SECTION 443 The Laws [Applying] to Chametz After the Sixth Hour on the Day Before Pesach (1-13)

סימן תמג דִּין חָמֵץ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח לְאַחַר שֵׁשׁ וּבוֹ י"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 According to Scriptural Law, it is only forbidden to partake of chametz on the fourteenth [of Nissan] from the end of the sixth hour1 [of the day] and onward, as explained in sec. 431[:2]. Nevertheless, the Sages forbade [partaking of chametz] two hours before midday,2 i.e., [during] the fifth and sixth hours [of the day], lest people come to err on a cloudy day.3

During the entire fifth hour, [the Sages] only prohibited partaking of [chametz.4 Thus,] from [the beginning of] the fifth hour onward, even [chametz] that is prohibited to be eaten on Pesach [itself] only according to Rabbinic Law is forbidden to be eaten. It is, nevertheless, permitted to derive all [other] forms of benefit from [chametz] during the fifth hour. [This license applies] even to [substances that are] absolutely chametz, from which it is forbidden to derive [any] benefit according to Scriptural Law from midday [on the day before Pesach and] onward. Nevertheless, the Sages did not desire to [issue a] decree forbidding one to benefit from [such substances] during the fifth hour, [only to forbid them to be eaten]. Accordingly, it is permitted to sell even a [very] large quantity of [chametz] to a non-Jew [at this time], although the non-Jew will certainly not eat [all the chametz] before Pesach.

א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה אֵין חָמֵץ אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה בְּיוֹם י"ד אֶלָּא מִסּוֹף שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וּלְמַעְלָה,א כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"א,ב מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ לִטְעוֹת בַּיּוֹם הַמְעֻנָּןג,2 – אֲסָרוּהוּ חֲכָמִים ב' שָׁעוֹת קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם,1 דְּהַיְנוּ חֲמִישִׁית וְשִׁשִּׁית.ד

אֶלָּא שֶׁכָּל שָׁעָה3 ה' לֹא אֲסָרוּהוּ אֶלָּא בַּאֲכִילָה.ה,4 וַאֲפִלּוּ דָּבָר שֶׁאִסּוּר אֲכִילָתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ מִשָּׁעָה ה' וָאֵילָךְ.ו אֲבָל מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל מִינֵי הֲנָאוֹת בְּשָׁעָה ה'. אֲפִלּוּ הוּא חָמֵץ גָּמוּר הָאָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה מֵחֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם וָאֵילָךְ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן לֹא רָצוּ חֲכָמִים לִגְזֹר עָלָיו אִסּוּר הֲנָאָה בְּשָׁעָה ה', וּלְפִיכָךְ יָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ הַרְבֵּה בְּיַחַד,4 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי לֹא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח:ז

2 Similarly, throughout the fifth hour, [a Jew] may feed chametz to a domesticated animal, a non-domesticated animal, or fowl, provided he stands [there watching] them until they finish eating before [the beginning of] the sixth hour. [The person] must see to it that [the animals] do not hide any [of the chametz] they are eating in his courtyard, [lest] it remain hidden there after the time [he is obligated to] obliterate [chametz], and [thereby cause] him to violate the prohibition against having chametz seen [in his domain].5

[The owner] must obliterate what remains after [the animals] partook of [this chametz] when the time [he is obligated to] obliterate it arrives.6 [The owner] must be careful about this [matter] even if he feeds [the animals] before the fifth hour, as explained in sec. 433[:27]. Consult that source.7

ב וְכֵן יָכוֹל לְהַאֲכִילָן כָּל שָׁעָה ה' לִבְהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף,ח,4 וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לַעֲמֹד עֲלֵיהֶם עַד שֶׁיִּגְמְרוּ לֶאֱכֹל קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, וְיִרְאֶה שֶׁלֹּא יַצְנִיעוּ מִמַּה שֶּׁהֵן אוֹכְלִין בַּחֲצֵרוֹט וְיִשָּׁאֵר מֻצְנָע שָׁם לְאַחַר זְמַן הַבִּעוּר וְיַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה".י,5 וּמַה שֶּׁיִּשְׁתַּיֵּר מֵאֲכִילָתָם – יְבַעֲרֶנּוּ כְּשֶׁתַּגִּיעַ שְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר.6 וְאַף אִם מַאֲכִילָם קֹדֶם שָׁעָה ה' צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר בָּזֶה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"גיא עַיֵּן שָׁם:7

3 From the beginning of the sixth hour onward, however, [our Sages] also prohibited deriving benefit [from chametz]. Accordingly, [from that time onward, a person] may not sell [his chametz] to a non-Jew,8 nor give it to him as a present, nor declare it ownerless,9 nor feed it to a domesticated animal, a non-domesticated animal, or fowl. [This rule applies] even if [these living beings] do not belong to him, but are ownerless.10

It is even forbidden to benefit from chametz belonging to a non-Jew.11 (Therefore, it is forbidden to smell a loaf of chametz12 belonging to a non-Jew from the sixth hour onward.)

ג אֲבָל מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וּלְמַעְלָה אֲסָרוּהוּ גַּם בַּהֲנָאָה.יב,4 וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹיג לְנָכְרִי,8 וְלֹא לִתְּנוֹ לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה, וְלֹא לְהַפְקִירוֹ,יד,9 וְלֹא לְהַאֲכִילוֹ לִבְהֵמָה חַיָּה וְעוֹף,טו,4 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָן שֶׁלּוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר,טז,10 וַאֲפִלּוּ חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָהיז,11 (לְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְהָרִיחַ פַּת חָמֵץ12 שֶׁל נָכְרִי מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְיח):

4 These hours are measured according to the [length] of the day. For example, in a leap year, when the days are longer [at this time of year],13 each of these hours is considered as an hour and a quarter of ordinary hours, i.e., hours of which 24 comprise a day. For the day, i.e., from sunrise until sunset,14 is always considered as twelve hours, whether [the day] is long or short.

Therefore, one should not eat chametz beyond a third of the day, i.e., in a leap year, 2 ½ [ordinary] hours15 before midday. [Chametz]should not be sold to a non-Jew beyond 1 ¼ [ordinary] hours before midday.

If [the chametz] was not sold [by that time] and a severe [financial] loss is involved, [the owner] is [granted additional] time to sell it, until an hour before midday.16 [The rationale is that] there is an authority who maintains that these two hours that are mentioned with regard to [the prohibitions concerning] chametz, i.e., the fifth and sixth [hours], are measured in terms of ordinary hours, i.e., hours of which 24 comprise a day. In an instance where a severe [financial] loss is involved, one may rely on his words.

(It is forbidden to give chametz that remains on the day of the fourteenth [of Nissan] to one’s non-Jewish servant or maidservant17 if there is such a large amount of chametz that they would not be able to [finish] eating it before the time it becomes forbidden to benefit from it. [The rationale is that] since [the householder] is obligated to provide [his servants] with food, [giving them chametz when he may no longer benefit from it] is comparable to paying one’s debt with a substance from which it is forbidden to benefit.)18

ד שָׁעוֹת הַלָּלוּ מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתָן לְפִי עִנְיַן הַיּוֹם, כְּגוֹן בִּשְׁנַת הָעִבּוּר שֶׁהַיּוֹם אָרֹךְיט,13 נֶחְשָׁב כָּל שָׁעָה מִשָּׁעוֹת הַלָּלוּ שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ מִשָּׁעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִית שֶׁהֵן כ"ד לְמֵעֵת לְעֵת,כ לְפִי שֶׁהַיּוֹם דְּהַיְנוּ מִנֵּץ הַחַמָּה עַד שְׁקִיעַת הַחַמָּהכא,14 הוּא נֶחְשָׁב לְעוֹלָם לְי"ב שָׁעוֹת בֵּין שֶׁהוּא אָרֹךְ בֵּין שֶׁהוּא קָצָר. וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין לֶאֱכֹל חָמֵץ אֶלָּא עַד שְׁלִישׁ הַיּוֹם,כב דְּהַיְנוּ ב' שָׁעוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת בִּשְׁנַת הָעִבּוּר.15 וְאֵין לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי אֶלָּא עַד שָׁעָה וּרְבִיעַ קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת הַיּוֹם. וְאִם לֹא מְכָרוֹ עֲדַיִןכג וְיֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה – יֵשׁ לוֹ שְׁהוּת לְמָכְרוֹ עַד שָׁעָה קֹדֶם חֲצוֹת,16 לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרכד דְּב' שָׁעוֹת הַלָּלוּ שֶׁאָמְרוּ לְעִנְיַן חָמֵץ דְּהַיְנוּ חֲמִישִׁית וְשִׁשִּׁית מְשַׁעֲרִין אוֹתָן בְּשָׁעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִיּוֹת שֶׁהֵן כ"ד לְמֵעֵת לְעֵת, וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דְּבָרָיו.כה

(חָמֵץ הַנִּשְׁאָר בְּיוֹם י"ד אָסוּר לִתְּנוֹ לְעַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַנָּכְרִים17 אִם הֶחָמֵץ רַב שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיֹּאכְלוּהוּ קֹדֶם זְמַן אִסּוּרוֹ בַּהֲנָאָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בִּמְזוֹנוֹתֵיהֶם – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּפוֹרֵעַ חוֹבוֹ מֵאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָהכו):18

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5 If there is a corpse [to be buried] on the day before Pesach19 and there will not be enough time to eat chametz after the burial, [the deceased] should be taken to the cemetery [directly after the morning prayers], before [breakfast] is eaten, while accompanied by the entire community.20 They [then] return to their homes to eat chametz, and afterwards, [the deceased] should be buried in a befitting manner.

True, [generally,] a significant meal should not be eaten until the deceased is buried. Nevertheless, [in this instance,] since [the deceased] was already taken to the cemetery to be buried, there are grounds for leniency, particularly in [such] a pressing situation21 when it is necessary that many [people] accompany [the deceased to his burial], and afterwards, they will not have sufficient time to eat.22 Even though once [the community] has begun [the process of] taking a deceased [person to his final resting place] they should not interrupt [the burial process,] not even to recite the Shema, as stated in sec. 72[:2, nevertheless,] the intent is that an interruption should not be made in the midst of proceeding to the cemetery and, similarly, if [the corpse was] brought to the cemetery and the grave was prepared, [the deceased] should be buried immediately. If, however, the grave or other necessities for burial were not yet prepared, it is permitted [to make an interruption] between bringing the corpse to the cemetery and preparing the grave and the other necessities for burial. [The rationale is that] each of these activities is an independent deed and [interrupting between them] is not [considered as] an interruption in the midst of being occupied in [the performance of] a mitzvah.

ה אִם יֵשׁ מֵת בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח19 וְאַחַר הַקְּבוּרָה לֹא יִהְיֶה שְׁהוּת לֶאֱכֹל חָמֵץ – מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ לְבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת קֹדֶם הָאֲכִילָה וּמְלַוִּין אוֹתוֹ כָּל הָעָם20 וְחוֹזְרִין לְבָתֵּיהֶם לֶאֱכֹל חָמֵץ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְקַבְּרִין אוֹתוֹ כָּרָאוּי.כז וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לֶאֱכֹל סְעוּדַת קֶבַע בְּעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא נִקְבַּר הַמֵּת,כח מִכָּל מָקוֹם (א) כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הוֹצִיאוּהוּ לְבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת כְּדֵי לְקָבְרוֹ – יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל, וּבִפְרָט בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק כָּזֶה21 שֶׁצְּרִיכִין רַבִּים לְלַוּוֹתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ לֹא יִהְיֶה לָהֶם שְׁהוּת לֶאֱכֹל.כט,22

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִם הִתְחִילוּ בְּהוֹצָאַת הַמֵּת אֵין מַפְסִיקִין אֲפִלּוּ לִקְרִיאַת שְׁמַעל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ע"ב,לא הַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵין מַפְסִיקִין בְּאֶמְצַע הֲלִיכָה לְבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת, וְכֵן אִם הֱבִיאוּהוּ לְבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת וְהַקֶּבֶר הוּא מוּכָן צָרִיךְ לְקָבְרוֹ מִיָּד, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא הֵכִינוּ הַקֶּבֶר אוֹ שְׁאָר כָּל צָרְכֵי קְבוּרָה – מֻתָּר בֵּין הֲבָאַת הַמֵּת לְבֵית הַקְּבָרוֹת לַהֲכָנַת הַקֶּבֶר וּשְׁאָר צָרְכֵי קְבוּרָה, שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד הוּא דָּבָר בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, וְאֵין זוֹ הַפְסָקָה בְּאֶמְצַע עֵסֶק הַמִּצְוָה:לב

6 When chametz belonging to one Jew was entrusted to another Jew (or had been given to him as security for a loan), [the watchman] should delay its sale23 until the beginning of the fifth hour24 on the day before Pesach. [This precaution was enacted] lest the owner of the chametz come and take it back from him. If [the entrusted article] is something for which purchasers will not easily be found in the fifth hour and, [hence, the watchman] will have to sell it cheaply, he is permitted to sell [the entrusted article] before [the fifth hour].25 Nevertheless, if the situation is such that [the Jew] can sell [the chametz] to a non-Jew with whom he is familiar, who he knows will return it to him26 after Pesach, it is forbidden [for the Jew] to sell [the chametz] through an irrevocable sale.27

ו יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהָיָה מֻפְקָד בְּיָדוֹ חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר חֲבֵרוֹ (אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מְמֻשְׁכָּן אֶצְלוֹלג) – יַמְתִּין מִלְּמָכְרוֹ23 עַד שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ שָׁעָה ה' בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח,לד,24 שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא בַּעַל חָמֵץ וְיִקָּחֶנּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ.לה וְאִם הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא יִמְצָא לוֹ קוֹנִים בְּרֶוַח בְּשָׁעָה ה' וְיִצְטָרֵךְ לְמָכְרוֹ בְּזוֹל – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ קֹדֶם לָכֵן.לו,25 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיּוּכַל לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי הַמַּכִּירוֹ שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ בּוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזִיר לוֹ אַחַר הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר26 לְמָכְרוֹ מְכִירָה חֲלוּטָה:לז,27

7 If [the watchman] did not sell [the entrusted chametz]28 before the onset of the sixth hour, he is obligated to obliterate it from existence entirely. [This rule applies] even if the situation is such that [the watchman] does not violate [the prohibition] against [having chametz] seen [in his domain], e.g., he assumed no responsibility for the chametz, not even for its theft or loss resulting from his own negligence.29 Nevertheless, [the watchman] must obliterate it so that the owner of the chametz will not violate the prohibition against possessing [chametz.30 The watchman has this obligation,] because all Jews are responsible for each other.31

True, it is possible that the owner of the chametz sold this chametz to a non-Jew in the place where he is located, and brought about its transfer [of ownership] through one of the processes of acquisition that will be explained in sec. 448[:11.32 Nevertheless,] since the chametz definitely exists and [while] there is a possibility its owner sold it to a non-Jew, there [also exists] a possibility that he did not sell it, the possibility [that the owner] sold [the chametz] does not offset [the watchman’s obligation stemming from the fact that the] chametz definitely [exists].

ז וְאִם לֹא מְכָרוֹ כְּלָל28 עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי. אֲפִלּוּ הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה", כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין אַחֲרָיוּת הֶחָמֵץ עָלָיולח אֲפִלּוּ מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה הַבָּאִים עַל יְדֵי פְּשִׁיעָה,לט,29 מִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ הוּא לְבַעֲרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ בְּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",מ,30 שֶׁכָּל יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲרֵבִים זֶה בָּזֶה.מא,31 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁבַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ מָכַר חָמֵץ זֶה לְנָכְרִי בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא וְהִקְנָה אוֹתוֹ לוֹ בְּאֶחָד מִדַּרְכֵי הַקְּנִיּוֹת שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּסִימָן תמ"ח,מב,32 כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ כָּאן וַדַּאי חָמֵץ וְסָפֵק מְכָרוֹ בְּעָלָיו לְנָכְרִי וְסָפֵק לֹא מְכָרוּהוּ – אֵין סְפֵק מְכִירָה מוֹצִיא מִידֵי וַדַּאי חָמֵץ:מנ

8 If the owner of the chametz comes after Pesach and issues a claim against [the watchman] for not selling the chametz to a non-Jew before the time [it was necessary to] obliterate [the chametz, the watchman] is not obligated to pay him. [The rationale is that the watchman] only accepted [the responsibility of] watching the chametz so that it would be kept intact for its owners and that nothing would be [missing] from it until he returned it to its owner in its entirety. However, [the watchman] did not accept [the responsibility] of selling [the chametz] on the day before Pesach, for this is not included in [a watchman’s scope of responsibility].33 [The rationale is that] selling [the chametz] removes it from the owner’s domain. [The responsibility] to guard [the chametz that the watchman undertook] in no way obligates him to sell it on the day before Pesach. It is only because of the mitzvah of returning a lost object to its owner [that the watchman should act on the owner’s behalf and sell the chametz.34 Selling the chametz is desirable] since the fifth hour arrived and in a short time, it will become forbidden to benefit [from the chametz. Hence,] it is as if the owner [of the chametz] lost it. [Accordingly,] any person who sees [the chametz on the verge of] becoming lost is obligated to sell it to a non-Jew in order to fulfill the mitzvah of returning a lost object.35

([The following laws apply] if the chametz which [the watchman] obliterated from existence entirely was given to him as security for a [loan] – whether the time for the [loan’s] repayment arrived before Pesach and [the borrower] did not repay him, or [the time for its repayment] was not [scheduled] until after Pesach: If the security was worth more than [the loan], the lender is placed in the category of a watchman with regard to this additional amount, as stated in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 72.)36 He is therefore not obligated to pay the borrower for not selling this additional amount to a non-Jew before Pesach, just like [any other] watchman is not obligated [to reimburse the owner of the chametz for not selling it], for the reason explained [above]. Nevertheless, [the lender] forfeits his loan and the borrower is not obligated to pay him anything.37 True, the lender is also merely a watchman over [that portion of] the security equal to the amount of his loan; were [the security] to be [destroyed or taken from him] by forces beyond his control, he would not forfeit his loan. Nevertheless, every person who offers security [for a loan] certainly does so with the [implicit] condition that as long as the lender does not return his security to him, [the lender] cannot demand repayment of his debt, unless the lender lost the security due to factors beyond his control, for example, [the security] was taken from [the lender] by armed thieves, or other similar factors beyond his control (as explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 303),38 which the lender is powerless to avoid. In this instance, by contrast, since it was possible for the lender to sell [the security] before Pesach and he failed to do so, it was his lethargy that caused the loss of the security, for [since the lender failed to sell the security in time], it became forbidden to benefit from it and it became necessary [for him] to obliterate it. Certainly, when he gave [the lender] the security, the borrower did not have in mind that he would pay [the lender] his debt if [the lender] would not return his security to him because it was lost due to circumstances where the lender was not held back by forces that he could not possibly prevent.

If the lender did not obliterate [the chametz given as security] at the time [chametz] must be obliterated, [but instead,] left it until after Pesach,39 even though it already became forbidden to benefit from [this chametz] – as is the law regarding chametz that existed [in a Jew’s possession] throughout Pesach – nevertheless, if [the lender] returns [the security] to the borrower, the borrower is obligated to accept it from him and repay his debt. [The rationale is that] the lender can tell him: “Here is your property, [it is] intact, [just] as you gave it to me.”40 (Even though currently, it is forbidden to benefit [from the chametz used as security, that is of no consequence since] it is a decrease [in value] that is not apparent.)41

ח אִם בָּא בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ אַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְתוֹבְעוֹ בְּדִין עַל שֶׁלֹּא מָכַר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם זְמַן הַבִּעוּר – אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אֶלָּא לִשְׁמֹר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁיְּהֵא שָׁמוּר לִבְעָלָיו וְלֹא יֶחְסַר מִמֶּנּוּ מְאוּמָה עַד שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ בִּשְׁלֵמוּת לִבְעָלָיו, אֲבָל לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו לְמָכְרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, שֶׁאֵין זוֹ בִּכְלַל שְׁמִירָה,33 (ב) שֶׁהֲרֵי בִּמְכִירָה זוֹ מוֹצִיאָהּ מֵרְשׁוּת בְּעָלָיו,מד וְאֵינוֹ חַיָּב כְּלָל לְמָכְרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מֵחֲמַת שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו לְשָׁמְרוֹמה אֶלָּא מֵחֲמַת מִצְוַת הֲשָׁבַת אֲבֵדָה לַבְּעָלִים,מו,34 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעָה שָׁעָה ה' שֶׁהוּא קָרוֹב לֶאֱסֹר בַּהֲנָאָה הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאָבוּד מִבְּעָלָיו, וְחַיָּב כָּל אָדָם הָרוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ נֶאֱבָד לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת הֲשָׁבַת אֲבֵדָה.35

(וְאִם חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁבִּעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי הָיָה מְמֻשְׁכָּן אֶצְלוֹ, בֵּין שֶׁכְּבָר הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹ, בֵּין שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, אִם הָיָה הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן שָׁוֶה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי חוֹבוֹ – הֲרֵי יֵשׁ לַמַּלְוֶה דִּין שׁוֹמֵר עַל זֶה הַמּוֹתָר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ע"במז,36), וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לַלֹּוֶה עַל מַה שֶּׁלֹּא מָכַר מוֹתָר הַזֶּה לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁהַשּׁוֹמֵר אֵינוֹ חַיָּב, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם הִפְסִיד חוֹבוֹ, וְאֵין הַלֹּוֶה חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ כְּלוּם.מח,37

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגַּם עַל מַה שֶּׁכְּנֶגֶד חוֹבוֹ אֵין לַמַּלְוֶה אֶלָּא דִּין שׁוֹמֵר, וְאִם נֶאֱנַס מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא הִפְסִיד חוֹבוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם וַדַּאי דַּעַת כָּל מְמַשְׁכֵּן הוּא שֶׁעַל מְנָת כֵּן מְמַשְׁכֵּן לוֹ,מט שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזִיר לוֹ הַמַּלְוֶה מַשְׁכּוֹנוֹ לֹא יוּכַל לִתְבֹּעַ מִמֶּנּוּ חוֹבוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִהְיֶה הַמַּלְוֶה אָנוּס בַּאֲבֵדַת הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן, כְּגוֹן שֶׁיִּגְזְלֶנּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ לִסְטִים מְזֻיָּן וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ מִשְּׁאָר הָאֳנָסִים (שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֲרוּ בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ש"גנ,38), שֶׁאֵין כֹּחַ בְּיַד הַמַּלְוֶה לְהִנָּצֵל מֵהֶם. אֲבָל כָּאן שֶׁהָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לְהַמַּלְוֶה לְמָכְרוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא מְכָרוֹ – הֲרֵי עַצְלוּתוֹ גָּרְמָה הֶפְסֵד הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן, שֶׁנֶּאֱסַר בַּהֲנָאָה וְנִתְחַיֵּב בְּבִעוּר, וּבְוַדַּאי לֹא הָיָה דַּעַת הַלֹּוֶה כְּשֶׁמִּשְׁכְּנוֹ אֶצְלוֹ שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ חוֹבוֹ אִם לֹא יַחֲזִיר לוֹ מַשְׁכּוֹנוֹ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּפְסַד וְלֹא הָיָה הַמַּלְוֶה אָנוּס מִלְּהַצִּילוֹ מֵאוֹתוֹ הֶפְסֵד.

וְאִם לֹא בִּעֲרוֹ הַמַּלְוֶה לְאַחַר זְמַן הַבִּעוּר וְהִשְׁהָה אוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,39 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר נֶאֱסַר בַּהֲנָאָה כְּדִין חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הוּא מַחֲזִירוֹ לַלֹּוֶה – חַיָּב הַלֹּוֶה לְקַבְּלוֹ מִיָּדוֹ וְלִפְרֹעַ לוֹ חוֹבוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּלְוֶה יָכוֹל לוֹמַר לוֹ: "הֲרֵי שֶׁלְּךָ לְפָנֶיךָ שָׁלֵם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לִי"נא,40 (וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעַכְשָׁו הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, חִסָּרוֹן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִכָּר הוּאנב,41):

9 Even though Scriptural Law forbids benefiting from chametz in all different ways, and it is forbidden to sell or exchange [chametz], nevertheless, if one transgresses and sells or exchanges [chametz, it is not said that the] forbidden [dimension of the chametz] is transferred to the money or the objects received in return [for it,] and it is [thus] forbidden to benefit from them [as well]. Instead, it is permitted to benefit from the money or the objects received in return [for the chametz] even though [the chametz] was sold or exchanged during Pesach.42

[The rationale for this leniency is as follows:] False deities are also [objects] from which it is forbidden to benefit. [Moreover, the forbidden dimension of false deities] is transferred to the money and objects received in exchange for them. [Thus,] it is similarly forbidden to benefit from the objects received in return for [false deities], as it is written:43 “[Lest it] become condemned like it.” Our Sages44 interpreted [that phrase as implying that] everything that one derives from it, [i.e., a false deity] – the money and/or the objects exchanged for it – are condemned like it. [However,] with regard to the prohibition against false deities, the Torah states: “Itis condemned.” Our Sages45 interpreted [that phrase as implying that only the forbidden dimension of false deities] is transferred to the money or objects received in return for it. By contrast, the [forbidden dimension of] other [substances] from which it is forbidden to benefit, e.g., orlah,46mixed species in a vineyard,47 [mixtures of] meat and milk, and chametz on Pesach is not transferred to the money or objects received in return for them.48

ט חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה בְּכָל מִינֵי הֲנָאוֹת וְאָסוּר לְמָכְרוֹ אוֹ לְהַחֲלִיפוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם עָבַר וּמְכָרוֹ אוֹ הֶחֱלִיפוֹ – אֵין אִסּוּרוֹ תּוֹפֵס אֶת דָּמָיו וְחִלּוּפָיו שֶׁיִּהְיוּ אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה כָּמוֹהוּ, אֶלָּא מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִדְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ אוֹ מֵחֲלִיפָיונג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ אוֹ הֶחֱלִיפוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,נד,42 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה הִיא גַּם כֵּן מֵאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה, וְהִיא תּוֹפֶסֶת אֶת דָּמֶיהָ וְחִלּוּפֶיהָ, שֶׁהֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה כָּמוֹהָ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרנה,43 "וְהָיִיתָ חֵרֶם כָּמֹהוּ", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:נו,44 כָּל מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה מְהַוֶּה מִמֶּנָּה, דְּהַיְנוּ דָּמֶיהָ וְחִלּוּפֶיהָ – הֲרֵי הֵן חֵרֶם כָּמוֹהוּ, וְאָמְרָה תּוֹרָה בְּאִסּוּר עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה:43 "כִּי חֵרֶם הוּא", וְדָרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִים:נז,45 "הוּא" חֵרֶם וְתוֹפֵס אֶת דָּמוֹ וְחִלּוּפָיו, אֲבָל שְׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה, כְּגוֹן עָרְלָה46 וְכִלְאֵי הַכֶּרֶם47 וּבָשָׂר בְּחָלָבנח וְחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח, אֵינָן תּוֹפְסִין אֶת דְּמֵיהֶן וְחִלּוּפֵיהֶן:48

10 All of the above applies according to Scriptural Law. According to Rabbinic Law, however, it is forbidden49 for [the owner] to benefit from the money or objects received in return for the chametz50 that he sold or exchanged from the beginning of the sixth hour onward.51 [The rationale is that] since [the person] received this money or these objects in return for chametz, he is profiting from substances from which it is forbidden to benefit.52

Nevertheless, other people are permitted to benefit from the money or objects [received in return for the chametz. The rationale is that] since they did not receive this benefit [directly] as a result of the chametz – for [the chametz] did not belong to them – they are not profiting from substances from which it is forbidden to benefit.

י וְכָל זֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, (ג) אֲבָל מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר49 לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִדְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ אוֹ מֵחֲלִיפָיו50 שֶׁמְּכָרוֹ אוֹ שֶׁהֶחֱלִיפוֹ מִתְּחִלַּת שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וָאֵילָךְ,51 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵלּוּ הַדָּמִים אוֹ אֵלּוּ הַחֲלִיפִין בָּאוּ לְיָדוֹ עַל יְדֵי הֶחָמֵץ – הֲרֵי זֶה מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה.52

אֲבָל אֲחֵרִים מֻתָּרִין לֵהָנוֹת מִדָּמִים וְחִלּוּפִין אֵלּוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֲנָאָה זוֹ אֵינָהּ בָּאָה לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי הֶחָמֵץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הָיָה שֶׁלָּהֶם, הֲרֵי אֵינָן מִשְׂתַּכְּרִין בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה:נט

11 All the above applies when the chametz was sold or exchanged by the Jew who owned the chametz or his agent, whether [the agent] was Jewish or not.53 If, however, another person sold or exchanged [the chametz] without the knowledge or consent54 of the owner of the chametz, it is permitted – even for the owner of the chametz – [to benefit from] the money or the objects received [for the chametz. That money or those objects] are, however, forbidden to the person who sold or exchanged [the chametz].

יא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמְּכָרוֹ וְהֶחֱלִיפוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ בְּעַצְמוֹ אוֹ עַל יְדֵי שְׁלוּחוֹ בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין שֶׁהוּא נָכְרִי,53 אֲבָל אִם מְכָרוֹ וְהֶחֱלִיפוֹ אָדָם אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת54 בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ – הֲרֵי דָּמִים וַחֲלִיפִין אֵלּוּ מֻתָּרִין אֲפִלּוּ לְבַעַל הֶחָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ, אֲבָל אֲסוּרִין הֵן לְאוֹתוֹ הָאִישׁ שֶׁמָּכַר אוֹ שֶׁהֶחֱלִיף:ס

12 If the non-Jew who acquired the chametz55 first drew it into his domain and [only] then gave the Jew the money or the objects [exchanged for it], it is permitted [to benefit from that money or those objects] even when [the owner] sold or exchanged [the chametz] himself. [The rationale is that] since the non-Jew drew the chametz into his domain,56 he acquired this chametz immediately with this [formal act]57 and it is considered as if [the chametz] is actually his.58 [Thus,] the money or the objects that [the non-Jew] gives the [Jew] afterwards are only a present and are not considered as money or objects exchanged [for the chametz].

There are authorities who differ with all the above59 and maintain that even if the owner of the chametz sold or exchanged it with a non-Jew, taking the money or object given in exchange and, afterwards, the non-Jew drew the chametz into his domain, [the Jew] is [nonetheless] permitted to benefit from the money or the objects given in exchange [for the chametz]. One may rely on the words [of these authorities] in the instance of a severe [financial] loss. When, however, a severe [financial] loss is not involved, one should be stringent [and not benefit from the proceeds.60 This stringency applies] even if [the owner] did not sell or exchange [the chametz] until after Pesach, when the prohibition against benefiting from it is only Rabbinic in origin.61

יב וְאִם מָשַׁךְ הַנָּכְרִי הַלּוֹקֵחַ תְּחִלָּה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ55 לִרְשׁוּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נָתַן דָּמָיו אוֹ חֲלִיפָיו – הֲרֵי הֵן מֻתָּרִין, אֲפִלּוּ מָכַר וְהֶחֱלִיף הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמָּשַׁךְ הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לִרְשׁוּתוֹ56 נִקְנָה לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ מִיָּד עַל יְדֵי מְשִׁיכָה זוֹ,57 וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ,58 וּמַה שֶּׁנּוֹתֵן אַחַר כָּךְ דָּמָיו אוֹ חֲלִיפָיו – הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמַתָּנָה בְּעָלְמָא, וְאֵינָן נִקְרָאִין דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ וַחֲלִיפָיו.סא

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןסב עַל כָּל זֶה59 וְאוֹמְרִים דַּאֲפִלּוּ מְכָרוֹ וְהֶחֱלִיפוֹ בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ בְּעַצְמוֹ וְנָטַל דָּמָיו אוֹ חֲלִיפָיו וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָשַׁךְ הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לִרְשׁוּתוֹ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לֵהָנוֹת מִדָּמִים וַחֲלִיפִין אֵלּוּ. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה.סג אֲבָל בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר,60 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא מְכָרוֹ וְהֶחֱלִיפוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים:סד,61

13 All the above62 [applies with regard] to the money or the objects given in exchange for the chametz. The chametz itself, by contrast, remains forbidden forever.63 It is forbidden for any person to [purchase such chametz] from the non-Jew. [This stringency applies] even if the Jew did not sell [the chametz] to [the non-Jew] until after Pesach. If the non-Jew gives [the chametz] to [a Jew] as a gift after Pesach, [the Jew] is obligated to obliterate it from existence, as is the law [that applies to] chametz that existed in a Jew’s possession during Pesach, as explained in sec. 435[:4].

יג וְכָל זֶה62 בִּדְמֵי הֶחָמֵץ וַחֲלִיפָיו, אֲבָל הֶחָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ לְעוֹלָם הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּאִסּוּרוֹ,63 שֶׁאָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לִקַּח אוֹתוֹ מֵהַנָּכְרִי, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא מְכָרוֹ לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח. וְאִם נְתָנוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם, כְּדִין חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח,סה שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תל"ה:סו