of permitted substances.102 [By contrast,] it is forbidden to benefit from chametz that remained a separate entity and existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach.)103 Similarly, all authorities agree that [before Pesach] the fragrance of chametz does not cause a substance to become forbidden.104 Similarly, [when chametz] impairs the flavor [of a mixture or another substance], all authorities agree that the other substance or the mixture is permitted, as is the law regarding other forbidden substances.105

Similarly, these laws apply with regard to chametz nukshah106 even during Pesach. [The rationale is that] since one is not liable for kareis for [partaking of chametz nukshah on Pesach], it is governed by the same laws that apply to actual chametz on the day preceding Pesach from the sixth hour onward.

יח וְכָל זֶה96 בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, אֲבָל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁיתקמ,97 עַד הַלַּיְלָה שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ אָסוּר אָז בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קמא,98 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כָּרֵת99 לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ בּוֹ חֲכָמִים יוֹתֵר מִבִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה,קמב,100 וּלְפִיכָךְ הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים כִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִיןקמג אִם נִתְעָרֵב לַח בְּלַח, וְאִם נִתְעָרֵב יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹבקמד כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין (וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא "דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין",101 דְּהַיְנוּ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,קמה כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אֵין לוֹ הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּלקמו בְּרֹב,קמז,102 שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָהקמח).103 וְכֵן אֵין רֵיחוֹ אוֹסֵר לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל.קמט,104 וְכֵן נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם מֻתָּר בּוֹ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין.קנ,105 וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּחָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה106 אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין חַיָּבִין עָלָיו כָּרֵת – הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּחָמֵץ גָּמוּר בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשֵּׁשׁ וּלְמַעְלָה:קנא

19 When a dough that is chametz fell into cold water, even though [the dough] remained in the water for an entire day, it is permitted to drink [the water] on the day preceding Pesach [even] from the sixth [hour] onward107 after [the water] was strained.108 [The rationale is that] it can be assumed that a dough that is chametz impairs the taste of the water. Similarly, barley impairs the flavor of water, causing it to spoil.109

יט עִסַּת חָמֵץ שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְמַיִם צוֹנְנִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁרֵית בְּתוֹכָן מֵעֵת לְעֵת – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתָן בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשֵּׁשׁ וּלְמַעְלָהקנב,107 אַחַר שֶׁסִּנְּנָן,קנג,108 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם עִסָּה שֶׁל חָמֵץ הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בַּמַּיִם.קנד וְכֵן שְׂעוֹרִים נוֹתְנִים טַעַם לִפְגָם בַּמַּיִם, שֶׁהֵן מַבְאִישִׁין אוֹתָם:קנה,109

20 When an entire loaf that was chametz became mixed with even 1000 loaves of matzah, it never becomes batel among them.110It is forbidden to partake of [any of the loaves in] this mixture on the day before Pesach from [the beginning of] the fifth hour111 onward. [The rationale is that] an entire loaf is a davar shebeminyan (i.e., [an article that] must be sold by counting each item individually because of its importance; it is not sold [in a group] by estimation, as is the practice when selling items that are not important). Any davar shebeminyan is never nullified, even [when it is mixed] with 1000 [times its volume], as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 110.112

כ כִּכָּר שָׁלֵם שֶׁל חָמֵץ9 שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף כִּכָּרוֹת שֶׁל מַצָּה אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכָם,קנו,110 וְאָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל מֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית111 וָאֵילָךְ, לְפִי שֶׁכִּכָּר שָׁלֵם הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁבְּמִנְיָן (פֵּרוּשׁ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְמָכְרוֹ בְּמִנְיָן מֵחֲמַת חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ נִמְכָּר בְּאֹמֶדקנז כְּמוֹ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִמְכֹּר דְּבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָן חֲשׁוּבִין), וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁבְּמִנְיָן אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף לֹא בָּטֵל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"י:קנח,112

21 When does the above apply? When the loaf was inherently forbidden, i.e., it was chametz. [Different rules apply,] however, when a loaf of matzah became forbidden because it absorbed a forbidden [substance or flavor. To cite two] examples: a kernel of wheat that had leavened was baked in [a loaf of matzah], in which instance, [after] removing [that kernel], it is necessary to remove some of the matzah [surrounding it],113 or a matzah of which part [was baked] folded over, in which instance, after cutting away the portion that was folded over – which is deemed chametz – an additional portion, k’dei netilah114must be removed, as will be stated in sec. 461[:16], because it absorbed the flavor of the chametz. If [such a piece of matzah] became mixed with other [pieces of matzah] before the [portion the size of] k’dei netilah was removed, all the pieces of matzah are permitted, and one may eat them on the day preceding Pesach115 until nightfall.116

It is not necessary to remove any of [the loaves of matzah. The rationale is that] the matzah that absorbed the forbidden [chametz] became nullified because [it was mixed with] a majority [of permitted substances]. Although [the matzah] remains a davar shebeminyan117 even after a small amount was cut off from it, nevertheless, the matzah itself is permitted and the forbidden [chametz] it contains is [itself] not a davar shebeminyan.118

כא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַכִּכָּר הוּא אָסוּר מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ שֶׁהוּא חָמֵץ, אֲבָל כִּכָּר שֶׁל מַצָּה שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ אִסּוּר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמָּצְאוּ בּוֹ חִטָּה חֲמוּצָה שֶׁנֶּאֱפֵית בְּתוֹכוֹ וֶהֱסִירָהּ מִמֶּנָּה וְצָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מִמֶּנָּה עוֹד מַצָּה,קנט,113 וְכֵן מַצָּה שֶׁנִּתְכַּפְּלָה מִקְצָתָהּ וְאַחַר שֶׁחָתַךְ מִמֶּנָּה מָקוֹם הַכָּפוּל שֶׁהוּא חָמֵץ צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מִמֶּנָּה עוֹד כְּדֵי נְטִילָה114 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"א,קס מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּבְלַע בָּהּ טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ, וְאִם קֹדֶם שֶׁהֵסִיר מִמֶּנָּה כְּדֵי נְטִילָה נִתְעָרְבָה בַּאֲחֵרוֹת – כֻּלָּם מֻתָּרִין, וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלָם בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח115 עַד הַלַּיְלָה,קסא,116 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מֵהֶם כְּלוּם, שֶׁאוֹתָהּ מַצָּה הַבְּלוּעָה מֵאִסּוּר נִתְבַּטְּלָה בְּרֹב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר שֶׁבְּמִנְיָן117 אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי הִיא בְּעַצְמָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת הִיא, וְהָאִסּוּר שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ אֵינוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁבְּמִנְיָן:קסב,118

22 Even when a large amount was cut off from a loaf [of matzah that had absorbed the flavor of chametz] and thus, the importance [of the loaf] was nullified,119 [if that loaf of matzah] became mixed with other pieces of matzah, it is forbidden to partake of or benefit from the mixture during Pesach, [i.e.,] from the night of the fifteenth [of Nissan] onward. It is even forbidden to maintain [possession of these pieces of matzah] until after Pesach, as explained in sec. 442[:18].120 True, the forbidden [substance] was nullified because [it was mixed with] a majority [of permitted substances] before Pesach. Nevertheless, since the actual substance of the forbidden [entity] did not integrate [entirely] into the physical substance of the permitted [entity], but rather exists as a separate entity within the mixture,121 therefore, when Pesach arrives, [the forbidden substance] becomes significant again122 and causes the entire mixture to be forbidden as if [the matzah that absorbed chametz] became mixed [with the permitted matzah] at this time, [i.e.,] on Pesach. (There are authorities who differ [with the above],123 and one may rely on their words in a pressing situation, as will be explained.)124

When, by contrast, chametz became mixed with a permitted [substance] in a liquid mixture,125 in which instance, [the chametz and the permitted substance] became integrated [entirely with each other], and [the chametz] is nullified before Pesach because [it was mixed with] 60 [times its volume] or because it imparts an undesirable flavor, it is permitted to partake of [the mixture] on Pesach.126 [The rationale is that] since the actual substance of the forbidden [entity] integrated [entirely] into the permitted [substance], and was nullified in it, [the forbidden entity, i.e., the chametz,] is as if it no longer exists, and it does not become significant [again] on Pesach.

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that since the faintest trace of the actual substance of chametz is [still] present in the mixture, [that trace of chametz] becomes significant again on Pesach, and causes the mixture to become forbidden127 even though [the chametz] integrated [entirely] within the permitted substance. There are authorities who rule even more stringently [and maintain] that even though the mixture does not contain even the slightest amount of the substance of chametz, but only a slight trace of the flavor of chametz was released into it, and [that trace of flavor] was nullified in [the mixture] before Pesach, [that trace of flavor of chametz] becomes significant again on Pesach. For example, [a kernel of] wheat that had become chametz was found in a cooked chicken, but [the kernel] was removed from [the chicken] before Pesach. [These authorities maintain that] it is forbidden to eat [the chicken] during Pesach, because the slight trace of the taste of chametz that was released from [the kernel of] wheat into the chicken becomes significant [again during Pesach] and causes the entire chicken to become forbidden.

The halachah follows the first opinion.128 One who desires to act stringently, following one of the two latter opinions, should do so regarding his own conduct, but should not rule in this manner for others.

[Difficulties may arise129 in the situation described immediately beforehand] if one did not remove the [kernel of] wheat from the chicken until after Pesach commenced, even though he removed the chicken from the pot before Pesach commenced and placed it in a pot without any sauce. If, for even one moment after Pesach commenced, the chicken was still hot to the extent that a hand would recoil from it, in that moment during Pesach, the [kernel of] wheat will release a slight trace of its flavor into the chicken and [therefore] cause the entire chicken to become forbidden if [the chicken] is fatty.130 And if [the chicken] is lean, it is necessary to remove the thickness of the width of a thumbbreadth around the place of [the kernel of] wheat.131 [Moreover,] according to the custom in these regions where no distinction is made between fatty [meat] and lean [meat],132 the entire chicken is forbidden in any case.

כב אֲפִלּוּ כִּכָּר שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ מִמֶּנּוּ הַרְבֵּה וְנִתְבַּטֵּל חֲשִׁיבוּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְעָרֵב בִּפְרוּסוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת שֶׁל מַצָּה – אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל וְלֵהָנוֹת מֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח119 מִלֵּיל ט"ו וָאֵילָךְ,קסג וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אָסוּר,קסד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב.קסה,120 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל הָאִסּוּר בְּרֹב קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין גּוּף הָאִסּוּר נִבְלָל בְּגוּף הַהֶתֵּר אֶלָּא הוּא עוֹמֵד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת,קסו,121 לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח הֲרֵי הוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר122 וְאוֹסֵר אֶת כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת כְּאִלּוּ נִתְעָרֵב עַכְשָׁו בַּפֶּסַח.

(וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין.קסז,123 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,קסח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵרקסט,124).

אֲבָל חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּהֶתֵּר לַח בְּלַחקע,125 שֶׁהֵן נִבְלָלִין, וְנִתְבַּטֵּל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּשִׁשִּׁים אוֹ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָםקעא – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,קעב,126 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הָאִסּוּר בָּלוּל בְּגוּף הַהֶתֵּר וְנִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּעוֹלָם כְּלָל, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר122 בְּפֶסַח.

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןקעג עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַשֶּׁהוּ מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בָּלוּל בְּגוּף הַהֶתֵּר, הוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח וְאוֹסֵר אֶת הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת.127

וְיֵשׁ מַחֲמִירִיןקעד עוֹד דַּאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת כְּלוּם מִמַּמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּפְלַט לְשָׁם טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ וְנִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי הוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח, כְּגוֹן תַּרְנְגֹלֶת מְבֻשֶּׁלֶת שֶׁמָּצָא בָּהּ חִטָּה מְחֻמֶּצֶת וְהֵסִיר מִמֶּנָּה הַחִטָּה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחקעה – אָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטַּעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ שֶׁנִּפְלַט מִן הַחִטָּה לַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר וְאוֹסֵר אֶת כָּל הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת.

וַהֲלָכָה כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.קעו,128 וּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲמִיר כְּאַחַת מִשְּׁתֵּי סְבָרוֹת הָאַחֲרוֹנוֹת – יַחֲמִיר לְעַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל לֹא יוֹרֶה כֵן לַאֲחֵרִים.

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הֵסִיר הַחִטָּה מִן הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת עַד שֶׁנִּכְנַס הַפֶּסַח,קעז,129 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹצִיא אֶת הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת מֵהַקְּדֵרָה קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת הַפֶּסַח וְהִנִּיחָהּ בִּקְעָרָה בְּלֹא רֹטֶב, אִם כְּשֶׁנִּכְנַס הַפֶּסַח הָיְתָה הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת עֲדַיִן חַמָּה בִּכְדֵי שֶׁהַיָּד סוֹלֶדֶת בּוֹ,קעח אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיְתָה חַמָּה אֶלָּא רֶגַע אֶחָד – הֲרֵי בְּאוֹתָהּ רֶגַע שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח חָזְרָה הַחִטָּה וּפָלְטָה טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת וְאוֹסֶרֶת אֶת כֻּלָּהּ אִם הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת הִיא שְׁמֵנָה.130 וְאִם הִיא כְּחוּשָׁה – צָרִיךְ לְהָסִיר מִמֶּנָּה בִּמְקוֹם הַחִטָּה כָּעֳבִי רֹחַב גּוּדָל.קעט,131 וּלְמִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵין מְחַלְּקִין בֵּין כְּחוּשָׁה לִשְׁמֵנָהקפ,132 – הֲרֵי כָּל הַתַּרְנְגֹלֶת אֲסוּרָה בְּכָל עִנְיָן:

23 A utensil that absorbed [the flavor of] chametz, that became mixed with other utensils [that are kosher for Pesach], does not become nullified in [the mixture],133 even if there are 1000 [utensils that are kosher for Pesach in the mixture. Therefore,] if one desires to use [these utensils to eat or cook] hot [foods] on Pesach134 or on the day before Pesach from the fifth hour onward, he must [purge the chametz from] all of the [utensils through] hag’alah.135 [The rationale is that] since it is possible to remove the forbidden [flavor] from the utensil that absorbed it through hag’alah, [the utensil] is considered as a davar sheyeish lo matirin, a substance that will be permitted later. [Such a substance] can never be nullified. (True, we do not rule in this manner with regard to other forbidden substances, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 102.136 Nevertheless, greater stringency is applied with regard to chametz on Pesach.)137

Therefore, if the utensil that absorbed [the flavor of] chametz is made from earthenware – which cannot [have the chametz purged from it] through hag’alah138[the utensil can be] nullified if it was mixed [in a mixture] with a majority of other earthenware utensils that are permitted [to be used on Pesach. Hence,] it is permitted to use all the utensils [in the mixture, and place and cook] hot food [in them] on the day preceding Pesach until nightfall. It is [also] permitted to eat hot food [that was cooked in these utensils before Pesach] during Pesach.139 It is, however, forbidden to use [these utensils] with hot food during Pesach, as is the law regarding dry [mixtures in which the forbidden substance] became nullified by [being mixed with] a majority of permitted substances before Pesach. [In such an instance, the flavor of the chametz] becomes significant again on Pesach.140

כג כְּלִי שֶׁה[וּ]א בָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בְּכֵלִים אֲחֵרִים – אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכָם133 אֲפִלּוּ הֵן אֶלֶף.קפא וְצָרִיךְ לְהַגְעִיל135 אֶת כֻּלָּם אִם רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּחַמִּין לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת הַפֶּסַח,134 אוֹ לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילַת עֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ,קפב דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה אֶפְשָׁר לְהַפְרִיד מִן הַכֵּלִים אֶת הָאִסּוּר הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּ"דָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין" שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל לְעוֹלָםקפג,101 (וְאַף עַל גַּב דְּבִשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין לֹא קַיְימָא לָן הָכִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ב,קפד,136 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח מַחֲמִירִין טְפֵי137).

לְפִיכָךְ אִם הָיָה כְּלִי זֶה שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ חָמֵץ כְּלִי חֶרֶס שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכְשָׁר בְּהַגְעָלָה138 – הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹב כְּלֵי חֶרֶס אֲחֵרִים שֶׁל הֶתֵּר,קפה וּמֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל הַכֵּלִים בְּחַמִּין בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח עַד הַלַּיְלָה, וּמֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל חַמִּין הַלָּלוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח.139 אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּחַמִּין בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,134 כְּדִין יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁקפו שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹב קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח:קפז,140

24 When a piece of bread141 fell into cold wine,142 even if it was removed from there before Pesach, there is nevertheless room for concern that perhaps fine crumbs crumbled from it and remained in the wine. Therefore, if the wine was not filtered before Pesach commenced, the flavor of the crumbs143 will have been released into the wine on Pesach since [the crumbs] soaked in [the wine] for [at least] a 24-hour period, i.e., [the time between] the moment [the slice of bread] fell into [the wine] until [the time the wine] was filtered on Pesach. At the end of this 24-hour period,144 [the wine and the crumbs] are considered as [having been] cooked [together], as stated in Yoreh Deah, section 105.145 At that time, [the crumbs] release [their flavor] and that flavor spreads through [all] the wine, [causing] all the wine to become forbidden. [In this instance, it is] even [forbidden] to benefit from [the wine].146 [Moreover,] it is forbidden to maintain possession of [this wine] until after Pesach.

When does the above apply? When one filtered [the wine] during Pesach and found fine crumbs in it. If, however, one did not filter [the wine], it is permitted to maintain possession of it until after Pesach.147 Similarly, one may derive all types of benefit from [the wine]148 during Pesach. Since [the person] removed the bread that fell into [the wine] from [the wine] before Pesach, there is only a mere concern that crumbs remained in it. [Therefore,] it is sufficient to forbid the wine to be drunk. [Nevertheless,] if this wine became mixed with other wine, it is also forbidden to drink [that other wine].

If one filtered [the wine] before Pesach,* it is permitted to drink it on Pesach regardless of the circumstance, even if several days passed from the time the bread fell into [the wine] until the time when it was filtered. [The rationale is that] even if the flavor of the bread was released into the wine, [that flavor] was nullified because of the presence of 60 [times its volume] before Pesach, and it does not become significant again [during Pesach].149

* [Even if one filtered [the wine] on Pesach and did not find any crumbs on the filter, there is nevertheless room for concern that perhaps on the filter there was a very fine crumb which was not apparent to the eye because it is mixed with the moisture of the wine that has accumulated on the filter,150 and its flavor was released into the wine on Pesach.

Nevertheless, if a 24-hour period did not pass between the time the bread fell into the wine and the time it was filtered on Pesach, there is no concern that the flavor of the crumbs was released into the wine when [the wine] is cold. True, there are authorities who rule stringently with regard to chametz on Pesach even when chametz soaked in a cold [liquid], as will be explained in sec. 467[:29]. Nevertheless, one should rule leniently in this instance since [it is] not [known that] chametz actually [soaked in the wine];151 there is merely a doubt that perhaps fine crumbs remained in [the wine. Moreover,] even if one found crumbs on the filter when he filtered the wine on Pesach – and thus [the crumbs] were certainly in the wine on Pesach – nevertheless, if it is a pressing situation,152 e.g., [the person] needs the wine for the four cups [of wine for the Seder] or for Kiddush and/or Havdalah, he may rely on the authorities who maintain that chametz [soaked in liquid] does not cause [the liquid] to become forbidden [if it soaks there for] less than a 24-hour period].

כד פְּרוּסַת פַּת141 שֶׁנָּפַל לְיַיִן צוֹנֵן,142 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנְּטָלָהּ מִשָּׁם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְפָּרְרוּ מִמֶּנּוּ פֵּרוּרִין דַּקִּין וְנִשְׁאֲרוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן,קפח וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם לֹא סִנְּנוּקפט אֶת הַיַּיִן עַד שֶׁנִּכְנַס הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי נִפְלָט טַעַם הַפֵּרוּרִין143 לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן בְּפֶסַחקצ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנִּכְבְּשׁוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵת,קצא דְּהַיְנוּ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכוֹ עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁמְּסַנְּנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,קצב שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַמֵּעֵת לְעֵת144 נַעֲשֶׂה כִּמְבֻשָּׁל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ה,קצג,145 וְאָז הוּא פּוֹלֵט, וְהוֹלֵךְ טַעְמוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן וְנֶאֱסָר כָּל הַיַּיִן אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה,146 וְאָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.קצד

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁסִּנְּנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח וּמָצָא בּוֹ פֵּרוּרִין דַּקִּין, אֲבָל אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא סִנְּנוֹ – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.קצה,147 וְכֵן מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ בְּכָל מִינֵי הֲנָאוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,קצו,148 כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הֵסִיר מִמֶּנּוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אֶת הַפַּת שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכוֹ, וְאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא חֲשָׁשׁ בְּעָלְמָא שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאֲרוּ בּוֹ פֵּרוּרִין, וְדַי לֶאֱסֹר אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁתִיָּה. וְאִם נִתְעָרֵב מִיַּיִן זֶה לְיַיִן אַחֵר – גַּם הוּא אָסוּר בִּשְׁתִיָּה.קצז

וְאִם סִנֵּן אוֹתוֹ* קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַחקצח בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ כַּמָּה יָמִים מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנָּפַל הַפַּת לְתוֹכוֹ עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁמְּסַנְּנוֹ, שֶׁאַף שֶׁנִּפְלַט טַעַם הַפַּת לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן – הֲרֵי כְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר:קצט,149

[* וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם סִנְּנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַחר וְלֹא מָצָא שׁוּם פֵּרוּר עַל הַמְסַנֶּנֶת, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא הָיָה בּוֹ פֵּרוּר דַּק מְאֹדרא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְגָּשׁ בִּרְאוּת הָעַיִן מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהוּא מְעֹרָב בְּלַחְלוּחִית יַיִן שֶׁעַל פִּי הַמְסַנֶּנֶת,רב, 150 וְנִפְלַט טַעְמוֹ בְּפֶסַח לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֵין מֵעֵת לְעֵת מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנָּפַל הַפַּת לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁמְּסַנְּנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִפְלַט טַעַם הַפֵּרוּרִין לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא צוֹנֵן.רג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַחֲמִירִיןרד בְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ נִשְׁרָה הֶחָמֵץ בְּצוֹנֵן כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז,רה מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כָּאן חָמֵץ גָּמוּר אֶלָּא סָפֵק שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאֲרוּ בּוֹ פֵּרוּרִין דַּקִּין151 – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל בַּדָּבָר.רו וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּשֶׁסִּנְּנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח מָצָא פֵּרוּרִין עַל פִּי הַמְסַנֶּנֶת שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הָיוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן בְּפֶסַח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָקרז כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא צָרִיךְ לְיַיִן זֶה לְאַרְבַּע כּוֹסוֹת אוֹ לְקִדּוּשׁ וּלְהַבְדָּלָה – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל הָאוֹמְרִיםרח שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בְּפָחוֹת מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵתרט]:152

25 When one filters wine [in such an instance] – whether before Pesach or during Pesach – he must take care to filter it with a slightly thick cloth so that no fine crumb could pass through the holes of the cloth. For this reason, if bread fell into mead that was slightly thick to the extent that [the mead] would not pass through a cloth that is slightly thick,153 there is no way the [mead] can be rectified so that one may drink it on Pesach. Even if [the person] removed the bread from [the mead], it is possible that fine crumbs remained there.

כה וּכְשֶׁמְּסַנְּנוֹ בֵּין קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בֵּין תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר לְסַנְּנוֹ בְּבֶגֶד עָב קְצָת,רי שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל שׁוּם פֵּרוּר דַּק לַעֲבֹר תּוֹךְ נִקְבֵי הַבֶּגֶד.ריא לְפִיכָךְ, אִם נָפַל פַּת לְתוֹךְ מֵי דְּבַשׁ, אִם הוּא עָב קְצָת שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לַעֲבֹר בֶּגֶדריב שֶׁהוּא עָב קְצָת153 – אֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַחריג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵסִיר מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת הַפַּת שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכוֹ, שֶׁמָּא נִשְׁאֲרוּ שָׁם פֵּרוּרִין דַּקִּין:

26 According to law,154 it is permitted to eat all types of salted foods155 on Pesach without soaking and washing them at all even though one was not careful that [they did not come in contact] with chametz, i.e., one did not check the salt to make sure that there were no crumbs of chametz in it as is often [the case. The rationale is that] even if there were crumbs of chametz in [the salt], they already dissolved and became liquified, and [therefore,] were nullified before Pesach because of the presence of 60 [times their volume of substances that were not chametz].156

Even if [these foods] were salted in a utensil that was ben yomo, i.e., it absorbed chametz that day, that is the utensil was used for hot chametz within 24 hours [before placing the foods that] were salted [in it] – and thus the flavor of the chametz absorbed in the utensil was not yet impaired157 – nevertheless, the salt does not cause [the absorbed chametz] to be released from the utensil and absorbed in the food that is being salted in [that utensil. The rationale is that] salt only has the power to cause liquid to be released from food, for [the food] is soft. However, [salt does] not [have the power to release substances absorbed in] a utensil, for [a utensil] is firm.158

כו כָּל מִינֵי מְלוּחִים155 מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָם בְּפֶסַח מִן הַדִּין154 בְּלֹא שׁוּם שְׁרִיָּה וַהֲדָחָה כְּלָל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִזְהֲרוּ בָּהֶןריד מֵחִמּוּץ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא בָּדְקוּ אֶת הַמֶּלַח מִפֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְהִמָּצֵא בּוֹ,רטו שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיוּ בּוֹ פֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ – כְּבָר נִמּוֹסוּ וְנִמּוֹחוּרטז וְנִתְבַּטְּלוּ בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.156

וַאֲפִלּוּ נִמְלְחוּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין תּוֹךְ מֵעֵת לְעֵת לַמְּלִיחָה, שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִפְגַּם חָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי,ריז,157 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הַמֶּלַח מַפְלִיטוֹ מִן הַכְּלִי וּמַבְלִיעוֹ בָּאֹכֶל הַנִּמְלָח בְּתוֹכוֹ,ריח לְפִי שֶׁאֵין כֹּחַ בְּמֶלַח אֶלָּא לְהַפְלִיט מֹהַל מִן הָאֹכֶל שֶׁהוּא רַךְ, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַכְּלִי שֶׁהוּא קָשֶׁה:ריט,158

27 To what does the above [leniency] apply? To [certain] types of dry salted foods, for example, salted cheese or salted fish, that were not left to soak in water or in fish-brine for a 24-hour period in a utensil that was used for chametz. If, however, [the salted foods] were soaked in water or in fish-brine159 for a 24-hour period160 – even if the utensil had not been used for a 24-hour period161 when the salted food was placed inside of it – it is forbidden to eat them. [Moreover, this food is forbidden] even on the final festive day [of Pesach] celebrated in the Diaspora.162 (See Yoreh Deah, sec. 105,163 which states that all that is forbidden is [the portion of the salted food] that is lying in the water or the fish brine. The portion of [the salted food] that lies outside of the water or the fish brine is not forbidden.) Even though one removed [the salted food] from the utensil used for chametz before Pesach and washed [the food] very thoroughly in a utensil that is [kosher] for Pesach [to remove] the salt clinging to it, nevertheless, since [the food] was soaked in a utensil used for chametz for a 24-hour period, the flavor of the chametz was released from the utensil and [absorbed] in [the salted food] through this soaking. [The rationale is that] whenever [food] is soaked for a 24-hour period [in a liquid in a utensil], it is as if it was cooked [in that utensil].164

True, the utensil had not been used within a 24-hour period and thus, the flavor of the chametz [absorbed] in it was impaired. Nevertheless, when this impaired flavor is absorbed in the salted food which is pungent and powerful because of the flavor of the salt absorbed in it, this impaired flavor is [thereby improved and] transformed into a desirable one,165 for the sharpness [of the salted food] negates the impairment [of the absorbed chametz].

כז בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמִינֵי מְלוּחִים יְבֵשִׁים, כְּגוֹן גְּבִינָה מְלוּחָה וְדָגִים מְלוּחִים שֶׁאֵינָן שְׁרוּיִם בְּמַיִם אוֹ בְּצִיר מֵעֵת לְעֵת בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי חָמֵץ, אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ שְׁרוּיִם בְּמַיִםרכ אוֹ בְּצִיר159 מֵעֵת לְעֵת,רכא,160 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה הַכְּלִי בֶּן יוֹמוֹ161 בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּתְנוּ הַמָּלִיחַ לְתוֹכוֹ – אָסוּר (וְעַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"הרכב,163 דְּלֹא נֶאֱסָר אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁמֻּנָּח מִמֶּנּוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וְהַצִּיר, אֲבָל הַמִּקְצָת שֶׁיּוֹצֵא חוּץ מֵהַמַּיִם וְהַצִּיר לֹא נֶאֱסָר) לְאָכְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת.162 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוֹצִיא מֵהַכְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וֶהֱדִיחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה בִּכְלִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח מִן הַמֶּלַח הַדָּבוּק בּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְבַּשׁ מֵעֵת לְעֵת בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ – הֲרֵי נִפְלַט טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ מִן הַכְּלִי לְתוֹכוֹ עַל יְדֵי כְּבִישָׁה זוֹ, שֶׁכָּל הַכָּבוּשׁ מֵעֵת לְעֵת – הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל.רכג,164

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכְּלִי לֹא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וְנִפְגַּם טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁהַטַּעַם הַפָּגוּם נִבְלָע לְתוֹךְ הַמָּלִיחַרכד שֶׁהוּא חָרִיף וְחָזָק מֵחֲמַת טַעַם הַמֶּלַח שֶׁנִּכְנַס בּוֹ – הֲרֵי טַעַם פָּגוּם זֶה נֶהֱפָךְ בּוֹ לְשֶׁבַח,165 שֶׁהַחֲרִיפוּת מְבַטֵּל אֶת פְּגִימָתוֹ:רכה

28 When does the above [stringency] apply? To salted foods that are very heavily salted, as is customarily done when salting meat or fish so that they will be preserved for an extended period. [Therefore,] much salt is used. As a result, even if [these salted foods] are soaked in water, the water does not nullify their sharpness. If, however, [foods] are not salted to that extent, they are not considered as a pungent [food. The rationale is that] since they are soaked in water, [the water] neutralizes their sharpness. Therefore, even if the utensil had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours when [the salted food] was soaked in it, it is permitted to eat [the food] on Pesach. [The rationale is that the absorbed flavor of] chametz was not released from the utensil into [the food] until the end of the 24-hour [period beginning at] the time [the food] was [first] soaked [in the utensil]. At that moment, [i.e.,] at the end of this 24-hour period, it is already more than 24 hours after the chametz was absorbed in the utensil, and its flavor was already impaired.166

כח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמָלִיחַ שֶׁהוּא מָלוּחַ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לִמְלֹחַ בָּשָׂר אוֹ דָּגִים כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְקַיְּמוּ זְמַן מְרֻבֶּה וּמַרְבִּים בָּהֶם מֶלַח,רכו וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף שֶׁהֵן שְׁרוּיִן בְּמַיִם אֵין הַמַּיִם מְבַטְּלִין חֲרִיפוּתָן. אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ מָלוּחַ כָּל כָּךְ – אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא דָּבָר חָרִיף, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא שָׁרוּי בַּמַּיִם הֵן מְבַטְּלִין אֶת חֲרִיפוּתוֹ.רכז וּלְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה הַכְּלִי בֶּן יוֹמוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁכְּבָשׁוּהוּ לְתוֹכוֹ – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִפְלַט הֶחָמֵץ מֵהַכְּלִי לְתוֹכוֹ עַד סוֹף מֵעֵת לְעֵתרכח מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּכְבַּשׁ, וּבָרֶגַע הַהִיא שֶׁבְּסוֹף הַמֵּעֵת לְעֵת כְּבָר יֵשׁ יוֹתֵר מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵת מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּבְלַע הֶחָמֵץ לְתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי, וּכְבָר נִפְגַּם טַעְמוֹ:רכט,166

29 When does the above [leniency] apply? When one poured water over [the salted food] before brine [from the salted food] exuded into the utensil used for chametz in which [the salted food] was soaked. Alternatively, [the leniency] even [applies] if one did not pour water over [the salted food] until after brine exuded into the utensil, but the brine did not remain in the utensil (before water was poured over it)167 for a sufficient amount of time [for the brine] to cook, i.e., the time it would take for the brine to begin to boil if the pot containing [it] was placed over a fire.168

[More stringent rules would apply] if, however, one did not pour water over [the salted food and the brine] until after the brine had remained in the utensil for the amount of time it [would] take [the brine] to cook: If the utensil had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours,169 it is forbidden to eat from the salted food that was soaked in it even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora.170 The rationale is that] brine is a pungent substance.171 Since [the brine] is released by the salted food due to the power of the salt on it, all of the potency of the salt is present in the brine. Thus, it is governed by the laws applying to an object that is truly hot, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sections 69 and 91.172

Since the brine remained in the utensil for the amount of time it would take to cook, it is as if [the brine] was cooked in [the utensil] and [thus,] the sharpness of the brine is absorbed in the utensil.173 As a result, the flavor of the chametz absorbed in the utensil becomes slightly sharp. Since the flavor of the chametz absorbed in the utensil becomes slightly sharp while [the flavor of the chametz] is still desirable, i.e., within the 24-hour period that [it was cooked in] the utensil, it [subsequently] never becomes impaired, not even after several days.174

כט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנָּתַן עָלָיו הַמַּיִם קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּרְאָה הַצִּיר בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּכְבַּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָתַן עָלָיו אֶת הַמַּיִם עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּרְאָה צִיר בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא שָׁהָה הַצִּיר בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי (קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּתַן עָלָיו מַיִם167) כְּשִׁעוּר בִּשּׁוּל, דְּהַיְנוּ בִּכְדֵי שֶׁאִם הָיָה נוֹתֵן הַכְּלִי עִם הַצִּיר שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הָאוּר הָיָה הַצִּיר מַתְחִיל לְהַרְתִּיחַ,רל,168 אֲבָל אִם לֹא נָתַן עָלָיו מַיִם עַד לְאַחַר שֶׁשָּׁהָה הַצִּיר בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי כְּשִׁעוּר בִּשּׁוּל, אִם הָיָה הַכְּלִי בֶּן יוֹמוֹרלא,169 – אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל מֵהַמָּלִיחַ שֶׁנִּכְבַּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן,170 לְפִי שֶׁהַצִּיר הוּא דָּבָר חָרִיף,171 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹצֵא מֵהַמָּלִיחַ עַל יְדֵי כֹּחַ הַמֶּלַח שֶׁעָלָיו, הֲרֵי כָּל כֹּחַ הַמֶּלַח בַּצִּיר, וְדִינוֹ כְּרוֹתֵחַ גָּמוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ס"טרלב וְצ"א,רלג,172 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁשָּׁהָה הַצִּיר בַּכְּלִי כְּשִׁעוּר בִּשּׁוּל – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ נִתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְנִבְלַע חֲרִיפוּת הַצִּיר בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי,רלד,173 וְעַל יְדֵי כֵן נַעֲשָׂה טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי חָרִיף מְעַטרלה עַל יְדֵי חֲרִיפוּת הַצִּיר שֶׁנִּכְנַס בְּתוֹכוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁטַּעַם הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי נַעֲשָׂה חָרִיף מְעַט בְּעוֹדוֹ מְשֻׁבָּח, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּעוֹד שֶׁהַכְּלִי הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ – אֵינוֹ נִפְגָּם לְעוֹלָם אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים:רלו,174

30 [Nevertheless, there is room for leniency] if:

[a)] one knows the dimensions of the portion of the utensil that came in contact with the brine before water was poured over it, and;

[b)] one is certain that the salted food and the liquid in which it rested was 60 [times the volume] of that entire portion of the utensil [including] its entire thickness.

[When these conditions are met,] it is permitted to partake of this salted food on Pesach. [The rationale is that] the sharpness of the brine only entered the place in the utensil upon which it was resting.175 The remainder of the chametz absorbed in the rest of the utensil176 imparts an impaired flavor when it is released into the salted food. [This transpires only] after 24 hours passed from the time the salted food [began] soaking in water in this utensil.177

ל וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא יוֹדֵעַ שִׁעוּר הַמָּקוֹם מִן הַכְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ הַצִּיר קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּתַן בּוֹ הַמַּיִם, וּבָרוּר לוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ שִׁשִּׁים בַּמָּלִיחַ הַנִּכְבָּשׁ עִם מֵי הַכְּבִישָׁה כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם מִן הַכְּלִי בְּכָל עָבְיוֹרלז – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל מָלִיחַ זֶה בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִכְנַס חֲרִיפוּת הַצִּיר אֶלָּא בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם מִן הַכְּלִי שֶׁהָיָה מֻנָּח עָלָיו,175 וּשְׁאָר הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בִּשְׁאָר הַכְּלִי הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּפְלָט לְתוֹךְ הַמָּלִיחַ,176 דְּהַיְנוּ לְאַחַר מֵעֵת לְעֵת מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּכְבַּשׁ הַמָּלִיחַ בַּמַּיִם בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי זֶה:177

31 Nevertheless, according to the custom of these countries that forbid [partaking of food that absorbed] an impaired flavor [of chametz] on Pesach,178 it is always forbidden on Pesach to eat [food that was soaked in a utensil that had absorbed chametz], unless before Pesach one removed [the food] from the chametz utensil in which it is soaking.179 [If,] however, [the food] was soaking in that utensil during Pesach, even though a 24-hour period did not pass from the time when it was [first] soaked in the utensil until the time [the person] desires to acquire it and partake of it on Pesach, [it is desirable to refrain from acquiring it, unless it is a pressing situation. True,] all cold foods that are soaking in a utensil do not cause any of [the flavor absorbed] in the utensil to be released [and absorbed by the food] in less than 24 hours, as will be explained in sec. 467[:29-30].180 Nevertheless, as an initial preference,181 it is desirable to refrain from acquiring [such foods] unless it is a pressing situation. If, however, it is a pressing situation, it is permitted to acquire and eat [such foods] on Pesach if a 24-hour period did not pass from the time [the food] was [first] soaked in the utensil [that absorbed] chametz until the time when it was removed from that utensil on Pesach.

If, however, a 24-hour period had already passed [from the time the food began to be soaked], it is forbidden to partake of [the food] on Pesach, even if one soaks it and washes it. [This stringency applies] even if the utensil that absorbed chametz in which [the food] was soaked never absorbed so much chametz that [the volume of the food] soaked in it would not be 60 [times more] than the chametz absorbed in the utensil. Nevertheless, since [this food] soaked in [this utensil] on Pesach, and on Pesach [even] the slightest trace of chametz [causes food to be forbidden], and [the trace of chametz in the food] can never be nullified, [because] according to our custom, [the food becomes forbidden] even when its flavor is impaired.

לא וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְפִי מִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁאוֹסְרִין נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם בְּפֶסַחרלח – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח בְּכָל עִנְיָן,178 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוֹצִיאוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח מִן הַכְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁהָיָה שָׁרוּי בְּתוֹכוֹ,רלט,179 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׁרוּי בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר עֲדַיִן מֵעֵת לְעֵת מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה בְּתוֹכוֹ עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִקְנוֹתוֹ וּלְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, וְכָל צוֹנֵן שֶׁהוּא שָׁרוּי בִּכְלִי אֵינוֹ מַפְלִיט כְּלוּם מֵהַכְּלִי פָּחוֹת [מִ]מֵּעֵת לְעֵת כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז,רמ,180 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְכַתְּחִלָּה181 טוֹב לִזָּהֵר מִלִּקְנוֹתוֹ אִם אֵין שָׁם שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,רמא אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק מֻתָּררמב לִקְנוֹתוֹ וּלְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא עָבַר מֵעֵת לְעֵת מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּשְׁרָה בִּכְלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ עַד שָׁעָה שֶׁמּוֹצִיאוֹ מִתּוֹכוֹ בְּפֶסַח.

אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר עָבַר מֵעֵת לְעֵת – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה וַהֲדָחָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּלִי זֶה שֶׁל חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁנִּכְבַּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ לֹא נִבְלַע בּוֹ מֵעוֹלָם כָּל כָּךְ חָמֵץ שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בַּדָּבָר שֶׁנִּכְבַּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּכְּלִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא כָּבוּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, וְחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, וְאֵין לוֹ בִּטּוּל לְעוֹלָם, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם לְפִי מִנְהָגֵנוּ:

32 If, however, [the soaked food] was removed from the utensil [that absorbed] chametz before Pesach – even though it was salted very heavily and was soaking in that utensil for several days – [the food] is nevertheless permitted to be eaten on Pesach when the [total] amount of chametz that was ever182 absorbed in this utensil was not so much that the salted food will not contain 60 [or more times its volume of chametz].183 [The rationale is that] even if chametz was released into [the food] from the utensil, it would still have been nullified [because of the presence] of 60 [times its volume] before Pesach and it would not become significant again on Pesach.184

לב אֲבָל אִם הוֹצִיאוֹ מֵהַכְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מָלוּחַ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד וְהָיָה כָּבוּשׁ בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי כַּמָּה יָמִים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם לֹא נִבְלַע מֵעוֹלָם182 כָּל כָּךְ חָמֵץ בִּכְלִי זֶה שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה בְּמָלִיחַ זֶה שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ183 – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁאַף אִם נִפְלַט הֶחָמֵץ מֵהַכְּלִי לְתוֹכוֹ הֲרֵי נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,רמג וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח:רמד,184

33 [There is another instance when a lenient ruling is granted] regarding meat that was salted in a utensil [that absorbed] chametz. [The leniency is granted] even [if the utensil] had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours and [the meat] had soaked in the brine that exuded from it. [This leniency applies] even when the meat was very heavily salted, and [thus,] its sharpness will nullify any impairment in the flavor of chametz that was released into it.185 Nevertheless, if the meat dried out afterwards, as is the practice to dry meat so that it will be preserved for a long time, it is permitted to partake of it on Pesach. [The rationale is that] since [the meat] dried out, the flavor of chametz absorbed in it is nullified.

לג בָּשָׂר שֶׁמְּלָחוּהוּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וְנִכְבַּשׁ בְּתוֹכוֹ כַּמָּה יָמִים בְּתוֹךְ הַצִּיר שֶׁנִּפְלַט מִמֶּנּוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּמְלַח הַבָּשָׂר הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד וַהֲרֵי חֲרִיפוּתוֹ מְבַטֵּל פְּגִימַת טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּפְלַט לְתוֹכוֹ,רמה,185 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אַחַר כָּךְ נִתְיַבֵּשׁ הַבָּשָׂר כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוּא דֶּרֶךְ לְיַבֵּשׁ בָּשָׂר כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְקַיֵּם לִזְמַן מְרֻבֶּה – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּתְיַבֵּשׁ נִתְבַּטֵּל טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ:רמו

34 If this dry meat was hanging in a room where flour was sifted, soaking it and rinsing it is not effective in enabling it to be permitted on Pesach. [The rationale is that the] flour will not be removed by rinsing. On the contrary, [rinsing the meat causes the flour] to adhere [to it], and become fine crumbs of dough that adhere to the meat very strongly.186

לד וְאִם בָּשָׂר יָבֵשׁ זֶה הָיָה תָּלוּי בְּחֶדֶר שֶׁמְּרַקְּדִין שָׁם קֶמַח – אֵין שְׁרִיָּה וַהֲדָחָה מוֹעִיל לוֹ לְהַתִּירוֹ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁהַקֶּמַח אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה,רמז וְאַדְּרַבָּה הוּא מִתְדַּבֵּק וְנַעֲשֶׂה פֵּרוּרֵי בָּצֵק דַּקִּין מְאֹד וְנִדְבָּקִין מְאֹד בַּבָּשָׂר:רמח,186

35 Similarly, it is necessary to caution people at large not to sift flour near other foods, beverages, and utensils to be used for Pesach, [i.e., not to sift flour] in a place where the flour dust can reach [these entities].

לה וְכֵן שְׁאָר אֳכָלִין וּמַשְׁקִין וְכֵלִים שֶׁל פֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לָעָם שֶׁלֹּא יְרַקְּדוּ קֶמַח בְּסָמוּךְ לָהֶם מָקוֹם שֶׁאֲבַק הַקֶּמַח יָכוֹל לְהַגִּיעַ אֲלֵיהֶם:רמט

36 All the above187 applies according to the fundamental [rulings] of the law. Nevertheless, in these countries,188 the custom has already been established to rule stringently as an initial preference, and not to eat during Pesach – until the final festive day [of Pesach] celebrated in the Diaspora – any salted foods for which care was not taken to check its salt [as being free] from crumbs of chametz [that might be] found in it. [The rationale is that] we are concerned that there is still a fine crumb of actual chametz attached to [the salted foods] from the salt, that is not apparent to the eye because of its fineness. Even if one desires to soak the [salted food] in water and wash it thoroughly – thus, were there to be a trace of actual chametz, it would be removed through soaking and rinsing – even so, [the salted food] is forbidden. [This is] a decree, lest one forget and eat [that food] without rinsing it.

When does the above apply? With regard to salted foods that are usually eaten throughout the year without being rinsed, for example, salted fish that are wet and were salted recently, salted or pickled cucumbers or lemons, pickled foods, salted cheese, and the like. In contrast, [this stringency does not apply to] salted foods that are not eaten throughout the year without [first] being washed, like dried fish or those that are salted in a barrel (which are called herring), [or] which are salted for an extended time and are not eaten without being washed [first. Nor does it apply to] salted meat, even if it is moist and even if it was salted recently. [Such foods] are not usually eaten without first being washed. Therefore, there is no reason for concern that one will forget to rinse them. [Accordingly,] one is permitted to eat [these foods] on Pesach after rinsing them,189 [i.e.,] one should soak [the salted food] three times in water, {(before Pesach190 in a utensil [that is kosher for] Pesach, and he should [then] rinse [the food] thoroughly)}, removing any trace of chametz that might be attached to it. {One who conducts himself stringently in all matters} is praiseworthy.191

לו וְכָל זֶה187 מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל כְּבָר נָהֲגוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ188 לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל בְּפֶסַח עַד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹתרנ כָּל מִינֵי מְלוּחִים שֶׁלֹּא נִזְהֲרוּ לִבְדֹּק הַמֶּלַח מִפֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ הַנִּמְצָאִים בּוֹ,רנא לְפִי שֶׁאָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ עֲלֵיהֶן עֲדַיִן פֵּרוּר דַּק שֶׁל חָמֵץ בְּעֵין שֶׁנִּדְבַּק בּוֹ מִן הַמֶּלַחרנב וּמֵחֲמַת דַּקּוּתוֹ אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה לָעַיִן. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לִשְׁרוֹתָן בְּמַיִם וְלַהֲדִיחָן יָפֶה וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאַף אִם הָיָה עֲלֵיהֶם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ בְּעֵין כְּבָר יַעֲבֹר עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה וַהֲדָחָה – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה בְּלֹא הֲדָחָה.רנג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמִינֵי מְלוּחִים שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לְאָכְלָם בְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה בְּלֹא הֲדָחָה, כְּגוֹן דָּגִים לַחִים מְלוּחִים שֶׁנִּמְלְחוּ מִזְּמַן קָרוֹב, וּמִינֵי קִשּׁוּאִין (שֶׁקּוֹרִין אוּגֶרְקֶעס) וְלִימוֹנִי"שׁ מְלוּחִים וּכְבוּשִׁים, וּגְבִינָה מְלוּחָה, וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, אֲבָל מִינֵי מְלוּחִים שֶׁבְּכָל הַשָּׁנָה אֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִים בְּלֹא הֲדָחָה, כְּגוֹן דָּגִים יְבֵשִׁים, אוֹ הַמְּלוּחִים בְּחָבִית (שֶׁקּוֹרִין הֶערִינְג), שֶׁהֵן מְלוּחִין מִזְּמַן מְרֻבֶּה וְאֵינָן נֶאֱכָלִין בְּלֹא הֲדָחָה, וּבָשָׂר מָלוּחַ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא לַח וַאֲפִלּוּ נִמְלַח מִקָּרוֹב אֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לְהֵאָכֵל בְּלֹא הֲדָחָה, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח לַהֲדִיחוֹ, וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה,רנד,189 שֶׁיַּשְׁרֶנּוּ שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִיםרנה בְּמַיִם, (וְאִם יַשְׁרֶנּוּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל פֶּסַחרנו וְגַם יְדִיחֶנּוּ יָפֶהרנז) [קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח190 בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח וִידִיחֶנּוּ יָפֶהרנח] וְיַעֲבֹר מֵעָלָיו מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בּוֹ [וְהַמַּחֲמִיר בְּכָל עִנְיָן] – הֲרֵי זֶה מְשֻׁבָּח:רנט,191

37 In contrast, soaking and rinsing is not effective in enabling dried intestines192 that were salted with salt that was not checked [to see whether it contained] chametz,to be eaten on Pesach. [This ruling applies] even if the filling is made with meat that was salted and made kosher with the intent [of using it] on Pesach.193 Nevertheless, [this stringency is enforced because] when the intestines were salted to kasherthem [by extracting] the blood [they contain], they are salted on their outer surface, a place to which the [kosher] fat adheres, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 75.194 Afterwards, they are turned inside out and the outer side that was salted is [now] on the inside. [In such an instance,] how will rinsing [the side that is now on] the outside be effective [in washing off chametz that might have adhered to the other side]?

לז אֲבָל כַּרְכָּשׁוֹת יְבֵשׁוֹת192 שֶׁנִּמְלְחוּ בְּמֶלַח שֶׁלֹּא נִבְדַּק מֵהֶחָמֵץ – אֵין שְׁרִיָּה וַהֲדָחָה מוֹעִיל לָהֶן לְהַתִּירָן לְאָכְלָן בְּפֶסַח,רס אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמּוּלְיְתָא שֶׁבִּפְנִים הוּא מִבָּשָׂר שֶׁנִּמְלַח וְנִכְשַׁר לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח,193 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמָּלְחוּ הַכַּרְכָּשׁוֹת לְהַכְשִׁירָן מִידֵי דָּמָן מָלְחוּ אוֹתָן בַּצַּד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁלָּהֶם, מָקוֹם שֶׁהַשֻּׁמָּן דָּבוּק שָׁם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ע"ה,רסא,194 וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְהַפְּכִין אוֹתָם וְצַד הַחִיצוֹן שֶׁנִּמְלַח הוּא מִבִּפְנִים, וְהַאֵיךְ תּוֹעִיל לוֹ הֲדָחָה שֶׁמִּבַּחוּץ:רסב

38 All of these customs refer to [how one is to conduct oneself] as an initial preference, before the fact. After the fact, when one has already cooked one of these [salted foods] even195 without rinsing it or soaking it and it is not possible to keep the food until after Pesach without it becoming spoiled,196 one may rely on the fundamentals of the law,197 and it is permitted to eat [the food] on Pesach.198 Needless to say, if one of these [salted foods] became mixed with other [permitted] entities – even if there is less than 60 [times the volume of the salted foods] – it is permitted to partake of the entire mixture on Pesach. [This leniency applies] even if it is possible to keep the mixture until after Pesach.

לח וְכָל מִנְהָגִים אֵלּוּ הֵן לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַדרסג שֶׁכְּבָר בִּשֵּׁל אֶחָד מִדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ בְּלֹארסד,195 שׁוּם הֲדָחָה וּשְׁרִיָּה, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְקַיֵּם אוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח שֶׁלֹּא יִתְקַלְקֵלרסה,196 – מַעֲמִידִין עַל עִקַּר הַדִּין,197 וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח.198 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם נִתְעָרֵב אֶחָד מִדְּבָרִים הַלָּלוּ בִּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִיםרסו אֲפִלּוּ בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁיםרסז – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל כָּל הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, אֲפִלּוּ אֶפְשָׁר לְקַיְּמוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח:רסח

39 [There is room for leniency] if it is a pressing situation, [e.g.,] a person has no other meat for the festival except the dried intestines that are filled with meat that was salted with salt that was not checked for crumbs of chametz and even if [the food] was cut very finely with a knife [that had been used for] chametz. True, it can be assumed that the knife was not cleaned thoroughly before it [was used to] cut the meat, and there are authorities who maintain199 that it is impossible that there will not remain a trace of chametz clinging to a knife that was used for chametz [and] that was not cleaned thoroughly. If so, there is room for concern that a trace of chametz became separated from the knife and attached to the meat due to the pressure of the knife [applied to the meat] while cutting it. [Thus,] when Pesach commenced, there was still a trace of actual chametz in the meat [used as filling for] the intestines. [Nevertheless,]200 since it is a pressing situation, one may rely on the words of the authorities who maintain that it can be assumed a knife that is used to cut [food] is clean of [any] chametz that was attached to it. [The rationale is that] chametz is not a substance that sticks and remains attached [to a knife. Hence,] it will be separated from the knife with [even] a slight cleaning.201

לט אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָקרסט שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בָּשָׂר אַחֵר לְיוֹם טוֹבער רַק כַּרְכָּשׁוֹת הַמְּמֻלָּאִים בְּבָשָׂר שֶׁנִּמְלַח בְּמֶלַח שֶׁלֹּא נִבְדַּק מִפֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץרעא וְגַם נֶחְתַּךְ דַּק דַּקערב בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם לֹא הָיָה הַסַּכִּין מְקֻנָּח יָפֶהרעג קֹדֶם שֶׁחָתַךְ בּוֹ הַבָּשָׂר, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםעדר,199 שֶׁכָּל סַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְקֻנָּח יָפֶה אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ דָּבוּק בּוֹ, וְאִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא עַל יְדֵי דֹּחַק הַסַּכִּין בַּבָּשָׂר בַּחֲתִיכָתוֹ נִפְרַד מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ מִן הַסַּכִּין וְנִדְבַּק בַּבָּשָׂר, וּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח עֲדַיִן הֶחָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּעֵיןערה בְּתוֹךְ הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁבַּכַּרְכָּשׁוֹת, כֵּיוָןרעו,200 שֶׁהוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםרעז דִּסְתָם סַכִּין שֶׁמְּחַתְּכִין בּוֹ מְקֻנָּח הוּא מִן הֶחָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בּוֹ, שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ אֵינוֹ דָּבָר הַנִּסְרָךְ וְנִדְבָּק, וּבְקִנּוּחַ מְעַט הוּא נִפְרָד מֵהַסַּכִּין:רעח,201

40 When does the above [leniency] apply? When the filling in the intestines does not contain garlic, onions, or other sharp [foods]. If, however, [the filling] contains a pungent substance, it is forbidden to partake of these intestines even on the final festive day [of Pesach] celebrated in the Diaspora.202 [Moreover, should some] – even the slightest trace – from [these intestines]203 fall into another cooked dish in the midst of Pesach, [it] causes the [other] cooked dish to become forbidden. {[The rationale is that,] since [the person] did not intend to eat this food on Pesach,}204 [it can be assumed that] the pungent food in the intestine was certainly cut with a knife [that had been used for] chametz.205 {Whenever a pungent food is cut with a knife [used for] chametz,} even when it was thoroughly wiped and cleaned and had not been used for a 24-hour period, it is forbidden to partake of [that food] even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora. Moreover,] on Pesach, even a trace of [of this food] causes a mixture to be forbidden, as will be explained.206

מ בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֵין בַּמִּלּוּי שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַכַּרְכָּשׁוֹת לֹא שׁוּם וְלֹא בָּצָל וְלֹא שְׁאָר דָּבָר חָרִיף, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ אֶחָד מֵהַדְּבָרִים הַחֲרִיפִים – אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל כַּרְכָּשׁוֹת אֵלּוּ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת.202 וְאִם נָפַל מֵהֶם לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל,203 אִם הוּא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי הֵם אוֹסְרִין אֶת הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַדָּבָר הֶחָרִיף שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ בְּוַדַּאי נֶחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץרעט,205 [כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה כַּוָּנָתוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מֵהֶן בְּפֶסַח,רפ וְכָל דָּבָר חָרִיף שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץרפא]204 אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה מְקֻנָּח וְנָקִי וְלֹא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן,202 וְאוֹסֵר אֶת תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:רפב,206

41 When does the above apply? When the garlic and the onion are in the filling. When, by contrast, garlic is cut very finely and mixed with the salt used to salt meat to dry it out, so that the fragrance of the garlic would permeate the meat, it is permitted to eat the meat on Pesach after it is soaked and rinsed. [The rationale is that] even if the garlic was cut with a knife [used for] chametz, all of the actual substance of the garlic falls off the meat through the [process of] soaking and rinsing. [Thus,] only the fragrance [of the garlic] remains.207 This fragrance comes solely from the garlic, and does not contain any of the fragrance of the chametz absorbed in the knife with which the garlic was cut.

מא בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּשׁוּם וּבָצָל שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַמּוּלְיְתָא, אֲבָל שׁוּם שֶׁחוֹתְכִין אוֹתוֹ דַּק דַּק וּמְעָרְבִין אוֹתוֹ בַּמֶּלַח שֶׁמּוֹלְחִין בּוֹ בָּשָׂר לְיַבֵּשׁ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה רֵיחַ הַשּׁוּם נוֹדֵף לְתוֹךְ הַבָּשָׂר – מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל הַבָּשָׂר בְּפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה וַהֲדָחָה,רפג, שֶׁאַף שֶׁהַשּׁוּם נֶחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל יְדֵי שְׁרִיָּה וַהֲדָחָה נוֹפֵל עִקַּר כָּל מַמָּשׁוּת הַשּׁוּם מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַבָּשָׂר, וְלֹא נִשְׁאַר בּוֹ אֶלָּא רֵיחוֹ,רפד,207 וְרֵיחַ זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מֵהַשּׁוּם בִּלְבַדּוֹ, וְאֵין בּוֹ כְּלוּם מֵרֵיחַ חָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּסַּכִּין שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בּוֹ הַשּׁוּם:

42 In a pressing situation,208 when [a person] does not have meat for the festival, only salted fish or salted meat that was salted with salt that was not checked for crumbs of chametz, and [the fish or the meat] were not rinsed before Pesach, he is permitted to soak and rinse them on Pesach. [The person] may even [soak them] using a utensil [that was used for] chametz if he does not have a utensil that [is kosher for] Pesach.209 [This leniency applies] provided he does not soak [the fish or the meat] in the utensil for a 24-hour period. [The rationale is that as long as an object soaks] for less than 24 hours, cold water does not cause [any of the flavor absorbed] in a utensil to be released, as will be explained in sec. 467[:29].210

מב אִם הוּא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק208 שֶׁאֵין לוֹ בָּשָׂר לְיוֹם טוֹברפה רַק דָּגִים מְלוּחִים אוֹ בָּשָׂר מָלוּחַ שֶׁנִּמְלְחוּ בְּמֶלַח שֶׁלֹּא נִבְדְּקוּ מִפֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ וְלֹא הֱדִיחָם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לִשְׁרוֹתָם וְלַהֲדִיחָם בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,רפו וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץרפז אִם אֵין לוֹ כְּלִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח,209 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁרֶה בְּתוֹכוֹ מֵעֵת לְעֵת,רפח שֶׁבְּפָחוֹת מִמֵּעֵת לְעֵת אֵין מַיִם צוֹנְנִין מַפְלִיטִין כְּלוּם מֵהַכְּלִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז:רפט,210

43 On Pesach, until the final festive day [celebrated in the Diaspora],211 it is forbidden to partake of [kosher] fat that was [heated and] liquified before Pesach unless [the person] had the intent to partake of [the fat] on Pesach at the time he heated and liquified it. [Otherwise, one can be certain] that [the person] was not careful about [the fat coming into] contact with chametz at the time he heated and liquified it. There is reason for concern that perhaps the smallest crumb of chametz became mixed with [the fat] at that time and it still exists intact in the [kosher] fat. [The rationale is that] a crumb will not mix well and will not be dissolved thoroughly in the fat,212 so that it would be nullified before Pesach because of the presence of 60 [times its volume of a permitted substance].213

Nevertheless, if [this fat] became mixed with other foods during Pesach, it does not cause the mixture to become forbidden when only a trace [of the fat] becomes mixed with [a permitted food].214 Instead, it becomes nullified in sixty [times its volume of permitted substance.215 The rationale is that] there is only a concern that [the fat may possibly] contain a mere trace of chametz. In an instance where a severe [financial] loss is involved or it is a pressing situation, one may rule leniently even if [the fat] became mixed with less than 60 times [its volume of a permitted substance].

If [the person] reheated and reliquified this fat before Pesach, and [then] filtered it with a slightly thick cloth in order to eat it on Pesach, the fat is permitted as explained above.216 On Pesach [itself], however, filtering is ineffective, because [the fat] must be reheated and reliquified before filtering. Thus, if there were crumbs of chametz in [the fat] – even though [ultimately,] they will be filtered out of it – they will have been cooked in [the fat] and their flavor [will have been] released into it.217 [Therefore, the fat would be forbidden] because even the slightest trace of chametz on Pesach [causes food to become forbidden]. Also, there is reason for concern that perhaps there were crumbs of chametz in [the fat], and they dissolved through cooking.218

מג אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל בְּפֶסַח עַד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹןרצ,211 מֵהַשֻּׁמָּן שֶׁהִתִּיכוּהוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אִם לֹא נִתְכַּוְּנוּ בְּהַתָּכָתוֹרצא כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא נִזְהֲרוּ בּוֹ מֵחִמּוּץ בִּשְׁעַת הַתָּכָתוֹ, וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְעָרֵב אָז בְּתוֹכוֹ פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּרצב וַעֲדַיִן הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַשֻּׁמָּן, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַפֵּרוּר אֵינוֹ מִתְעָרֵב וְנִבְלָל יָפֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַשֻּׁמָּן212 שֶׁיִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.רצג,213

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נִתְעָרֵב בְּמַאֲכָלִים אֲחֵרִים בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר תַּעֲרָבְתּוֹ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ,רצד,214 אֶלָּא מִתְבַּטֵּל הוּא בְּשִׁשִּׁים,רצה,215 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא חֲשַׁשׁ מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ. וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ אִם נִתְעָרֵב בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים.רצו

וְאִם חָזַר וְהִתִּיךְ שֻׁמָּן זֶה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְסִנֵּן אוֹתוֹרצז בְּבֶגֶד עָב קְצָתרחצ כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.רצט,216 אֲבָל בְּפֶסַח אֵין סִנּוּן מוֹעִיל לוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי צָרִיךְ לְהַתִּיכוֹ קֹדֶם הַסִּנּוּן,ש וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאִם הָיוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ פֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסִּנְּנוֹ מִתּוֹכוֹ הֲרֵי כְּבָר נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ וְנִפְלַט טַעְמָן לְתוֹכוֹשא,217 וְחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, וְגַם יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא הָיוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ פֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ וְנִמּוֹחוּ עַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל:218

44 Even if one says, “I am certain that not [even] a crumb of chametz became mixed with [the fat] when it was heated and liquefied before Pesach,” [his statement] is of no consequence.219 [The rationale is that a person] will only remember something that he did intentionally and something that he focused his attention on doing.220 By contrast, [in] this [instance], when the person heated and liquefied the fat, he was not thinking of Pesach and did not intend to be careful that crumbs of chametz [did not fall in]. If so, even if a very small crumb [of chametz] became mixed with [the fat], he would not have been conscious of it and would not have paid attention to it. [Thus,] he would not recall it at a later time.

מד וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא אוֹמֵר: "בָּרִי לִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְעָרֵב בָּזֶה שׁוּם פֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִתִּיכוּהוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח" – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם,219 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין זוֹכֵר אֶלָּא דָּבָר שֶׁעָשָׂה בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן, וְדָבָר שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן נִזְהָר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ,220 אֲבָל זֶה שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִתִּיךְ אֶת הַשֻּׁמָּן לֹא הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עַל הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְהִזָּהֵר בּוֹ מִפֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ, אִם כֵּן אַף אִם נִתְעָרֵב בּוֹ פֵּרוּר מַשֶּׁהוּ לֹא הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו וְלֹא הִשְׁגִּיחַ בּוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ נִזְכָּר מִזֶּה לְאַחַר זְמַן:שב,219

45 [Different rules apply,] however, if, when preparing [the fat], one had in mind to partake of it on Pesach and was careful that [no] crumbs of chametz [fell into it]. Even though [the person] heated and liquified [the fat] in a pot [that had been used for] chametz within 24 hours, it is permitted to eat [the fat] on Pesach. [The rationale is that] all that is present in [the fat] is a secondary flavor (nosein taam bar nosein taam) and [that secondary flavor is] permitted.

To explain: [Not even] the slightest flavor of the chametz itself was released into the fat. Instead, [the flavor of] chametz was released into the pot and from the pot, [a derivative of that flavor was released] into the fat. Thus, [the fat absorbs] merely a secondary flavor. [That secondary flavor] was entirely permitted [when it was released into the fat], since Pesach221 had not yet arrived and chametz had yet to become forbidden. Accordingly, it is permitted to partake of [this fat] during Pesach. [The rationale is that] any flavor that is not released from the actual substance of the food [but rather from a secondary source] is very weak. When [the secondary] flavor is absorbed in another food while the [original] flavor is still permitted to be eaten, it does not have the power to cause [the food that absorbs it] to become forbidden at a later time, [i.e., during Pesach itself,] when [the flavor of chametz] becomes forbidden.222

There are authorities who differ with [the above ruling], stating that [our Sages] did not permit [a mixture with] a secondary flavor that was permitted except when the permitted substance and the forbidden substance are of a different type, i.e., [the two substances] do not share the same identity, e.g., meat and milk. Meat itself is an entirely permitted substance and is called meat. The secondary flavor of meat [that is absorbed into another food] may be eaten together with milk223 because the flavor of meat [that is absorbed into the other food] becomes weak. [Thus, the flavor of the meat] is not substantial enough to take on a new identity, [the identity of] a forbidden substance, i.e., the identity of meat and milk. [These authorities maintain that different laws apply,] by contrast, to the secondary flavor of chametz. True, before Pesach, it was still permitted. Nevertheless, when the time when [chametz] became forbidden arrived, it did not acquire a new identity. Originally, [i.e., before Pesach,] even though [the taste of the food] was very weak, it was identified as chametz, and now, [i.e., during Pesach,] it is [still] identified as chametz. It is just that until now [the Torah] did not forbid [this substance], and now it is [forbidden] like a piece of meat [that was not slaughtered. The rationale is that] since [the prohibition] does not involve [the chametz taking on] a new identity, but rather it comes about as a matter of course, [the prohibition] can even take effect for such a weak flavor, because [that flavor] becomes forbidden as a matter of course.224 Therefore, it is forbidden to partake of the fat [that absorbed the secondary flavor of chametz] even on the day before Pesach from the fifth hour onward,225 and even on the final festive day [celebrated in the Diaspora].

If, however, before Pesach, one poured this fat into another utensil while it was boiling,226 it is permitted to use that other utensil during Pesach without kashering it. [The rationale is that] since the flavor of the chametz absorbed in the fat is very weak,227 it does not have the power to impart the identity of chametz to the minute amount of fat that is absorbed into [the other] utensil so that [the utensil] would become forbidden228 when Pesach arrives.229

To what does the above apply? To fat and other similar entities that are not pungent. If, however, a pungent food was cooked in a utensil that had been used for chametz – even though it had not been used in 24 hours – and [the contents of the pot] were poured while [they were still] boiling into another utensil that was kosher for Pesach, it is forbidden to use that [other utensil] during Pesach without kashering it.230 [This ruling applies even] on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora. The rationale is that] the sharpness [of the pungent food] draws out the actual substance of the flavor [of chametz] absorbed [in the pot]. Thus, it is as if the pungent food absorbs the flavor of the chametz from the substance of the chametz itself and not from the [secondary] utensil. Hence, the pungent substance exudes a primary flavor of chametz, and the utensil that was [kosher] for Pesach into which [the pungent food] was poured will exude a secondary flavor. [Thus, the utensil into which the pungent food was poured] is still identified with the flavor of chametz and becomes forbidden when Pesach arrives.

With regard to the halachah, as an initial preference one should follow the stringency of the second opinion.231 If, however, such fat becomes mixed together with other foods in the midst of Pesach, a mere trace of [the fat] does not cause [other foods] to become forbidden, as would be the case if it absorbed the flavor of the actual substance of chametz. Instead, [the trace of fat] can be nullified [if there] is 60 times [its volume. The rationale is that] according to the first opinion, it is permitted to partake of the mixture even when [the fat] is not nullified. Furthermore, there are authorities who maintain that even 60 [times the volume of the fat] is not required to nullify [the flavor of chametz], since after the fact, one may rely entirely on the first opinion. One may rely on their words in the instance of a severe [financial] loss or in a pressing situation.

מה אֲבָל אִם נִתְכַּוֵּן בְּהַתָּכָתוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּפֶסַח וְנִזְהַר בּוֹ מִפֵּרוּרֵי חָמֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתִּיכוֹ בְּתוֹךְ קְדֵרָה שֶׁל חָמֵץ בַּת יוֹמָהּ – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא נִפְלַט לְתוֹךְ הַשֻּׁמָּן שׁוּם טַעַם מִן הֶחָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא מִן הֶחָמֵץ נִפְלַט לַקְּדֵרָה וּמִקְּדֵרָה לַשֻּׁמָּן, וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ כָּאן [נוֹתֵן טַעַם] בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם, וַעֲדַיִן הַכֹּל הֶתֵּר כֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הִגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח221 וְלֹא נֶאֱסַר הֶחָמֵץ כְּלָל, וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,שג דְּכָל טַעַם שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מַמָּשׁוּת הַמַּאֲכָל עַצְמוֹ הוּא קָלוּשׁ מְאֹד, וּכְשֶׁהוּא נִבְלָע בְּתוֹךְ מַאֲכָל אַחֵר בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁטַּעַם זֶה מֻתָּר עֲדַיִן בַּאֲכִילָה – אֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לֶאֱסֹר אַחַר כָּךְ כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּרוֹ.שד,222

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהשה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֹּא הִתִּירוּ נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל הֶתֵּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהַהֵתֶּר וְהָאִסּוּר הֵן שֵׁמוֹת מְחֻלָּקִין, שֶׁאֵין שְׁמוֹתֵיהֶן שָׁוִין זֶה לָזֶה, כְּגוֹן בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב, שֶׁבָּשָׂר לְבַדּוֹ הוּא הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר וּשְׁמוֹ בָּשָׂר, וְנוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁלּוֹ מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּחָלָב,223 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁטַּעַם הַבָּשָׂר נִקְלַשׁ כָּל כָּךְ – אֵין בּוֹ מַמָּשׁוּת כָּל כָּךְ שֶׁיּוּכַל לָחוּל עָלָיו שֵׁם חָדָשׁ שֶׁל אִסּוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ שֵׁם "בָּשָׂר בְּחָלָב", אֲבָל נוֹתֵן טַעַם בֶּן נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֶׁל חָמֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקֹּדֶם הַפֶּסַח221 הוּא עֲדַיִן שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַן אִסּוּרוֹ לֹא חָל עָלָיו שֵׁם חָדָשׁ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מִתְּחִלָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיָה קָלוּשׁ מְאֹד הָיָה שְׁמוֹ חָמֵץ וְעַכְשָׁו שְׁמוֹ חָמֵץ, אֶלָּא שֶׁעַד עַכְשָׁו לֹא אֲסָרוֹ הַכָּתוּב, וְעַכְשָׁו הוּא כַּחֲתִיכַת נְבֵלָה,שו וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין כָּאן שֵׁם חָדָשׁ אֶלָּא אִסּוּר הַבָּא מֵאֵלָיו – יָכוֹל הוּא לָחוּל אֲפִלּוּ עַל טַעַם קָלוּשׁ כָּזֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמֵּאֵלָיו הוּא נֶאֱסָר,224 וּלְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל מִשֻּׁמָּן זֶה אֲפִלּוּ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית וָאֵילָךְ,225 וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן.שז,202

אֲבָל אִם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח עֵרָה שֻׁמָּן זֶה כְּשֶׁהוּא רוֹתֵחַ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי אַחֵר226 – מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּאוֹתוֹ כְּלִי בְּפֶסַח בְּלֹא הֶכְשֵׁר, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁטַּעַם חָמֵץ שֶׁבַּשֻּׁמָּן הוּא קָלוּשׁ מְאֹד227 – אֵין בּוֹ כֹּחַ לְהִקָּרוֹת שֵׁם חָמֵץ לְאוֹתוֹ מְעַט שֻׁמָּן שֶׁנִּבְלַע בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּאָסֵר228 כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח.שח,229

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּשֻׁמָּן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ בִּדְבָרִים שֶׁאֵינָם חֲרִיפִים, אֲבָל דָּבָר חָרִיף שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וְעֵרָה אוֹתוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא רוֹתֵחַ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי אַחֵר שֶׁל פֶּסַח – אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח בְּלֹא הֶכְשֵׁר230 אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן,202 לְפִי שֶׁהַחֲרִיפוּת מוֹצִיא אֶת עִקַּר וְגוּף הַטַּעַם הַבָּלוּעַ, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה מְקַבֵּל הַדָּבָר חָרִיף אֶת טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ מִן מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי הַכְּלִי,שט וְנִמְצָא שֶׁדָּבָר הֶחָרִיף הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל הֶחָמֵץ, וְהַכְּלִי שֶׁל פֶּסַח שֶׁעֵרוּהוּ לְתוֹכוֹ הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם שֵׁנִי, וַעֲדַיִן יֵשׁ עָלָיו שֵׁם טַעַם חָמֵץ, וְנֶאֱסַר כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח.

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.231 אֲבָל אִם בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח נִתְעָרֵב הַשֻּׁמָּן זֶה בְּמַאֲכָלִים אֲחֵרִים – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵרשי בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ,שיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁאִם הָיָה בָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ טַעַם מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא מִתְבַּטֵּל הוּא בְּשִׁשִּׁים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּלֹא שׁוּם בִּטּוּל. וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםשיב שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ שִׁשִּׁים אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַטְּלוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד סוֹמְכִין לְגַמְרֵי עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק:שיג

46 A similar law applies regarding boiled wine, mead, or the like that was boiled before Pesach in a utensil used for chametz within 24 hours [before boiling one of these beverages].232 It is forbidden to drink [such beverages] on Pesach even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated] in the Diaspora. [This stringency applies] even if one does not know whether [the beverages] were cooked in a utensil used [for chametz] within 24 hours or were [cooked in a utensil] that was not used [for chametz] within 24 hours. [Although the general rule is that it is assumed that] a utensil [that was used on a particular day] was not [previously] used within 24 hours,233 nevertheless, because of the severity of [the prohibition against eating] chametz, one should be stringent and show concern that the utensil may have been used within 24 hours. One should not drink any beverage that was cooked in a utensil of unknown status unless he knows that [the utensil] was not used [for chametz] within 24 hours.

[Leniency is granted] only when [the beverage] is not a pungent [drink]. If, however, it is a pungent [drink], for example, a confection made from a substance that is acrid and sharp, should not be eaten [on Pesach], not even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora. The rationale is that] the sharpness [of the beverage] nullifies the impairment of the flavor released by the utensil that was not used within 24 hours, and transforms it to a desirable flavor.234 Similarly, if mead was cooked in a large urn in which alcoholic beverages were [previously] cooked, even if several days pass between the two [events], it is forbidden to drink [the mead], even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora. The rationale is that] the alcoholic beverage is very pungent and because of its sharpness, the flavor (that is absorbed in the large urn) does not become impaired even after several days have passed, and it [therefore] adds a desirable flavor to the mead.235 Therefore, on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora], one may not procure mead [made] throughout the year.236 Instead, [even on that day, one should only procure mead] from a Jew who is known not to cook [his mead] in a large pot in which alcoholic beverages were cooked,237 and who was also careful not to ferment [the mead] with beer dregs.238

* {[Based on the above logic, the following laws apply] if one [made] cheese before Pesach [using] (clear) milk239 that is found in [an animal’s] stomach, which is sharp and sour, and is used as a catalyst to [curdle milk to] make cheese. This milk was [stored] for a 24-hour period in a container that had been used for chametz.240 Even if [the container] had not been used [for chametz] within a 24-hour period, it is forbidden to eat this cheese on Pesach, even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora], unless [the volume of] the milk [left to curdle] was 60 [times that] of the milk [taken from the animal’s stomach] in which it was left to curdle, or [the volume of the milk] is sixty times that of the container241 [used for] chametz in which the milk [taken from the animal’s] stomach had been kept for a 24-hour period. Thus, the flavor of chametz in the milk [from the animal] was nullified in the 60 [times greater volume] of the milk in the cheese before Pesach, and it does not become significant again on Pesach.242

The principle, “A davar hamaamid243never becomes insignificant, even [when mixed] with 1000 [times its volume],” is applied only when the davar hamaamid is inherently forbidden.244 If, however, [a davar hamaamid] is only forbidden because it absorbed a forbidden [flavor], for example, the flavor of chametz that is absorbed by the milk [from the animal’s] stomach, it may be nullified [when mixed with] 60 [times its volume], as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 87.245 The rationale is that] the forbidden [substance]246 absorbed [in the milk from the animal’s stomach] does not cause the curdling at all.247}

מו וְכֵן הַדִּין בְּיַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל וּמֵי דְּבַשׁ וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן שֶׁנִּתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,232 שֶׁאָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתָן בְּפֶסַחשיד אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת.שטו,202 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בִּכְלִי שֶׁהוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ אוֹ בִּכְלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, וּסְתָם כֵּלִים אֵינָן בְּנֵי יוֹמָן,שטז,233 מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִשּׁוּם חֻמְרַת חָמֵץ יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר וְלָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא הָיָה הַכְּלִי בֶּן יוֹמוֹ,שיז וְאֵין לִשְׁתּוֹת שׁוּם מַשְׁקֶה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּסְתָם כְּלִי אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ.

וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה דָּבָר חָרִיף, אֲבָל אִם הוּא דָּבָר חָרִיף, כְּגוֹן מִרְקַחַת שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִדָּבָר קִיּוּהָא וְחָרִיף – אֵין לְאָכְלוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן,202 שֶׁהַחֲרִיפוּת מְבַטֵּל אֶת פְּגִימוּת הַטַּעַם שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהַכְּלִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וְנַעֲשֶׂה בּוֹ טַעַם לְשֶׁבַח.שיח,234 וְכֵן מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּיוֹרָה שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוּ בָּהּ יֵין־שָׂרָף, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ כַּמָּה יָמִים בֵּין ב' הַבִּשּׁוּלִים – אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן, שֶׁהַיֵּין־שָׂרָף הוּא חָרִיף מְאֹד וּמֵחֲמַת חֲרִיפוּתוֹ אֵין טַעְמוֹ (הַבָּלוּעַ בַּיּוֹרָה) נִפְגָּם אֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר כַּמָּה יָמִים,שיט וְהוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לְשֶׁבַח בְּמֵי דְּבַשׁ,235 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לִקַּח בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁל כָּל הַשָּׁנָה236 אֶלָּא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלֹּא בִּשְּׁלוֹ בְּיוֹרָה שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ יֵין־שָׂרָף,237 וְגַם נִזְהַר מִלְּהַחְמִיצוֹ בִּשְׁמָרִים שֶׁל שֵׁכָר:שכ,238

[* לְפִיכָךְ אִם הֶעֱמִיד גְּבִינָה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחשכא בְּחָלָב (צָלוּלשכב)239 הַנִּמְצָא בְּתוֹךְ הַקֵּבָה שֶׁהוּא חָרִיף וְחָמוּץשכג וּמַעֲמִידִין בּוֹ גְּבִינוֹת, וְזֶה הֶחָלָב הָיָה מֵעֵת לְעֵתשכד בְּתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ,240 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹשכה – אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל גְּבִינָה זוֹ בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בֶּחָלָב שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד מִמֶּנּוּ הַגְּבִינָה שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הֶחָלָב שֶׁל קֵיבָה שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד בּוֹ,שכו אוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַכְּלִי241 שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁחֲלֵב הַקֵּבָה הָיָה בְּתוֹכָהּ מֵעֵת לְעֵת, דְּנִמְצָא שֶׁטַּעַם חָמֵץ שֶׁבַּחֲלֵב הַקֵּבָה נִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים בְּתוֹךְ חֲלֵב הַגְּבִינָה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח.שכז, 242 וְלֹא אָמְרוּ: דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד243 אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף לֹא בָּטֵל,שכח אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהַדָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד הוּא אָסוּר מֵחֲמַת עַצְמוֹ,244 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ אִסּוּר, כְּגוֹן טַעַם חָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּחֲלֵב הַקֵּבָה – הֲרֵי הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן פ"ז,שכט, 245 שֶׁהֲרֵי אִסּוּר246 הַבָּלוּעַ אֵינוֹ מַעֲמִיד כְּלָל247]:

47 When a substance that is not pungent was cooked in a utensil that had been used for chametz, [but] it is known that [the utensil] had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours – for example, one cooked [a broth to be eaten on] Pesach [in a utensil that had been used for chametz more than 24 hours beforehand]248 and before Pesach, he poured [the broth] from the utensil that had been used for chametz into a utensil designated for Pesach – it is permitted for him to drink it on Pesach, as explained above.249 [The rationale is that] any food whose flavor is impaired before Pesach250 does not become significant again on Pesach.

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is forbidden to cook for Pesach in a utensil that had been used for chametz more than 24 hours beforehand. [The rationale is that,] as an initial preference, it is forbidden to use a [forbidden] substance [even though] it imparts an impaired flavor [in the mixture], as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 103.251

If, however, [the person] did not cook [the broth] for the sake of Pesach, even though he says that he is certain that the utensil had not absorbed chametz within 24 hours at the time he cooked in it, his words are of no consequence and one should not drink this [broth] until the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora.252 The rationale is that] at the time [the person] cooked [the broth], he was not thinking of Pesach and, [accordingly,] it was not necessary for him to be careful [regarding] whether or not the utensil had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. Even according to his statements, that he is certain that the utensil had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, [it is evident that] he had not set his mind on [using] this [food for Pesach], and a person will not remember something that happened when he had not focused on it, as explained above.253

If, however, at the time [the person] was cooking [the broth], he was careful and paid attention not to cook it in a utensil that had absorbed chametz, even though his intent was not [to eat the broth] on Pesach, but rather he was careful for another reason, e.g., he cooked it in a new utensil for medicinal purposes or the like, he is permitted to drink [the broth] on Pesach. Nevertheless, because of concern that perhaps a very small crumb of chametz became mixed into [the broth, the person] must filter it before Pesach. If he did not filter [the broth] before Pesach, he must filter it during Pesach. If, [after filtering it, the person] did not find any crumb of chametz on the filter, it is permitted to drink [the broth]. There is no concern that there may be a fine crumb that is not visible, since it was never observed that chametz [actually] fell into [the broth].254

מז דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרִיף שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ שֶׁיָּדוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ,248 כְּגוֹן שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַחשל וְקֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח עֵרָה אוֹתוֹ מֵהַכְּלִי חָמֵץ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי שֶׁל פֶּסַחשלא – מֻתָּר לוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח,שלב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,שלג,249 שֶׁכָּל נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם250 שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לְבַשֵּׁל לְשֵׁם פֶּסַח בִּכְלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹת נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם לְכַתְּחִלָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ג.שלד,251

אֲבָל אִם לֹא בִּשְּׁלוֹ לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אוֹמֵר: "בָּרִי לִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַכְּלִי בֶּן יוֹמוֹ מִבְּלִיעַת הֶחָמֵץ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בּוֹ" – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם,שלה וְאֵין לִשְׁתּוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ עַד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן,שלו,252 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ לֹא הָיְתָה דַּעְתּוֹ עַל הַפֶּסַח, וְלֹא הָיָה צָרִיךְ לְדַקְדֵּק אִם הַכְּלִי אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ. וְאַף לְפִי דְּבָרָיו שֶׁאוֹמֵר שֶׁבָּרִי לִי שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא לֹא נִתְכַּוֵּן לְכָךְ,220 וְאֵין אָדָם זוֹכֵר מַה שֶּׁנַּעֲשָׂה שֶׁלֹּא בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.שלז,253

אֲבָל אִם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ דִּקְדֵּק וְנִזְהַר שֶׁלֹּא לְבַשְּׁלוֹ בִּכְלִי שֶׁהוּא בָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְשֵׁם הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת דָּבָר אַחֵר נִזְהַר בָּזֶה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ בִּכְלִי חָדָשׁ לִרְפוּאָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח.שלח וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֵחֲמַת חֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא נִתְעָרֵב בּוֹ פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ – צָרִיךְ לְסַנְּנוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.שלט וְאִם לֹא סִנְּנוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לְסַנְּנוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח. וְאִם לֹא מָצָא שׁוּם פֵּרוּר חָמֵץ עַל פִּי הַמְסַנֶּנֶת – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ, וְאֵין אָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יֵשׁ פֵּרוּר דַּק שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה,שמ כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא רָאִינוּ מֵעוֹלָם שֶׁנָּפַל לְתוֹכוֹ חָמֵץ:254

48 When one cooks mead for Pesach and desires to ferment it, he should not pour it into a utensil designated for that purpose ([called] a kvasnik in Russian), which will ferment any mead poured into it. [The rationale is that] the power to ferment that is absorbed in that utensil results [from the fact that] mead is left to ferment in it throughout the entire year. [That mead] is chametz in a complete sense, for it ferments because of [previously fermented] dregs of beer255 and moreover, [that mead] was [previously] cooked in a large cauldron used for beer or whisky.

מח הַמְבַשֵּׁל מֵי דְּבַשׁ לְצֹרֶךְ הַפֶּסַח וְרוֹצֶה לְהַחְמִיצוֹ – לֹא יִשְׁפְּכֶנּוּ לְתוֹךְ כְּלִי הַמְּיֻחָד לְכָךְ (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קוואסני"ק בִּלְשׁוֹן רוּסְיָא) שֶׁהוּא מְחַמֵּץ כָּל מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁשּׁוֹפְכִין לְתוֹכוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהַכֹּחַ הַמְחַמֵּץ הַבָּלוּעַ מֵאוֹתוֹ כְּלִי הוּא מֵחֲמַת שֶׁמַּחְמִיצִין בְּתוֹכוֹ מֵי דְּבַשׁ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, וְהֵן חָמֵץ גָּמוּר שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר,שמא,255 וְגַם נִתְבַּשְּׁלוּ בְּיוֹרָה שֶׁל שֵׁכָר אוֹ שֶׁל יֵין־שָׂרָף:שמב

49 There are people who are accustomed to be stringent, and on Pesach refrain from using the wine vinegar that they use the entire year. Although [throughout the year], they are careful not to take out [vinegar] from [the vat] with a utensil that [has been used for] chametz, nevertheless, there is room for concern that perhaps vinegar that remained from a meal was returned to [the vat], and sometimes this vinegar contains breadcrumbs that fell [into it] during the meal. In these places,256 where wine vinegar is not so common, it is not customary to follow this stringency, for it is impossible to easily find other vinegar [that is kosher for Pesach].257

מט יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בְּפֶסַח מֵחֹמֶץ יַיִן שֶׁמִּסְתַּפְּקִין מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּזְהֲרוּ שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁאֹב מִמֶּנּוּ בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא הֶחֱזִירוּ לְתוֹכוֹ חֹמֶץ שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר מִסְּעוּדָה, וְלִפְעָמִים יֵשׁ בְּחֹמֶץ זֶה מִפֵּרוּרֵי לֶחֶם שֶׁנָּפְלוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּעוּדָה.שמג וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת הַלָּלוּ256 שֶׁאֵין חֹמֶץ יַיִן מָצוּי – אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר בָּזֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִמְצֹא חֹמֶץ אַחֵר בְּקַל:שדמ,257

50 In places where [it is common to] mix sugar with wine vinegar, one should not use [wine vinegar] on Pesach unless it was filtered before Pesach.258 See sec. 467[:19-20].259

נ בִּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין צוּקֶר בְּחֹמֶץ יַיִן – אֵין לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ בְּפֶסַח,שמה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן סִנְּנוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחשמו,258 עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"ז:שמז,259

51 There are people who are careful throughout the 30 days before Pesach260 not to take from the wine and the vinegar set aside for Pesach using a utensil [that was used for] chametz, unless the utensil was washed and rinsed so that there is no residue of chametz on it.261 If one was not careful and took from [this wine and/or vinegar] using a utensil [that was used for] chametz that was not washed and rinsed, they [should be] careful not to drink from these [beverages] on Pesach.

Nevertheless, according to the fundamentals of the law, there is no concern for a prohibition, for it can be assumed that [as a general rule,] utensils are clean and are not obviously filthy,262 as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 95.263 [The chametz] that is absorbed in the sides of the utensil is not released when [the utensil is used with] cold [liquids], unless [the liquid] soaks in [the utensil] for a 24-hour period, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 105.264

נא יֵשׁ נִזְהָרִין כָּל שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לִפְנֵי הַפֶּסַחשמח,260 שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁאֹב בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ מִן יַיִן וְחֹמֶץ הַמֻּצְנָע לְפֶסַח,שמט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַכְּלִי חָמֵץ הוּא מֹרַק וְשֻׁטַּף שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שׁוּם לִכְלוּךְ חָמֵץ.שנ,261 וְאִם לֹא נִזְהֲרוּ וְשָׁאֲבוּ מִמֶּנּוּ בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֹרַק וְשֻׁטַּף – נִזְהָרִין שֶׁלֹּא לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח.שנא אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין כָּאן חֲשַׁשׁ אִסּוּר,שנב שֶׁהֲרֵי סְתָם כֵּלִים הֵן נְקִיִּים וְאֵין בָּהֶם לִכְלוּךְ בְּעֵין,262 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ה,שנג,263 וּמַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בְּדָפְנֵי הַכְּלִי אֵינוֹ נִפְלָט בְּצוֹנֵן אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי כְּבִישָׁה מֵעֵת לְעֵת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ה:שנד,264

52 When white wine became [discolored and] darkened and one seeks to improve it by adding a little milk from an animal and a little wheat starch, one must be careful that the wine is at least 60 [times the volume of these substances. Otherwise, such a mixture is forbidden. This is] a decree, [imposed] lest one drink [the mixture] on Pesach or drink it with meat, since [the starch and] the milk are not evident. However, when there is more than 60 [times the volume of these substances], there is no concern regarding the prohibition [against partaking of the wine on Pesach265 or with meat]. True, it is forbidden to purposely nullify a forbidden food by [adding a permitted substance until it is] 60 times the volume [of the forbidden food]. Nevertheless, [in this instance, the person’s] intent is not to improve the wine so that he could drink it with meat – or that he could drink it on Pesach. Instead, his intent is to drink the wine alone266 before Pesach or afterwards. Since this is so, [the person] is not nullifying [the presence of] any prohibited substance at all.267

[However,] after [the presence of] the milk has been nullified [because it was mixed] with 60 [times its volume of] wine, it is permitted to drink [this mixture] together with meat. It is, however, forbidden to drink [the mixture] on Pesach (unless one filtered it before Pesach).268 [The reason for the prohibition is that] there is reason for concern that not all the wheat starch is mixed thoroughly in the wine. Instead, some of [some of the wheat starch may have] sunk in [the wine] and descended to the bottom [of the container. Hence the wheat starch] is present there, in the midst of the wine, on Pesach. [Thus,] some vestige of its flavor will be released into the wine.

נב יַיִן לָבָן שֶׁהֻכְהָה מַרְאִיתוֹ וְרוֹצִים לְתַקְּנוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁמְּשִׂימִין לְתוֹכוֹ מְעַט חֲלֵב בְּהֵמָה וּמְעַט חֵלֶב חִטָּהשנה – צְרִיכִין לְהִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בְּהַיַּיִן שִׁשִּׁיםשנו כְּנֶגְדָּן, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁתֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּפֶסַח, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁתֶּה אוֹתוֹ עִם בָּשָׂר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הֶחָלָב נִכָּר בּוֹ, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים אֵין כָּאן חֲשַׁשׁ אִסּוּר.265 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בַּיָּדַיִם בְּשִׁשִּׁים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְתַקְּנוֹ כְּדֵי לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ עִם בָּשָׂרשנז אוֹ כְּדֵי לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח, אֶלָּא כַּוָּנָתוֹ לְתַקְּנוֹ כְּדֵי לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ לְבַדּוֹ266 קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אוֹ לְאַחֲרָיו, אִם כֵּן אֵינוֹ מְבַטֵּל שׁוּם אִסּוּר כְּלָל.שנח,267

וְאַחַר שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל הֶחָלָב בְּשִׁשִּׁים בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ עִם בָּשָׂר,שנט אֲבָל אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן סִנְּנוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחשס),268 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא אֵין כָּל חֵלֶב חִטָּה בָּלוּל יָפֶה יָפֶה בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן אֶלָּא נִצְלַל מִמֶּנּוּ מְעַט וְיָרַד לְמַטָּה וְהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן בְּפֶסַחשסא וְנִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן:שסב

53 [The following laws apply when there is] a barrel of wine that has a slight amount of dough stuck to its slats. Even though this dough is chametz nukshah,269 it is forbidden to drink wine from this barrel on Pesach. [The rationale is that] a slight amount of the flavor of the chametz will be released into the wine on Pesach,270 and [that flavor] is not nullified in 60 [times its volume of wine. The rationale is that] since [the person] intentionally placed the wine in this barrel that has dough stuck to it, it is as if he intentionally sought to nullify the forbidden substance. Therefore, [this chametz] can never be nullified, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 99.271

True, it was [still] permitted to partake of chametz at the time [the person] poured the wine into [the barrel]. Nevertheless, that factor is relevant only with regard to the mixture that came about when [chametz] was permitted, i.e., the flavor [of chametz] released from the dough into the wine before Pesach. [This flavor] is nullified in 60 [times its volume], and does not become significant again on Pesach since it was already nullified when it was permitted.272 By contrast, the mixture that came about when [chametz] was forbidden, i.e., the flavor [of chametz] that was released from the dough during Pesach,273 never becomes nullified, not even [when mixed] with 1000 [times its volume. The rationale is that it is as if] this mixture was made intentionally by pouring the wine into this barrel [to which] dough [is stuck]. Even though [at the time the wine was originally poured into the barrel], it was permitted [to partake of chametz], nevertheless, as a result, a mixture [containing chametz] was also brought about at a time when [chametz] is forbidden.274

נג חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ מַשֶּׁהוּ בָּצֵק שֶׁדָּבְקוּ בּוֹ נְסָרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבָּצֵק זֶה הוּא חָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה269 – אָסוּר לִשְׁתּוֹת מִיַּיִן שֶׁל חָבִית זוֹ בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁנִּפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן בְּפֶסַח,שסג,270 וְאֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים,שסד כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא נָתַן הַיַּיִן בַּיָּדַיִם לְתוֹךְ חָבִית זוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ בָּצֵק דָּבוּק – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמִתְכַּוֵּן לְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בַּיָּדַיִם,שסה וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹ בִּטּוּל עוֹלָמִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ט.שסו,271

וְאַף שֶׁאָז בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁנָּתַן אֶת הַיַּיִן שָׁם הָיְתָה שְׁעַת הֶתֵּר אֲכִילַת חָמֵץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא לְהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר, דְּהַיְנוּ הַטַּעַם שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהַבָּצֵק לְתוֹךְ הַיַּיִן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר,שסז,272 אֲבָל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ הַטַּעַם שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהַבָּצֵק בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – אֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף, כֵּיוָן שֶׁתַּעֲרֹבֶת זֶה נַעֲשָׂה בַּיָּדַיִם עַל יְדֵי שֶׁנָּתַן הַיַּיִן בְּחָבִית זוֹ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ בָּצֵק. וְאַף שֶׁאָז הָיְתָה שְׁעַת הֶתֵּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל יְדֵי כֵן נַעֲשָׂה תַּעֲרֹבֶת גַּם בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּר:274

54 If this dough was [already] stuck [to the slats of the barrel] two months before Pesach,275 it certainly already hardened by the time Pesach arrived, and no flavor will be released from it. Therefore, it is permitted to drink this wine on Pesach.

Nevertheless, if there is an olive-sized portion of this dough in one place in the cracks of the barrel, it is necessary to obliterate it when Pesach arrives or to cover it with mortar, as stated in sec. 442[:27]. Consult that source with regard to all the particulars of this law.

נד וְאִם בָּצֵק זֶה דָּבַק ב' חֳדָשִׁיםשסח קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח275 – בְּוַדַּאי כְּבָר נִתְקַשָּׁה כְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח וְאֵין נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ שׁוּם טַעַם, וּלְכָךְ מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת יַיִן זֶה בְּפֶסַח.שסט

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ מִבָּצֵק זֶה כְּזַיִת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד מִסִּדְקֵי הֶחָבִית – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח,שע אוֹ שֶׁיָּטִיחַ עָלָיו טִיט,שעא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב,שעב עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

55 Any pungent food – for example, salt, unripe fruit, or the like, [i.e.,] the pungent [substances] to be mentioned in Yoreh Deah, sec. 96276 – that was ground in a grinder that was used for chametz, even if [the grinder] was not used within 24 hours and [moreover,] was rinsed and clean, and did not have any trace [of chametz] visibly present, is [nevertheless] forbidden to be eaten on Pesach, even though it was ground before Pesach.277 [The rationale is that] because of its sharpness and because of the pressure [applied] while it is being ground, [a pungent food] will absorb the chametz absorbed in the grinder.278

Nevertheless, [there are no such concerns with regard to] our [ordinary] grinders, [because] it is not common to grind chametz with them [the entire year]279 and there is only a concern that there was a trace of chametz in the pungent spices that were ground in them throughout the year. If so, even if a slight trace of the flavor of chametz was released into the salt or the pungent spices that were ground in [the grinder], this [trace of] flavor was already nullified in 60 [times its volume] before Pesach. Therefore, it is permitted to partake of such salt and such spices during Pesach.

נה כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא חָרִיף, כְּגוֹן מֶלַחשעג אוֹ בֹּסֶרשעד וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִדְּבָרִים הַחֲרִיפִים שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ו,276 שֶׁנִּדּוֹכוּ בִּמְדוֹכָה שֶׁל חָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ בַּת יוֹמָהּשעה וְהִיא מוּדַחַת וּנְקִיָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּעֵין – אָסוּר לְאָכְלָם בְּפֶסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּדּוֹכוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,שעו,277 לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי חֲרִיפוּתָם וְעַל יְדֵי דֹּחַק הַדִּיכָה הֵן בּוֹלְעִין מֵחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּמְּדוֹכָה.278

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בַּמְּדוֹכָה שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִין לָדוּךְ בָּהֶן חָמֵץ,שעז,279 וְאֵין בָּהֶם חֲשָׁשׁ אֶלָּא שֶׁמָּא נִדַּךְ בָּהֶן מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּבָלִין הַחֲרִיפִים שֶׁנִּדּוֹכוּ בָּהֶם כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, וְאִם כֵּן אַף אִם נִפְלַט מֵהֶם טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ לְתוֹךְ הַמֶּלַח אוֹ תְּבָלִין הַחֲרִיפִים שֶׁנִּדּוֹכוּ בָּהֶן כְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל טַעַם זֶה בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וּלְפִיכָךְ מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל מֶלַח וּתְבָלִין הַלָּלוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח:שעח

56 According to [the letter of] the law, on Pesach, it is permitted to partake of salt that had been placed in a utensil that had been used for chametz provided the utensil was clean. [Indeed, this law applies] even if it is not known [whether the utensil] was clean, because utensils in general are assumed to be clean.280 [The rationale for this leniency is that] salt does not cause a utensil to release [the flavor] it absorbed unless the salt is ground in [the utensil]. Nevertheless, may blessings alight upon one who is stringent, and on Pesach does not use salt that had been placed in a utensil that absorbed chametz even if [the utensil] had not been used within 24 hours, and was rinsed and clean.281 [The rationale is that] there is an authority who maintains that salt has the power to cause [flavor] that is absorbed in a utensil to be released.

Nevertheless, one should not apply this stringency to salt that is placed in a utensil that had not been used for chametz together with hot [water], for example, a grinder or the like.

נו מֶלַח הַנָּתוּן בִּכְלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַדִּין מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח,שעט אִם הַכְּלִי הָיָה נָקִי, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם הָיָה נָקִי – הֲרֵי סְתָם כֵּלִים נְקִיִּים הֵן,שפ,280 וְאֵין הַמֶּלַח מַפְלִיט מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִישפא אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִדּוֹךְ בְּתוֹכוֹ.שפב מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַמַּחֲמִיר [שֶׁלֹּא] לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּפֶסַח בְּמֶלַח שֶׁהָיָה מֻנָּח בִּכְלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וְהָיָה מוּדָח וְנָקִי – תָּבוֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה,שפג,281 לְפִישפד שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרשפה שֶׁהַמֶּלַח יֵשׁ לוֹ כֹּחַ לְהַפְלִיט מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִי.

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֶלַח הַנָּתוּן בִּכְלִי שֶׁאֵין רְגִילִין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין, כְּגוֹן מְדוֹכָהשפו וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ – אֵין לְהַחֲמִיר:שפז:

57 Any [food] that is not pungent that was ground in a utensil that had absorbed chametz – even if [the utensil] had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours – is permitted to be eaten on Pesach. [This ruling applies] even if [the food] was ground during Pesach. [The rationale is that] grinding does not cause the [flavor] absorbed in the utensil to be released when the ground [food] is not pungent.282

When does the above apply? To an [ordinary] utensil, for it is assumed that [a utensil] is clean and does not have any residue of chametz present. If, however, [food] is ground in a utensil that has some residue of chametz, even if it was ground before Pesach, it is forbidden to partake of [this food] on Pesach. [This restriction applies] even if [the person] desires to wash [the food] very thoroughly. [The rationale is that] due to the pressure of the grinder some of the residue that was present on the surface of the utensil became absorbed in [the food that was ground],283 and it will not be released from [the food] through rinsing.

נז כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרִיףשפח שֶׁנִּדּוֹךְ בִּכְלִי הַבָּלוּעַ מֵחָמֵץשפט אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹשצ – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, אֲפִלּוּ נִדּוֹךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,שצא לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַדִּיכָה מַפְלֶטֶת מַה שֶּׁבָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹךְ הַכְּלִישצב,282 כְּשֶׁהַנִּדָּךְ אֵינוֹ דָּבָר חָרִיף.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בִּסְתָם כְּלִי, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם הוּא נָקִי וְאֵין בּוֹ לִכְלוּךְ חָמֵץ בְּעֵין,שצג אֲבָל אִם נִדַּךְ בִּכְלִי שֶׁהוּא מְלֻכְלָךְ קְצָת מֵחָמֵץ, אֲפִלּוּ נִדּוֹךְ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, אֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לַהֲדִיחוֹ יָפֶה יָפֶה, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי דֹּחַק הַדִּיכָה נִבְלָע בְּתוֹכוֹ קְצָת מִן הַלִּכְלוּךְ שֶׁהָיָה בְּעֵין עַל פְּנֵי הַכְּלִי,283 וְאֵינוֹ נִפְלָט מִמֶּנּוּ עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה:שצד

58 Any [food] that is not pungent that was cut with a knife that had been used for chametz – even if it had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours – is permitted to be eaten on Pesach provided one washes it thoroughly in the place where it was cut.284 (See Yoreh Deah, sec. 96,285 [which rules] that washing is not effective for cucumbers, and one must remove the place [where they were] cut [with the knife that had been used for chametz]. Note the rationale mentioned in that source.)286

When does the above apply? When [the food] had been cut in a person’s home merely incidentally. By contrast, when [foods] are regularly cut by a non-Jew with a knife that was [used for] chametz, for example, slices of fish (that are called loksin)287 that non-Jews sell on Pesach [after] they cut it on Pesach [itself] with knives of theirs that they use for slicing bread, it is desirable – because of the severity of [the prohibition against] chametz on Pesach – to act stringently and not eat [such foods] on Pesach, even after they were [first] washed.288

If, however, [such foods] were cut before Pesach, it is not necessary to be stringent, and it is permitted to eat [such foods after] washing [them].

If [these foods] were not washed and they fell into a cooked dish on Pesach, the entire cooked dish is forbidden even though it contains more than 60 [times the volume of the food] that was cut with a knife that was [used for] chametz. [This stringency applies] even if [the food] was cut in a person’s home incidentally with a [chametz] knife that he knows was not used [for chametz] within 24 hours. Nevertheless, if [the person] did not clean the knife thoroughly before he cut [the food, he may not eat it, because] it can be assumed that there was a small amount of chametz stuck to [the knife], and when [that food was] cut, a trace of the chametz separated from the knife and attached [itself] to the cut [food]289 because of the pressure of the knife [on the food] while cutting.290 [Therefore,] when [the food] with the trace of chametz attached to it fell into the cooked dish, the entire cooked dish became forbidden because of that trace of chametz.291

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that the Sages’ statement that [it can be assumed that] a knife is not clean applies only to [knives used with] fat, because [fat] is something that sticks [to a knife] and adheres [to it]. Chametz, by contrast, is not an entity that sticks [to a knife] and adheres [to it]. With a slight cleaning, [the chametz] will be separated from the knife. Thus, [it can be assumed] that any knife is clean [and does not have any chametz on it]. Therefore, [stringency is not required regarding any food] that is not pungent that was cut with a knife [used for] chametz. Even if [the food] was [of the type that was] regularly cut by a non-Jew during Pesach, [if the food that was cut with the chametz knife] fell into a cooked dish before it was washed [off], that cooked dish is permitted to be eaten [on Pesach. According to these authorities, this leniency] even [applies when the cooked dish] does not contain 60 [times the volume of the food cut with the knife in question]. One may rely on their words when a severe [financial] loss is involved or in a pressing situation, e.g., [the food is] necessary for the joy of the festival, for [the person] does not have enough other foods, as explained above.

נח כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרִיף שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיְּדִיחֶנּוּ יָפֶה בִּמְקוֹם הַחֲתָךְשצה,284 (וְעַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ושצו,285 דִּבְקִשּׁוּאִים אֵין הֲדָחָה מוֹעֶלֶת כְּלוּם, וְצָרִיךְ לִגְרֹר מְקוֹם הַחֲתָךְ, עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַם).286

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בְּבֵיתוֹ, שֶׁהוּא אַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא, אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ בִּקְבִיעוּת בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי, כְּגוֹן חֲתִיכַת דָּג (שֶׁקּוֹרִין לַאקְסִיןשצז,287) שֶׁמּוֹכְרִים הַנָּכְרִים בְּפֶסַח, וְהוּא נֶחְתַּךְ בְּפֶסַח בַּסַּכִּינִים שֶׁלָּהֶם שֶׁחוֹתְכִין בָּהֶן פַּת – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר מִשּׁוּם חֻמְרַת חָמֵץ שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל בְּפֶסַח אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה.שצח,288

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁחֲתָכוּהוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַחֲמִיר, וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח עַל יְדֵי הֲדָחָה.שצט

וְאִם לֹא הֱדִיחוּהוּ וְנָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל בְּפֶסַח – הֲרֵי כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ, וַאֲפִלּוּ נֶחְתַּךְ בְּבֵיתוֹ בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא בְּסַכִּין שֶׁיָּדוּעַ לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם לֹא קִנַּח אֶת הַסַּכִּין יָפֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁחָתַךְ אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר, מִן הַסְּתָם הָיָה מְעַט חָמֵץ דָּבוּק בּוֹ,ת וּכְשֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בּוֹ אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר עַל יְדֵי דֹּחַק הַסַּכִּין בַּחֲתִיכָתוֹ290 נִפְרַד מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץתא מִן הַסַּכִּין וְנִדְבַּק בַּדָּבָר שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ,289 וּכְשֶׁנָּפַל אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר עִם מַשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ הַדָּבוּק בּוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – נֶאֱסַר כָּל הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֵחֲמַת הַמַּשֶּׁהוּ חָמֵץ.291

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהתב וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים: סְתָם סַכִּין אֵינוֹ נָקִי, אֶלָּא מִן שַׁמְנוּנִית, שֶׁהוּא דָּבָר הַנִּדְבָּק וְנִסְרָךְ, אֲבָל חָמֵץ שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָּבָר נִדְבָּק וְנִסְרָךְ לוֹ, בְּקִנּוּחַ מְעַט הוּא נִפְרָד מֵהַסַּכִּין,תג הֲרֵי כָּל סְתָם סַכִּין נָקִי הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ, וּלְפִיכָךְ כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָרִיף שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ, אֲפִלּוּ נֶחְתַּךְ בִּקְבִיעוּת בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, וְקֹדֶם שֶׁהֱדִיחוֹ נָפַל לְתוֹךְ הַתַּבְשִׁיל – הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגְדּוֹ.תד וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, כְּגוֹן לְצֹרֶךְ שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַאֲכָלִים אֲחֵרִים כָּל צָרְכּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:תה,289

59 Any pungent substance that is cut with a knife that was [used for] chametz, even if it had not been used [for chametz] for 24 hours and it was clean and had been thoroughly washed – and even if [the substance] was cut before Pesach – is forbidden to be eaten on Pesach. [The rationale is that] because of its sharpness and because of the pressure of the knife applied while cutting, [it is assumed that] the flavor of the chametz absorbed in the knife was released and became absorbed [by the food in the [place it was] cut.292 The sharpness [of the food] nullifies the impairment of the flavor resulting from the fact that [the knife] had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours, and makes [the impaired] flavor [of the chametz] palatable.293

נט כָּל דָּבָר חָרִיף שֶׁנֶּחְתַּךְ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וְהוּא נָקִי וּמְקֻנָּח יָפֶה, וַאֲפִלּוּ נֶחְתַּךְ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחתו – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי חֲרִיפוּתוֹ וְעַל יְדֵי דֹּחַק הַסַּכִּין בַּחֲתִיכָתוֹ290 נִפְלָט טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ הַבָּלוּעַ בַּסַּכִּין וְנִבְלָע בַּנֶּחְתָּךְ,תז,292 וְעַל יְדֵי חֲרִיפוּתוֹ מְבַטֵּל אֶת פְּגִימַת הַטַּעַם מֵחֲמַת שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ וְנַעֲשֶׂה טַעַם לְשֶׁבַח:תח,293

60 Because olives are bitter, they are considered a pungent food.294 [Nevertheless,] if [olives] were cut [before Pesach]with a knife that had been [used for] chametz – even if it was not clean and had been used [for chametz] within 24 hours – and, afterwards, the olives were left to soak with salt and water in a utensil that had been used for chametz within 24 hours,295 the liquid in which [the olives] were soaked is permitted to be used on Pesach. [The rationale is that any] chametz [released into the liquid] was already nullified in 60 times [its volume of liquid] before Pesach.296 In contrast, the olives themselves are forbidden because of their sharpness. [This ruling applies] even if the knife had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours.297

Even if all the olives that were cut with this knife were to be combined and [considered as a single entity, and consequently] their volume would be 60 times [the amount of the flavor of chametz that] was released by the knife, and [thus the olives] would nullify [the flavor of chametz they absorbed], they are nevertheless all forbidden.298 [The rationale is that] there are grounds for concern that perhaps each individual olive absorbed a trace from [the flavor of chametz] released by the knife. That trace did not spread through the entire olive so that it could be nullified by 60 [times its volume]. Instead, the entire trace [of the flavor of chametz] was absorbed in the place [where the olive] was cut and its immediately adjoining [areas] in a manner that [enables] this slight amount [of chametz] to impart the actual flavor of chametz to the portion of the olive into which it was absorbed.299 Such a concern applies regarding each of the olives. Therefore, they are all forbidden, even on the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora]. Even if [the person] is willing to remove the place where each olive was cut and the immediately adjoining portions, and eat only the remainder, that is not sufficient, for it is possible that [the flavor of chametz] released by the knife spread through the entire substance of some of the olives.300 Since we do not know which ones [were so affected], they are all forbidden.

([This stringency applies] even when 60 of the olives are [sufficiently large] to nullify all [the flavor of chametz] released by the knife [due to their volume being at least] 60 [times that of the flavor of the chametz released by the knife. In addition,] there are many more olives, so that [the presence of] these 60 olives would be nullified because they are [mixed with a] majority [of permitted olives. Nevertheless,] this is not significant, for [as] explained previously,301 whenever there is a dry mixture302 [in which the presence of a forbidden substance] has been nullified before Pesach due to a majority [of permitted substances, the forbidden substance] becomes significant again on Pesach.)

If [the person] cooked all these olives together before Pesach, it is permitted to eat them on Pesach. [The rationale is that] due to the cooking process, the flavor of the chametz is released from the place where it was absorbed in each olive and spread throughout the substance of all the olives. [As such, the flavor of the chametz] was nullified because [of the presence] of 60 times [its volume] before Pesach, and it does not become significant again on Pesach.303 If, by contrast, the olives were not cooked – even though they were soaked in water for several days, and any [food that is] soaked [for 24 hours] is considered as if it was cooked304 – it is not, however, considered equivalent to actually having been cooked.305 [Accordingly,] soaking is not relied upon [to say] that, as a result, a forbidden [flavor that was absorbed] will be released [entirely] from the place where it was absorbed, as [is true] with regard to cooking. [Support for this concept can be derived from the fact that] utensils [that absorbed] forbidden [substances while hot enough that a hand would recoil from it]306 may [only] be kasheredthrough the process of hag’alah (submerging the utensils) in boiling water, but [cannot be kashered] by soaking them in cold water, even for several days.

There are authorities who maintain that even if one cooked all the olives together before Pesach – and even if one cooked them together with other [foods] that comprised 60 [times the volume] of all the olives – the olives still remain forbidden on Pesach.307 [The rationale is that] the flavor of chametz was not entirely released from every olive in the cooking process. Instead, a trace [of the flavor of chametz] remained. True, this trace [of the flavor of chametz] spread through the entire substance of the olive and became nullified [because of the presence of] 60 [times its volume before Pesach]. Nevertheless, before [the olive] was cooked, the flavor of chametz was discernible in part of the olive, i.e., the place where it was cut and the area immediately adjoining [that area], and that flavor absorbed in that small [portion of the olive] was identified as chametz.308 [Therefore,] since the flavor of chametz was not released from that place entirely,309 that flavor is [still] identified as the flavor of chametz, as it was so deemed before [the olive] was cooked. [The rationale is that] there was sufficient [flavor] for [the chametz] to be discernible in that small [place]. Since the trace of the flavor that was absorbed in that small [portion of the olive that was cut]is identified as chametz, [that trace of the flavor of chametz] becomes significant again on Pesach, and causes this small [portion of the olive] in which it is absorbed to become forbidden. [Now,] chametz on Pesach is never nullified, [no matter how much more of another substance is present,] as long as it is identified as chametz. [Thus,] since we do not know the size of the portion of the olive in which the flavor of chametz was discernible before it was cooked, the entire olive is forbidden, for possibly [the flavor of chametz] was discernible in the entire [olive]. The same [logic applies with regard] to every olive [individually]; it is possible that the flavor of chametz was discernible in that entire [olive].

By contrast, [even if] actual chametz became mixed with less than 60 [times its volume] in a liquid mixture before Pesach, [and then more of the permitted substance became added to the mixture, it is permitted to partake of the mixture]. For example, beer was mixed with [a small amount of] mead, and then more mead fell into [this mixture] before Pesach so that there was in total 60 [times more mead] than beer in [the mixture], it is permitted to drink the entire mixture on Pesach.310 [The presence of] the beer does not become significant again on Pesach. Even though [the beer] was initially mixed with less than 60 times its volume and the flavor of the beer was discernible in the mixture, and [therefore the mixture] was identified as chametz, it is not said that since [the mixture] was [once] identified as chametz, that identity is never withdrawn from it. The rationale [for this ruling] is explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 106.311 Consult that source.

With regard to the halachah, since the prohibition against [partaking of a mixture containing even] the slightest trace of chametz is Rabbinic in origin, leniency may be taken, as prescribed by the first opinion. Nevertheless, may blessing alight upon one who is stringent and refrains from partaking [of such olives] until the final festive day [of Pesach celebrated in the Diaspora].

All the above applies when [the olives] were cut with a knife that [had been used for] chametz, even if it had been washed and cleaned and had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. If, however, one was careful to cut [the olives] with a new knife or [with one that] had never been used for hot chametz, it is permitted to eat [the olives] on Pesach according to the letter of the law. [This ruling applies] even if, before Pesach, [the olives] were left to soak with salt and water in a pot that [had been used for] chametz but had not been used [for chametz] within 24 hours. [The rationale is that the flavor of] the chametz released from the pot to the olives before Pesach was impaired. True, the concept of an impaired flavor does not apply with regard to a pungent substance.312 Nevertheless, since one mixed the olives with water, the power [of the olives] is reduced and their sharpness is nullified (by the water which [the olives] absorbed through this soaking). [The above applies] provided there is much more water than olives, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 114.313

If [however, the olives] were left to soak in a utensil that [had been used for] chametz within 24 hours, the ruling is the same as that which applies to other salted and pickled foods for which a large amount of salt was not used, which were salted or left to soak in a utensil that [had been used for] chametz within 24 hours, as explained above.314

ס זֵיתִים מֵחֲמַת מְרִירוּתָןתט הֵן נִקְרָאִין דָּבָר חָרִיף,294 וְאִם חֲתָכָן בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ נָקִיתי וְהוּא בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ כָּבַשׁ אוֹתָם בְּמֶלַח וּמַיִם בִּכְלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ295 – הֲרֵי מֵי הַכְּבִישָׁה מֻתָּרִין בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל בָּהֶן הֶחָמֵץ בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.תיא,296

אֲבָל הַזֵּיתִים עַצְמָן אֲסוּרִין אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה הַסַּכִּין בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵן חֲרִיפִים.תיב,297 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם נְצָרֵף כָּל הַזֵּיתִים שֶׁנֶּחְתְּכוּ בְּסַכִּין זֶה יֵשׁ בָּהֶן שִׁשִּׁים לְבַטֵּל פְּלִיטַת הַסַּכִּין,תיג אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֻּלָּם אֲסוּרִין,298 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא כָּל זַיִת וְזַיִת נִבְלַע מַשֶּׁהוּ מִפְּלִיטַת הַסַּכִּיןתיד וְלֹא נִתְפַּשֵּׁט מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה בְּכָל גּוּף הַזַּיִת שֶׁיִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים, אֶלָּא כָּל מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה נִבְלַע בִּמְקוֹם הַחֲתָךְ וְסָמוּךְ לוֹ מְעַט,תטו בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה כְּדֵי לִתֵּן טַעַם חָמֵץ גָּמוּר בְּאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם מֵהַזַּיִת שֶׁהוּא בָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ,299 וְכֵן יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ בְּכָל זַיִת וְזַיִת, וּלְכָךְ כֻּלָּם אֲסוּרִין, אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן.תטז,202 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לְהָסִיר מִכָּל זַיִת אֶת מְקוֹם הַחֲתָךְ וְסָמוּךְ לוֹ מְעַט וְלֶאֱכֹל הַמּוֹתָר – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, דְּאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁבְּכַמָּה זֵיתִים נִתְפַּשְּׁטָה בָּהֶן פְּלִיטַת הַסַּכִּין בְּכָל גּוּפָן,תיז,300 וּלְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִין אוֹתוֹ לְפִיכָךְ כֻּלָּם אֲסוּרִין.

(וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם בְּשִׁשִּׁים זֵיתִים מֵהֶן יֵשׁ כְּדֵי לְבַטֵּל פְּלִיטַת כָּל הַסַּכִּין בְּשִׁשִּׁים, וְיֵשׁ כָּאן עוֹד הַרְבֵּה זֵיתִים מְאֹד כְּדֵי לְבַטֵּל הַשִּׁשִּׁים זֵיתִים בְּרֹבתיח – אֵין זֶה כְּלוּם, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבָּאֵרתיט,301 שֶׁכָּל יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ302 שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹב קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח הוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח).

וְאִם חָזַר וּבִשֵּׁל כָּל זֵיתִים אֵלּוּ יַחַד קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָן בְּפֶסַח, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל נִפְלָט טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיָה בָּלוּעַ בְּכָל זַיִת וְזַיִת וְנִתְפַּשֵּׁט בְּכָל גּוּף הַזֵּיתִים וְנִתְבַּטֵּל בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח.תכ,303 אֲבָל אִם לֹא בִּשְּׁלָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן כְּבוּשִׁין בַּמַּיִם כַּמָּה יָמִים, וְכָל כָּבוּשׁ הוּא כִּמְבֻשָּׁל,תכא,304 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ כִּמְבֻשָּׁל מַמָּשׁ,305 וְאֵין סוֹמְכִין עַל הַכְּבִישָׁה שֶׁעַל יְדֵי כֵן יְהֵא אִסּוּר נִפְלָט מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּבְלַע בּוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁסּוֹמְכִין עַל הַבִּשּׁוּל,תכב שֶׁהֲרֵי הֶכְשֵׁר כֵּלִים הָאֲסוּרִין306 הוּא עַל יְדֵי הַגְעָלָה בְּחַמִּין, וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי כְּבִישָׁה בְּמַיִם צוֹנְנִין אֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה יָמִים.תכג

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתכד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּשֵּׁל כָּל הַזֵּיתִים בְּיַחַד קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּשֵּׁל עִמָּהֶם עוֹד דְּבָרִים אֲחֵרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶם שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד כָּל הַזֵּיתִים, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַזֵּיתִים עוֹמְדִין בְּאִסּוּרָן בְּפֶסַח,307 לְפִי שֶׁכָּל זַיִת וְזַיִת לֹא נִפְלַט מִמֶּנּוּ טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ לְגַמְרֵי עַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל, אֶלָּא נִשְׁאַר בּוֹ מַשֶּׁהוּ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּשֶּׁהוּ זֶה נִתְפַּשֵּׁט עַל יְדֵי הַבִּשּׁוּל בְּכָל גּוּף הַזַּיִת וְנִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁקֹּדֶם שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ הָיָה נִרְגָּשׁ טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בְּמִקְצָת הַזַּיִת, דְּהַיְנוּ בִּמְקוֹם הַחֲתָךְ וְסָמוּךְ לוֹ מְעַט, וְהָיָה נִקְרָא שֵׁם חָמֵץ עַל אוֹתוֹ טַעַם הַבָּלוּעַ בְּאוֹתוֹ מִקְצָת308 כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִפְלַט מִמֶּנּוּ הֶחָמֵץ לְגַמְרֵי309 – הֲרֵי טַעַם זֶה נִקְרָא טַעַם חָמֵץ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה נִקְרָא קֹדֶם שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ כְּדֵי לִתֵּן טַעַם מֻרְגָּשׁ בְּאוֹתוֹ מִקְצָת.תכה וְכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֵׁם חָמֵץ עַל טַעַם מַשֶּׁהוּ זֶה הַבָּלוּעַ בְּאוֹתוֹ מִקְצָת – הֲרֵי הוּא חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר בְּפֶסַח וְאוֹסֵר אֶת הַמִּקְצָת הַזֶּה שֶׁהוּא בָּלוּעַ בְּתוֹכוֹ, וְהֶחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵין לוֹ בִּטּוּל לְעוֹלָם כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיֵּשׁ שֵׁם חָמֵץ עָלָיו. וּלְפִי שֶׁאֵין אָנוּ יוֹדְעִים כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּרוֹ שֶׁל הַמִּקְצָת הַזֶּה שֶׁהָיָה נִרְגָּשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם חָמֵץ קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל, לְפִיכָךְ כָּל הַזַּיִת אָסוּר, שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהָיָה נִרְגָּשׁ בְּכֻלּוֹ, וְכֵן כָּל זַיִת וְזַיִת יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק בּוֹ שֶׁמָּא הָיָה נִרְגָּשׁ טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ בְּכֻלּוֹ.

אֲבָל חָמֵץ גָּמוּר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים לַח בְּלַח, כְּגוֹן שֵׁכָר לְתוֹךְ מֵי דְּבַשׁ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָפַל לְתוֹכוֹ עוֹד מֵי דְּבַשׁ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּין הַכֹּל שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַשֵּׁכָר שֶׁבְּתוֹכָם – מֻתָּר לִשְׁתּוֹת הַכֹּל בְּפֶסַח,310 וְאֵין הַשֵּׁכָר חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב תְּחִלָּה בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים וְהָיָה טַעַם שֵׁכָר נִרְגָּשׁ בַּתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת וְנִקְרָא עָלָיו שֵׁם חָמֵץ – אֵין אוֹמְרִים: כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּקְרָא עָלָיו שֵׁם חָמֵץ שׁוּב אֵינוֹ נִפְקָע מִמֶּנּוּ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ותכו,311 עַיֵּן שָׁם.

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר מַשֶּׁהוּ בְּפֶסַח מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמַּחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא לְאָכְלָם עַד יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן252 – תָּבוֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה.

וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁנֶּחְתְּכוּ בְּסַכִּין שֶׁל חָמֵץ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מְקֻנָּח וְנָקִי וְאֵינוֹ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, אֲבָל אִם נִזְהַר לְחָתְכָם בְּסַכִּין חֲדָשָׁה, אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ חָמֵץ בְּחַמִּין מֵעוֹלָם – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלָם בְּפֶסַח מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,תכז אֲפִלּוּ נִכְבְּשׁוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּמֶלַח וּמַיִם בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁל חָמֵץ שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה בַּת יוֹמָהּ,תכח לְפִי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּפְלַט מֵהַקְּדֵרָה לַזֵּיתִים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח הוּא נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּדָבָר חָרִיף אֵין אוֹמְרִים נוֹתֵן טַעַם לִפְגָם,312 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁנָּתַן הַמַּיִם עַל הַזֵּיתִים – כְּבָר הֻחְלַשׁ כֹּחָן וְנִתְבַּטֵּל חֲרִיפוּתָןתכט (עַל יְדֵי הַמַּיִם שֶׁנִּבְלְעוּ בָּהֶם עַל יְדֵי כְּבִישָׁה זוֹ). וְהוּא שֶׁהַמַּיִם הֵן הַרְבֵּה מֵהַזֵּיתִים,תל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קי"ד.313

וְאִם נִכְבְּשׁוּ בִּכְלִי חָמֵץ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, דִּינוֹ כִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי מְלוּחִים וּכְבוּשִׁים שֶׁאֵין מַרְבִּים בָּהֶם מֶלַח שֶׁנִּמְלְחוּ וְנִכְבְּשׁוּ בִּכְלִי שֶׁל חָמֵץ בֶּן יוֹמוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:תלא,314

61 Grain [or grain products] that are definitely chametz315 that remained [in a Jew’s] possession during Pesach, whether unintentionally or intentionally, and after Pesach unintentionally became mixed [with another substance] – whether of the same type or of a different type, whether in a liquid mixture or a dry mixture – are considered batel, insignificant, [if they mixed with] a majority [of permitted substances]. One is even permitted to partake of [the mixture].316 [The rationale is that] chametz that was possessed [by a Jew] during Pesach is only forbidden [after Pesach] as a penalty, i.e., the Sages penalized [the owner]317 for violating the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz]. Therefore, [the chametz] is forbidden only when it exists as an integral entity, in the form it existed when [the person] transgressed [due to its possession]. If, however, [the chametz] became mixed [after Pesach] with a majority of permitted [substances], the Sages did not penalize [the owner] since [the chametz] changed from the form in which it existed when possessed [by the Jew] during Pesach.318

Nevertheless, it is forbidden to intentionally mix [the forbidden chametz] with a majority of permitted [substances], because initially, it is forbidden to nullify a forbidden [substance]. If one transgressed and intentionally mixed [the chametz with the permitted substance],319 i.e., he knew that it is was forbidden to mix [the chametz with permitted substances], and nonetheless mixed [the chametz]with a majority of permitted [substances] in order to nullify it,320 he [is bound by] the same law as others who willfully nullify forbidden substances – [the mixture] is forbidden for him and the members of his household, but permitted to others, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 99.321 Consult that source for all the particulars regarding this law.

There are authorities who maintain that since chametz that remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach is forbidden by Rabbinic Law, it is governed by the same laws as other substances forbidden by Rabbinic Law, i.e., they are not nullified in a liquid mixture [containing] less than 60 [times their volume of a permitted substance], whether they were mixed with [a substance of] the same type or they were mixed with [a substance of] a different type, whether the actual substance of the forbidden entity is present in the mixture or merely its flavor is present. For example, a piece of chametz that remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach fell into a boiling hot cooked dish of chametz322 that became chametz after Pesach. When the cooked dish was not 60 [times the volume] of the [forbidden] piece [of chametz], it is forbidden to partake of or benefit from the cooked dish even after the [forbidden] piece [of chametz] was removed from it.323

Nevertheless, it is permitted to sell [the cooked dish] to a non-Jew.324 [The rationale is that] the non-Jew is not giving [the Jew] any additional money because of the flavor [of chametz] that was released into [the cooked dish]. Thus, [the Jew] is not benefiting from [the forbidden chametz] at all. If, however, the actual substance of the chametz that was possessed [by a Jew] during Pesach was present in the mixture, [the Jew] must be careful to only accept from the non-Jew what the mixture was worth before the chametz fell into it. Alternatively, [the person may] accept [payment for] the value of the entire mixture, including the chametz it contains, and then cast the value of the chametz into oblivion, e.g., into the sea or a deep river. Thus, he is not benefiting at all from this [forbidden] chametz.325

[Moreover,] even [the person] himself is permitted to eat the entire mixture by “redeeming” the [value of the] chametz it contains, i.e., he should take the value of the chametz from his money and cast [that money] into oblivion. Thus, [the person] is not benefiting at all from the fact that this chametz remained [in his possession] during Pesach. [Therefore,] afterwards, there is no [further] reason to penalize him from partaking of [the chametz] since it already became mixed with permitted [substances].

If, however, [the chametz became mixed] in a dry mixture, it is nullified when mixed with a majority of permitted substances, as is the law regarding other forbidden [substances],326 and he is permitted even to partake of it.

If the [dry] mixture does not contain a greater [volume of permitted substances] than of the chametz – i.e., one [forbidden piece of chametz] was mixed with one [permitted piece,] or two [pieces] were mixed with two [other pieces] – it is necessary to “redeem”327 the chametz, and [only afterwards may the person] eat the entire mixture. Alternatively, [the Jewish owner] should sell the entire mixture to a non-Jew, but only take from him half its value, i.e., [he should only receive] the value of the permitted [substance].

With regard to halachah, one should be stringent, [following] the second opinion. If, however, a severe [financial] loss is involved or the situation is pressing, one may rely on the first opinion, (for fundamentally, it [deserves prominence]).

סא חָמֵץ דָּגָן גָּמוּר315 שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,תלב בֵּין בְּשׁוֹגֵג בֵּין בְּמֵזִיד,תלג וְנִתְעָרֵב לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַחתלד בְּשׁוֹגֵג, בֵּין בְּמִינוֹ בֵּין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ, בֵּין לַח בְּלַח בֵּין יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ – הֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל בְּרֹב,תלה וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,316 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁחָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם קְנָס שֶׁקְּנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים317 עַל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", לְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו, אֲבָל אִם נִתְעָרֵב אַחַר כָּךְ בְּרֹב הֶתֵּר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנָּה מִכְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח – לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים.318

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אָסוּר לְעָרְבוֹ בַּיָּדַיִם בְּרֹב הֶתֵּר, שֶׁאֵין מְבַטְּלִין אִסּוּר לְכַתְּחִלָּה.תלו וְאִם עָבַר וְעֵרְבוֹ בְּמֵזִיד,319 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיָּדַע שֶׁאָסוּר לְעָרְבוֹתלז וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן עֵרְבוֹ בְּרֹב הֶתֵּר כְּדֵי לְבַטְּלוֹ320 – דִּינוֹ כִּשְׁאָר מְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בְּמֵזִיד, שֶׁאָסוּר לוֹ וּלְאַנְשֵׁי בֵּיתוֹתלח וּמֻתָּר לַאֲחֵרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן צ"ט,תלט,321 עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה.

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםתמ שֶׁחָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים שֶׁאֵינָן בְּטֵלִין בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים אִם הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת הוּא לַח בְּלַח, בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמִינוֹ בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא בְּמִינוֹ, בֵּין שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת מַמָּשׁוֹ שֶׁל אִסּוּר בֵּין שֶׁאֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא טַעְמוֹ בִּלְבַד,תמא כְּגוֹן חֲתִיכַת חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח שֶׁנָּפְלָה לְתַבְשִׁיל רוֹתֵחַ שֶׁל חָמֵץ322 שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְאֵין בַּתַּבְשִׁיל שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַחֲתִיכָה – הֲרֵי הַתַּבְשִׁיל אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵסִיר הַחֲתִיכָה מִמֶּנּוּ.323

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מֻתָּר לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי,324 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַנָּכְרִי מוֹסִיף לוֹ דָּמִים בְּעַד טַעַם הַחֲתִיכָה שֶׁנִּפְלַט לְשָׁם, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלָל מִמֶּנָּה.תמב אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בְּהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת מַמָּשׁוּת חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יְקַבֵּל דָּמִים מֵהַנָּכְרִי רַק מַה שֶּׁהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הָיָה שָׁוֶה קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּפַל הֶחָמֵץ לְתוֹכוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל דְּמֵי הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת עִם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וְיַשְׁלִיךְ דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ לְאִבּוּד, כְּגוֹן לַיָּם אוֹ לְנָהָר עָמֹק, דְּנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלָל מֵחָמֵץ זֶה.תמג,325 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא עַצְמוֹ מֻתָּר לֶאֱכֹל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּפְדֶּה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ,תמד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּטֹּל מִמָּעוֹתָיו סְכוּם דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ זֶה וְיַשְׁלִיכֵם לְאִבּוּד, דְּנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלָל בְּמַה שֶּׁעָבַר הַפֶּסַח עַל חָמֵץ זֶה, וְשׁוּב אֵין לָנוּ לְקָנְסוֹתמה שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְעָרֵב בְּהֶתֵּר.

וְאִם הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הוּא יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ – הֲרֵי הוּא בָּטֵל בְּרֹב כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין,תמו,326 וּמֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה. וְאִם אֵין בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת רֹב כְּנֶגֶד חָמֵץ זֶה,תמז כְּגוֹן שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב אֶחָד בְּאֶחָד אוֹ שְׁנַיִם בִּשְׁנַיִם – צָרִיךְ לִפְדּוֹת אֶת הֶחָמֵץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאכַל אֶת כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, אוֹ שֶׁיִּמְכֹּר הַכֹּל לְנָכְרִי וְלֹא יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ רַק מַחֲצִית הַדָּמִים, דְּהַיְנוּ דְּמֵי הֶתֵּר בִּלְבַד.תמח

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה. אֲבָל אִם הוּא הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהתמט (כִּי כֵן עִקָּר):

62 When a dough leavened after Pesach because of beer dregs that had remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach, it is even forbidden to benefit from [the dough]328 even when the dough contains 60 [times the volume of the beer] dregs. [The rationale is that] since the [beer] dregs cause [the dough] to leaven, [they are considered a davar hamaamid,]329 and every davar hamaamid is considered as if it is actually present;330 it is as if the entire dough is [composed of] the [beer] dregs.

Therefore, [even] if the person desires to sell [the dough] to a non-Jew and only accept payment from him for the value of the dough before he put the [beer] dregs into it, that is not effective, since the entire dough is considered as if it were [beer] dregs. Similarly, if [the person] desires to “redeem” the [beer] dregs,331 it is not effective, for “redemption” is not effective [when the forbidden substance is actually] intact.332 The same laws apply if one left cheese [to curdle] in vinegar made from beer that had remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach, or left mead to ferment with beer dregs that had remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach, or any other similar situation.

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that one may “redeem” a davar hamaamid and similarly, that one may sell [the end-product] to a non-Jew and [merely] not accept payment for the davar hamaamid.333 When a severe [financial] loss is involved, one may rely on their words.

סב עִסָּה שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַשְּׁמָרִים – הֲרֵי הִיא אֲסוּרָהתנ אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה,328 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַשְּׁמָרִים הֶעֱמִידוּ אוֹתָהּ, וְכָל דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד329 הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵיןתנא,330 – הֲרֵי כְּאִלּוּ כָּל הָעִסָּה הִיא שְׁמָרִים.

לְפִיכָךְ, אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לְמָכְרָהּ לְנָכְרִי וְלֹא יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ רַק כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיְתָה הָעִסָּה שָׁוָה קֹדֶם שֶׁנָּתַן לְתוֹכָהּ הַשְּׁמָרִים – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָנוּ רוֹאִים כָּל הָעִסָּה כְּאִלּוּ הִיא שְׁמָרִים. וְכֵן אִם הוּא רוֹצֶה לִפְדּוֹת אֶת הַשְּׁמָרִים331 – אֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵין פִּדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל לְדָבָר שֶׁהוּא בְּעֵין.332

וְכֵן הַדִּין אִם הֶעֱמִיד גְּבִינוֹת בְּחֹמֶץ שֶׁל שֵׁכָר שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, אוֹ שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד מֵי דְּבַשׁ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה.תנב

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהתנג וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁפִּדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל לְדָבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד.333 וְכֵן יָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי וְלֹא יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ דְּמֵי דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד. וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם:תנד

63 If one took yeast from a dough that leavened as a result of yeast that remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach and [used it to cause another dough to leaven, then] took yeast from this second dough and caused a third dough to leaven, and [then] took yeast from this third dough and caused a fourth dough to leaven, this fourth dough is even permitted to be eaten, without [even the necessity of] redeeming it.334 The second and third doughs, however, [are governed by] the same laws as the first [dough].335

Similarly, if one took dregs from mead that was left to ferment in beer dregs that remained [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach and used them to [cause other] mead to ferment, [then] took dregs from the second [batch of] mead and caused a third [batch of] mead to ferment, and [then] took dregs from the third [batch of] mead and caused a fourth [batch of] mead to ferment, all authorities agree that the fourth [batch of] mead is permitted even to be drunk. See sec. 442[:10]. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

סג אִם לָקַח שְׂאוֹר מֵעִסָּה שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה בִּשְׂאוֹר שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,תנה וּמֵעִסָּה זוֹ הַשְּׁנִיָּה לָקַח שְׂאוֹר וְחִמֵּץ בּוֹ עִסָּה שְׁלִישִׁית, וּמֵעִסָּה זוֹ הַשְּׁלִישִׁית לָקַח שְׂאוֹר וְחִמֵּץ בּוֹ עִסָּה רְבִיעִית – הֲרֵי עִסָּה זוֹ הָרְבִיעִית מֻתֶּרֶת אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָהתנו בְּלֹא שׁוּם פִּדְיוֹן.334 אֲבָל עִסָּה הַב' וְהַג' דִּינָן כָּעִסָּה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה.335

וְכֵן אִם לָקַח שְׁמָרִים מִמֵּי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּהוּ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְהֶעֱמִיד בָּהֶם מֵי דְּבַשׁ ב', וּמִמֵּי דְּבַשׁ הַב' לָקַח שְׁמָרִים וְהֶעֱמִיד בָּהֶם מֵי דְּבַשׁ ג', וּמִמֵּי דְּבַשׁ הַג' לָקַח שְׁמָרִים וְהֶעֱמִיד בָּהֶם מֵי דְּבַשׁ ד' – הֲרֵי מֵי דְּבַשׁ הַד' מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁתִיָּה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, עַיֵּן סִימָן תמ"ב,תנז וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה: