SECTION 442 The Laws [Applying] to the Obliteration of [Food Containing] a Mixture of Chametz Before Pesach (1-34)

סימן תמב דִּין בִּעוּר תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וּבוֹ ל"ד סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply when] an olive-sized1 portion of leavened grain2 became mixed with another type of food: If this mixture contains the flavor of the leavened grain,3 [the owner] is obligated to obliterate it on the day before Pesach according to Scriptural Law.4 If [the owner] does not obliterate it, he violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].5

[This applies] even if the mixture contains more than achilas p’ras (half a loaf [of bread], which is [the size of] three [amply sized] eggs).6 Thus, [a portion the size of] a p’ras of this mixture contains less than an olive-sized measure of chametz. Accordingly, even if one were to eat the entire mixture during Pesach, he would not [be liable for] lashes according to Scriptural Law.7 [The rationale is that] the olive-sized measure of chametz is mixed into the entire mixture. Thus, the time that it would take [a person] to eat the olive-sized measure of chametz comprised the time it would take to eat the entire mixture that was larger than the measure of a p’ras. [Hence, the person would be exempt, for] it is a halachah conveyed to Moshe at Sinai that anyone whose consumption of an olive-sized measure [of forbidden food] takes longer than the exact prescribed time it takes to eat a p’ras8is exempt for eating this [forbidden food].9

Nevertheless, [the owner of this mixture] violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz due to his possession of this mixture. The rationale is that] even though the olive-sized measure of chametz is scattered throughout the entire mixture, which is larger than a p’ras, since all the particles [of the chametz] are located in one container10 and mixed together in one type of food, [the chametz is all] combined to arrive at the measure of an olive-sized portion [for which one is liable]. They are not considered as having become insignificant11 within the [entire] mixture, since [the flavor] of chametz is [still] discernable in it.12

א כְּזַיִתא,1 חָמֵץ דָּגָן2 גָּמוּר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמִין מַאֲכָל אַחֵר, אִם יֵשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת הַזֶּה טַעַם חָמֵץ3 – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִן הַתּוֹרָה.ב,4 וְאִם לֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא".5 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּזֶה הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָסג (פֵּרוּשׁ ג' בֵּיצִים שֶׁהֵן חֲצִי כִּכָּרד),6 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁבִּפְרָס מֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת חָמֵץ, וְאִם כֵּן אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּפֶסַח אֵינוֹ לוֹקֶה מִן הַתּוֹרָה,ה,7 לְפִי שֶׁכְּזַיִת הֶחָמֵץ הוּא מְעֹרָב בְּכָל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁשָּׁהָה בַּאֲכִילַת כְּזַיִת חָמֵץ כְּדֵי שְׁהִיַּת אֲכִילַת כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִפְּרָס,ו וַהֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַיז הוּא שֶׁכָּל שֶׁשָּׁהָה בַּאֲכִילַת כְּזַיִתח יוֹתֵר מִשְּׁהִיַּת אֲכִילַת פְּרָס בְּצִמְצוּם8 אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ,ט,9 מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן "בַּל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" עוֹבֵר עָלָיו, אַף שֶׁכְּזַיִת הֶחָמֵץ הוּא מְפֻזָּר בְּכָל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ יוֹתֵר מִפְּרָס, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל חֲלָקָיו הֵן מֻנָּחִין בִּכְלִי אֶחָדי,10 וּמְעֹרָבִין בְּמִין מַאֲכָל אֶחָד – הֲרֵי הֵן מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לְשִׁעוּר כְּזַיִת,יא וְאֵינָן בְּטֵלִין11 בְּהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּרְגָּשׁ בּוֹ הֶחָמֵץ:יב,12

2 If one forgot and did not obliterate [the mixture containing chametz] on the day before Pesach and remembered during the middle of Pesach, he is obligated to obliterate [this mixture] from existence entirely, even though he already nullified [his possession of] this chametz before Pesach.13 [Before doing so,] he should recite the blessing [praising G‑d Who] “sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to obliterate chametz,” as will be explained in sec. 446[:1].

ב וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר בִּטֵּל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ הַזֶּה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,13 וִיבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל בִּעוּר חָמֵץ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ו:יג

3 According to Rabbinic Law, even when less than an olive-sized measure of chametz becomes mixed [together with other foods] and the mixture contains the flavor of chametz, [the owner] is obligated to obliterate it. [This is] a decree, [instituted as a safeguard] lest a mixture contain an entire olive-sized measure [of chametz].14

If the person forgot and did not obliterate [the mixture] on the day before Pesach and remembered in the middle of Pesach, he is obligated to obliterate it from existence entirely. (Nevertheless, [the person] should not recite a blessing when obliterating this [chametz. The rationale is that] whenever a person is not obliterating the actual substance of [at least] an olive-sized measure of chametz, he need not recite a blessing if he already nullified [his possession of] this chametz before Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 446[:3].)15

If the entire Pesach passed and [the owner] did not obliterate [this mixture], it is forbidden to partake of the entire mixture because it contains the flavor of chametz that existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach. It is, however, permitted to benefit from the entire mixture. [The owner] must, however, redeem the forbidden [portion of the mixture], i.e., he should estimate the value of the chametz contained [in the mixture] and take this sum of money and cast it to oblivion, e.g., [throw] it into the sea16 or into a deep river where it will never be found by anyone.

Even if the mixture contains a large quantity of chametz, [i.e.,] more than an olive-sized measure, and thus [the owner] is obligated to obliterate it according to Scriptural Law,17 [nevertheless, although the mixture] existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach and he did not obliterate it, it is permitted to benefit from [the mixture after Pesach],18 provided [the owner] redeems the chametz it contains. [The rationale is that] benefiting from chametz that existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach is forbidden only as a penalty, i.e., the Sages penalized the person because [the person] violated the prohibition against having [chametz]seen [in his domain].19 When [the person] casts the value of the chametz into oblivion and derives no benefit from it, there is no reason to further penalize him.

Similarly, [the owner] may sell the entire mixture to a non-Jew with the exception of the value of the forbidden [chametz],20 i.e., [the owner] should only take payment from [the non-Jew] for what the mixture is worth without the chametz contained in it. Thus, [the owner] is not benefiting at all from the chametz. [The Sages] permitted doing so only after Pesach, because [after that time] even actual chametz that existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach is forbidden only according to Rabbinic decree. During Pesach [itself], by contrast, it is forbidden to sell any mixture of forbidden chametz unless it is mixed [together with permitted substances] in a dry mixture,21 as will be explained in sec. 447[:1-2].

ג וּמִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֲפִלּוּ פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב וְיֵשׁ בְּהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת טַעַם חָמֵץ חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹיד בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם.טו,14

וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי (אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּר זֶה, שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַעֵר מַמָּשׁוּת חָמֵץ כְּזַיִת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ אִם כְּבָר בִּטֵּל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ הַזֶּה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"וטז,15).

וְאִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הַזֶּה אָסוּריז בַּאֲכִילָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח.יח אֲבָל מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִכָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת,יט רַק שֶׁיִּפְדֶּה אֶת הָאִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיְּשַׁעֵר אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב כַּמָּה דָּמִים הוּא שָׁוֶה וְיִטֹּל סְכוּם דָּמִים אֵלּוּ וְיַשְׁלִיכֵם לְאִבּוּד, כְּגוֹן לַיָּםכ,16 אוֹ לְנָהָר עָמֹקכא שֶׁלֹּא יִמְצָאֶנּוּ שׁוּם אָדָם.

וַאֲפִלּוּ (א) יֵשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת הַרְבֵּה חָמֵץ יוֹתֵר מִכְּזַיִת שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְבַעֵר מִן הַתּוֹרָה17 וְעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָהכב,18 עַל יְדֵי שֶׁיִּפְדֶּה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבּוֹ,כג דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם קְנָס שֶׁקְּנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים עַל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה",19 וְזֶה שֶׁמַּשְׁלִיךְ דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ לְאִבּוּד וְאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵין לָנוּ עוֹד לְקָנְסוֹ.כד

וְכֵן (ב) יָכוֹל לִמְכֹּר כָּל הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר,כה,20 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא יִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ דָּמִים רַק מַה שֶּׁהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת הוּא שָׁוֶה בְּלֹא הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ,כו דְּנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה כְּלָל מֵהֶחָמֵץ. וְלֹא הִתִּירוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן אֶלָּא לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁאַף הֶחָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁהוּא בְּעֵין, שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים. אֲבָל בְּפֶסַח אָסוּר לִמְכֹּר שׁוּם תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ הָאָסוּרכז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִתְעָרֵב יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ,21 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז:כח

4 All the above applies when the mixture contains the flavor of chametz, i.e., [the mixture] does not contain 60 times [more of the permitted substances] than [the volume of] chametz [contained in it]. If, however, [the mixture] contains 60 times [more of the permitted substances than of the volume of chametz contained], the chametz will certainly not impart flavor to [a mixture] 60 times its volume22 if the chametz is blended thoroughly with [the permitted substances], so that no vestige of chametz exists in the mixture as an independent entity. [In such an instance,]23 it is even permitted to eat the entire mixture during Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 447[:22]. Consult that source for all the relevant details of this law.

ד וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הֶחָמֵץ, אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי אֵין הֶחָמֵץ נוֹתֵן טַעַם בְּשִׁשִּׁים פְּעָמִים כְּמוֹתוֹ,22 אִם נִבְלַל הֶחָמֵץ בְּהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת יָפֶה יָפֶה, שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר בּוֹ חָמֵץ מַשֶּׁהוּ עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת – מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ לֶאֱכֹל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,23 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,כט עַיֵּן שָׁם כָּל פְּרָטֵי דִּין זֶה:

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5 Nevertheless, at the outset, it is forbidden to nullify chametz in 60 [times its volume of permitted substances] before Pesach with the intent of eating [the mixture] during Pesach,24 for this is comparable to purposely nullifying [the presence of] a forbidden substance.25 Even though before Pesach, it was still permitted [to partake of chametz], nevertheless, since [the person is mixing it at this time] in order to partake of it at a [later] time when it is forbidden, i.e., during Pesach, [his actions] resemble the nullification of a forbidden substance.

It is, however, permitted to nullify chametz in 60 [times its volume of permitted substances] before Pesach with the intent of leaving it until after Pesach.26 [The rationale is that] since one [the person] is nullifying [the chametz] at a time when it is permitted [to partake of it with the intent] of partaking of it at a time when it is permitted [to do so], he is not considered as nullifying a forbidden [substance].27

ה אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה אָסוּר לְבַטֵּל חָמֵץ בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח (ג) בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח,ל,24 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא כִּמְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בַּיָּדַיִם.לא,25 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקֹּדֶם הַפֶּסַח עֲדַיִן שְׁעַת הֶתֵּר, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה כֵן כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ בִּשְׁעַת אִסּוּרוֹ,לב דְּהַיְנוּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר.

אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְבַטֵּל הֶחָמֵץ בְּשִׁשִּׁים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח (ד) כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד אַחַר הַפֶּסַח,לג,26 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְבַטְּלוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הֶתֵּר – אֵין כָּאן מְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר:27

6 Under what [circumstances] does the above apply? When a [mixture] is not commonly made by adding chametz to it. [Instead it is merely] in this [specific] circumstance that a person desires to add chametz to [the mixture] so that he will not have to obliterate [the chametz].

[Different rules apply,] by contrast, to a mixture that is commonly made by mixing chametz into it, for example, muryees (“fish brine”)28 in which toasted bread is included [as one of its basic ingredients]. Even though [the muryees] contains more than 60 [times the volume of] the bread [mixed into it], since the manner in which muryees is made is by [mixing] bread [into it, the bread] is significant and is not batel in the muryees,even [when it is mixed] with 1000 [times its volume].29 Therefore, [the owner] is obligated to obliterate [the muryees] before Pesach according to Rabbinic Law. If [the owner] did not obliterate [the muryees], and he possessed it throughout Pesach, it is forbidden to even benefit from it [after Pesach]30 unless [the owner] redeems the [value of the] chametz it contains, or sells it to a non-Jew with the exception of the value of the forbidden [chametz], as is the law regarding chametz that was mixed with less than 60 [times its volume] and existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach.31

ו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ (ה) תִּקּוּן עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ עַל יְדֵי תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ, רַק שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לְעָרֵב בּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ, אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ הוּא עַל יְדֵי תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ,לדכְּגוֹן מוּרְיָס (פֵּרוּשׁ שֻׁמַּן דָּגִיםלה)28 שֶׁמְּשִׂימִין בּוֹ לֶחֶם קָלוּי,לו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַלֶּחֶם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ תִּקּוּן הַמּוּרְיָס הוּא עַל יְדֵי לֶחֶם – הֲרֵי הוּא חָשׁוּב וְאֵינוֹ בָּטֵל בַּמּוּרְיָס אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף,לז,29 וּלְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.לח וְאִם לֹא בִּעֲרוֹ וְעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה,לט,30 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן פּוֹדֶה אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ אוֹ מוֹכֵר לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ, כְּדִין חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּפָחוֹת מִשִּׁשִּׁים וְעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח:מ,31

7 All [the above applies] when the mixture contains the actual substance of chametz; it is only that it is so thoroughly mixed [with permitted substances] that it is not recognizable [as a separate entity. Different laws apply] if, by contrast, there is no actual substance of chametz in the mixture, only its flavor, e.g., food that was cooked in the same utensil as chametz and acquired its flavor, but does not contain any of its substance at all. Even though it is forbidden to partake of this food according to Scriptural Law, it is not necessary to obliterate it according to Scriptural Law. [This law is derived from the command,32Chametz]of yours shall not be seen.” The flavor of chametz that is absorbed in this cooked food is not seen [by the person].33, *

* When, by contrast, the actual substance of the chametz exists in the mixture, the chametz itself is [theoretically] visible, it just cannot be recognized [as such] because its appearance has changed due to [its being mixed into] the mixture. [It is therefore forbidden both to partake and maintain possession of the mixture].34

Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, it is forbidden to maintain possession [of food that absorbed the flavor of chametz] during Pesach, even when [the owner] will store it in a room that he does not enter frequently.35 [This is] a decree [instituted] lest [the person] forget about the prohibition against [eating] chametz, for he frequently [partakes of it] throughout the year. [Hence, he might] go [into that room] and partake of [this food].36

If [the owner] forgot and failed to obliterate [such food] on the day before Pesach and remembered in the middle of Pesach, he must obliterate it entirely from existence.37 Nevertheless, [the person] should not recite a blessing before obliterating [this food. The rationale is that, according to Scriptural Law,] he need not obliterate it. [The person is required to obliterate this food] only due to the concern that an undesirable event38 may occur,39 [i.e.,] he might eat [the forbidden food]. There is, however, no mitzvah in the obliteration [of this food] per se. [Hence,] it is not appropriate to recite a blessing for the mitzvah of [its] obliteration.

If Pesach passed and [the person] did not obliterate [the food that absorbed the flavor of chametz], it is permitted to benefit from [this food. The rationale is that] since [the person] did not violate a Scriptural prohibition by leaving [the food] until after Pesach, the Sages did not penalize him and prohibit him from deriving benefit from it.40 [Moreover,] license may even be granted to partake of [this food] if a substantial loss is involved, even if [the loss will be incurred only] if it is forbidden to partake of it.41 [Conversely,] if no severe loss will be suffered even if it is forbidden for [the person to] benefit from [this food], it is desirable to be stringent and forbid even benefiting from it in order to give weight to the words [of the authorities] who maintain that whenever a mixture contains the flavor of chametz, just as it is forbidden according to Scriptural Law to partake of [the food] during Pesach, so too, [is the owner of the food] obligated to obliterate it according to Scriptural Law.42

Therefore, if Pesach passed [while this food was in the owner’s possession] and he did not obliterate it, he is forbidden to benefit from it except by redeeming [the value of the flavor of chametz it contains] or by selling it to a non-Jew without [accepting money for] the value of the flavor of chametz it contains. [The rationale is that] since [the owner] violated a Scriptural commandment,43 our Sages penalized him.

ז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּבְלַל יָפֶה יָפֶה וְאֵינוֹ נִכָּר, אֲבָל אִם אֵין מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ כְּלוּם בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֶלָּא טַעְמוֹ בִּלְבַד, כְּגוֹן תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל בִּכְלִי אֶחָד עִם חָמֵץ וְקִבֵּל טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ וְאֵין בּוֹ כְּלוּם מִמַּמָּשׁוֹ,מא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָהמב – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר32 "לֹא יֵרָאֶה לְךָ", וְטַעַם חָמֵץ זֶה הַמֻּבְלָע בַּתַּבְשִׁיל (ו) אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה לְךָ.מג,*,33

* [מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ בְּתוֹךְ הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, הֲרֵי גּוּף הֶחָמֵץ נִרְאֶה לָעַיִן, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵין מַכִּירִין אוֹתוֹמד מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּנֵּית צוּרָתוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת].34

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לְקַיְּמוֹ בְּפֶסַחמה אֲפִלּוּ יַצְנִיעֶנּוּ בְּחֶדֶר מְיֻחָד שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם,מו,35 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח עַל אִסּוּר חָמֵץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי רָגִיל בּוֹ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה, וְיֵלֵךְ וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ.מז,36

וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי.מח,37 אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל בִּעוּר זֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ (ז) רַק מִשּׁוּם חֲשַׁשׁ תַּקָּלָה38 שֶׁמָּא יֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ,39 אֲבָל הַבִּעוּר מִצַּד עַצְמוֹ אֵין בּוֹ מִצְוָה – לֹא שַׁיָּךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל מִצְוַת בִּעוּר.מט

וְאִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָהנ בְּמַה שֶּׁהִשְׁהָה אוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים לְאָסְרוֹ בַּהֲנָאָה.נא,40 וְאַף בַּאֲכִילָה יֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּהנב אַף אִם לֹא נֶאֱסֹר אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בַּאֲכִילָה.41 אִם אֵין בּוֹ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אַף אִם נֶאֱסֹר אוֹתוֹ בַּהֲנָאָה – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וְלֶאֱסֹר אַף בַּהֲנָאָה, כְּדֵי לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםנג שֶׁכָּל תַּעֲרֹבֶת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ טַעַם חָמֵץ, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְאָכְלוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח כָּךְ הוּא חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה,42 וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי פִּדְיוֹן אוֹ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי טַעַם חָמֵץ שֶׁבּוֹ,נד,31 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁעָבַר עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה43 קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים:נה

8 All the above applies to cooked food that absorbed the taste of the chametz itself. However, [more lenient laws apply with regard to] food that was cooked before Pesach in a pot in which chametz had been cooked that day:44 Even though the cooked food does not contain 60 [times the amount of the flavor] of the chametz that is imparted into the food from the pot, it is permitted to allow [the food] to remain until after Pesach. [The rationale is that] there are [authorities who] even permit partaking of [this food] during Pesach, based on the reason to be explained in sec. 447[:45].45 Although one should not rely on the words [of these authorities] to permit [the food] to be eaten, based on the reason to be explained in that source,46 one may, however, rely on their words regarding leaving [this food] until after Pesach.47 [Nevertheless,] one should take care to store the food in a room that he does not enter frequently, as will be explained in sec. 451[:1].48

ח וְכָל זֶה בְּתַבְשִׁיל שֶׁקִּבֵּל טַעַם הֶחָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ,נו אֲבָל תַּבְשִׁיל שֶׁנִּתְבַּשֵּׁל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַחנז בִּקְדֵרָה שֶׁבִּשֵּׁל בָּהּ הֶחָמֵץ בּוֹ בַּיּוֹם,44 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בַּתַּבְשִׁיל שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּפְלַט לְתוֹכוֹ מִן הַקְּדֵרָה – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ מַתִּירִין אֲפִלּוּ לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח, מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז,נח,45 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהַתִּירוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם,46 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,נט,47 וְיִזָּהֵר לְהַצְנִיעוֹ בְּחֶדֶר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א:ס,48

9 Liquids49 produced from chametz are considered as chametz itself. Therefore, an alcoholic beverage that is produced from germinated grain50 that is called malt51 is not governed by the laws [applying to] a mixture containing chametz. Instead, [it is considered as] the actual substance of chametz.

Similarly, alcoholic beverages made from the dregs of beer produced from barley or wheat52 are considered as the actual substance of chametz.53 [The rationale is that] beer that is made from barley or wheat contains an olive-sized portion of chametz54 within a portion of beer [the volume] of a p’ras,55and it is a halachah LeMoshe MiSinai, [a halachah communicated to Moshe at Sinai,] that is applicable to all the Torah’s prohibitions, that whenever an olive-sized portion of a forbidden substance is mixed with a p’ras[-sized measure] of permitted [foods], the entire p’ras of permitted [food] becomes like the forbidden food itself,56 and anyone who partakes of an olive-sized portion of this p’ras is liable [for kareis.57 In such an instance] it is considered as if [the person] ate an olive-sized portion of the forbidden substance even though the olive-sized portion [that he ate] did not contain an olive-sized portion of the forbidden substance.58 [The rationale is that] the very existence of the permitted [substance is considered as having been] transformed into a forbidden [entity]. Since this beer contains an olive-sized portion of chametz in the measure of [the volume of] a p’ras, it becomes [considered as] chametz in its entirety. [Consequently,] one who drinks an olive-sized portion of [this beer] is liable for kareis, like [one who eats] chametz itself.59 Therefore, an alcoholic beverage made from the dregs of this beer60 is [also] considered as chametz. [The rationale is that] the dregs have more fermented [chametz] than the beer itself, for the actual substance of the fermented barley or wheat flour sinks to the bottom, into the dregs.

* A note appended by the Alter Rebbe’s brother, Maharil.61

[An alcoholic beverage made from beer dregs] must be obliterated according to Scriptural Law. If Pesach passed [while a beverage made from beer dregs] was [in a Jew’s possession], and he did not obliterate it, it is even forbidden to benefit from [the beverage]. Nevertheless, if [obliterating the beverage] would cause a very severe [financial] loss, one may rely on [the authorities] (Tosafos, Rif, Rosh, and Ran) who maintain that even if there is an olive-sized portion [of chametz] in [a portion of the mixture which is the volume] of a p’ras, but it62 is bitter and sharp to the extent that it is impossible to eat or drink an olive-sized portion of the mixture unless one waits [between swallows], and thus one will not eat or drink an olive-sized portion of the chametz bechedei achilas p’ras [in the measure of time it takes to partake of a p’ras], it is permitted to maintain possession of [such chametz] during Pesach according to Scriptural Law,63 provided:

a) the chametz does not add flavor to the mixture, and

b) the chametz is added to [the mixture] only to increase its acridity (Tur), i.e., to make [the mixture] sharp and bitter,

[In such an instance,] it is only necessary to obliterate the chametz before Pesach according to Rabbinic Law (Tosafos, Ran, and Magen Avraham). Therefore, if [the chametz] existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach, and he did not obliterate it, it is permitted to benefit from [this chametz] (Ran), as will be explained at the end of sec. 447.64 According to [these authorities, leniency may be taken] even regarding an alcoholic beverage that was made from fermented grain or beer dregs. Even though there is an olive-sized portion of chametz in a p’ras of the mixture, nevertheless, the alcoholic beverage is so bitter and sharp that one cannot drink a p’ras of it without waiting [between swallows. Furthermore,] the chametz does not add flavor to the mixture, for the alcoholic beverage made from a type of kitniyos65called buckwheat66 or from mead has the same flavor as that of alcoholic beverages made from fermented grain. The alcoholic beverage only contains the power of fermentation of the chametz, [i.e., the dregs of the beer] make [the beverage] bitter and sharp; this is no more than acridity. Therefore, one is only required to obliterate [the beverage] according to Rabbinic Law. Moreover, if [the beverage] existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach and he did not obliterate it, it is permitted to benefit from [the beverage]. One may rely on [these authorities] in the event of a very severe [financial] loss. [The rationale is that] all authorities agree that [after Pesach], chametz that existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach is prohibited only according to Rabbinic Law, as will be explained in sec. 448[:1. Accordingly,] one may permit benefiting from [the beverage], i.e., [by] selling it to a non-Jew.67 One must, however, take care that the non-Jew will not sell [the beverage] to a Jew who will drink from it, for [this beverage] is forbidden for all Jews to drink – [not only] the owner of the chametz.68 However, if a very severe loss is not involved, it should not even be permitted to derive benefit from [the beverage].

ט זֵעָה49 הַיּוֹצֵאת מֵחָמֵץ הֲרֵי הִיא כְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁל חָמֵץ,סא לְפִיכָךְ יֵין־שָׂרָף הַנַּעֲשֵׂית מִתְּבוּאָה חֲמוּצָה50 שֶׁקּוֹרִין מאל"ץ51 – אֵין דִּינוֹ כְּתַעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ אֶלָּא כְּמַמָּשׁוֹ שֶׁל חָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ.סב

וְכֵן יֵין־שָׂרָף הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִשִּׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים אוֹ שֶׁל חִטִּים52 – דִּינוֹ כְּמַמָּשׁוֹ שֶׁל חָמֵץ עַצְמוֹ,סג,53 לְפִי שֶׁשֵּׁכָר הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִשְּׂעוֹרִים אוֹ מֵחִטִּים יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּזַיִת חָמֵץ54 בִּכְדֵי שְׁתִיַּת פְּרָס מֵהַשֵּׁכָר,סד,55 וַהֲלָכָה לְמֹשֶׁה מִסִּינַיסה הוּא בְּכָל אִסּוּרִין שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, שֶׁכָּל כְּזַיִת אִסּוּר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בַּאֲכִילַת פְּרָס מֵהֶתֵּר הֲרֵי כָּל הַפְּרָס שֶׁל הֶתֵּר (ח) נִתְהַפֵּךְ לִהְיוֹת כְּגוּפוֹ שֶׁל אִסּוּר עַצְמוֹ,56 וְכָל הָאוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מִפְּרָס הַזֶּה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּכְּזַיִת הַזֶּה אֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם שֶׁל אִסּוּר – הֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב57 כְּאִלּוּ אָכַל כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם שֶׁל אִסּוּר,58 כֵּיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הַהֶתֵּר נַעֲשָׂה אִסּוּר,סו וְכֵיוָן שֶׁשֵּׁכָר הַזֶּה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ חָמֵץ כְּזַיִת בִּכְדֵי שְׁתִיַּת פְּרָססז – נַעֲשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ חָמֵץ, וְהַשּׁוֹתֶה כְּזַיִת מִמֶּנּוּ חַיָּב כָּרֵתסח כְּמוֹ עַל עַצְמוֹ שֶׁל חָמֵץ,59 לְפִיכָךְ גַּם יֵין־שָׂרָף הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִשְּׁמָרִים שֶׁל שֵׁכָר זֶה60 דִּינוֹ כְּעַצְמוֹ שֶׁל חָמֵץ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַשְּׁמָרִים יֵשׁ בָּהֶן יוֹתֵר חֲמִיצוּת מִבַּשֵּׁכָר עַצְמוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁגּוּף קֶמַח הַשְּׂעוֹרִים אוֹ הַחִטִּים חֲמוּצִים הוּא נִצְלָל לְמַטָּה בַּשְּׁמָרִים.סט,*

* [(הַגָּהָה מֵאָחִיו מַהֲרִי"לע)61

וְצָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה.עא וְאִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה אָסוּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה. וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם יֵשׁ בָּזֶה הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל מְאֹד – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל הָאוֹמְרִים (תוס',עב רי"ף,עג רא"ש,עד ר"ןעה) שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת כְּזַיִת חָמֵץ בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת אוֹ שְׁתִיַּת פְּרָס אֶלָּא שֶׁהוּא62 דָּבָר חָרִיף וְחָזָק שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לֶאֱכֹל אוֹ לִשְׁתּוֹת פְּרָס מֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אִם לֹא שֶׁיִּשְׁהֶה בֵּינְתַיִם, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹכֵל אוֹ שׁוֹתֶה כְּזַיִת מֵהֶחָמֵץ בִּכְדֵי שִׁעוּר אֲכִילַת אוֹ שְׁתִיַּת פְּרָס מֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת,עו מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ בְּפֶסַח מִן הַתּוֹרָה63 אִם אֵין הֶחָמֵץ נוֹתֵן טַעַם בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת וְאֵין נוֹתְנִין בּוֹ אֶת הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא לְקִיּוּהָא בְּעָלְמָא (טור), דְּהַיְנוּ לַחֲרִיפוּת וְלַחֲמִיצוּת, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים (תוס', ר"ן, מ"אעז). וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה (ר"ן), כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסוֹף סִימָן תמ"ז.עח, 64 וּלְדִבְרֵיהֶם אַף יֵין־ שָׂרָף זֶה שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה מִתְּבוּאָה חֲמוּצָה אוֹ מִשִּׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ כְּזַיִת חָמֵץ בִּכְדֵי שְׁתִיַּת פְּרָס מֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת,עט מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיֵּין־שָׂרָף הוּא דָּבָר חָרִיף וְחָזָק שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לִשְׁתּוֹת פְּרָס מִמֶּנּוּ בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק שְׁהִיָּה בֵּינְתַיִם, וְאֵין הֶחָמֵץ נוֹתֵן טַעַם בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַיֵּין־שָׂרָף הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִמִּינֵי קִטְנִיּוֹת65 שֶׁקּוֹרִין גְּרִיקֶע66 אוֹ מִמֵּי דְּבַשׁ טַעֲמוֹ שָׁוֶה לְיֵין־שָׂרָף הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִתְּבוּאָה חֲמוּצָה,פ וְאֵין בְּיֵין־שָׂרָף זֶה אֶלָּא כֹּחַ הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁנַּעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי כֵּן חָרִיף וְחָזָק, שֶׁהוּא רַק קִיּוּהָא בְּעָלְמָא,פא וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְאִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בִּמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל מְאֹד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ח,פב וְיֵשׁ לְהַתִּיר בַּהֲנָאָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי.פג, 67 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזֹר הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְיִשְׁתֶּה מִמֶּנּוּ,פד וּבִשְׁתִיָּה אָסוּר לְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲפִלּוּ לְמִי שֶׁאֵין הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ.68 אֲבָל אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד גָּדוֹל מְאֹד – אֵין לְהַתִּיר אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה]:

10 Similar [laws apply regarding] alcoholic beverages that were made from grain that had not fermented,69 but [rather the grain was left to] ferment70in [a mixture containing] the dregs of beer,71 [and regarding] cheese that was curdled in beer, in vinegar from beer, or in alcoholic beverages made from grain that was left to ferment in the dregs of beer.72 Even though the alcoholic beverage or the cheese contains [more than] 60 times [the volume of the] substance that causes it to ferment or curdle,73 [the owner] is nevertheless obligated to obliterate [the beverage or the cheese] on the day before Pesach according to Rabbinic Law. If [these substances] existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach, and he did not obliterate them, it is forbidden even to benefit from them. [The rationale is that] a davar hamaamid74 never becomes batel, even [if it is mixed with] 1000 [times its volume].75 Moreover, the davar hamaamid, [the substance that causes the mixture to ferment,] is considered as if it is actually present [in the mixture].76

Therefore, when mead was left to ferment in the dregs of beer and [afterwards,] the dregs of this mead were used to cause another [mixture of] mead to ferment, and the dregs of the second [mixture of] mead were used to cause [yet] another [mixture of] mead to ferment – and [this pattern could be continued] endlessly – [the owner] is obligated to obliterate even the last [mixture of] mead. [The rationale is that] since the dregs of beer were used to cause the first [mixture of] mead to ferment, that mixture [– including the dregs it produced –] became chametz in its entirety. [By the same token,] the dregs {of the second [mixture of] mead} also became chametz in their entirety, because they were caused to ferment by the dregs of the first [mixture of] mead. The same logic applies to all [subsequent mixtures].

Therefore, if [the owner of the mead] did not obliterate all [these mixtures] by the end of Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from [all of] them. [This stringency applies] even when [the owner] desires to redeem the fermentation agent, i.e., [he desires to] cast the value of the dregs into the Dead Sea.77 [The rationale is that] redemption is only effective in permitting [the use of] entities from which it is forbidden to benefit when they have been combined [in a mixture] and no longer exist as independent entities. However, [different laws apply to] a davar hamaamid. Since [the davar hamaamid] is significant, it is [considered] as if it continues to exist as an independent entity. [Hence,] redeeming it is not effective.

There are authorities who differ with the above. They maintain that redemption is effective in allowing benefit to be derived from [a mixture containing] a davar hamaamid,78 just like [benefit may be derived from] a mixture [containing] other [forbidden substances].79 Similarly, [these authorities] permit one to sell [the final product] to a non-Jew except for the value of the forbidden substance it contains, [provided] it is an entity for which there is no concern that the non-Jew may sell it to another Jew who will partake of it,80 e.g., cheese and the like, since [a Jew] is forbidden to partake of a non-Jew’s cheese.81 One may rely on their words in an instance involving a severe [financial] loss.

There is an authority who maintains that the fourth [mixture of] mead – i.e., [the mixture] that was left [to ferment with] the dregs of the third [mixture] – is permitted even [for a Jew] to drink [after Pesach]82 without redeeming [the value of the chametz it contains], because the strength of the dregs of the beer was already exhausted in the first three [mixtures of] mead.83 One may rely on these words [in an instance where] forbidding [the mead] to be drunk will cause a severe [financial] loss.

י וְכֵן יֵין־שָׂרָף הַנַּעֲשֶׂה אֲפִלּוּ מִתְּבוּאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ חֲמוּצָה69 אֶלָּא שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד70 אוֹתָהּ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר,פה,71 וְכֵן גְּבִינָה שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד אוֹתָהּ בְּשֵׁכָר אוֹ בְּחֹמֶץ שֶׁל שֵׁכָר,פו אוֹ בְּיֵין־שָׂרָף הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִתְּבוּאָה שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּהָ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר,72 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּיֵּין־שָׂרָף וּגְבִינָה שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִידוֹ73 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.פז וְאִם עָבַר עֲלֵיהֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרָם – אֲסוּרִין אֲפִלּוּ בַּהֲנָאָה,פח לְפִי שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד74 אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף לֹא בָּטֵל.פט,75

וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד הֲרֵי הוּא חָשׁוּב כְּאִלּוּ הוּא בְּעֵין מַמָּשׁ.צ,76 וּלְפִיכָךְ מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֶׁהֶעֱמִידוּהוּ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר, וּבְשִׁמְרֵי מֵי דְּבַשׁ זֶה הֶעֱמִידוּ מֵי דְּבַשׁ שֵׁנִי, וּבְשִׁמְרֵי מֵי הַדְּבַשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי הֶעֱמִידוּ מֵי דְּבַשׁ שְׁלִישִׁי, וְכֵן לְעוֹלָם – הֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב לְבַעֵר אֲפִלּוּ מֵי דְּבַשׁ הָאַחֲרוֹן, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁמֵּי דְּבַשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן הָעֳמַד בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר – הֲרֵי הוּא נַעֲשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ חָמֵץ.צא וְגַם שְׁמָרִים [שֶׁל מֵי דְּבַשׁ הַשֵּׁנִיצב] נַעֲשָׂה כֻּלּוֹ חָמֵץ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁהָעֳמַד בְּשִׁמְרֵי מֵי דְּבַשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן, וְכֵן לְעוֹלָם.צג

וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם לֹא בִּעֵר אֶת כֻּלָּם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה, אֲפִלּוּ אִם רוֹצֶה לִפְדּוֹת אֶת דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד, דְּהַיְנוּ לְהַשְׁלִיךְ דְּמֵי הַשְּׁמָרִים לְיַם הַמֶּלַח,77 לְפִי שֶׁאֵין פִּדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל אֶלָּא לְהַתִּיר אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ וְאֵינָן עוֹמְדִין בְּעֵינָן, אֲבָל כָּל דָּבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חָשׁוּב כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹצד – אֵין פִּדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל לוֹ.צה וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןצו עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִים דְּפִדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל לְדָבָר הַמַּעֲמִיד לְהַתִּירוֹ בַּהֲנָאָה78 כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר תַּעֲרוֹבוֹת.צז,79 וְכֵן יָכוֹל לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ אִם הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזֹר הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ,צח,80 כְּגוֹן גְּבִינָה וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ שֶׁאִם הִיא שֶׁל נָכְרִי אָסוּר לְאָכְלָהּ.צט,81 וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה.ק

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרקא שֶׁמֵּי דְּבַשׁ (ט) הָרְבִיעִי שֶׁהָעֳמַד בְּשִׁמְרֵי מֵי דְּבַשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי הוּא מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁתִיָּה82 בְּלֹא פִּדְיוֹן, לְפִי שֶׁכְּבָר כָּלָה כֹּחַ שִׁמְרֵי הַשֵּׁכָר בְּג' מֵי דְּבַשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹנִים. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דְּבָרָיו אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה אִם נֶאֱסֹר אוֹתוֹ בִּשְׁתִיָּה:83

11 All the above applies when the first [mixture of] mead was left to ferment only with the dregs of beer (and similarly, the second [mixture of] mead [was left to ferment] only with the dregs from the first [mixture of] mead, and so too [with all the later mixtures]). If, however, the beer dregs alone were not sufficient[ly strong] to cause [the mead] to ferment and [the person] mixed in another fermentation agent that was not chametz, and the mixture of [the two fermentation agents] caused [the mead] to ferment, [the mead] is permitted even to be drunk, provided it contains 60 [times the volume of] the dregs of the beer.

[The rationale is that] whenever ([both] a forbidden [substance] and a permitted [substance]) [combine to] cause a substance to undergo change,84 [the resulting mixture] is permitted provided the forbidden [substance] itself is not strong enough to bring about that change, as will be explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 87.85

יא וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁמֵּי דְּבַשׁ הָרִאשׁוֹן הָעֳמַד בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר בִּלְבַדקב (וְכֵן מֵי דְּבַשׁ הַב' בְּשִׁמְרֵי מֵי דְּבַשׁ הָא' בִּלְבַד וְכֵן כֻּלָּם), אֲבָל אִם בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר בִּלְבַד לֹא הָיָה דַּי לְהַעֲמִידוֹ84 וְעֵרְבוּ בּוֹ גַּם דָּבָר אַחֵר הַמַּעֲמִיד שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָמֵץ וּבְהִצְטָרְפוּתָם הָעֳמַד – הֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר אַף בִּשְׁתִיָּה אִם יֵשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד שִׁמְרֵי הַשֵּׁכָר, דְּכָל זֶה וְזֶה (פֵּרוּשׁ אִסּוּר וְהֶתֵּר) גּוֹרֵם לְהַעֲמִידוֹ – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר אִם אֵין כֹּחַ בְּאִסּוּר בִּלְבַד לְהַעֲמִידוֹ,קג כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן פ"ז:קד,85

12 When vinegar turned sour because of beer dregs, [the owner] is obligated to obliterate it according to Rabbinic Law even if it contains 60 [times the volume of] the dregs. [The rationale is that] any substance that causes [another substance] to sour86 never becomes batel, even [when mixed with] 1000 [times its volume].87 If [the vinegar] existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach and he did not obliterate it, one is forbidden to benefit from it.

Redeeming [the value of the chametz the vinegar contains] is not sufficient to permit benefit to be derived from [the vinegar. The rationale is that] any entity that causes a substance to become sour is as if it is actually present, since the effect [of the souring agent] is evident in the substance it causes to sour, and redeeming [the value of a forbidden substance] is not effective when [the forbidden] substance is actually present.88

There are authorities who differ with the above89 and maintain that redeeming [the value of the forbidden substance] is effective even when a substance causes [another substance] to sour. In an instance of severe [financial] loss, one may rely on their words.

יב חֹמֶץ שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ בְּשִׁמְרֵי שֵׁכָר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַשְּׁמָרִים – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קה שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַמְחַמֵּץ86 אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶלֶף לֹא בָּטֵל.קו,87 וְאִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, וְאֵין פִּדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל לְהַתִּירוֹ בַּהֲנָאָה, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל דָּבָר הַמְחַמֵּץ כֵּיוָן שֶׁפְּעֻלָּתוֹ נִכֶּרֶת בְּגוּף דָּבָר הַמְחֻמָּץ – הֲרֵי הוּא חָשׁוּב כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ,קז וְאֵין פִּדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל לְדָבָר שֶׁהוּא בְּעֵין.קח,88

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִיןקט עַל זֶה89 וְאוֹמְרִים דְּפִדְיוֹן מוֹעִיל אַף לְדָבָר הַמְחַמֵּץ. וּבִמְקוֹם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם:

13 [The following laws apply when] chametz becomes mixed together and blended with other substances of the same type, for example, flour from grain that became chametz became mixed together and blended with a large amount of flour that had not become chametz.90 [According to Scriptural Law, it is not necessary to obliterate the mixture] since it is only forbidden to partake of [the mixture] during Pesach according to Rabbinic Law. [The rationale is that] according to Scriptural Law, when [a small amount of a forbidden substance] is mixed with [a large amount of a permitted substance] of the same type, [the forbidden substance] is batel.91[The mixture may be consumed, provided the forbidden substance is not a distinct entity within the mixture.92 The rationale is that the forbidden substance] does not impart flavor, since [its] flavor is the same [as that of the permitted substance].93 [Since according to Scriptural Law, it is permitted to partake of the mixture during Pesach,] how much more so is it not necessary to obliterate it according to Scriptural Law! Nevertheless, since it is forbidden to partake [of food made from such a mixture] during Pesach according to Rabbinic Law, [the owner] is obligated to obliterate it on the day before Pesach. This is a decree [instituted] lest he forget and partake of [this food] during Pesach.

If [the owner] forgot and did not obliterate [the mixture] on the day before Pesach, and remembered during Pesach, he must obliterate [the mixture] from existence entirely. (However, [the owner] should not recite a blessing [when obliterating the mixture] for the reason mentioned above.)94 If Pesach passed and [the owner] did not obliterate [the mixture], it is even permitted to be eaten.95 [The rationale is that] since [the owner] did not violate a Scriptural prohibition by maintaining [possession of the mixture], the Sages did not penalize him.

יג חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב וְנִבְלַל מִין בְּמִינוֹ, כְּגוֹן קֶמַח מִתְּבוּאָה חֲמוּצָה שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב וְנִבְלַל תּוֹךְ קֶמַח הַרְבֵּה מִתְּבוּאָה שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַמְּצָה,קי כֵּיוָן שֶׁאַף לְאָכְלָהּ בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח אֵין אָסוּר אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,90 שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה מִין בְּמִינוֹ בָּטֵל בְּרֹב,קיא,91 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן בּוֹ טַעַם,קיב,92 שֶׁהֲרֵי טַעֲמָם שָׁוֶה,קיג,93 כָּל שֶׁכֵּן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרָם מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֶלָּא כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אָסוּר לְאָכְלָם בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – חַיָּב גַּם כֵּן לְבַעֲרָם בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכַל מֵהֶם בְּפֶסַח.קיד וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בִּעֵר בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרָם מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵיקטו (אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקטז,94).

וְאִם עָבַר הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֵר – הֲרֵי הֵן מֻתָּרִין אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,קיז,95 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁהִיָּה זוֹ לֹא עָבַר עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה – לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים:קיח

14 [Different laws apply to] a dry mixture [comprised] of chametz and permitted [substances of the same type]96 when they are not blended together.97 For example, water fell on wheat kernels [and caused them to] crack open.98 [Afterwards, the water] was wiped [off them], they were left to dry, and the fact that [the wheat kernels] had [previously] cracked open was not evident. [These kernels] then became mixed together with a [larger amount] of dry kernels of grain that were kosher [for Pesach]. It is permitted to leave [the mixture] until after Pesach according to the authorities who maintain that whenever a [dry] forbidden [substance] becomes mixed with a majority of a [dry] permitted [substance, forming] a dry mixture, it is permitted to cook the entire mixture in one pot and eat [all the components] together at the same time.99 [The rationale is that, according to these authorities, the status of] the forbidden [substance] that became batel in the majority [of permitted substances] is transformed [from forbidden to permitted] and it is deemed as permitted in a full sense, even according to Rabbinic Law, as will be stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 109.100 If so, in the situation mentioned here as well, [the status of] the wheat kernels that had leavened was transformed, and they are considered like [kernels of] wheat [that are] kosher [for Pesach]. Therefore, it is not at all prohibited to maintain possession of [these kernels] during Pesach.

True, it is forbidden to partake of [these kernels of wheat during Pesach],101 because the forbidden [substance, i.e., the chametz,]102 that was nullifiedbefore Pesach [nonetheless] becomes significant again103 during Pesach, since it did not become thoroughly mixed with the permitted [substance] before Pesach. Nevertheless, since the prohibition against eating [these kernels] is only a stringency – for a stringency [was enacted] regarding chametz during Pesach, that it never becomes batel,104 while all other forbidden [substances] become batel when they are mixed with a greater amount of permitted [substances], and are permitted to be eaten – therefore, [the Sages] did not rule so stringently to even forbid maintaining possession [of such kernels over Pesach. The rationale is that] the mixture was made before Pesach, [at which time the chametz] became batel when mixed with a greater amount of permitted [substances], like [all] other forbidden [substances do, when mixed with a larger amount of permitted substances]. It is [therefore] permitted to partake of [this mixture] on the day before Pesach from the fifth hour until nightfall,105 as will be explained in sec. 447[:18].

יד חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב מִין בְּמִינוֹ יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ96 שֶׁאֵין נִבְלָלִים זֶה בְּתוֹךְ זֶה,97 כְּגוֹן שֶׁנָּפְלוּ חִטִּים שֶׁנָּפְלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם מַיִם וְנִתְבַּקְּעוּקיט,98 וְנִתְנַגְּבוּ וְנִתְיַבְּשׁוּ וְאֵין בִּקּוּעָן נִכָּרקכ וְנִתְעָרְבוּ בְּחִטִּים יְבֵשִׁים כְּשֵׁרִים הַרְבֵּה מֵהֶםקכא – מֻתָּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַחקכב לְפִי דִּבְרֵיקכג הָאוֹמְרִיםקכד שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּרֹב הֶתֵּר יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ מֻתָּר לְבַשֵּׁל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בִּקְדֵרָה אַחַת וּלְאָכְלָם בְּיַחַד בְּבַת אַחַת,99 לְפִי שֶׁהָאִסּוּר שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹב נִתְהַפֵּךְ לִהְיוֹת הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר אַף מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן ק"ט,קכה,100 אִם כֵּן גַּם כָּאן נִתְהַפְּכוּ הַחִטִּים הַחֲמוּצִים לִהְיוֹת כְּמוֹ חִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים מַמָּשׁ, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין אִסּוּר כְּלָל לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם בְּפֶסַח.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָסוּר לְאָכְלָם,101 לְפִי שֶׁהָאִסּוּר102 שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר103 בְּפֶסַח כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִבְלַל בְּתוֹךְ הַהֶתֵּר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,קכו מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִסּוּר אֲכִילָה זוֹ אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא חֻמְרָא שֶׁהֶחֱמִירוּ בְּחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְבַּטֵּל לְעוֹלָם,קכז,104 אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הָאִסּוּרִים כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל הָאִסּוּר בְּרֹב מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא הֶחֱמִירוּ בּוֹ כָּל כָּךְ לֶאֱסֹר אַף לְהַשְׁהוֹתוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,קכח שֶׁאָז הוּא מִתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹב כְּמוֹ שְׁאָר אִסּוּרִים, לְעִנְיָן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַחקכט מִשָּׁעָה ה' עַד הַלַּיְלָה,105 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ז:קל

15 Nevertheless, [a different ruling applies] according to [the authorities] who [rule stringently106 and] maintain that whenever a forbidden [substance] is mixed with a larger [amount of] permitted [substances] in a dry mixture, it is forbidden to partake of the entire mixture at one time. [Their rationale is that] when a forbidden [substance] is nullifiedin a larger amount of permitted [substances, the forbidden substance] is not transformed and deemed permitted in a complete sense according to Rabbinic Law, and it is only permitted to partake [of the mixture when one eats the components separately,] one [bit] after the other.107 [The rationale is that] when one eats [each bit separately], one [bit after the other], it is possible to say that [the portion] he is [currently] eating is the permitted [substance]. And when [the person] eats the last [bit], it is [equally] possible to say that he is [currently] eating the permitted [substance, because] the forbidden [substance] was already eaten. [In this manner] the Sages ruled leniently in such an instance, since according to Scriptural Law, the forbidden [substance] was already nullifiedand deemed permitted in a complete sense.

When, however, [the entire mixture] is eaten at one time, it appears obvious to all that a forbidden [substance] is being eaten. [Hence,] our Sages issued a [prohibitive] decree [against partaking of the mixture as a safeguard, lest one permit] the mixture of a forbidden [substance of one kind] with a permitted [substance] of a different kind. [In that instance,] a Scriptural prohibition [is involved] if [the permitted substance] is not 60 [times the volume of the forbidden substance].

If so, [according to this view,] these [kernels of] wheat that have become chametz [and] became mixed [together] with [kernels of] wheat that are kosher [for Pesach] were also not transformed into a permitted entity in a complete sense according to Rabbinic Law. [This stringency applies] even when there are more than 1000 times the amount of [kernels] that are kosher [for Pesach] than [kernels that] became chametz.108 Therefore, [according to these authorities,] it is forbidden to maintain possession of [such a mixture] during Pesach. ([The rationale is that] the prohibition against maintaining possession [of this mixture] resembles eating [the entire mixture] at one time, as explained above.)109

Nevertheless, if [the person] forgot or transgressed, and maintained possession [of the mixture] until after Pesach, it is permitted to partake of it [at that time. The rationale is that] since [the person] did not violate a Scriptural prohibition by maintaining possession [of the mixture], the Sages did not penalize him.110 If, however, [the owner] remembers [that there are kernels of chametz in the mixture] during Pesach, he is obligated to obliterate [the mixture] from existence entirely (or sell [the mixture] to a non-Jew [without profiting from] the value of the forbidden [kernels] in the mixture, as will be explained in sec. 447[:2]; consult that source.)111

If it is impossible to sell [the kernels] to a non-Jew and [the owner] will suffer a severe [financial] loss, he may rely on the first opinion and he need not obliterate [the mixture]. If, however, a severe [financial] loss is not involved, one should act stringently, in accordance with the second opinion, will be explained in the above source in Yoreh Deah.112

טו אֲבָל לְהָאוֹמְרִיםקלא,106 שֶׁכָּל אִסּוּר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּרֹב הֶתֵּר יָבֵשׁ בְּיָבֵשׁ אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּיַחַד בְּבַת אַחַת, לְפִי שֶׁהָאִסּוּר שֶׁנִּתְבַּטֵּל בְּרֹב לֹא נִתְהַפֵּךְ לִהְיוֹת הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְאֵינוֹ מֻתָּר אֶלָּא לְאָכְלָם בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה,קלב,107 שֶׁכְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל כָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד יֵשׁ לוֹמַר שֶׁזֶּהוּ הַהֶתֵּר, וּכְשֶׁאוֹכֵל הָאַחֲרוֹן יֵשׁ לוֹמַר גַּם כֵּן שֶׁזֶּהוּ הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר וְהָאִסּוּר כְּבָר אֲכָלוֹ,קלג וּלְכָךְ הֵקֵלּוּ חֲכָמִים בְּדָבָר זֶה, לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה כְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל הָאִסּוּר וְנַעֲשָׂה הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר.

אֲבָל כְּשֶׁאוֹכְלָם בְּבַת אַחַת יֵשׁ בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ אִסּוּר בָּרוּר לְמַרְאִית עַיִן, גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו חֲכָמִים גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם תַּעֲרֹבֶת מִין בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אִם אֵין שָׁם שִׁשִּׁים, אִם כֵּן גַּם חִטִּים חֲמוּצִים הַלָּלוּ שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבוּ בְּחִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים לֹא נִתְהַפְּכוּ לִהְיוֹת הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּכְּשֵׁרִים יוֹתֵר מֵאֶלֶף כְּנֶגֶד הַחֲמוּצִים,108 וּלְפִיכָךְ אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם בְּפֶסַחקלד (שֶׁאִסּוּר הַשְׁהָיָה הוּא דּוֹמֶה לְאִסּוּר אֲכִילָה בְּבַת אַחַת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקלה).109

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם שָׁכַח אוֹ עָבַר וְהִשְׁהָה אוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – מֻתָּרִיןקלו בַּאֲכִילָה,קלז דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁהִיָּה זוֹ לֹא עָבַר עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה – לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים.קלח,110 אֲבָל אִם נִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרָם מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵיקלט (אוֹ יִמְכְּרֵם לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"זקמ עַיֵּן שָׁם).111

וְאִם אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְמָכְרָם לְנָכְרִי וְיֵשׁ הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה בַּדָּבָר – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהקמא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרָם.קמב אֲבָל אִם אֵין הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה שָׁם:קמג,112

16 Before Pesach, [however, the owner] is permitted to grind all the wheat together so that the flour that is chametz113 will become mixed with flour that is kosher [for Pesach], and thus, [the flour that is chametz] will become batel in 60 times [its volume of flour that is kosher for Pesach], since the [two batches of flour] are thoroughly mixed [together. If this mixture is made before Pesach,] afterwards, [the prohibited substance] does not become significant again during Pesach114 and [the mixture] is permitted even to be eaten [during Pesach]. It is, [however,] desirable to bake the matzos [from this flour] before Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 453[:9];115 consult that source.

(If there are not 60 times [the volume] of wheat [kernels that are] kosher [for Pesach] as [of wheat kernels that] became chametz [before Pesach, the owner] may add more wheat [kernels that are] kosher [for Pesach to the mixture] to bring the [amount of kosher-for-Pesach wheat to measure] 60 times [the volume of] the chametz [wheat. He may then] grind the entire mixture together so that the flour that is chametz will become batel in 60 [times its volume of kosher-for-Pesach flour].116 Then, it will [all] be permitted to be eaten during Pesach.)117

This is not considered as intentionally nullifying the presence of a forbidden [substance.118 The rationale is that] the forbidden substance already became batel because of a majority of permitted [substance] as a matter of course. [Were a] similar situation [to occur] with regard to other forbidden [substances], it would only be forbidden to eat the entire mixture at one time. Eating [the entire mixture] bit by bit would be permitted outright even according to Rabbinic Law.119 If so, [adding additional kosher-for-Pesach flour] is not considered as nullifying [the presence of] a forbidden [substance], but rather as nullifying [the presence of] a permitted [substance. The rationale is that the person] is nullifying [the presence of the chametz] at a time when the nullification of chametz is governed by the same laws as the nullification of other forbidden [substances], i.e., [he is doing so] before Pesach.

טז וְקֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח מֻתָּר לוֹ לִטְחֹן כָּל הַחִטִּים בְּיַחַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְעָרֵבקמד קֶמַח הֶחָמֵץ113 בַּקֶּמַח הַכָּשֵׁר וְיִתְבַּטֵּל בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּשִׁשִּׁים, שֶׁהֵן נִבְלָלִין זֶה בָּזֶה, וְשׁוּב אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר103 בְּפֶסַח,114 וּמֻתָּרִין אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה.קמה וְטוֹב שֶׁיֹּאפֶה הַמַּצּוֹת קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"גקמו,115 עַיֵּן שָׁם.

(וְאִם אֵין בַּחִטִּים הַכְּשֵׁרִים שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַחֲמוּצִים – (י) יָכוֹל לְהוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹד חִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה שִׁשִּׁים כְּנֶגֶד הַחֲמוּצִים, וְיִטְחֹן הַכֹּל בְּיַחַד כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבַּטֵּל קֶמַח הֶחָמֵץ בְּשִׁשִּׁים,116 וְיִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִין בַּאֲכִילָהקמז בְּפֶסַח).117

וְאֵין זֶה מְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בַּיָּדַיִם,118 כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל הָאִסּוּר בְּרֹב הֶתֵּר מֵאֵלָיו, וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִים אֵין אִסּוּר אֶלָּא לֶאֱכֹל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּבַת אַחַת, אֲבָל לְאָכְלוֹ כֻּלּוֹ בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה הוּא הֶתֵּר גָּמוּר אַף מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקמח,119 – אִם כֵּן אֵין זֶה מְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר, אֶלָּא מְבַטֵּל הֶתֵּר הוּא,קמט שֶׁהֲרֵי מְבַטְּלוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁדִּין בִּטּוּל הֶחָמֵץ הוּא כְּדִין בִּטּוּל שְׁאָר אִסּוּרִים, דְּהַיְנוּ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח:קנ

17 If [the owner] does not possess additional kosher [for Pesach kernels of] wheat,120 he should estimate how many [kernels of] wheat became chametz and remove [that quantity of kernels] from the mixture and [take] them from his home, i.e., [the owner] should sell them before Pesach to a non-Jew, or even to another Jew.121 It is permitted for [the owner] to maintain possession of the remainder [of the wheat] until after Pesach.122

Similarly, the Jew who purchased the [kernels of] wheat from [the owner] may maintain possession of them until after Pesach.123 [The rationale is that] the prohibition against maintaining possession [of such a mixture during Pesach] resembles the prohibition against eating [an entire mixture containing] other forbidden [substances] at one time. And it is only forbidden for one person to eat [an entire mixture containing] other forbidden [substances] at one time. Two people, however, are even permitted to eat the entire mixture at the same moment, as explained in Yoreh Deah, loc. cit.124

יז וְאִם אֵין לוֹ עוֹד חִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים,120 יְשַׁעֵר בְּאֹמֶד דַּעְתּוֹ כַּמָּה הָיוּ הַחִטִּים הַחֲמוּצִים, וְיִטֹּל כָּל כָּךְ חִטִּים מֵהַתַּעֲרֹבֶת וִיבַעֲרֵם מִבֵּיתוֹ,קנא דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֵם קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח אוֹ לְנָכְרִי אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,121 וְהַשְּׁאָר מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח.122

וְכֵן אוֹתוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלָּקַח מִמֶּנּוּ הַחִטִּים – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,123 שֶׁהֲרֵי אִסּוּר הַשְׁהָיָה דּוֹמֶה לְאִסּוּר אֲכִילָה בְּבַת אַחַת לִשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין, וּבִשְׁאָר אִסּוּרִין אֵין אִסּוּר לֶאֱכֹל בְּבַת אַחַת אֶלָּא לְאָדָם אֶחָד, אֲבָל שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם מֻתָּרִין לֶאֱכֹל כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת אֲפִלּוּ בְּרֶגַע אֶחָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה שָׁם:קנב,124

18 There are authorities who differ with the above125 and maintain that since it is forbidden to partake of any of this mixture during Pesach – even if one sold [almost] the entire mixture to a non-Jew before Pesach and only the smallest amount [of forbidden substance] remained [in his possession], it is forbidden to partake of [even that small amount of this chametz]126 during Pesach – it is [therefore] also forbidden to maintain possession [of the mixture over Pesach. This is] a decree lest one come to partake of it. [According to this opinion,] if one forgot and did not obliterate [the mixture containing chametz wheat kernels] before Pesach and remembered during Pesach, he must obliterate [the mixture] from existence entirely.127 Weight should be given to their words unless a severe [financial] loss is involved.128

יח וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶהקנג,125 וְאוֹמְרִיםקנד כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל בְּפֶסַח כְּלוּם מִזֶּה הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת, וַאֲפִלּוּ מָכַר כָּל הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא שִׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא מַשֶּׁהוּ אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַחקנה,126 – אָסוּרקנו גַּם כֵּן לְהַשְׁהוֹתָן,קנז גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא לְאָכְלוֹ. וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי.127 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶםקנח אִם אֵין שָׁם הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה:קנט,128

19 All the above129 applies when there is a majority of kosher [for Pesach kernels of] wheat in proportion to those that have become chametz. If, however, [the two] were of equal ]volume[, all opinions agree that it is forbidden to maintain possession of [the mixture] during Pesach.* If (one did not add any [permitted kernels] to [the mixture] and) forgot [to obliterate it], and maintained possession of [the mixture] until after Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from [the mixture] unless [the owner] redeems [the value of] the forbidden [kernels] it contains or sells [the mixture] to a non-Jew with the exception [of the value] of the forbidden [kernels], as explained above.130

* [During Pesach,] it is forbidden to add more kosher [for Pesach kernels of] wheat [to the mixture] and grind them [into flour] so that the chametz [flour] will be nullified by being mixed with 60 [times its volume of kosher-for-Pesach flour], and then [the entire mixture will] be permitted to be eaten during Pesach. [The rationale is that] since the chametz [kernels] were not nullified as a matter of course because they were mixed with a majority [of kosher-for-Pesach substances, by adding to the mixture] one is intentionally nullifying [the presence of] a forbidden [substance.

Before Pesach,] it is, however, permitted to add [kosher-for-Pesach kernels of wheat] to [the mixture] and grind [the entire mixture into flour] so that [the owner] may maintain possession [of the mixture] until after Pesach. This is not [considered as] nullifying the presence of a forbidden [substance], as explained above.131

[When selling the mixture to a non-Jew, the owner must] however, be careful to make a modification that [will prevent] the non-Jew from selling [the kernels] to another Jew, i.e., [the owner must] grind [the kernels into flour] and bake [the flour] into bread, and sell the bread to a non-Jew with the exception of the value of the forbidden [kernels], if [he lives] in a place where it is customary to [observe] the prohibition against [eating] the bread of a non-Jew.132 In a place where it is customary to permit [the bread of a non-Jew,133 the owner] must cut the entire [loaf of] bread into pieces and then sell it to a non-Jew with the exception of the value of the forbidden [kernels. This is permitted] because it is forbidden to [purchase] pieces of bread from a non-Jew, as explained in Yoreh Deah, sec. 112.134

Similarly, in all instances where it is stated that, after Pesach, it is forbidden to partake [of a substance], but it is permitted to benefit from it, when selling it to a non-Jew, one must be careful to sell [the chametz] to [the non-Jew] in a manner that will [prevent] him from selling it to another Jew who will partake of it. See sec. 467[:2].135

יט וְכָל זֶה129 כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּחִטִּים הַכְּשֵׁרִים רֹב כְּנֶגֶד הַחֲמוּצִים, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה שָׁוֶה בְּשָׁוֶה – לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אָסוּר לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם בְּפֶסַח.* וְאִם (לֹא הוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם כְּלוּםקס וְ)שָׁכַח וְהִשְׁהָה אוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי הֵן אֲסוּרִין בַּהֲנָאָה, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן פּוֹדֶה אֶת הָאִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶן,קסא אוֹ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֵם לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קסב,130

* [וְאָסוּר לְהוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹד חִטִּים כְּשֵׁרִים וּלְטָחְנָן כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּתְבַּטֵּל הֶחָמֵץ בְּשִׁשִּׁים וְיִהְיֶה מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה בְּפֶסַח, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִתְבַּטֵּל הֶחָמֵץ בְּרֹב מֵאֵלָיו – הֲרֵי זֶה מְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר בַּיָּדַיִם. אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהוֹסִיף עֲלֵיהֶם וּלְטָחְנָן כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁהוֹתָם עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, וְאֵין זֶה מְבַטֵּל אִסּוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָהקסג, 131]:

רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לְתַקֵּן בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזֹר הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכְּרֵם לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר,קסד דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּטְחָנֵם וְיַעֲשֶׂה מֵהֶם פַּת וְיִמְכֹּר הַפַּת לְנָכְרִי חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבּוֹ, אִם הוּא מָקוֹם שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין אִסּוּר בְּפַת שֶׁל נָכְרִי.132 וּבִמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁנּוֹהֲגִין הֶתֵּרקסה,133 – צָרִיךְ לַחְתֹּךְ כָּל הַפַּת לַחֲתִיכוֹת וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִמְכְּרֵם לְנָכְרִיקסו חוּץ מִדְּמֵי אִסּוּר שֶׁבָּהֶם, שֶׁאָסוּר לִקַּח מִנָּכְרִי חֲתִיכוֹת פַּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן קי"ב.קסז,134

וְכֵן בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הוּא אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּמֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה – צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁמּוֹכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לוֹ בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזֹר הַנָּכְרִי וְיִמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ, עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"ז:קסח,135

20 According to Scriptural Law, only [grain products] that have become chametz in a complete sense that are fit to be eaten are forbidden.136 If, however, a dough began to leaven but did not reach the stage of leavening to be explained in sec. 459[:13],137 [and] even when baked, [the end product] will not be fit to be eaten because the leavening process was not completed, it is [then] called chametz nukshah138and is permitted to be eaten during Pesach139 according to Scriptural Law. [The rationale is that this dough] is not chametz at all. [This category also includes] the dough that scribes use to stick their papers together, which is made from the [wheat-]dust [that comes] from [flour] mills, that would not [produce products] fit to be eaten were it to be baked, and all similar [substances].

[Although such substances are permitted by Scriptural Law,] the Sages forbade partaking of them and benefiting from them [during Pesach. They] also required that [these substances] be obliterated on the day before Pesach. [This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest one forget and partake of [these doughs] during Pesach, for they are edible, [albeit] with difficulty. If [the person] forgot and did not obliterate [these substances] on the day before Pesach, and remembered during Pesach, he must obliterate them from existence entirely. However, [the person] should not recite a blessing [when obliterating these substances], for the reason mentioned above.140

If [such substances] existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach and he did not obliterate them, it is permitted to benefit from them [after Pesach]. Since [their owner] did not violate a Scriptural prohibition, the Sages did not penalize him. Nevertheless, it is forbidden to partake of [such a substance after Pesach], since [the substance] is considered as chametz that existed [in a Jew’s possession] during Pesach.141

כ אֵין אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא חָמֵץ גָּמוּר שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה,קסט,136 אֲבָל עִסָּה שֶׁהִתְחִילָה לְהִתְחַמֵּץ וְלֹא הִגִּיעָה לְחִמּוּץקע שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ט,קעא,137 אַף כְּשֶׁיֹּאפוּ אוֹתָהּ לֹא תְּהֵא רְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָהקעב מֵחֲמַת חֲמִיצוּתָהּ שֶׁלֹּא גָּמְרָה כָּל צָרְכָּהּ, וְכֵן אוֹתוֹ בָּצֵק שֶׁהַסּוֹפְרִים מְדַבְּקִין בּוֹ נְיָרוֹתֵיהֶםקעג שֶׁעוֹשִׂין אוֹתוֹ מֵעֲפַרקעד הָרֵחַיִם, שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָהקעה כְּשֶׁיֹּאפוּ אוֹתוֹ, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָּזֶה – הֲרֵי זֶה נִקְרָא חָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה,קעו,138 וּמֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח מִן הַתּוֹרָה,139 שֶׁאֵין זֶה חָמֵץ כְּלָל.

אֲבָל חֲכָמִים אֲסָרוּהוּ בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה, וְהִצְרִיכוּ גַּם כֵּן לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח,קעז גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכַל מִמֶּנָּה בְּפֶסַח,קעח שֶׁעַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק הוּא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה.קעט וְאִם שָׁכַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח וְנִזְכַּר בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי,קפ אֲבָל לֹא יְבָרֵךְ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קפא,140 וְאִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר עָלָיו עַל אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה לֹא קְנָסוּהוּ חֲכָמִים.קפב אֲבָל אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ,קפג כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו שֵׁם חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח:141

21 [A substance is considered] chametz nukshah only if it was never fit to be eaten, except with difficulty, from the time it began to leaven [onward. Different laws apply,] however, if [initially, the chametz] was fit to be eaten when it leavened, and [only] afterwards did it become unfit for human consumption.142 Examples [of such chametz include] a loaf of bread or yeast that became moldy, or a milugma, [a poultice of chametz,] – ([the term milugma is derived from the words,] malei lugma, “a cheekful,” i.e., [a person] chews [kernels of] wheat and then places them on his wound)143 – which spoiled and became unfit for human consumption. [The owner of such substances] is obligated to obliterate them according to Scriptural Law, unless they became unfit for a dog to eat144 before the time [when one must] obliterate [chametz], i.e., before the [beginning of] sixth hour [on the day before Pesach], so that when the time [when one must] obliterate [chametz] arrives, [these substances] are not considered food that one must obliterate. Instead, they are like mere dust.145

If, however, [such substances] became unfit for a dog to eat after the time when [one must] obliterate [chametz] – whether they became chametz after the time when [one must] obliterate [chametz] or they became chametz before [that time – the owner] is obligated to obliterate them from existence entirely according to Scriptural Law.146 [The rationale is that] since [these substances] were placed in the category of chametz for a certain amount of time after [chametz] became forbidden, they are not removed from [that category] until that which must be done to chametz is [also] done to them.147

כא וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא חָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שֶׁמִּשָּׁעָה שֶׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ לֹא הָיָה רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה מֵעוֹלָםקפד כִּי אִם עַל יְדֵי הַדְּחָק, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה מִשֶּׁנִּתְחַמֵּץ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת אָדָם,142 כְּגוֹן הַפַּתקפה שֶׁל חָמֵץ אוֹ שֶׁל שְׂאוֹרקפו שֶׁעִפְּשָׁה וּמְלוּגְמָאקפז (פֵּרוּשׁ מְלֹא לוּגְמָא שֶׁלּוֹעֵס חִטִּים וְנוֹתְנָם עַל גַּבֵּי מַכָּתוֹקפח)143 שֶׁנִּסְרְחוּ וְנִתְקַלְקְלוּ מֵאֲכִילַת אָדָם – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרָם מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קפט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִפְסְלוּ מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶבקצ,144 קֹדֶם שְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר,קצא דְּהַיְנוּ קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית, דִּכְשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר – אֵין עֲלֵיהֶם תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל שֶׁיִּתְחַיֵּב לְבַעֲרָם,קצב וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּעָפָר בְּעָלְמָא.קצג,145

אֲבָל אִם נִפְסְלוּ מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶב אַחַר שְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר, בֵּין שֶׁנִּתְחַמְּצוּ אַחַר שְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר, בֵּין מִקֹּדֶם – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹקצד מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵיקצה מִן הַתּוֹרָה,קצו,146 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהָיָה עֲלֵיהֶם שָׁעָה אַחַת שֵׁם חָמֵץ לְאַחַר זְמַן אִסּוּרוֹ – אֵינוֹ נִפְקָע מֵהֶם לְעוֹלָם,קצז עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לָהֶם כְּתוֹרַת חָמֵץ:קצח,147

22 All the above148 applies with regard to chametz that remains intact and is not mixed [together] with another substance. [Different laws apply regarding substances that are] chametz in a complete sense, that were fit to be eaten, and [then] became mixed with a substance that is not fit for human consumption at all, or is not fit [to be consumed by] all people, for example, tiriaca, which is only eaten by people who are ill. It is permitted to maintain [possession of such mixtures] during Pesach.149

Even if such a mixture contains much more than an olive-sized portion of chametz in a p’ras,150 nevertheless, since [the chametz] is not fit to be eaten, the constitution of chametz is ruined and it is not considered chametz at all. [Even so,] it is forbidden151 to partake of such a mixture during Pesach even when it only possesses the smallest amount of chametz, if the way it is made is by mixing chametz into [the unpalatable substance], like tiriaca and the like.152 [In such an instance, the chametz] is not considered batel within [the mixture], as explained above.153

כב וְכָל זֶה148 בְּחָמֵץ שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְעֹרָב בְּדָבָר אַחֵר, אֲבָל חָמֵץקצט גָּמוּר שֶׁהָיָה רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָהר שֶׁעֵרֵב אוֹתוֹ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲכַל אָדָם כְּלָל, אוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲכַל כָּל אָדָם, כְּגוֹן התריאק"ה, שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַאֲכָל אֶלָּא לְחוֹלִיםרא – מֻתָּר לְקַיְּמוֹ בְּפֶסַח. וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בַּתַּעֲרֹבֶת הַזֶּה חָמֵץ הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִכְּזַיִת בִּכְדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס,רב,150 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה – הֲרֵי נִפְסְדָה צוּרַת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ,רג וְאֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת חָמֵץ כְּלָל.149

אֲבָל אָסוּר לֶאֱכֹל מִזֶּה הַתַּעֲרֹבֶת בְּפֶסַח,151 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא חָמֵץ כָּל שֶׁהוּארד אִם דֶּרֶךְ עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ הוּא עַל יְדֵי תַּעֲרֹבֶת חָמֵץ, כְּגוֹן התריאק"ה (יא) וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ152 – אֵינוֹ בָּטֵל בְּתוֹכוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:רה,153

23 [When a person] placed flour and animal hides into a tanner’s trough154 – even if he placed them there [only] an hour before the time [when one must] obliterate [chametz] – it is permitted to maintain possession of [the mixture] during Pesach.155 [The rationale is that] when the time [when one must] obliterate [chametz] arrives, the flour will have already become spoiled because of the hides that were placed in [the trough together with it] and will have become unfit for human consumption. [Thus, the flour] is considered like chametz nukshah. Since [the flour] is mixed with the other substances in the [tanner’s] trough, it is not necessary to obliterate it, for its composition has already been [completely] altered by [becoming part] of the mixture.156 If, however, [the person] placed [the chametz and the hides in the trough] less than an hour before the time [when one must] obliterate [chametz], he must obliterate [this chametz].157

If [the person] did not place the hides in the trough, and he placed flour there prior to three days before the time when one must obliterate [chametz], it is permitted to maintain possession of [the contents of the trough] during Pesach, because [the flour] has already spoiled and become ruined.158 If, however, [the person] placed the flour [into a trough without hides] within three days of the time [when one must] obliterate [chametz], he must obliterate it.159

כג עֲרֵבַת הָעַבְּדָנִין שֶׁנָּתַן לְתוֹכָן קֶמַח וְעוֹרוֹת,154 אֲפִלּוּ נָתַן שָׁעָה אַחַת קֹדֶם הַבִּעוּר – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר לְקַיְּמָן בְּפֶסַח,רו,155 שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר כְּבָר הִסְרִיחַ הַקֶּמַח מֵחֲמַת הָעוֹרוֹת שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ וְנִפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת אָדָם וְנַעֲשָׂה כְּחָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה,רז וְכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְעֹרָב בִּדְבָרִים אֲחֵרִים שֶׁבָּעֲרֵבָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ,רח שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְסְדָה צוּרָתוֹ עַל יְדֵי הַתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת.רט,156 אֲבָל אִם נְתָנָן בְּפָחוֹת מִשָּׁעָה לִשְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר – חַיָּב לְבַעֵר.רי,157

וְאִם לֹא נָתַן הָעוֹרוֹת לְתוֹךְ הָעֲרֵבָה וְנָתַן הַקֶּמַח בְּתוֹכָהּ קֹדֶם ג' יָמִים לִשְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר – מֻתָּר לְקַיְּמָן בְּפֶסַח, שֶׁכְּבָר נִבְאַשׁ וְנִפְסַד.158 אֲבָל אִם נָתַן הַקֶּמַח תּוֹךְ ג' יָמִים לִשְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר – חַיָּב לְבַעֵר:ריא,159

24 [Whenever one is] permitted to maintain possession of a substance [during Pesach], one may benefit from it during Pesach,160 for example, to sell [the substance] to a non-Jew161 or to benefit from it in other ways.162

כד כָּל דָּבָר (יב) שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְקַיְּמוֹ מֻתָּר לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ בְּפֶסַח,ריב,160 כְּגוֹן לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִיריג,161 אוֹ שְׁאָר מִינֵי הֲנָאוֹת:162

25 When clothes were laundered [and starched] with starch [derived] from wheat, it is permitted to maintain possession of [the clothes] during Pesach163 even though the actual substance of the chametz is visible, since its composition has already been impaired. Similarly, when papers were stuck together with [glue made from] dough [which is chametz] and the actual substance of the chametz is visible from the outside, it is not necessary to scrape off [the chametz] and obliterate it because its composition has already been im- paired.

When does the above apply? When the clothes were laundered [and starched] or the papers were stuck together prior to 30 days before Pesach. Thus, when the time [when one must] obliterate [chametz] arrives, the chametz has already hardened [entirely] and its composition has been impaired. [When,] however, [the clothes] were laundered and [the papers] stuck together within 30 days [of Pesach], if the actual substance of chametz is visible, it is necessary to scrape off the visible [chametz]164 if there is an olive-sized amount on one garment or on one [piece of] paper.165 Even though [this olive-sized amount of chametz] is spread over the entire paper and there is not an olive-sized [portion] in one place, the paper joins together [the entire amount].

[By contrast,] if one stuck many papers onto a window,166 but there is not an olive-sized portion of chametz in one place, the window does not join [the entire amount] together.167 [The rationale is that] since [the window] is attached to the house, it is considered as ]part of[ the house,168 and the house does not join together [all the portions of chametz] less than the size of an olive that are stuck to its walls, as will be explained.169

There are authorities who maintain that even if [the clothes were] laundered [and starched] or ]the papers[ were stuck together within 30 [days of Pesach], and the actual substance of chametz is visible, it is not necessary to obliterate it. [The rationale is that the chametz] has already become unfit for a dog to eat,170 and thus it is like mere dust. [Nevertheless,] it is desirable to give weight to the first opinion.

כה בְּגָדִים הַמְכֻבָּסִים בְּחֵלֶב חִטָּה,ריד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה בָּהֶן מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ – מֻתָּר לְקַיְּמָן בְּפֶסַח,163 שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְסְדָה צוּרָתוֹ. וְכֵן נְיָרוֹת שֶׁדִּבְּקוּ אוֹתָן בְּבָצֵק שֶׁמַּמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ נִרְאֶה מִבַּחוּץ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְגָרְרוֹ וּלְבַעֲרוֹ, שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְסְדָה צוּרָתוֹ.רטו

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? (יג) כְּשֶׁנִּכְבְּסוּ הַבְּגָדִים וְנִדְבְּקוּ הַנְּיָרוֹת קֹדֶם שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם לִפְנֵי הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁכְּשֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר כְּבָר נִתְקַשָּׁה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבָּהֶן וְנִפְסְדָה צוּרָתוֹ,רטז אֲבָל אִם נִכְבְּסוּ וְנִדְבְּקוּ תּוֹךְ שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם, אִם נִרְאֶה בָּהֶן מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץריז – צָרִיךְ לִגְרֹר מַה שֶּׁנִּרְאֶה164 אִם יֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִתריח בְּבֶגֶד אֶחָד אוֹ בִּנְיָר אֶחָד.165 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מְפֻזָּר עַל פְּנֵי כָּל הַנְּיָר וְאֵין מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד – הֲרֵי הַנְּיָר מְצָרְפָן.ריט וְאִם דִּבֵּק נְיָרוֹת הַרְבֵּה בְּחַלּוֹן אֶחָד166 וְאֵין מִן הֶחָמֵץ כְּזַיִת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד – (יד) אֵין הַחַלּוֹן מְצָרְפָן,167 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְחֻבָּר לַבַּיִת הֲרֵי הוּא כַּבַּיִת,רכ,168 וְאֵין הַבַּיִת מְצָרֵף אֶת חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים הַמְדֻבָּקִים בִּכְתָלָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.רכא,169

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרכב שֶׁאֲפִלוּ נִכְבְּסוּ וְנִדְבְּקוּ תּוֹךְ ל' וְנִרְאֶה בָּהֶן מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכְּבָר נִפְסְלוּ מֵאֲכִילַת הַכֶּלֶברכג,170 וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּעָפָר בְּעָלְמָא. וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה:

26 When clothes were laundered [and starched] with wheat starch, it is forbidden to place flour [to be used] during Pesach171 in them, even though the actual substance of chametz is not visible on them. [The rationale is that] sometimes, [although] it is not apparent, some of the actual substance of flour from the wheat starch is attached to [the clothes], and there is room for concern that some of [this flour that is chametz] will crumble into the flour [to be used] during Pesach.172 (See sec. 466[:9].)

Similarly, it is forbidden to spread those clothes on a table upon which one eats during Pesach, lest a small amount [of the starch] crumble [and fall] into the food. Similarly, [when] women’s scarves are commonly treated with flour so that [the scarves] will become slightly [more] substantial, [the flour frequently] crumbles off them. [Therefore, the scarves] should be removed while eating. (Similarly, [during Pesach] it is [proper] to refrain from playing with cards on a table on which [people] eat, lest some of the chametz nukshah that is on them crumble into the food.)

כו בְּגָדִים הַמְכֻבָּסִים בְּחֵלֶב חִטָּה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין נִרְאֶה בָּהֶן מַמָּשׁוּת הֶחָמֵץ – (טו) אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחַ בְּתוֹכָן קֶמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח,רכד,171 דְּלִפְעָמִים יֵשׁ בָּהֶן קְצָת מַמָּשׁוּת מִקֶּמַח חֵלֶב חִטָּה וְאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה, וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִפָּרֵךְ מֵהֶן לְתוֹךְ הַקֶּמַח שֶׁל פֶּסַח172 (עַיֵּן סִימָן תס"[ו]רכה).

וְכֵן אָסוּר לְהַצִּיעַ אוֹתָן הַבְּגָדִים בְּפֶסַח עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁאוֹכְלִין עָלָיו, שֶׁמָּא יִפָּרֵךְ קְצָת מֵהֶן לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָל. וְגַם צְעִיפֵי נָשִׁים הָרְגִילִים לְתַקְּנָן עִם קֶמַחרכו עַד שֶׁנַּעֲשִׂין עָבִין קְצָתרכז שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ לִפָּרֵךְ מֵהֶן – יֵשׁ לַהֲסִירָן בִּשְׁעַת אֲכִילָה (וְגַם יֵשׁ לִמְנֹעַ מִלִּשְׂחֹק בְּפֶסַח בִּקְלָפִין הַנִּקְרָאִין קַארְטִין עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁאוֹכְלִין עָלָיו, שֶׁמָּא יִפָּרֵךְ מֵחָמֵץ נֻקְשֶׁה שֶׁבָּהֶן לְתוֹךְ הַמַּאֲכָלרכח):

27 [The following laws apply to] dough that is placed in the cracks of a kneading trough: If there is an olive-sized [portion of dough] in one place – even though it is well-secured there and [was placed there with the] intent of strengthening the cracks of the kneading trough or plugging a hole [in it]173 – [the owner] is obligated to obliterate [the dough]174 and to scrape it off, even though he nullified [his possession of the dough]. Alternatively, [the owner] may cover [the dough] with mortar.175 [This stringency is required] because [the piece of dough] is significant, since it is the size of an olive.176 [Hence, the dough] is not batel to the kneading trough and is not considered part of the walls [of the kneading trough] unless it was covered with mortar.

[More lenient rules apply,] however, if there is not an olive-sized portion [of dough] in one place, even though there are several [pieces of dough] smaller than [the size of] an olive [that fill] many cracks [in the kneading trough, whose aggregate total more than an olive-sized portion]. If [the bits of dough] are intended to strengthen the cracks of the kneading trough or to plug the holes [in it], they are considered batel to the kneading trough177 and [thus,] are considered as part of its walls. Therefore, the kneading trough does not [cause these bits of dough] to be [considered] as one olive-sized portion. [This leniency applies] whether [the bits of dough] are firmly secured to [the kneading trough] or weakly secured there. ([The owner] need not obliterate [the bits of dough] if he already nullified [his possession of] them,178 or [if] he desires to do so [and that option is still available to him because] it is before the sixth hour [on the day preceding Pesach].)

[The following rules apply] if there is [one] long crack in [the kneading trough] and there are two [portions] of dough, each one [smaller than] an olive-[sized portion], that were placed there to strengthen the [kneading trough] or plug its holes, and a [thin] strip of dough runs through the crack, [connecting] one of the pieces [of dough that are smaller than the size of an] olive with the other. Whenever the pieces [of dough] that are [smaller than the size of] an olive would also be lifted up were one to lift up the strip [of dough connecting them] by hand, [the two pieces] are considered as connected by the strip [of dough and considered as forming one olive-size piece. Hence, one] is obligated to obliterate [these pieces of dough]179 and scrape them away even though he nullified [his possession of] them. If [the small pieces] would not be lifted up together with the strip [of dough that connects them], they are not combined together to be considered as an [entire] olive-sized portion.

כז בָּצֵק הַמֻּנָּח בְּסִדְקֵי עֲרֵבָה, אִם יֵשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד,רכט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּדְבָּק שָׁםרל בְּחֹזֶק וְעָשׂוּי לְחַזֵּק שִׁבְרֵי הָעֲרֵבָהרלא אוֹ לִסְתֹּם נֶקֶברלב,173 – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ174 וּלְגָרְדוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּטְּלוֹ, אוֹ יְטִיחֶנּוּ בְּטִיט,רלג,175 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ כְּזַיִת – הֲרֵי הוּא חָשׁוּב176 וְאֵינוֹ בָּטֵלרלד לְגַבֵּי הָעֲרֵבָה לִהְיוֹת נֶחְשָׁב מִכְּלַל דָּפְנוֹתֶיהָ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן טְחָאוֹ בְּטִיט.

אֲבָל אִם אֵין מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִתרלה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּעֲרֵבָה הַרְבֵּה חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִיםרלו בְּהַרְבֵּה סְדָקִים, אִם הֵן עֲשׂוּיִים לְחַזֵּק שִׁבְרֵי הָעֲרֵבָה אוֹ לִסְתֹּם נְקָבִים – הֲרֵי הֵן בְּטֵלִין לְגַבֵּי הָעֲרֵבָה177 וְנֶחְשָׁבִין מִכְּלַל דָּפְנוֹתֶיהָ, וּלְפִיכָךְ אֵין הָעֲרֵבָה מְצָרַפְתָּן לִכְזַיִת, בֵּין שֶׁהֵן מְדֻבָּקִין בָּהּ בְּחֹזֶק, בֵּין שֶׁהֵן מֻנָּחִין בָּהּ בְּרִפְיוֹןרלז (וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ אִם כְּבָר בִּטְּלוֹ,רלח,178 אוֹ שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה עֲדַיִן לְבַטְּלוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוּא קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַחרלט).

וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ סֶדֶק אָרֹךְ וּמֻנָּחִין בּוֹ שְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִיםרמ בָּצֵק לְחַזֵּק שְׁבָרֶיהָרמא אוֹ לִסְתֹּם נְקָבֶיהָ וְחוּט שֶׁל בָּצֵק הוֹלֵךְ בְּתוֹךְ הַסֶּדֶק מֵחֲצִי זַיִת זֶה לַחֲצִי זַיִת זֶה – רוֹאִין אָנוּ: כָּל שֶׁאִלּוּ יִנָּטֵל הַחוּט בַּיָּד יִנָּטְלוּ עִמּוֹ גַּם ב' חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִיםרמב – הֲרֵי הֵן חֲשׁוּבִים כִּמְחֻבָּרִין יַחַד עַל יְדֵי חוּט זֶה הַמְחַבְּרָן, וְחַיָּב לְבַעֲרָן179 וּלְגָרְדָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּטְּלָן. וְאִם אֵינָן נִטָּלִין עִם זֶה הַחוּט – אֵין מִצְטָרְפִין זֶה עִם זֶה לִכְזַיִת:

28 [Different laws apply when,] however, [the pieces of dough] are not placed [in a crack] to strengthen the broken pieces [of the kneading trough], nor to plug its holes. If [the bits of dough] are stuck to the kneading trough, the kneading trough causes them to [be considered as] combined [and as a single entity] the size of an olive. [Hence, the owner] is obligated to scrape off [these pieces of dough] and obliterate them.180

If, [however,] even when all the [pieces of] dough [attached to] the kneading trough that was not intended to strengthen [it] or plug [its holes] are combined,181 there is less than an olive-sized portion of [dough], there is no need to obliterate them; it is sufficient to nullify [these bits of dough.182 The rationale is that] since there is less than an olive-sized portion [of dough], it is not significant and [the dough] is batel to the kneading trough if it adheres to [the kneading trough].

If, however, [the pieces of dough] are not attached to [the kneading trough], but rather are loosely lying in its cracks,183 and needless to say, if [the pieces of dough] are not placed in its cracks, [the owner] is obligated to obliterate them even if he already nullified [his possession of them]. True, according to Scriptural Law even if [the owner] does not nullify [his possession of] them, he is not required to obliterate [the pieces of dough] unless they are the size of an olive, as [reflected by] the verses,184 “Do not eat chametz with it.… S’or of yours shall not be seen.” [The verse teaches that,] just as [the prohibition against] eating [chametz] applies to an olive-sized portion, [so, too, the prohibition against possessing chametz that is] seen applies to an olive-sized portion.185 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, even less than an olive-sized portion of chametz that is intact and is not attached to another entity must be obliterated.186 [This is] a decree, [instituted] lest [as a result of leaving less than an olive-sized portion, one will also leave] an olive-sized portion.187

Even if [this small amount of chametz] became mixed together with another substance, [should] the mixture contain the flavor of chametz, [the owner] is obligated to obliterate [the mixture] even though he nullified [his possession of] it. [This is] a decree, [instituted] lest [the owner] forget and partake of [the mixture] during Pesach.188 [Partaking of it] would [violate] a Scriptural prohibition, [for when partaking] of any food [that is] forbidden, even [eating] less than an olive-sized portion is prohibited according to Scriptural Law, as [derived from] the verse,189 “[You may not eat] any fat.” [The word] “any” includes even [eating] less than the proscribed amount [in the prohibition].190

Therefore,191 if [the dough left in the kneading trough] is slightly soiled and thus not fit to be eaten, it is not necessary to obliterate it even though it is intact, since there is less than an olive-sized portion [of dough] and [the owner] already nullified [his possession of] it.

כח אֲבָל אִם אֵינָן עֲשׂוּיִן לְחַזֵּק שְׁבָרֶיהָרמג וְלֹא לִסְתֹּם נְקָבֶיהָ, (טז) אִם הֵן מְדֻבָּקִים בָּעֲרֵבָה – הֲרֵי הָעֲרֵבָה מְצָרַפְתָּן לִכְזַיִת,רמד וְחַיָּב לְגָרְדָן וּלְבַעֲרָן.180

וְאִם אַף כְּשֶׁנְּצָרֵף כָּל הַבָּצֵק שֶׁבָּעֲרֵבָה שֶׁאֵינוֹ עָשׂוּי לְחַזֵּק וְלִסְתֹּם181 לֹא יִהְיֶה בּוֹ כְּזַיִת – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ,רמה אֶלָּא דַּי לוֹ בְּבִטּוּל,רמו,182 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב, וְהוּא בָּטֵל לְגַבֵּי הָעֲרֵבָה אִם הוּא מֻדְבָּק בָּהּ.רמז

אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ דָּבוּק בָּהּ אֶלָּא הוּא מֻנָּח בַּסְּדָקִים בְּרִפְיוֹן,183 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם אֵינוֹ מֻנָּח בַּסֶּדֶק – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹרמח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר בִּטֵּל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא בִּטְּלוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בּוֹ כְּזַיִת,רמט שֶׁנֶּאֱמַררנ,184 "לֹא תֹאכַל עָלָיו חָמֵץ וְגוֹ' וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה לְךָ שְׂאֹר וְגוֹ'", מָה אֲכִילָה בִּכְזַיִת (יז) אַף רְאִיָּה בִּכְזַיִת,רנא,185 (יח) מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֲפִלּוּ פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת חָמֵץ שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ וְאֵינוֹ מֻדְבָּק לְדָבָר אַחֵר חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ,רנב,186 גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם כְּזַיִת.רנג,187

וַאֲפִלּוּ נִתְעָרֵב בְּדָבָר אַחֵר וְיֵשׁ בַּתַּעֲרוֹבוֹת טַעַם חָמֵץ – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּטְּלוֹ, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּפֶסַח,רנד,188 וְיֵשׁ כָּאן אִסּוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁבְּכָל אִסּוּרֵי מַאֲכָלוֹתרנה אֲפִלּוּ פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת אָסוּר מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַררנו,189 "כָּל חֵלֶב וְגוֹ'", "כָּל" לְרַבּוֹת חֲצִי שִׁעוּר.רנז,190

לְפִיכָךְרנח,191 אִם הוּא מְטֻנָּף קְצָת שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָהרנט – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עוֹמֵד בְּעֵינוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ כְּזַיִת, וּכְבָר בִּטְּלוֹ:

29 All the above applies to dough [attached to] a kneading trough or in other utensils.192 When, by contrast, dough is attached to the wall of a building, its floor, or its beams, if there was less than an olive-sized portion [of dough] in one place, the building does not [virtually] join [the bits of dough] together [so that they constitute an olive-sized portion of dough].193 Instead, according to Scriptural Law, all that is necessary is that one nullify [his possession of the chametz].194

Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, if two pieces [of chametz], each half the size of an olive, are attached to one house,195 [the owner] is obligated to obliterate them. [This applies] even if [the pieces of chametz] are on two walls that are distant from each other.196 [The rationale is that] sometimes [such small pieces of chametz] are brought together when the house is swept and they become attached to each other.197

If, however, one of the pieces [of chametz] that is half the size of an olive is attached to an [outer] room and one [such piece is attached] to an inner room, to an exedra,198 or to a loft above [the room], there is no concern that the pieces will be brought together, since the two pieces half the size of an olive are not attached to the same room. Therefore, it is sufficient [for the owner] to nullify [his possession of this chametz],199 just as [it would be sufficient to nullify one’s possession] of one half-olive-sized piece that is attached to a house or a utensil.200

If, however, [the owner] did not nullify [his possession of the small pieces of chametz] and the sixth hour [on the day before Pesach] arrived – at which [time] he no longer has the option of nullifying [these small pieces]201 – even if there is only less than an olive-sized portion [of chametz] attached to a house or a utensil, [the owner] is obligated to obliterate [the small pieces] from existence. [This is] a decree [instituted] lest one [leave] an olive-sized portion [of dough], for which he would transgress the Scriptural [prohibitions against possessing chametz] if he does not nullify [his possession of] it.

כט וְכָל זֶה בְּבָצֵק שֶׁבַּעֲרֵבָה אוֹ שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר כֵּלִים,192 אֲבָל בָּצֵק הַדָּבוּק לְכֹתֶל הַבַּיִת אוֹ לְקַרְקָעִיתוֹ אוֹ לְקוֹרוֹתָיו, אִם אֵין מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד – אֵין הַבַּיִת מְצָרְפָןרס,193 אֶלָּא דַּי לוֹ בְּבִטּוּלרסא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.רסב,194

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אִם ב' חֲצָאֵי זֵתִים דְּבוּקִים בְּבַיִת אֶחָד,195 אֲפִלּוּ הֵם בְּב' כְּתָלִים הָרְחוֹקִים זֶה מִזֶּה – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרָן,196 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלִּפְעָמִים הֵן מִתְקַבְּצִין בְּיַחַדרסג עַל יְדֵי כִּבּוּד הַבַּיִתרסד וְנִדְבָּקִין זֶה בָּזֶה.197

אֲבָל אִם הָיוּ כַּחֲצִי זַיִת בָּצֵק דָּבוּק בְּבַיִת זֶה וְכַחֲצִי זַיִת אַחֵר דָּבוּק בְּבַיִת שֶׁלִּפְנִים הֵימֶנּוּ, אוֹ בְּאַכְסַדְרָה198 שֶׁלְּפָנָיו, אוֹ בַּעֲלִיָּה שֶׁעַל גַּבָּיו,רסה כֵּיוָן שֶׁב' הַחֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים אֵינָם דְּבוּקִים בְּחֶדֶר אֶחָד – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִתְקַבְּצוּ בְּיַחַד, וּלְפִיכָךְ דַּי לוֹ בְּבִטּוּלרסו,199 כְּמוֹ לַחֲצִי זַיִת בִּלְבַד הַמְדֻבָּק בַּבַּיִת אוֹ בַּכֵּלִים.200

אֲבָל אִם לֹא בִּטְּלָן וּכְבָר הִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית שֶׁאֵין בְּיָדוֹ לְבַטְּלָן,201 אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵין שָׁם אֶלָּא פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת וְהוּא דָּבוּק בַּבַּיִת אוֹ בַּכְּלִי – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי,רסז גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם כְּזַיִת,רסח שֶׁהוּא עוֹבֵר עָלָיו מִן הַתּוֹרָה אִם לֹא בִּטְּלוֹ:

30 All the above applies according to the letter of the law. However, Jews are holy and are accustomed to conducting themselves stringently, [going beyond the letter of the law]. They scrape away all chametz that is found, even the slightest amounts that are attached to a house or a utensil. Moreover, they follow the stringency of scraping the benches, the chairs, and the walls that chametz touched. If there is chametz in a crack that cannot be scratched out, one should cover it with a small amount of mortar.

ל וְכָל זֶה מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל קְדוֹשִׁים הֵם וְנוֹהֲגִין לְהַחֲמִיר עַל עַצְמָן, וְגוֹרְרִים כָּל הֶחָמֵץ הַנִּמְצָא אֲפִלּוּ מַשֶּׁהוּ וְהוּא דָּבוּק בַּבַּיִת אוֹ בַּכְּלִי. וּמַחֲמִירִין עוֹד לִגְרֹר הַסַּפְסָלִים וְהַכִּסְאוֹת וְהַכְּתָלִים שֶׁנָּגַע בָּהֶן חָמֵץ. וְאִם יֵשׁ חָמֵץ בְּסֶדֶק שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְחַטֵּט אַחֲרָיו – יָטִיחַ עָלָיו מְעַט טִיט:רסט

31 A kneading trough that is used to knead [dough which is] chametz throughout the entire year must be covered with mortar or given to a non-Jew202 before Pesach even according to the letter of the law,203 if it is made out of many boards and there are cracks between one board and another. [Thus,] it is [virtually] impossible to thoroughly clean out all the dough in the cracks [to the extent that] an olive-sized portion [of dough] will not remain when one combines [all the dough] that exists in the kneading trough. [This stringency is necessary because] the kneading trough causes [all the dough it contains] to be combined [to reach the measure of] an olive-sized portion.204

In contrast, when a kneading trough is made of one piece [of wood]205 that does not have cracks and clefts, one may gouge out the chametz in it, wash it thoroughly, and hide it in a room where he is unaccustomed to enter throughout all the days of Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 451[:1].206 One should do the same with regard to rolling pins and other utensils used with dough that do not have cracks and clefts.

It is desirable, however, to be stringent and give reed baskets in which chametz is placed throughout the entire year to a non-Jew as an outright gift before Pesach207 and then take them back from him after Pesach,208 since it is impossible to gouge out [the chametz] from them thoroughly. The same should be done for containers in which flour is kept throughout the year, even though [the owner] does not desire to use them during Pesach.

The laws that apply to a kneading trough, other kneading tools, ]bread]baskets, and flour containers that one desires to use during Pesach will be explained in sec. 451[:47ff.] and sec. 453[:23].

לא וַעֲרֵבָה שֶׁלָּשִׁין בָּהּ חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – אֲפִלּוּ מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין צָרִיךְ לְטוּחָהּ בְּטִיט,רע אוֹ לִתְּנָהּ לְנָכְרִי202 קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,רעא,203 אִם הִיא מִנְּסָרִים רַבִּים שֶׁיֵּשׁ חֲרִיצִין בֵּין נֶסֶר לְנֶסֶרערב וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקֵּר הֵיטֵב כָּל הַבָּצֵק שֶׁבַּחֲרִיצִים שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ כְּזַיִת אִם נְצָרֵף מַה שֶּׁיֵּשׁ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּכָל הָעֲרֵבָה, שֶׁהָעֲרֵבָה מְצָרֶפֶת לִכְזַיִת.רעג,204

אֲבָל עֲרֵבוֹת הָעֲשׂוּיוֹת מֵחֲתִיכָה אַחַת205 שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן סְדָקִים וַחֲרִיצִים – יוּכַל לְנַקֵּר הֶחָמֵץ מֵהֶםעדר וּלְרָחְצָם הֵיטֵב, וְיַטְמִינֵם בְּחֶדֶר שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל לֵילֵךְ לְשָׁם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח,ערה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"א.רעו,206 וְכֵן יַעֲשֶׂה בַּעֲצֵי מְגַלְגְּלִין וּשְׁאָר הַכֵּלִים שֶׁשִּׁמְּשׁוּ בָּעִסָּהרעז וְאֵין בָּהֶם סְדָקִים וַחֲרִיצִין.

אֲבָל סַלֵּי נְצָרִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בָּהֶם חָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה,רעח כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנַקְּרָם הֵיטֵב – טוֹב לְהַחֲמִיר וְלִתְּנֵם לְנָכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָהרעט קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,207 וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִטְּלֵם מִמֶּנּוּ אַחַר הַפֶּסַח.רפ,208 וְכֵן טוֹב לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּכֵלִים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין בָּהֶן קֶמַח כָּל הַשָּׁנָהרפא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח.

וְדִין הָעֲרֵבָה וּשְׁאָר כְּלֵי הַלִּישָׁה וְכֵן הַסַּלִּים וּכְלֵי הַקֶּמַח שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן בְּפֶסַח – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תנ"ארפב וְתנ"ג:רפג

32 Even though one is permitted to maintain possession of chametz that became moldy and is unfit for a dog to eat, or [chametz] that was burnt with fire before the time one is obligated to obliterate it and became so charred that it is unfit for a dog [to eat],209 nevertheless, a person is forbidden to eat [such chametz] during Pesach.210 True, [such chametz] is not considered as food at all. All the same, the fact that [this person] desires to eat it causes [partaking of it] to be considered as significant for him as eating. Therefore, according to Rabbinic Law [the person’s desire] to partake of [this chametz] causes it to be considered for him as food in a full sense.211

לב חָמֵץ שֶׁנִּתְעַפֵּשׁ וְנִפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶב,רפד אוֹ שֶׁשְּׂרָפוֹ בָּאֵשׁ קֹדֶם זְמַן הַבִּעוּר וְנֶחֱרַךְרפה עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְכֶלֶב,רפו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְקַיְּמוֹ בְּפֶסַחרפז,209 – אָסוּר לְאָכְלוֹ בְּפֶסַח.רפח,210 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב לְאֹכֶל כְּלָל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לְאָכְלוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא מַחֲשִׁיבוֹ לַאֲכִילָה,רפט וַהֲרֵי הוּא נֶחְשָׁב לוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםרצ כְּאֹכֶל גָּמוּר עַל יְדֵי מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְחַשֵּׁב לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ:211

33 When does the above apply? When [the person] intends to eat [this chametz. Different laws apply,] however, if he intends to eat other food [and some of this chametz became mixed with it]. Even though the chametz which became unfit for a dog to eat became mixed with [the other food] before the time when one must obliterate [chametz], it is permitted to partake [of the mixture] when this chametz does not constitute the majority [of the mixture]. One need not be concerned about the chametz [the mixture] contains since he had no intent to eat [the chametz], for he did not intentionally mix [the chametz] together [with the other food]. Instead, since [that chametz] fell into [the permitted food] as a matter of course or was unintentionally mixed together with [the permitted food], the chametz is not considered as food in a full sense for this person. [Instead,] it is as if he is eating dust, because [chametz unfit for a dog to eat] is not placed in the category of food at all. It is only that – when a person [desires to eat it] – his thought causes [his partaking of it] to be considered as eating [and in this instance, the person had no such desire].

לג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לְאָכְלוֹ, אֲבָל אִם הוּא מִתְכַּוֵּן לֶאֱכֹל מַאֲכָל אַחֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּתוֹכוֹ חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁנִּפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶב קֹדֶם זְמַן הַבִּעוּר, אִם יֵשׁ בְּמַאֲכָל זֶה רֹב כְּנֶגֶד חָמֵץ זֶהרצא – מֻתָּר לְאָכְלוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ חוֹשֵׁשׁ לְחָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁבְּתוֹכוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוֵּן כְּדֵי לְאָכְלוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עֵרְבוֹ בְּתוֹכוֹ בְּכַוָּנָה, אֶלָּא מֵאֵלָיו נָפַל שָׁמָּה, אוֹ שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב שָׁם בְּשׁוֹגֵג – הֲרֵי לֹא נֶחְשָׁב לוֹ חָמֵץ זֶה כְּאֹכֶל גָּמוּר, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאוֹכֵל עָפָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין עָלָיו תּוֹרַת אֹכֶל כְּלָל אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי מַחֲשַׁבְתּוֹ שֶׁמְּחַשֵּׁב עָלָיו לַאֲכִילָה:רצב

34 During [Chol Ha]Moed [Pesach],212 it is forbidden to write with ink that a non-Jew cooked with beer213 during Pesach. [This is] a decree, [instituted lest the scribe] place his quill in his mouth.214 Even though the beer in this ink has become unfit for a dog to eat, nevertheless, since it did not become unfit until after the time when chametz had to be obliterated, one was already forbidden to benefit from it before it became unfit, and it is never released from this prohibition.

If, however, [ink] was cooked with beer before [the onset of] the time when chametz must be obliterated, it is permitted to write with it during [Chol Ha]Moed [Pesach. The rationale is that] even if [the scribe] will forget and place the quill in his mouth, it is of no consequence, since he does not intend to partake [of the beer in the ink].215

לד דְּיוֹ שֶׁבִּשְּׁלוֹ נָכְרִי בְּשֵׁכָר213 בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – אָסוּר לִכְתֹּב בּוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד,212 גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִתֵּן קֻלְמוֹסוֹ לְתוֹךְ פִּיו.רצג,214 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַשֵּׁכָר שֶׁבִּדְיוֹ זֶה נִפְסַל מֵאֲכִילַת כֶּלֶב, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִפְסַל עַד לְאַחַר זְמַן הַבִּעוּר – כְּבָר נֶאֱסַר בַּהֲנָאָה קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּפְסַל, וְאֵין אִסּוּר זֶה נִפְקָע מִמֶּנּוּרצד לְעוֹלָם.רצה

אֲבָל אִם נִתְבַּשֵּׁל בְּשֵׁכָר קֹדֶם זְמַן הַבִּעוּר – מֻתָּר לִכְתֹּב בּוֹ בַּמּוֹעֵד,רצו דְּאַף אִם יִשְׁכַּח וְיִתֵּן קֻלְמוֹסוֹ לְתוֹךְ פִּיו – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין מִתְכַּוֵּן לְאָכְלוֹ:רצז,215