SECTION 446 [The Laws that Apply When] One Discovers Chametz in the Midst of the Festival (1-8)

סימן תמו מִי שֶׁמּוֹצֵא חָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַמּוֹעֵד וּבוֹ ח' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply when] one discovers – whether in his home or in any other place in his domain – a piece of chametz on Pesach that he did not find when he searched [for chametz] on the night of the fourteenth:1 [If he found the chametz] during Chol HaMoed,2 he is obligated to obliterate it from existence immediately upon seeing it.

[Before doing so,] he should recite a blessing, [praising G‑d] “…Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the obliteration of chametz.” Even though [the person] already nullified [his ownership of] all his chametz on the night of the fourteenth,3 he is [nonetheless] obligated to obliterate [the chametz] according to Rabbinic Law, lest he forget and eat it.4 And [before doing so,] he is obligated to recite a blessing, just as one recites a blessing over [the fulfillment of] all Rabbinic commandments.5

(True, [the person] recited a blessing over the obliteration of chametz [before beginning the search] on the night of the fourteenth and, as a result of this blessing, he is exempt from reciting a blessing over the obliteration of chametz on the day of the fourteenth, as explained in sec. 432[:1]). Nevertheless, he is only exempt from [reciting a blessing over] the obliteration of the chametz that he found during his search, or the chametz that he bought to eat on the fourteenth, [but not chametz found at any other time. The reason why one should not recite a blessing on the day of the fourteenth is that] as long as he did not obliterate the chametz that he found during his search, he has yet to complete [the mitzvah of] the search over which he recited the [original] blessing. [The rationale is that] searching [for chametz] without obliterating it is of no value whatsoever. Accordingly, [a person] need not recite an [additional] blessing on all the chametz he obliterates before he concludes obliterating the chametz that he found during his search, since he has yet to complete the mitzvah of searching [for chametz] over which he [originally] recited a blessing.

[Moreover,] even if one did not find any chametz at all during the search, he is not required to recite a blessing when, on the fourteenth [of Nissan], he obliterates the chametz he was aware of at the time of the search, that he knew he would have to obliterate on the following day.6 [The rationale is that] this [– the obliteration of the chametz the person possesses –] is the completion [and entire intent] of the search. [Indeed,] even if [the person] obliterates other chametz that he was not aware of at the time of the search, for example, it was hidden in a hole at the time of the search, and he searched [for chametz on the night of the fourteenth] and did not find it,7 and [only] afterwards, did [this chametz] roll out from [the hole] and he found it – [or] alternatively, he changed his mind on the next day and purchased chametz, or changed his mind and baked chametz – he is not obligated to recite a blessing when obliterating it, provided he obliterates [this chametz] before he completes obliterating the chametz of which he was aware at the time of the search and which he must obliterate. [The rationale is that until the person obliterates the chametz of which he was aware at the time of his search,] the mitzvah of searching [for chametz] was yet to be completed, for he recited the blessing, “concerning the mitzvah of obliterating” [chametz before the search], and, as of yet, he did not complete the obliteration of the chametz of which he was aware at the time of the search and which he must obliterate.8

When, by contrast, [a person] obliterates chametz that he discovered after he completed obliterating [all] the chametz of which he was aware at the time of the search [and] which he was obligated to obliterate, he must recite a [new] blessing over its [obliteration. The rationale is that, at this time,] the mitzvah of searching [for chametz] over which he recited the blessing had already been completed.

א הַמּוֹצֵא בְּפֶסַח חֲתִיכַת חָמֵץ שֶׁלֹּא מְצָאָהּ בִּבְדִיקַת לֵיל י"ד, בֵּין שֶׁמְּצָאָהּ בְּבֵיתוֹ בֵּין שֶׁמְּצָאָהּ בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ,1 אִם הוּא חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד2 – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם מִיָּד שֶׁיִּרְאֶנָּה,א וִיבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל בִּעוּר חָמֵץ", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר בִּטֵּל כָּל חֲמֵצוֹ בְּלֵיל י"ד,3 מִכָּל מָקוֹם חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ב שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה,ג,4 וְחַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמְּבָרְכִין עַל כָּל מִצְוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.ד,5

(וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר בֵּרַךְ עַל בִּעוּר חָמֵץ בְּלֵיל י"ד, וּבִבְרָכָה זוֹ נִפְטַר מִלְּבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּר בְּיוֹם י"ד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"בה), מִכָּל מָקוֹם לֹא נִפְטַר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמָּצָא בַּבְּדִיקָה אוֹ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁקָּנָה לַאֲכִילַת י"ד, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא בִּעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמָּצָא בַּבְּדִיקָה הֲרֵי עֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה הַבְּדִיקָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלֶיהָ,ו שֶׁבְּדִיקָה בְּלֹא בִּעוּר אֵינָהּ שָׁוָה כְּלוּם, וּלְפִיכָךְ כָּל חָמֵץ שֶׁמְּבַעֵר קֹדֶם שֶׁגָּמַר לְבַעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמָּצָא בַּבְּדִיקָה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מִצְוַת הַבְּדִיקָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלֶיהָ.

וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא מָצָא שׁוּם חָמֵץ בַּבְּדִיקָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֵר בְּיוֹם י"ד אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהָיָה יָדוּעַ לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְמָחָר לְבַעֲרוֹ,ז,6 שֶׁגְּמַר הַבְּדִיקָה הוּא זֶה. וַאֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֵר חָמֵץ אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה יָדוּעַ לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהָיָה טָמוּן בְּחוֹר בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה וּבָדַק וְלֹא מְצָאו7 וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּלְגֵּל מִשָּׁם וּמְצָאוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְלַךְ לְמָחָר וְקָנָה חָמֵץ, אוֹ שֶׁנִּמְלַךְ לֶאֱפוֹת לֶחֶם חָמֵץ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּרוֹ, אִם מְבַעֲרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁגָּמַר לְבַעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהָיָה יָדוּעַ לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מִצְוַת הַבְּדִיקָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי בֵּרַךְ עָלֶיהָ "עַל מִצְוַת בִּעוּר", וַעֲדַיִן לֹא גָּמַר לְבַעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהָיָה יָדוּעַ לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ.8 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמָּצָא לְאַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר לְבַעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ הַיָּדוּעַ לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ – חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר נִגְמְרָה מִצְוַת הַבְּדִיקָה שֶׁבֵּרַךְ עָלֶיהָ:ח

2 When does the above apply? When one obliterates [the chametz] after the sixth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan]9 had arrived. When, however, [a person] obliterates [his chametz] before the sixth hour, he is not obligated to recite a blessing over its [obliteration]10 even though he already obliterated all the chametz of which he was aware at the time of the search. [The rationale is that] as long as the sixth hour has not arrived, the mitzvah of searching [for chametz] has yet to be completed, for one searches [for chametz] solely in order to obliterate it from existence. [Hence,] as long as the sixth hour has not commenced, he is not obligated to obliterate [chametz].11 Consequently, [the person] has not performed a mitzvah at all by searching for and obliterating [chametz] until the sixth hour arrives, and [at that time no] chametz is found in his domain. [Only] then, [i.e., when no chametz is found in his possession at this time,] is [the person] retroactively [considered to have] performed a mitzvah by searching for and obliterating [chametz].

It is possible that even when one obliterates [chametz] from the sixth hour [of the fourteenth of Nissan] until nightfall, he is not required to recite a blessing. A blessing [is required] only when one obliterates [the chametz] in the midst of Pesach. [The rationale is that] until the [holiday of] Pesach commences, the mitzvah of searching for and obliterating [chametz] has not yet been completed, because one does not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] until nightfall. The sole reason the Torah commanded that chametz be obliterated on the day before Pesach from midday onward was so that one not violate [these two prohibitions] during Pesach, as explained in sec. 432.12 Thus, [only] when Pesach commences is the Scriptural mitzvah that results from his searching for and obliterating chametz from his domain completed retroactively.

[With regard to actual practice, since] there is doubt [involved], the lenient perspective [is followed and] the blessing [should not be recited in such an instance].13

ב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֲרוֹ לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית,9 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֲרוֹ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיוט,10 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר גָּמַר לְבַעֵר כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהָיָה יָדוּעַ לוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית עֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מִצְוַת הַבְּדִיקָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ בּוֹדֵק אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם, וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ,י,11 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה כְּלָל מִצְוָה בִּבְדִיקָתוֹ וּבְבִעוּרוֹ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וְאֵין חָמֵץ נִמְצָא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, אֲזַי לְמַפְרֵעַ עָשָׂה מִצְוָה בִּבְדִיקָתוֹ וּבְבִעוּרוֹ.

וְאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁאַף כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֵר מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ עַד הַלַּיְלָה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מְבַעֲרוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, דְּכָל שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח עֲדַיִן לֹא נִגְמְרָה מִצְוַת הַבְּדִיקָה וְהַבִּעוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּבְ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" עַד הַלַּיְלָה, וְלֹא צִוְּתָה תּוֹרָה לְבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מֵחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם וּלְמַעְלָה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ב,יא,12 וְנִמְצָא דִּכְשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח נִגְמְרָה לְמַפְרֵעַ מִצְוָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּמַה שֶּׁבָּדַק וּבִעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ. וּסְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל:יב,13

3 (All the above)14 applies when the piece of chametz that one discovered during Pesach is [at least] the size of an olive.15 If, however, [the piece of chametz] is less than the size of an olive, one should not recite a blessing when obliterating it.16 [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that there is no need to obliterate chametz that is less than [the size of] an olive if it was already nullified before Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 459[:21].17 Weight should be given to their words [with regard] to refraining from reciting a blessing on the obliteration of chametz that is less than [the size of] an olive, for whenever there is a doubt whether a blessing [should be recited], one should be lenient [and refrain from reciting a blessing].

ג (וְכָל זֶה)14 כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ כְּזַיִת15 בַּחֲתִיכַת חָמֵץ זוֹ שֶׁמָּצָא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, אֲבָל אִם אֵין בָּהּ כְּזַיִת לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּרָהּ,יג,16 (א) לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיד שֶׁפָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת חָמֵץ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ כְּלָל אִם כְּבָר בִּטְּלוֹטו קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"טטז,17 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא לְבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּר פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת חָמֵץ, שֶׁכָּל סְפֵק בְּרָכוֹת לְהָקֵל:13

4 When does the above18 apply? When one found chametz that leavened before Pesach, which he had already nullified when he made the declaration, Kol chamiya.…19If, however, dough leavened during Pesach – at which time, the person is unable to nullify [his possession of] it20 – all authorities agree that even [if the dough] is less than [the size of] an olive, one is obligated to obliterate it. [This is] a decree, [instituted as a safeguard lest] there be an amount [of dough] the size of an olive for which one would violate [the prohibitions against] having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] according to Scriptural Law.21 Therefore, [the person] is obligated to recite a blessing over its obliteration.22

When does the above23 apply? When [the dough] leavened in a complete sense, as will be explained in sec. 459[:13]. If, however, [the dough] did not leaven in a complete sense, [the person] should not recite a blessing when obliterating it even though it leavened during Pesach. The same [law applies] to [a kernel of] wheat that was found in a cooked dish24 or that was soaked in water. Even though [the kernel] split open, it is [still] not chametz in a complete sense25 as will be explained in sec. 467[:1, 35].26

ד בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?18 כְּשֶׁמָּצָא חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁכְּבָר בִּטְּלוֹ כְּשֶׁאָמַר "כָּל חֲמִיעָא כוּ'",יז,19 אֲבָל אִם נִתְחַמְּצָה לוֹ עִסָּה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁאֵין בְּיָדוֹ לְבַטְּלוֹ עַכְשָׁו,20 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ כְּזַיִת חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל,יח גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם שֶׁעוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִן הַתּוֹרָה,21 וּלְפִיכָךְיט חַיָּב לְבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּרָהּ.22

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?23 כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ט,כ אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִתְחַמְּצָה חִמּוּץ גָּמוּר,כא וְכֵן חִטָּה הַנִּמְצֵאת בְּתַבְשִׁילכב,24 אוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁרֵת בְּמַיִםכג שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְבַּקְּעָה אֵינָהּ חָמֵץ גָּמוּרכד,25 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"זכה,26 – לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּרָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח:

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

5 If one finds a piece of chametz27 – even if it is the size of an olive28 – in his home on the sacred days of the festival29 or on Shabbos, he should not obliterate it on that day.30 Instead, he should [cover the chametz with] an overturned container31 until the evening to conceal it from his [sight], lest he forget and eat it. In the evening,32 he should obliterate it.

To what does the above apply? To chametz that leavened before [the person] nullified his chametz on the fourteenth [of Nissan, in which instance] he does not violate the Scriptural prohibitions against having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].33 In contrast, chametz that leavened during Pesach should be obliterated even on a festival,34 so that [the owner] not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].

How should he obliterate [the chametz]? If there is a river before him, he should crumble it and cast [the crumbs] into the river.35 He should not burn [the chametz], so as to minimize the desecration of the festival [prohibitions]. If there is no river before him, he should burn [the chametz] or crumble it and cast it to the wind.

[This is permitted] even though refraining from [forbidden labor] on a festival fulfills both a positive and a negative [Scriptural] commandment,36 as will be explained in sec. 495[:1. True,] obliterating chametz on Pesach also involves [a positive and negative Scriptural commandment]: the positive commandment37 [to] obliterate leavening agents and the negative commandments prohibiting having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].38

[Although generally, the performance of an act that fulfills] a positive commandment and a negative commandment does not supersede [the violation] of a positive commandment and a negative commandment,39 nevertheless, [an exception is made here. The rationale is that] since the [forbidden] labors of burning and scattering to the wind40 were permitted [to be performed] on a festival for the purpose of [enabling food to be] eaten according to Scriptural Law, they were permitted [to be performed] in all instances, even when they are not [performed] for the purpose of [enabling food to be] eaten, as long as [they were performed] for a purpose related to the festival, for example, for the sake of a mitzvah whose observance has a limited time frame, [i.e., one] that must be observed that day, as will be explained in sec. 495[:3].41 [Now,] the obliteration of chametz is also [considered] a mitzvah whose observance has a limited time frame, since the person violates the prohibitions against having [chametz] seen in his domain and possessing [chametz] every moment that passes during which he allows it to exist without obliterating it.42

There are authorities who differ with [the above]43 and maintain that even if [chametz] became leavened on Pesach,44 one should not obliterate it on a festival. Even if there is a river before him, he should not cast [the chametz] there. [The rationale is that] since it is forbidden to benefit from chametz on Pesach, it is muktzeh. [Hence,] it is forbidden to move [chametz] on a festival, for it is not fit for any purpose. Although the prohibition against moving muktzeh is only of Rabbinic origin and [the mitzvah of] obliterating chametz that was not nullified before Pesach is Scriptural in origin [and failing to fulfill it causes one to] violate the prohibitions against having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz], nevertheless, the Sages upheld their decree [even when its observance causes the violation of] a positive and negative [Scriptural commandment]. For the Sages are authorized to uproot a Scriptural [command] in an instance when one remains passive and refrains from action,45 i.e., [the person] does not perform a deed that violates the Scriptural commandment; he merely remains passive and [the mitzvah] is nullified as a matter of course.

[Moreover, according to this opinion,] it is even forbidden to burn [the chametz without moving it from] its place.46 True, in this instance, [a)] the person is not moving [the chametz] and [b)] the [forbidden] labor of burning was permitted for the purpose of [enabling food to be] eaten. Nevertheless, it is not said that [the chametz may be burnt in its place because a forbidden labor] that was permitted [to be performed] for the purpose of [enabling food to be] consumed was [also] permitted [to be performed] for the sake of a mitzvah. [The rationale is that] according to Scriptural Law, it is possible to fulfill the mitzvah [of obliterating chametz] without desecrating the festival [prohibitions], i.e., by casting [the chametz] into a river or a latrine. [True, our Sages forbade doing so. However,] moving muktzeh is only a Rabbinic prohibition; [according to Scriptural Law, one could obliterate chametz in this manner.]

[Alternatively,] according to Scriptural Law, one may crumble [the chametz] and cast it to the wind. [Our Sages’] statement that winnowing is one of the primary categories of forbidden labor47 only applies when one winnows grain to separate [it from] its chaff, in which instance, one is separating (waste matter from food).48 When, by contrast, one casts all the food to the wind, there is no prohibition according to Scriptural Law.

Therefore,49 it is forbidden to burn chametz on a festival according to Scriptural Law, and the Sages may not permit [the performance of] an activity that is forbidden by Scriptural Law. [Hence, the person has only one alternative:] He should cover [the chametz] with a container until the evening. [The person] does not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] by leaving the chametz until the evening, since he desires to obliterate it; it is only that the Sages’ [decree] is preventing him from doing so. Thus, he is deemed as one who is prevented [from fulfilling a mitzvah] by forces beyond his control. The Torah’s admonition against having [chametz] seen [in one’s domain] and possessing [chametz] was addressed only to one who has the capacity to obliterate it.

ה וְאִם מָצָא חֲתִיכַת חָמֵץכו,27 בְּבֵיתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב29 אוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בָּהּ כְּזַיִת28 לֹא יְבַעֲרֶנָּה בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם,30 אֶלָּא יִכְפֶּה עָלֶיהָ כְּלִיכז,31 עַד הָעֶרֶב32 לְכַסּוֹתָהּ מִן הָעַיִן שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה,כח וּבָעֶרֶב יְבַעֲרֶנָּה.כט

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ קֹדֶם שֶׁבִּטֵּל חֲמֵצוֹ בְּי"ד, שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִן הַתּוֹרָה,33 אֲבָל בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ בְּפֶסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה מְבַעֲרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב,34 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא".ל

וְכֵיצַד מְבַעֲרוֹ? אִם יֵשׁ לְפָנָיו נָהָר – יְפָרְרֶנּוּ וְיַשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ לַנָּהָר,לא,35 וְאַל יִשְׂרְפֶנּוּ, כְּדֵי לְמַעֵט בְּחִלּוּל יוֹם טוֹב.לב וְאִם אֵין לְפָנָיו נָהָר – יִשְׂרְפֶנּוּ אוֹ יְפָרְרֶנּוּ וְיִזְרֶה לָרוּחַ.לג

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁבִיתַת יוֹם טוֹב יֵשׁ בָּהּ מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂהלד,36 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תצ"ה,לה וּבִעוּר חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח אֵין בּוֹ גַּם כֵּן אֶלָּא מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה37 "תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְּׂאֹר וְגוֹ'" וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה "בַּל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",לו,38 וְאֵין דּוֹחִין עֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה מִפְּנֵי עֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה,לז,39 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּלֶאכֶת הַהַבְעָרָה וְהַזְּרִיָּה לָרוּחַ40 הֻתְּרָה בְּיוֹם טוֹב מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה – הֻתְּרָה לְגַמְרֵי אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּהֶן צֹרֶךְ יוֹם טוֹב, כְּגוֹן לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה עוֹבֶרֶת שֶׁזְּמַנָּהּ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תצ"ה,לח,41 וּבִעוּר חָמֵץ גַּם כֵּן הִיא מִצְוָה עוֹבֶרֶת, שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל רֶגַע וְרֶגַע שֶׁמַּשְׁהֶה אוֹתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מְבַעֲרוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא".לט,42

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןמ (ב) עַל זֶה43 וְאוֹמְרִים דַּאֲפִלּוּ נִתְחַמְּצָה בְּפֶסַח44 – לֹא יְבַעֲרֶנָּה בְּיוֹם טוֹב,29 וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לְפָנָיו נָהָר – לֹא יַשְׁלִיכֶנָּה לְשָׁם,מא דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה בְּפֶסַח – הֲרֵי הוּא מֻקְצֶה, וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב,מב שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לִכְלוּם. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִסּוּר טִלְטוּל הַמֻּקְצֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וּבִעוּר חָמֵץ שֶׁלֹּא בִּטְּלוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁעוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", מִכָּל מָקוֹם חֲכָמִים הֶעֱמִידוּ דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם עֲשֵׂה וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה,מג שֶׁיֵּשׁ כֹּחַ בְּיַד הַחֲכָמִים לַעֲקֹר דָּבָר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּ"שֵׁב וְאַל תַּעֲשֶׂה",מד,45 כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר מִצְוַת הַתּוֹרָה בְּיָדַיִם, אֶלָּא הוּא יוֹשֵׁב וּבָטֵל וְהִיא מִתְבַּטֶּלֶת מֵאֵלֶיהָ.מה

(ג) וַאֲפִלּוּ לְשָׂרְפָהּ בִּמְקוֹמָהּ אָסוּר.מו,46 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְטַלְטְלוֹ,מז וּמְלֶאכֶת הַשְּׂרֵפָה הֻתְּרָה לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה – אֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻתְּרָה לְצֹרֶךְ אֲכִילָה הֻתְּרָה לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה אֶפְשָׁר לְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה בְּלֹא חִלּוּל יוֹם טוֹב,מח דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיַּשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ לַנָּהָר אוֹ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא, שֶׁהֲרֵי טִלְטוּל הַמֻּקְצֶה אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.

וְכֵן יָכוֹל מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְפָרֵר וְלִזְרוֹת לָרוּחַ,מט וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַזּוֹרֶה הוּא מֵאֲבוֹת מְלָאכוֹת,47 אֶלָּא בְּזוֹרֶה תְּבוּאָה כְּדֵי לְהַפְרִישׁ מִמֶּנָּה אֶת הַמֹּץ שֶׁהוּא בּוֹרֵר (אֹכֶל מִתּוֹךְ הַפְּסֹלֶת) (פְּסֹלֶת מִתּוֹךְ הָאֹכֶלנ),48 אֲבָל כְּשֶׁזּוֹרֶה כָּל הָאֹכֶל לָרוּחַ – אֵין כָּאן אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה.

וּלְפִיכָךְ49 אָסוּר לִשְׂרֹף הֶחָמֵץ בְּיוֹם טוֹב מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַחֲכָמִים לְהַתִּיר דָּבָר הָאָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה,נא אֶלָּא כּוֹפֶה עָלָיו כְּלִי עַד הָעֶרֶב. וְעַל שְׁהִיָּה זוֹ שֶׁמַּשְׁהֶה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ עַד הָעֶרֶב – אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לְבַעֲרוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁחֲכָמִים מוֹנְעִים אוֹתוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא אָנוּס, וְלֹא הִזְהִירָה תּוֹרָה "בַּל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" אֶלָּא לְמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ לְבַעֵר:נב

6 With regard to the halachic [ruling to be applied in actual practice]: In places where it is customary to follow the first opinion, [one who does so] should not be admonished. Nevertheless, in a place where there is no [established] custom, one should act stringently, as [dictated by] the second opinion.

Nevertheless, one may instruct a non-Jew to cast [the chametz] into a river or into a latrine. [Indeed,] one may even instruct [a non-Jew] to do so on Shabbos, provided [the non-Jew] does not have to carry [the chametz] in a place where it is forbidden to carry according to Scriptural Law.50

[The license to instruct the non-Jew to cast away the chametz applies] even in an instance where [the dough or the bread became] chametz before the person nullified his chametz on the fourteenth [of Nissan], in which instance, he does not violate [the prohibitions against possessing chametz] according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, it is a mitzvah to obliterate the chametz according to Rabbinic Law and, as explained in sec. 307[:12],51 [one may instruct] a non-Jew to perform any act forbidden to be performed on Shabbos according to Rabbinic Law when he does so for the sake of a mitzvah.

* {One should not, however, tell a non-Jew to crumble [the chametz] and scatter it to the wind, even on a festival. [The rationale is that] there are authorities52 who maintain that scattering [chametz] in this manner constitutes a [forbidden] labor in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law, as explained in sec. 319[:29]; consult that source. Even if [the chametz] leavened during Pesach,53 in which instance, there is a Scriptural mitzvah to obliterate it, even then, the Sages upheld their decree and did not permit instructing a non-Jew to perform a [forbidden] labor54 in a complete sense for the sake of any of the mitzvos of the Torah, with the exception of the mitzvah of circumcision, as explained in sec. 331[:7].}55

When does the above56 apply? On the first day of the festival,57 [when its observance is] mandated by Scriptural Law. By contrast, on the second day of the festival [observed in] the Diaspora,58 which is only [ordained by] Rabbinic decree, one may rely on the first opinion59 when the chametz leavened on Pesach and it is the size of an olive,60 in which instance, [the owner] violates the prohibitions against having [chametz] seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] according to Scriptural Law. Nevertheless, if it is possible for him to cast [the chametz] into a latrine or to a river, he should not burn it or scatter it to the wind, to minimize the desecration of the festival.

Similarly, if it is possible [for him to have the chametz obliterated] by a non-Jew, he should not have it [obliterated] by a Jew.

When one has a non-Jew obliterate [his chametz], a blessing should not be recited, since [the owner of the chametz] is not fulfilling the mitzvah [through his own actions].61 In the present age, it is not customary to [have the chametz] obliterated by a non-Jew, not even [by] telling him to cast it into a river. [This applies] even on the second day of a festival. [The rationale is that] there is concern over [potential] danger, lest the non-Jew say, “He is [trying to] work black magic against me.”62

ו וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה – אֵין לִמְחוֹת בְּיָדָם. אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין מִנְהָג – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.נג

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיַּשְׁלִיכֶנָּה לַנָּהָר אוֹ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא.נד וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת יָכוֹל לוֹמַר כֵּן, רַק שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבִירֶנָּה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל מִן הַתּוֹרָה.50 וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְחַמְּצָה קֹדֶם שֶׁבִּטֵּל חֲמֵצוֹ בְּי"ד שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו מִן הַתּוֹרָה,נה מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מִצְוָה לְבַעֲרָהּ, וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ש"זנו,51 שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מֻתָּר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ צֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה.*

[* אֲבָל לֹא יֹאמַר לְנָכְרִי לְפָרֵר וְלִזְרוֹת לְרוּחַ אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹבנז כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםנח, 52 שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּזְרִיָּה זוֹ מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"טנט עַיֵּן שָׁם וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְחַמְּצָה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח53 שֶׁיֵּשׁ כַּאן מִצְוַת בִּעוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חֲכָמִים הֶעֱמִידוּ דִּבְרֵיהֶם וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ לוֹמַר לְנָכְרִי לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה גְמוּרָה לְצֹרֶךְ שׁוּם מִצְוָהס מִמִּצְוֹת הַתּוֹרָה50 חוּץ מִמִּצְוַת מִילָה54 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן של"א.סא, 55]

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים56 אֲמוּרִים? בְּיוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן57 שֶׁהוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֲבָל בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹתסב,58 שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה59 כְּשֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצָה בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַחסג וְיֵשׁ בָּהּ כְּזַיִתסד,60 שֶׁעוֹבֵר בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהַשְׁלִיכָהּ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא אוֹ לַנָּהָר, לֹא יִשְׂרְפֶנָּה וְלֹא יִזְרֶנָּה לָרוּחַ, כְּדֵי לְמַעֵט בְּחִלּוּל יוֹם טוֹב.סה וְכֵן אִם אֶפְשָׁר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל.סו

וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְבַעֵר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי לֹא יְבָרֵךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מְקַיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה.סז,61 וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְבַעֵר עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, אֲפִלּוּ לוֹמַר לוֹ לְהַשְׁלִיכוֹ לַנָּהָר, וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֵׁנִי שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁחוֹשְׁשִׁין לְסַכָּנָה, שֶׁלֹּא יֹאמַר הַנָּכְרִי: "כְּשָׁפִים הוּא עוֹשֶׂה לִי":סח,62

7 [The following rules apply when] there is a roof belonging to a non-Jew next to a roof belonging to a Jew, and chametz rolled from the non-Jew’s roof onto the Jew’s roof:63 On Chol HaMoed, or from the sixth hour onward on the day before Pesach, he should push [the chametz] with a reed back to the non-Jew’s roof or to the public domain.64 [This] is a decree, [instituted as a safeguard] lest [the Jew] eat [the chametz] when he ascends to his roof to make use of [the roof]. He should not, however, carry [the chametz] by hand to return it to the non-Jew’s roof. [Requiring him] to push it with a reed will serve as a reminder, [so that] he will not forget the prohibition against [eating] chametz. [Thus, the person] will thus not be motivated to eat from [the chametz] at the time he returns it to the non-Jew’s roof. For this reason, it is forbidden to touch chametz belonging to a non-Jew throughout the days of Pesach.65 It is, by contrast, permitted to touch chametz belonging to a Jew while one busies himself with obliterating it from existence on the day before Pesach or on Chol HaMoed. There is no concern that [the person] will forget and eat it. [The rationale is that] he is occupied with [the chametz] solely [for the purpose] of obliterating it from existence. How then could he possibly forget and eat it?!66

If, on a Shabbos or a festival, one finds chametz belonging to a non-Jew that rolled onto his roof, he should not push it with a reed, for he is moving [an object that is] muktzeh.67 As explained in sec. 311[:14], it is forbidden to move [an object that is] muktzeh even via another [permitted] article.68 Instead, [the person] should cover [the chametz] with an overturned container  until the evening,69 and then push it with a reed onto the non-Jew’s roof or into the public domain.

ז גַּגּוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁהָיָה סָמוּךְ לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנִתְגַּלְגֵּל הֶחָמֵץ מִגַּגּוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,63 אִם הוּא חֹל הַמּוֹעֵד אוֹ עֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ – הֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹחֲפוֹ בְּקָנֶהסט לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי אוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,64 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ כְּשֶׁיַּעֲלֶה עַל גַּגּוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם. אֲבָל לֹא יְטַלְטְלֶנּוּ בְּיָדָיו לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ הֶכֵּר עַל יְדֵי דְּחִיפַת הַקָּנֶה וְלֹא יִשְׁכַּח עַל אִסּוּר חָמֵץ וְלֹא יָבֹא לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ עַכְשָׁו בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמַּחֲזִירוֹ לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי.ע וּמִטַּעַם זֶה אָסוּר לִגַּע בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁל נָכְרִי כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח.עא,65 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לִגַּע בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמִּתְעַסֵּק לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אוֹ בְּחֹל הַמּוֹעֵד, וְאֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ מִתְעַסֵּק בּוֹ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם הֵיאַךְ יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנָּה.עב,66

וְאִם מָצָא בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁנִּתְגַּלְגֵּל לְגַגּוֹ – לֹא יִדְחָפֶנּוּ בְּקָנֶה, שֶׁהֲרֵי מְטַלְטֵל מֻקְצֶה,67 שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל מֻקְצֶהעג אֲפִלּוּ עַל יְדֵי דָּבָר אַחֵרעד,68 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן שי"א,עה אֶלָּא יִכְפֶּה עָלָיו כְּלִי66 עַד הָעֶרֶב,עו,69 וְאָז יִדְחָפֶנּוּ בְּקָנֶה לְגַגּוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי אוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:

8 If one found a loaf in his home on Pesach70 and he does not know whether it is chametz or matzah, it is even permitted to be eaten [because it] is certainly matzah.71 [This conclusion is reached] since the person searched his entire house before Pesach and obliterated all the chametz inside of it.

[The above law applies] even if [the person] found the loaf in a pit or a cavity. It is not suspected that he did not see [the loaf] when he searched, because it can be assumed that he searched as required by law, [checking also] the holes and cracks, as stated in sec. 433[:1]; consult that source.

When does the above apply? When the cavity is in plain view, since during his search [the person] certainly saw [the cavity], and it can be assumed that he checked inside it. If, by contrast, he found a loaf in a cavity that is not in plain view, e.g., [the person] found [the loaf] in a crevice in the bottom of a chest, and [the crevice] is covered by the boards at the bottom of the chest and [it] is not openly visible, there are grounds for suspicion that this loaf is chametz. [Hence, the owner]72 is obligated to utterly obliterate [the chametz] immediately.

Even if one found a loaf in the middle of the house, but it is moldy to the extent that it could not have become [that] moldy from the time Pesach commenced (or in the present era when [matzos] are baked before Pesach, from the time when one baked the matzos),73 it is apparent that [the loaf] is certainly chametz, and he is obligated to obliterate it immediately.

If, however, sufficient days of Pesach passed (or [enough time passed] from [the time the person] baked the matzos) so that it is possible that [the loaf] became moldy during the time from the onset of Pesach (or from [the time] he baked the matzos) until the present, a lenient [ruling is granted, and] it is assumed [that the loaf is matzah that is kosher for Pesach. Hence,] it is even permitted to be eaten. [The rationale is that the person thoroughly] searched his home before Pesach.74

If it is customary in that home to bake [fresh] loaves75 [of matzah] daily during Pesach, a lenient [ruling is granted and] it is assumed [that] the loaf that was discovered [is matzah that is kosher for Pesach], even if [it] is very moldy. [The rationale is that] we say that [since] they bake [fresh] loavesdaily, a warm, [fresh] loaf was placed on a loaf that was [baked on a previous day]. As a result, its mold increased [more rapidly than usual].

ח מָצָא פַּת בְּבֵיתוֹ בְּפֶסַחעז,70 וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ אִם חָמֵץ אוֹ מַצָּה – הֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי מַצָּה הִיא,עח,71 שֶׁהֲרֵי בָּדַק כָּל הַבַּיִת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וּבִעֵר כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ.עט

וַאֲפִלּוּ מָצָא פַּת זוֹ בְּגֻמָּא אוֹ בְּחֹר, אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא לֹא רָאָה אוֹתָהּ בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּדִיקָה, שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם בָּדַק כְּדִינוֹ בַּחֹרִין וּבַסְּדָקִים,פ כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"גפא עַיֵּן שָׁם.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַגֻּמָּא הִיא מְגֻלָּה, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי רָאָה אוֹתָהּ כְּשֶׁבָּדַק, וּמִן הַסְּתָם בָּדַק בְּתוֹכָהּ, אֲבָל אִם מָצָא פַּת בְּגֻמָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֵית לַכֹּל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁמָּצָא בְּחָרִיץ שֶׁבְּשׁוּלֵי הַתֵּבָה וְהִיא מְכֻסָּה בְּקַרְשֵׁי שׁוּלֵי הַתֵּבָה וְאֵין נִרְאֶה לַכֹּל שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם חָרִיץ – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא פַּת זוֹ הִיא חָמֵץ,פב וְחַיָּב72 לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם מִיָּד.

וַאֲפִלּוּ מָצָא פַּת בְּאֶמְצַע הַבַּיִת אֶלָּא שֶׁהִיא מְעֻפֶּשֶׁת, אִם הִיא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהּ לְהִתְעַפֵּשׁ מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַפֶּסַח (אוֹ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁאָפָה מַצּוֹת בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁאוֹפִין קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח)73 – הֲרֵי נִכָּר הַדָּבָר שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי הִיא שֶׁל חָמֵץ, וְחַיָּב לְבַעֲרָהּ מִיָּד. אֲבָל אִם עָבְרוּ כָּל כָּךְ מִימֵי הַפֶּסַח (אוֹ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁאָפָה הַמַּצּוֹת) בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִתְלוֹת שֶׁנִּתְעַפְּשָׁה בִּשְׁהִיָּתָהּ מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַפֶּסַח (אוֹ מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁאָפָה הַמַּצּוֹת) עַד עַתָּה – תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל וּמֻתֶּרֶת אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,פג,71 כֵּיוָן שֶׁבָּדַק אֶת הַבַּיִת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.פד,74

וְאִם נוֹהֲגִין בְּאוֹתוֹ בַּיִת לֶאֱפוֹת בְּפֶסַח פַּת חַמָּה בְּכָל יוֹם, תּוֹלִין לְהָקֵל אֲפִלּוּ אִם פַּת זוֹ שֶׁמָּצָא הִיא מְעֻפֶּשֶׁת הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִים: פַּת חַמָּה אָפָה בְּכָל יוֹם וְיוֹם וְהִנִּיחַ פַּת הַחַמָּה עַל פַּת זוֹ שֶׁמָּצָא וּלְכָךְ הִרְבְּתָה לְהִתְעַפֵּשׁ:פה,71