SECTION 445 The Laws [that Apply] to the Obliteration of Chametz (1-12)

סימן תמה דִּין בִּעוּר חָמֵץ וּבוֹ י"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 According to Scriptural Law, from the beginning of the seventh hour1 it is a mitzvah for chametz not to be found in [a person’s] domain, and he violates a positive Scriptural commandment2 every moment that chametz [continues to] exist in his domain without him endeavoring to obliterate it. Nevertheless, [the person] is not obligated to obliterate [his chametz] at the end of the sixth hour so that it will not exist in his domain at the beginning of the seventh [hour]. Instead, it is at the beginning of the seventh [hour] that he becomes obligated to obliterate [his chametz]. Similarly, according to Rabbinic Law, from the beginning of the sixth hour, it is a mitzvah for chametz not to be found in one’s domain, and one violates a positive Rabbinic commandment every moment that chametz [continues to] exist in his domain without him endeavoring to obliterate it. Nevertheless, he is not obligated to obliterate [his chametz] at the end of the fifth hour so that it will not exist in his domain at the beginning of the sixth hour. Instead, it is at the beginning of the sixth hour that one becomes obligated to obliterate [his chametz].3 (Even so, it is desirable to follow the custom of obliterating [one’s chametz] at the end of the fifth hour, as explained in sec. 434[:12].)

If the person desires to obliterate [his chametz] before [the beginning of] the sixth hour, he need not obliterate it from existence entirely. Instead, it is sufficient that he obliterate [the chametz] from his domain, i.e., he may sell it to a non-Jew or give it to him as an outright gift.4 It is of no consequence that the non-Jew still [continues to] keep his chametz in the Jew’s home when the time for the obliteration of chametz arrives,5 i.e., [the beginning of] the sixth hour, [following] the guidelines explained in sec. 440[:1].6

The same [laws apply] if a person removes chametz from his domain before the time for the obliteration of chametz arrives and declares it ownerless, and deposits it in a place where it is free for any person to take,7 e.g., [placing it in] thoroughfares and streets through which all people have the right to pass and take the chametz [that they happen to find there]. Even if no one actually took [the chametz] and thus, it lies there throughout all the days of Pesach and its [former] owner sees [the chametz lying] there, he is not required to obliterate it.8 [The rationale is that this chametz] is not his, because he already declared it ownerless and moreover, it is deposited in a place that is not his. [For] the Torah [only forbade having chametz] “throughout your entire domain.”9 [In this instance,] the domain [where the chametz is deposited] is not his, but it is free for everyone. See sec. 431[:3-4].10

א כְּשֵׁם שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְחִלַּת שָׁעָה ז'1 הוּא מִצְוָה שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּצֵא חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, וְכָל רֶגַע וְרֶגַע שֶׁנִּמְצָא חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מִתְעַסֵּק לְבַעֲרוֹ הוּא עוֹבֵרא עַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה שֶׁל תּוֹרָה,ב,2 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּסוֹף שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּצֵא בִּתְחִלַּת ז',ג אֶלָּא מִתְּחִלַּת ז' וָאֵילָךְ הוּא שֶׁמְּחֻיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ – כָּךְ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ הוּא מִצְוָה שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּצֵא חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ,ד וְכָל רֶגַע וְרֶגַע שֶׁנִּמְצָא חָמֵץ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מִתְעַסֵּק לְבַעֲרוֹ הוּא עוֹבֵר עַל מִצְוַת עֲשֵׂה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ מְחֻיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּסוֹף שָׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִמָּצֵא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ בִּתְחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, אֶלָּא מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ הוּא שֶׁמְּחֻיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹה,3 (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, טוֹב לִנְהֹג לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּסוֹף ה', כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"דו).

וְאִם רוֹצֶה לְבַעֵר קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי, אֶלָּא דַּי לוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁמְּבַעֲרוֹ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי אוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָהז גְּמוּרָה.4 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, עֲדַיִן הַנָּכְרִי מַחֲזִיק חֲמֵצוֹ בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,ח,5 וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מ.ט,6

וְכֵן אִם קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר הוֹצִיא הֶחָמֵץ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹי וְהִפְקִירוֹיא וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא מֻפְקָר לַכֹּל,7 כְּגוֹן בַּדְּרָכִים וּבָרְחוֹבוֹת, שֶׁרְשׁוּת לְכָל אָדָם לַעֲבֹר שָׁם וְלִטֹּל הֶחָמֵץ, אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא נְטָלוֹ שׁוּם אָדָם וַהֲרֵי הוּא מֻנָּח שָׁם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח וּבְעָלָיו רוֹאִין אוֹתוֹ מֻנָּח שָׁם – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ,8 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁכְּבָר הִפְקִירוֹ, וְגַם מֻנָּח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ, וְהַתּוֹרָה אָמְרָה:9 "בְּכָל גְּבֻלֶךָ", וּגְבוּל זֶה אֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ אֶלָּא הֶפְקֵר לַכֹּל,יב עַיֵּן סִימָן תל"א:יג,10

2 [A different rule applies] if [the owner] declared [his chametz] ownerless, but deposited it in a place that is not open to everyone; for example, he deposited it in a courtyard desig­nated for the residents of the courtyard alone, into which no other person can enter without their permission.11 True, [the person] does not violate the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz] according to Scriptural Law, for he declared [his chametz] ownerless, and it is not his when the time for the obliteration of chametz arrives. Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, he is obligated to obliterate it. [The rationale is that] if he had not declared [the chametz] ownerless before the time to obliterate it arrived, he would have been obligated to obliterate it when the time to obliterate it arrived. [The rationale is that] since [the chametz] is deposited in a place that is not open to everyone, it is considered as if [the chametz] is deposited in a place that belongs to [the person who had owned it], based on the reason explained in sec. 440[:1]. Therefore, even at the present time, when [the owner] declares [the chametz] ownerless, he is not absolved from our Sages’ decree that one’s nullification of [his possession of chametz] and his declaration of it as ownerless is not effective for chametz whose identity is known, as explained in sec. 431[:3-4].

Even if [the owner] deposited [the chametz] in a place that is freely accessible to everyone, he must [nonetheless] declare it ownerless outright, [both] verbally and in his heart.12 He should not have the intent at the time he declares [the chametz] ownerless to return and reacquire it after Pesach if another person did not acquire it first. For if [the owner] has such an intent, [the chametz] is not [considered as] ownerless in a complete sense.13 Thus, [the chametz] is considered as entirely his as long as someone else does not acquire it,14 since he is sitting and hoping that another person will not acquire it [so that] he will be able to do so.

ב אֲבָל אִם הִפְקִירוֹ וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻפְקָר לַכֹּל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ בְּחָצֵר שֶׁהִיא מְיֻחֶדֶת לְאַנְשֵׁי הֶחָצֵר הַדָּרִים שָׁם בִּלְבַד, וְאֵין שׁוּם אָדָם יָכוֹל לַעֲבֹר שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְשׁוּתָם,יד,11 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר הִפְקִירוֹ וְאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ כְּשֶׁמַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאִם לֹא הָיָה מַפְקִירוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר הָיָה מְחֻיָּב מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְבַעֲרוֹ כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מֻנָּח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻפְקָר לַכֹּל, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה מֻנָּח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מ,טו לְפִיכָךְ גַּם עַתָּה שֶׁהִפְקִירוֹ לֹא נִפְטַר מִגְּזֵרַת חֲכָמִים, שֶׁהֲרֵי גָּזְרוּ חֲכָמִים שֶׁאֵין בִּטּוּל וְהֶפְקֵר מוֹעִיל לְחָמֵץ הַיָּדוּעַ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"א.טז

וַאֲפִלּוּ הִנִּיחוֹ בְּמָקוֹם הַמֻּפְקָר לַכֹּל – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּפְקִירֶנּוּ לְגַמְרֵי בְּפִיו וּבְלִבּוֹ,יז,12 (א) וְלֹא יִהְיֶה בְּדַעְתּוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הֶפְקֵר לַחֲזֹר וְלִזְכּוֹת בּוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אִם לֹא יְקַדְּמֶנּוּ אַחֵר, שֶׁאִם יֵשׁ בְּדַעְתּוֹ כֵּן – אֵינוֹ הֶפְקֵר גָּמוּר,13 וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁיח כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא זָכָה בּוֹ אַחֵר,יט,14 כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא יוֹשֵׁב וּמְצַפֶּה שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִזְכֶּה אַחֵר וְיִזְכֶּה בּוֹ הוּא:

3 If a person obliterates chametz at the time [he is required] to obliterate it, i.e., from the beginning of the sixth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan]15 until the end of the [entire] Pesach holiday, he must obliterate it from existence entirely. It is not sufficient for him to remove [the chametz] from his domain and deposit it in an ownerless place.16 [The rationale is that] from the beginning of the sixth hour, it is already forbidden to benefit from [the chametz. Therefore,] it is not his at all. Nevertheless, the Torah deemed [the chametz] as his to hold him liable for the violation of the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].17 Accordingly, even if he removes [the chametz] from his domain, he violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz], since the Torah caused it to be considered as if [the chametz] was actually located in his domain. He has no alternative other than to obliterate [the chametz] from existence entirely, i.e., to cast it to oblivion in a manner that no person can benefit from it.18 Even though other created beings can benefit from [this chametz],19 as long as no person can benefit from it, it is deemed as having been obliterated from existence.

ג וְאִם הוּא מְבַעֵר חָמֵץ בִּזְמַן הַבִּעוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית15 עַד כְּלוֹת יְמֵי הַפֶּסַחכ – צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי, וְלֹא דַּי בְּמַה שֶּׁמּוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ וּמַנִּיחוֹ בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְקֵר,כא,16 שֶׁהֲרֵי מִשֶּׁהִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית כְּבָר נֶאֱסַר בַּהֲנָאָה וְאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ כְּלָל, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַתּוֹרָה עָשְׂ[תָ]ה אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ, שֶׁיַּעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",כב,17 וּלְפִיכָךְ אַף כְּשֶׁמּוֹצִיאוֹ מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", שֶׁעֲשָׂאַתּוּ הַתּוֹרָה כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מֻנָּח בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ מַמָּשׁ. וְאֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא שֶׁיְּבַעֲרֶנּוּ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי, דְּהַיְנוּ (ב) שֶׁיַּשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ לְאִבּוּד בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁשּׁוּם אָדָם לֹא יוּכַל לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ.18 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּרִיּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת יְכוֹלוֹת לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ,כג,19 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁשּׁוּם אָדָם לֹא יוּכַל לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ – הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא בִּעוּר מִן הָעוֹלָם:כד

4 How must one obliterate [the chametz]?20 He should burn it to the extent that it is transformed into charcoal. (If, however, [the chametz] does not become charcoal, even though it [became] charred and is no longer fit for a dog to eat, it is forbidden to leave [this chametz] in one’s possession during Pesach, since it did not become unfit for a dog to eat until the time when the obligation to obliterate [chametz took effect],21 as explained in sec. 442[:21].)

Alternatively, [the owner] may crumble [the chametz] into tiny crumbs and cast [the crumbs] to the wind, or crumble it and cast it into the river, if it is bread or the like.22 [Crumbling the chametz is necessary,] because if [the owner] does not crumble it and [instead,] casts it into a river or into a sea [while intact], it will float on the water’s surface and a person traveling on a ship could possibly benefit {from it}. When, however, he crumbles [the chametz] into tiny crumbs and casts them into the water, they will soften and dissolve in the water.23

If [initially] the chametz was crumb-like [in nature],24 e.g., [kernels of] wheat or the like, it is not necessary to further crumble them. Instead, [the owner] may cast them from the sack into the water and [the pieces] will disperse on the water’s surface as a matter of course, and no person will benefit from them.25

There are authorities who rule stringently with regard to wheat or other forms of grain. [These authorities require the owner] to split each [kernel of wheat or other type of grain] into two or three pieces and then cast them into the water, because [the kernels] are firm and will not dissolve in the water. It is desirable to give weight to their words when possible, e.g., [one owns] only a small amount of wheat and it is possible to split [the kernels] in a brief amount of time. If, however, [he owns] much [wheat] and it would require much time to split or grind them, one should not maintain possession of chametz for this reason. [Rather than taking the time to split the kernels,] he may rely on the first opinion. 26 (In particular, [this ruling applies] if [the kernels] became chametz after the time when the obligation to obliterate [chametz took effect], in which instance, they were not included in the nullification of [the possession of] chametz that every person makes at the end of the fifth hour, as explained in sec. 434[:6ff.].27 In that instance, there is a Scriptural prohibition against maintaining possession [of them].)

ד כֵּיצַד מְבַעֵר?20 שׂוֹרְפוֹכה עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה פֶּחָמִים (אֲבָל אִם לֹא נַעֲשָׂה פֶּחָם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּחֱרַךְ וְנִפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶב – אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶב עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן הַבִּעוּר,21 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"בכו), אוֹ פּוֹרְרוֹ לְפֵרוּרִין דַּקִּים וְזוֹרֶה אוֹתוֹ לָרוּחַ,כז אוֹ פּוֹרֵר וְזוֹרֵק לַנָּהָר, אִם הוּא פַּתכח וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ22 שֶׁאִם לֹא יְפָרְרֶנּוּ וְיִזְרְקֶנּוּ לַנָּהָר אוֹ לַיָּם הֲרֵי הוּא שָׁט עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם וְיוּכַל אָדָם הַמְהַלֵּךְ בִּסְפִינָה לֵהָנוֹת [מִמֶּנּוּ],כט אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמְּפָרְרוֹ לְפֵרוּרִין דַּקִּים וְזוֹרְקוֹ לַמַּיִם הֲרֵי הֵן נִמּוֹסִין וְנִמּוֹחִין בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם.ל,23 אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ פֵּרוּרִין פֵּרוּרִין,24 כְּגוֹן חִטִּים וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְפָרְרָן עוֹד, אֶלָּא מַשְׁלִיכָן מִן הַשַּׂק לְתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם וְהֵן מִתְפַּזְּרִים מֵאֲלֵיהֶםלא עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם, וְלֹא יֵהָנֶה מֵהֶן שׁוּם אָדָם.25

וְיֵשׁ מַחֲמִירִין (ג) בְּחִטִּיםלב אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינֵי תְּבוּאָה לַחְתֹּךְ כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד לְב' אוֹ לְג' חֲתִיכוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַשְׁלִיכֵם לַמַּיִם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם קָשׁוֹת וְאֵינָן נִמּוֹסִין בְּתוֹךְ הַמַּיִם. וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶםלג בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא מְעַט חִטִּים שֶׁיּוּכַל לְחָתְכָן בְּשָׁעָה מוּעֶטֶת. אֲבָל אִם הֵן הַרְבֵּה שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לִשְׁהוֹת הַרְבֵּה בַּחֲתִיכָתָן אוֹ עַד שֶׁיִּטְחָנֵם – אֵין לְהַשְׁהוֹת הֶחָמֵץ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ26 (וּבִפְרָט אִם נִתְחַמְּצוּ לְאַחַר זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ בִּכְלַל הַבִּטּוּל שֶׁמְּבַטֵּל כָּל אָדָם אֶת חֲמֵצוֹ בְּסוֹף שָׁעָה חֲמִישִׁית כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ד,לד,27 וְאִם כֵּן יֵשׁ אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָהלה לְהַשְׁהוֹתָםלו).

וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:לז

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 If one casts [his chametz] into an outhouse,28 it is considered as if it was obliterated from existence entirely, because no person will be able to benefit from it any more.29 It is not necessary to crumble [the chametz] before one casts it [there] even if it is [a loaf of] bread and the like, provided he does not cast it there before a pig.30 [The reason for this prohibition is that] it is forbidden to feed [chametz to] any animal,31 even one belonging to a non-Jew or one that is ownerless, as explained in sec. 443[:3].

If, however, he casts [his chametz into an outhouse] when a pig is not present, even though ultimately [a pig] may eat it, that is not of consequence,32 since he is not placing [the chametz] in front of [the pig] so that it can eat [the food].

ה וְאִם מַשְׁלִיכוֹ לְבֵית הַכִּסֵּא28 הֲרֵי הוּא כִּמְבֹעָר מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשּׁוּם אָדָם לֹא יוּכַל עוֹד לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ.29 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְפָרְרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּשְׁלִיכוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא פַּת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ.לח וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יַשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ שָׁם לִפְנֵי חֲזִיר,30 שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֵמָה31 אֲפִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל נָכְרִי אוֹ שֶׁל הֶפְקֵרלט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ג.מ אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מַשְׁלִיכוֹ שָׁם לִפְנֵי חֲזִיר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסּוֹפוֹ לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,32 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן לְפָנָיו לֶאֱכֹל:מא

6 When a person has a pool of water that contains fish, he should not cast chametz that he must obliterate there.33 [This restriction applies] even if he crumbles [the chametz] before he casts it there, because he benefits from the fishes’ consumption of it.

ו מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַיִם מְכֻנָּסִין וּבָהֶם דָּגִים – לֹא יַשְׁלִיךְ לְשָׁם הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ,33 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מְפָרְרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁמַּשְׁלִיכוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא נֶהֱנֶה בְּמַה שֶּׁהַדָּגִים יֹאכְלוּהוּ:מב

7 There are authorities who differ with all the above and maintain that chametz that must be obliterated from existence entirely may only be obliterated by burning it in fire.34 This [concept] is derived from [a comparison with the manner of destroying] nosar:35Just as there is a prohibition against leaving nosar past [the time when it may be eaten] and [after that time,] it must be consigned to fire, so too, there are prohibitions against leaving chametz beyond [the time when it is permitted], (i.e., the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in one’s domain] and possessing [chametz]), [and the chametz] must [likewise] be consigned to fire.36

[Nevertheless,] the halachah follows the first opinion,37 for it is written,38 “You shall burn nosar with fire.” Our Sages interpret39 [the verse as an exclusion, teaching: Only] nosar must be consigned to fire, but all the other substances from which the Torah forbids benefit need not be consigned to fire. Even so, the custom in these regions is to follow the latter opinion.40

Therefore, it is customary that the chametz that is found during the search conducted on the night of the fourteenth [of Nissan] is not burnt immediately at night, but instead is hidden so that it will be burnt the following day. Thus, it will resemble nosar, which we are commanded to burn during the day, as it is written:41 “What remains from the meat of the sacrifice should be consigned to fire on the third day.” [Our Sages teach,42 “On the… day,” and] not at night. Nonetheless, if one desires to burn the chametz directly after the search so that children or weasels and mice will not drag [the chametz] away,43 he may.

If one did not find any chametz while searching, it is desirable to burn the utensil he took to conduct the search so that he will not forget the obligation to obliterate chametz the following year and also, so that he will not forget to nullify [his possession of chametz] a second time [on the following day], as explained in sec. 434[:11ff.].

ז וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןמג עַל כָּל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי אֵין בִּעוּרוֹ אֶלָּא בִּשְׂרֵפָה,34 שֶׁאָנוּ לְמֵדִין מִנּוֹתָר,35 מַה נּוֹתָר יֶשְׁנוֹ בְּ"בַל תּוֹתִירוּ" וְטָעוּן שְׂרֵפָה, אַף חָמֵץ שֶׁיֶּשְׁנוֹ בְּ"בַל תּוֹתֵר"מד (פֵּרוּשׁ "בַּל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא"מה) טָעוּן שְׂרֵפָה.36

וַהֲלָכָה כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,מו,37 שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַרמז,38 "וְשָׂרַפְתָּ אֶת הַנּוֹתָר בָּאֵשׁ", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:מח,39 הַנּוֹתָר טָעוּן שְׂרֵפָה, וְאֵין כָּל אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה טְעוּנִין שְׂרֵפָה. וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.מט,40

וּלְפִיכָךְ נוֹהֲגִין שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ שֶׁמּוֹצְאִין בִּבְדִיקַת לֵיל י"ד אֵין שׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתוֹ מִיָּד בַּלַּיְלָה אֶלָּא מַצְנִיעִין אוֹתוֹ לְשָׂרְפוֹ לְמָחָר בַּיּוֹם, כְּדֵי לְדַמּוֹתוֹ לְנוֹתָרנ שֶׁמִּצְוָתוֹ לְשָׂרְפוֹ בַּיּוֹם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרנא,41 "וְהַנּוֹתָר מִבְּשַׂר הַזָּבַח בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי בָּאֵשׁ יִשָּׂרֵף", וְלֹא בַּלַּיְלָה.נב,42 אַךְ אִם יִרְצֶה לִשְׂרֹף הֶחָמֵץ מִיָּד אַחַר הַבְּדִיקָה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִגְרְרוּהוּ קְטַנִּים אוֹ חֻלְדָּה וְעַכְבָּרִיםנג,43 – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ.נד

וְאִם לֹא מָצָא שׁוּם חָמֵץ בִּבְדִיקָתוֹ – טוֹב לִשְׂרֹף הַכְּלִי שֶׁלָּקַח לַבְּדִיקָה,נה כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכַּח חוֹבַת הַבִּעוּרנו לְשָׁנָה הַבָּאָה, וְגַם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכַּח לְבַטֵּלנז בִּטּוּל הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ד:נח

8 When one burns his chametz after the commencement of the sixth hour,44 at which time it will be forbidden to benefit from [chametz], one must make a separate fire for it. [The person] should not cast [his chametz] into the oven which he heats to bake or to cook inside of.45 [The rationale is that] it is forbidden to benefit from this chametz even during the time one is obliterating it, e.g., [it is forbidden] to bake or cook over it, to use its light,46 to warm oneself from [the heat of] its [fire], or similarly, to derive benefit in other ways. It is even forbidden to [derive] benefit from the charcoal and the ashes of chametz.47

In contrast, it is permitted to benefit from the charcoal and the ashes of the wood used to burn the chametz if one recognizes them, i.e., [the person] is certain that [these coals and ashes] are from the wood [used to burn the chametz] and not from the chametz [itself]. If, however, [the coals and ashes from the chametz] became mixed with those [from the wood] so that he does not recognize [which coals and ashes are from the wood], it is forbidden to benefit from the entire [mixture]. The coals and ashes from the chametz are not considered insignificant even [when they are mixed] with 1000 [times their volume of] permitted [substances. The rationale for this stringency is that] there is a permitted way to benefit from [the coals and ashes] without considering them insignificant, i.e., to keep them until after Pesach.48 [Therefore, we apply the principle:] Any davar sheyeish lo matirin – any entity that will ultimately become permitted – is never considered batel, inconsequential, even [when it is mixed] with 1000 [times its volume of permitted substances].49

It is, however, permitted to cover the blood of a wild animal or a fowl [that one slaughters] with ashes50 from the burnt chametz. [The rationale is that this is not considered as deriving benefit from the chametz,] for the mitzvos were not given for benefit,51 i.e., the mitzvos were not given to the Jewish people to derive satisfaction from their fulfillment, but rather they were given to be a yoke [borne] on their necks.

ח כְּשֶׁשּׂוֹרֵף הֶחָמֵץ לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית44 שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְדוּרָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְלֹא יַשְׁלִיכֶנּוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁמַּסִּיקוֹ לֶאֱפוֹת אוֹ לְבַשֵּׁל בְּתוֹכוֹ,45 לְפִי שֶׁאָסוּר לֵהָנוֹת מֵהֶחָמֵץ אַף בִּשְׁעַת בִּעוּרוֹ, לֶאֱפוֹת אוֹ לְבַשֵּׁל עָלָיו,נט אוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ לְאוֹרוֹ,46 אוֹ לְהִתְחַמֵּם כְּנֶגְדּוֹ, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן מִשְּׁאָר מִינֵי הֲנָאוֹת. וְאַף הַפֶּחָמִיםס וְהָאֵפֶרסא שֶׁל הֶחָמֵץ אֲסוּרִים בַּהֲנָאָה.47

אֲבָל הַפֶּחָמִים וְהָאֵפֶר שֶׁל הָעֵצִים שֶׁשָּׂרְפוּ בָּהֶן הֶחָמֵץ מֻתָּרִים בַּהֲנָאָהסב אִם הוּא מַכִּירָן, שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ בְּבֵרוּר שֶׁהֵן מֵהָעֵצִים וְלֹא מֵהֶחָמֵץ. אֲבָל אִם נִתְעָרְבוּ אֵלּוּ בְּאֵלּוּ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַכִּירָן – הֲרֵי כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרִים בַּהֲנָאָה, וְאֵין הַפֶּחָמִין וְהָאֵפֶר שֶׁל הֶחָמֵץ בְּטֵלִיןסג אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף שֶׁל הֶתֵּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהֶם הֶתֵּר הֲנָאָה בְּלֹא בִּטּוּל,סד דְּהַיְנוּ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,סה,48 וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף לֹא בָּטֵל.סו,49

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹת דַּם חַיָּה וְעוֹף בְּאֵפֶר50 שְׂרֵפַת הֶחָמֵץ,סז שֶׁמִּצְוֹת לָאו לֵהָנוֹת נִתְּנוּ,סח,51 כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא נִתְּנוּ הַמִּצְוֹת לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לִהְיוֹת קִיּוּמָם הֲנָאָה לָהֶם, אֶלָּא לְעֹל עַל צַוָּארָם נִתְּנוּ:סט

9 [Accordingly,] if an oven was kindled with chametz and a loaf [of matzah] was baked in it or food was cooked in it – whether it was baked or cooked on the coals [of chametz]52 or with the heat of the oven after the coals were swept away53 – it is forbidden to benefit from the loaf or the food.54

If [that loaf or food] became mixed with other [foods],55 it is forbidden to benefit from the entire [mixture.56 The situation] cannot be corrected by redeeming the value of the benefit of the chametz by casting its worth to oblivion, for the reason to be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 110.57 It is, however, permitted to sell [the mixture] to a non-Jew with the exception of the value the forbidden [chametz imparted] to it,58 i.e., one should subtract the value of the benefit [he gained] from the chametz with which he heated the oven from the value of the loaf or the food that he receives from the non-Jew. Thus, [the Jew] derives no benefit from the chametz with which he heated [the oven].59 He should, however, be careful to break the loaf into pieces before he sells it to a non-Jew if it is customary to permit the bread of a non-Jew in the locale in which he is located,60 for the reason explained in sec. 442[:10, 19].61

Even if the loaf and the food did not become mixed with other [loaves or food], it [would be] permitted to sell them in such a manner.62 There is an authority who forbids [selling the loaf or food to a non-Jew]63 if they did not become mixed with other [loaves or foods]. It is desirable to give weight to his words if a severe financial loss is not involved, nor is it a pressing situation.64

ט וְאִם הֻסַּק הַתַּנּוּר בְּחָמֵץ וְאָפָה בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת אוֹ שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בּוֹ תַּבְשִׁיל,ע בֵּין שֶׁאָפָה וּבִשֵּׁל עַל גַּבֵּי הַגֶּחָלִים,52 בֵּין שֶׁאָפָה וּבִשֵּׁל בְּחֻמּוֹ שֶׁל תַּנּוּרעא לְאַחַר שֶׁגָּרַף אֶת הַגֶּחָלִיםעב,53 – הֲרֵי פַּת וְתַבְשִׁיל זֶה אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה.עג,54

וְאִם נִתְעָרְבוּ בַּאֲחֵרִים55 כֻּלָּן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה,56 וְאֵין לָהֶם תַּקָּנָה עַל יְדֵי פִּדְיוֹן דְּמֵי הֲנָאַת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁיַּשְׁלִיךְ הַדָּמִים לְאִבּוּד,עד מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"י.עה,57 אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְמָכְרָן לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶןעו,58 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּנַכֶּה דְּמֵי הֲנָאַת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהִסִּיק בּוֹ הַתַּנּוּר מִדְּמֵי הַפַּת וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנּוֹטֵל מֵהַנָּכְרִי, דְּנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלָל מֵהֶחָמֵץ שֶׁהִסִּיק בּוֹ.59 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְפָרֵר הַפַּת קֹדֶם שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לַנָּכְרִי אִם הוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּר בְּפַת שֶׁל עַכּוּ"ם,60 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ב.עז,61

וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא נִתְעָרְבוּ פַּת וְתַבְשִׁיל זֶה בַּאֲחֵרִים – מֻתָּר לְמָכְרָם כָּךְ.עח,62 (ד) וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹסֵרעט,63 אִם לֹא נִתְעָרְבוּ. (ה) וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לִדְבָרָיו אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּהפ וְלֹא שְׁעַת הַדְּחָק:64

10 All the above65 applies when [the oven was] heated with a large amount of chametz, i.e., an amount sufficient to bake the loaf [of matzah] or cook the food without adding other wood. Even though [the person] also kindled much wood so that the fire will catch on to [the chametz] thoroughly, the prohibition against benefiting [from the loaf or food remains in effect], because [there is sufficient chametz] to [alone] serve as kindling [fuel] to bake the loaf or cook [the food].66

If, by contrast, the chametz used as kindling is not sufficient to bake [the loaf] or cook [the food] without adding wood – even though the [added] wood itself is not sufficient to bake [the loaf] or cook [the food] without adding the chametz used as kindling – nevertheless, since both a permitted [substance] and a forbidden [substance] cause the baking or the cooking, the loaf or the cooked food is permitted even to be eaten [on Pesach].67

When does the above apply? When one baked or cooked from the beginning of the sixth hour [on the fourteenth of Nissan] until the night. If, however, one baked or cooked from the night of the fifteenth [of Nissan] onward, [a more stringent ruling applies]. Since during Pesach even the slightest amount of chametz causes a prohibition, as will be explained in sec. 447[:1], therefore, even though the permitted substances bring about the baking or the cooking [together] with the forbidden substance [i.e., the chametz,] it is [nonetheless] forbidden to benefit from the loaf or the food (unless [the owner] sells [the loaf or food] to a non-Jew with the exception of the value of the [benefit of the] forbidden [substance] in it, as explained).68 [The rationale is that] there is at least a minimal amount of benefit derived from the chametz in the loaf and in the cooked food.69

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that there is no difference between baking and cooking during Pesach and baking and cooking from the sixth hour onward [on the day] before Pesach.70 One may rely on their words in an instance of severe [financial] loss or in a pressing situation, for example, [the matzah or the food] is necessary [to enable] the festival to be celebrated joyously, for [the person] does not have other foods.71

י וְכָל זֶה65 כְּשֶׁהֻסַּק חָמֵץ הַרְבֵּה בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּנּוּר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּהֶסֵּק זֶה בִּלְבַד, בְּלֹא הִצְטָרְפוּת עֵצִים כְּדֵי לֶאֱפוֹת הַפַּת שֶׁאָפָה בּוֹ אוֹ כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל הַתַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בּוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִסִּיק בּוֹ עֵצִים הַרְבֵּה כְּדֵי שֶׁתֶּאֱחֹז בּוֹ הָאוּר יָפֶה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁלְּאַחַר שֶׁאָחֲזָה בּוֹ הָאוּר (ו) יֵשׁ בְּהֶסֵּקוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱפוֹת הַפַּת אוֹ כְּדֵי לְבַשֵּׁל הַתַּבְשִׁילפא – הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה.66 אֲבָל אִם אֵין בְּהֶסֵּק הֶחָמֵץ כְּדֵי לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל אֶלָּא בְּהִצְטָרְפוּת הָעֵצִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם בְּהָעֵצִים בְּעַצְמָם אֵין לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל אֶלָּא בְּהִצְטָרְפוּת הֶסֵּק הֶחָמֵץ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֶתֵּר וְאִסּוּר גּוֹרְמִין לֶאֱפוֹת אוֹ לְבַשֵּׁל – הֲרֵי פַּת וְתַבְשִׁיל זֶה מֻתָּרִיןפב אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה.67

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאָפָה אוֹ בִּשֵּׁל מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית עַד הַלַּיְלָה, אֲבָל אִם אָפָה אוֹ בִּשֵּׁל מִלֵּיל ט"ו וָאֵילָךְ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אוֹסֵר בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,פג לְפִיכָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶתֵּר עִם אִסּוּר גּוֹרְמִין לֶאֱפוֹת וּלְבַשֵּׁל – הֲרֵי הַפַּת וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָהפד (אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן מוֹכְרָן לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרפה,68), שֶׁהֲרֵי עַל כָּל פָּנִים יֵשׁ הֲנָאַת מַשֶּׁהוּ מֵהֶחָמֵץ תּוֹךְ הַפַּת וְתַבְשִׁיל.69

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןפו עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים דְּאֵין חִלּוּק בֵּין אָפָה וּבִשֵּׁל תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח לְאָפָה וּבִשֵּׁל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ.70 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק, כְּגוֹן לְצֹרֶךְ שִׂמְחַת יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מַאֲכָלִים אֲחֵרִים:71

11 All the above72 applies when one obliterates [his] chametz after the onset of the sixth hour. If, however, one obliterates it before [the onset of] the sixth hour, [i.e., during the time] when it is [still] permitted to benefit from [chametz], there is no need to make a separate fire for [this purpose]. Instead, one may use [his chametz] as kindling for an oven, cook over [the resulting fire], and derive all other types of benefit from [the chametz]. Even after the onset of the sixth hour, it is permitted to benefit from [this chametz] if it already became charred and unfit for a dog to eat before [the onset of] the sixth hour.73

Nevertheless, it has become customary to make a separate fire [for burning the chametz] even if one burns it before the onset of the sixth hour.

יא וְכָל זֶה72 כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֵר הֶחָמֵץ אַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁמְּבַעֲרוֹ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה אֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְדוּרָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא מֻתָּר לְהַסִּיק בּוֹ הַתַּנּוּר וּלְבַשֵּׁל עָלָיו, וְכָל שְׁאָר מִינֵי הֲנָאוֹת. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּפז אִם כְּבָר נִתְחָרֵךְפח וְנִפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶבפט קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית.73

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְדוּרָה בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁשּׂוֹרְפִין אוֹתוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית:צ

12 There are those who follow the custom of burning the chametz with the willow [branches] which they beat [on the ground] on Hoshaana Rabbah. [The rationale is that] it is proper that any object that was used [to observe] a mitzvah be used [to observe] another one.74 [Based on the same principle,] there are [people] who are accustomed to use the willow branches [that were tied together with] the lulav for kindling at the opening to the oven when baking matzah.75

יב יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לִשְׂרֹף אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בָּעֲרָבָה שֶׁחָבְטוּ אוֹתָהּ בְּהוֹשַׁעְנָא רַבָּה,צא לְפִי שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה בּוֹ מִצְוָה אַחַת נָכוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת בָּהּ מִצְוָה אַחֶרֶת.צב,74 וְיֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת הֶסֵּק מֵעַרְבוֹת הַלּוּלָב בְּפִי הַתַּנּוּר בִּשְׁעַת אֲפִיַּת הַמַּצּוֹת:צג,75