SECTION 441 The Laws [Applying] to a Person Who Extended a Loan and [Took] Chametz [as Security] (1-16)

סימן תמא דִּין מִי שֶׁהִלְוָה עַל חָמֵץ וּבוֹ ט"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following law applieswhen] a Jew extended a loan to another Jew, and the borrower gave him chametz as security, whether [the borrower] gave the security [to the lender] at the time of the loan or afterwards. [If the borrower] told [the lender]: “If I do not pay [you] by this-and-this time, collect your debt from the security in your possession,” even if the time of payment was set for after Pesach, according to Scriptural Law, [the lender] is obligated to obliterate the security when Pesach arrives. If [the lender] does not obliterate it, he violates the prohibition against [having chametz] seen in his domain.1

[This law applies] even when [the lender] stipulated with the borrower that if the security was stolen from him or lost before the time for payment arrives, he is not responsible for it, and [the borrower] must repay the entire loan. Nevertheless, as long as the security is in the domain of the lender, it is [considered to be] his possession, and it is considered as his in all contexts. [For example, the lender] may consecrate a woman with [this chametz], or use it to purchase servants and land, as explained in Even HaEzer, sec. 28.2 [The rationale is that] a Jew acquires security from [another] Jew by virtue of a Scriptural decree.3 Therefore, [the lender] transgresses [the prohibitions against possessing chametz on Pesach] as if [the chametz used to secure the loan] was actually his. ([With regard to] how [the lender] should conduct himself when obliterating [this chametz], see sec. 443[:6ff.].)

א יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהִלְוָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרוֹ וְנָתַן לוֹ הַלֹּוֶה מַשְׁכּוֹן שֶׁל חָמֵץ,א בֵּין שֶׁמִּשְׁכְּנוֹ בְּיָדוֹ בִּשְׁעַת הַלְוָאָהב בֵּין לְאַחַר כָּךְ, וְאָמַר אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי תִּגְבֶּה חוֹבְךָ מִמַּשְׁכּוֹן זֶה שֶׁבְּיָדְךָ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקָּבַע לוֹ זְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח חַיָּב לְבַעֵר מַשְׁכּוֹנוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְבַעֲרוֹ – עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה".1

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְנָה עִם הַלֹּוֶה שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן אוֹ יֹאבַד קֹדֶם שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן לֹא יִתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹג וְיִפְרַע לוֹ כָּל חוֹבוֹ מִשָּׁלֵם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַמַּשְׁכּוֹן הוּא בְּיַד הַמַּלְוֶה הוּא קָנוּי לוֹ וַהֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ לְכָל דָּבָר, לְקַדֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֶת הָאִשָּׁהד וְלִקְנוֹת בּוֹ עֲבָדִים וְקַרְקָעוֹת,ה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּאֶבֶן הָעֶזֶר סִימָן כ"ח,ו,2 שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל קוֹנֶה מַשְׁכּוֹןז מִגְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב,3 לְפִיכָךְ הוּא עוֹבֵר עָלָיו כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ (וְכֵיצַד יִתְנַהֵג בְּבִעוּרוֹ? עַיֵּן בְּסִימָן תמ"גח):

2 [A similar principle applies when] a non-Jew gave a Jew a loan, and the Jew gave [the non-Jew] chametz as security,4 and told him, “From now on,5 all this chametz will be yours as a present or as an outright sale in return for the money you gave me, if I do not repay you by this-and-this time.”6 Even though the non-Jew stipulated with [the Jew] that if the security is stolen from him or lost, [the non-Jew] is not responsible for it7 and thus, as long as [the Jew] does not [repay the non-Jew], the Jew is responsible for [the chametz], nevertheless, when Pesach arrives the Jew is not required to redeem [the chametz] from the non-Jew so that he could obliterate it.

[This ruling applies] even if [the Jew] set the time of payment to the non-Jew [to be] after Pesach, and [thus,] throughout all the days of Pesach the Jew is responsible for [the chametz]. Nevertheless, if at the time when chametz must be obliterated,8 the Jew’s intent is not to redeem his chametz from the non-Jew at the time [the Jew] stipulated that it be redeemed from him, it follows that retroactively, all of the chametz belonged to the non-Jew from the moment [the Jew] gave it to him as security and onward.9 [The rationale is that] the Jew told [the non-Jew]: “From this time [onward, the chametz] will be entirely yours if I do not redeem it from you at this-and-this time.” Therefore, the situation resembles one in which [a Jew] accepts responsibility for chametz that belongs to a non-Jew that is located in the home of a non-Jew, in which instance, the Jew is not at all liable [for possessing this chametz], as explained in sec. 440[:11].10

ב נָכְרִי שֶׁהִלְוָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָתַן לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מַשְׁכּוֹן שֶׁל חָמֵץ,ט,4 וְאָמַר לוֹ: מֵעַכְשָׁוי,5 יְהֵא כָּל חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁלְּךָיא בְּמַתָּנָהיב אוֹ בִּמְכִירָהיג גְּמוּרָה בְּעַד הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁנָּתַתָּ לִי אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע אוֹתָהּ לְךָ לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי,6 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְנָהיד עִמּוֹ הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן אוֹ יֹאבַד לֹא יִתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ,7 וְנִמְצָא שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא פָּרַע לוֹ הוּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,טו אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ הַפֶּסַח אֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל צָרִיךְ לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מֵהַנָּכְרִי כְּדֵי לְבַעֲרוֹ.

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁזְּמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן שֶׁקָּבַע לַנָּכְרִי הוּא לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,טז וְכָל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח עֲדַיִן הֶחָמֵץ הוּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם עַכְשָׁו בִּזְמַן בִּעוּר חָמֵץ8 דַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הוּא שֶׁלֹּא לִפְדּוֹת חֲמֵצוֹ מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי בִּזְמַן שֶׁקָּבַע לוֹ לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ,יז נִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ הָיָה כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁמִּשְׁכְּנוֹ בְּיָדוֹ וָאֵילָךְ,9 שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמַר לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל: מֵעַכְשָׁו יִהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁלְּךָ אִם לֹא אֶפְדֶּנּוּ מִמְּךָ בִּזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי, וּלְפִיכָךְ הֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹמֶה לִמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת עַל חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי הַמֻּנָּח בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי,יח שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו כְּלוּם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מ:יט,10

3 If the Jew changed his mind after Pesach and redeemed [his chametz] from [the non-Jew] at the time [the Jew] established for him, the chametz retroactively belonged to the Jew throughout all the days of Pesach. [In this instance, the Jew] violated the prohibition against possessing [chametz].11 Therefore, all Jews are forbidden to eat and benefit from [this chametz] as [is true regarding] any other chametz belonging to a Jew that existed [in his domain] during Pesach.

ג וְאִם נִמְלַךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וּפְדָאוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בַּזְּמַן שֶׁקְּבָעוֹ לוֹ – נִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ הָיָה חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, וְעָבַר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",11 לְפִיכָךְ הוּא אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל כִּשְׁאָר חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח:כ

4 [Stringency is also required,] however, if the Jewish [borrower] did not tell [the non-Jewish lender], “From now on, [the chametz] will be entirely yours [if…],” but [rather] gave [the non-Jewish lender] the security without [making such a stipulation,] and merely told him, “If I do not pay you by this time, [the chametz] will be entirely yours.” [In this instance as well, if the Jew redeems his chametz after Pesach, he will be held liable for possession of the chametz] even though the time for payment arrived before Pesach and [the Jew] did not repay [the non-Jew. True,] the chametz has already been transferred to the ownership of the non-Jew before Pesach, for even if the Jew desired to redeem it from the non-Jew after the time [the payment came due], secular law would prevent [the Jew] from taking it [from the non-Jew] against his will.12 Nevertheless, according to Jewish Law, [the Jew] may redeem [his security] even after the time [the payment for the loan became due. The rationale is that] since [the Jew] did not stipulate “From now on, [the chametz] will be yours [entirely if…,”13 the agreement] is considered merely an asmachta.14* Thus, the chametz is not acquired by the non-Jew according to Jewish Law, for [according to Jewish Law,] the Jew may redeem it from him at any time. Thus, [the non-Jew] has nothing more than a lien [on the chametz] for his debt and the physical substance of the chametz [still] belongs to the Jew, for a non-Jew does not acquire security [entrusted to him by] a Jew.15

* To explain: [Ordinarily, when a borrower gives chametz as security for a loan,] he has in mind that he will certainly redeem [the chametz given as security] at the time [originally stipulated]. Based on this intent, [the borrower] says that if he does not redeem [the chametz used as security] at that time, it will be acquired by [the lender. That statement is being made facetiously]. Had [the borrower] known that he would not have the means to redeem [the security] at the [stipulated] time, he would not have made this statement. Therefore, his transfer of [the chametz] was made in error; [the borrower] never firmly resolved in his heart to transfer ownership [of the chametz to the lender] in an absolute sense. In contrast, when [the borrower] says, “From now on…,” he has certainly firmly resolved in his heart to transfer ownership [of the chametz to the lender] if he does not redeem it at the [stipulated] time, based on the rationale explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 207.16 Consult that source.

Therefore, it is forbidden for all Jews to benefit from this chametz after Pesach, i.e., it is forbidden for all [Jews] to purchase [this chametz] from the non-Jew, because the Jewish owner of the chametz violated the prohibition against possessing chametz because of it.17 Therefore, its status is the same as all other chametz possessed by a Jew during Pesach. Nevertheless, the Jewish owner of the chametz is obligated to redeem it from the non-Jew and obliterate it from existence entirely, [for the chametz is considered as his. That determination is made since the Jew] owes the non-Jew money, and is released from his debt because this chametz from which he is forbidden to benefit, was transferred to the possession of the non-Jew. Thus, [the Jew] is repaying his debt with an object from which he is forbidden to benefit.

ד אֲבָל אִם לֹא אָמַר לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל "מֵעַכְשָׁו יִהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁלְּךָ", אֶלָּא מִשְׁכְּנוֹ אֶצְלוֹ בִּסְתָם, וְאָמַר לוֹ: "אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי יִהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁלְּךָ",כא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁכְּבָר נֶחְלַט הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַף אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹצֶה לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי לְאַחַר שֶׁעָבַר הַזְּמַן אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בַּעַל כָּרְחוֹ בְּדִינֵיהֶם,12 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּדִינֵי יִשְׂרָאֵלכב יָכוֹל לִפְדּוֹתוֹ אַף לְאַחַר הַזְּמַן, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יְהֵא שֶׁלְּךָ"13 – הֲרֵי זֶה אַסְמַכְתָּא14 בְּעָלְמָא,כג,* וְנִמְצָא שֶׁחָמֵץ זֶה אֵינוֹ קָנוּי לְהַנָּכְרִי מִדִּין תּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל יָכוֹל לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ לְעוֹלָם, וְאֵין לוֹ בּוֹ אֶלָּא שִׁעְבּוּד עַל חוֹבוֹכד וְגוּף הֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵין קוֹנֶה מַשְׁכּוֹן מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל.כה,15

* [פֵּרוּשׁ, שֶׁסָּמַךְ בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יִפְדֶּנּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ בִּזְמַנּוֹ וְעַל הַסְּמַךְ זֶה אָמַר שֶׁאִם לֹא יִפְדֶּנּוּ בִּזְמַנּוֹ יְהֵא קָנוּי לוֹ לַחֲלוּטִין, וְאִם הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלְּבַסּוֹף לֹא יְהֵא סִפֵּק בְּיָדוֹ לִפְדּוֹתוֹ בִּזְמַנּוֹ לֹא הָיָה אוֹמֵר לוֹ כָּךְ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהַקְנָאָתוֹ הָיְתָה בְּטָעוּתכו וּמֵעוֹלָם לֹא גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ לְהַקְנוֹתוֹ לוֹ לַחֲלוּטִין. מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁאָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו", בְּוַדַּאי גָּמַר בְּלִבּוֹ לְהַקְנוֹת לוֹ אִם לֹא יִפְדֶּנּוּ בִּזְמַנּוֹ, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ר"ז,כז, 16 עַיֵּן שָׁם].

לְפִיכָךְ חָמֵץ זֶה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל,כח,6 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לִקְנוֹתוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא",כט,17 וַהֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כִּשְׁאָר חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח. אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ חַיָּב לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מֵהַנָּכְרִי וּלְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי, שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב לְהַנָּכְרִי מָעוֹת, וְעַל יְדֵי חָמֵץ זֶה הָאָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה שֶׁנֶּחְלַט בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי הוּא נִפְטָר מֵחוֹבוֹ, נִמְצָא שֶׁהוּא פּוֹרֵעַ חוֹבוֹ מֵאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה:ל

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 All the above applies when the chametz is worth more than [the debt the Jewish borrower] owes the non-Jew, for then the laws of asmachta [are relevant]. If, however, the chametz is only worth the amount of the debt, there are authorities who maintain that the laws of asmachta [are not relevant], for the reason described in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 207.18

Therefore, if the time for repayment arrived before Pesach and [the Jew] did not repay the loan at the appropriate time, the non-Jew already acquired the chametz according to Scriptural Law [prior to Pesach]. Thus, it is deemed as chametz belonging to a non-Jew that existed [in the non-Jew’s possession] during Pesach, which is even permitted to be eaten [by a Jew, after Pesach]. Their words may be relied upon [with regard to the] prohibition [applying after Pesach] to chametz [that existed in a Jew’s possession during Pesach], which is only of Rabbinic origin, as will be explained in sec. 448[:1].19

ה וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הוּא שָׁוֶה יוֹתֵר מִמַּה שֶּׁהוּא חַיָּב לְהַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁאָז יֵשׁ בּוֹ דִּין אַסְמַכְתָּא,לא אֲבָל אִם אֵין הֶחָמֵץ (א) שָׁוֶה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי חוֹבוֹ, יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלב שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ דִּין אַסְמַכְתָּא, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ר"ז,18

וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם כְּבָר הִגִּיעַ זְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹ בִּזְמַנּוֹ הֲרֵי כְּבָר נִקְנָה הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי מִדִּין תּוֹרָה, וַהֲרֵי זֶה כַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה. וְיֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּאִסּוּר חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ח:לג,19

6 [Different laws apply] if the Jewish [borrower] transferred ownership of the chametz to the non-Jewish [lender] before Pesach through a [binding] contractual act that enables [the chametz given as security] to be transferred entirely to [the non-Jew] in lieu of the debt. [As a result, the Jew] will never be able to redeem [the chametz] against [the non-Jew’s] will. For example, [the Jewish borrower] told [the non-Jewish lender] before Pesach, “All of my chametz that is in your possession is given to you as an outright gift – or as a sale – in exchange for the money that you lent me;” or [the Jew] tells [the non-Jew], “[My chametz] will be entirely yours in lieu of my debt.” With this statement, the ownership of all the chametz is transferred to the non-Jew,20 even if it is worth more than the debt,21 as explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 73.22 Therefore, even if the time of repayment did not arrive until after Pesach, and [at that time,] the Jewish owner of the chametz redeemed his chametz from the non-Jew – [i.e., the non-Jew] agreed to return [the chametz] to him23 – it is even permitted to partake of this chametz.24 [The rationale is that] throughout all the days of Pesach, [the chametz] belonged to the non-Jew [in an absolute sense].

ו וְאִם הִקְנָה (ב) הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ הַזֶּה לְנָכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר הַמּוֹעִיל שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ חָלוּט לוֹ בְּעַד חוֹבוֹ וְלֹא יָכוֹל לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ לְעוֹלָם,לד כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח: "כָּל חֲמֵצִי שֶׁתַּחַת יָדְךָ הֲרֵינִי נוֹתְנוֹ לְךָ בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָה אוֹ בִּמְכִירָה בְּעַד הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁהִלְוֵיתָ לִי", אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ: "יְהֵא כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁלְּךָ בְּעַד חוֹבִי", שֶׁבַּאֲמִירָה זוֹ נִקְנָה כָּל הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי20 אַף שֶׁהוּא יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי חוֹבוֹ,21 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ע"ג,לה,22 לְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְהָלַךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ וּפָדָה חֲמֵצוֹ מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁנִּתְרַצָּה לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לוֹ23 – הֲרֵי חָמֵץ זֶה מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,24 שֶׁהֲרֵי כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הָיָה קָנוּי לְהַנָּכְרִי לַחֲלוּטִין:לו

7 All the above applies when this chametz was located in the domain of the non-Jew throughout all the days of Pesach. [Different rules apply if] if [the chametz] was located in the Jew’s domain [during Pesach], i.e., the Jew never brought it to the non-Jew’s domain. Although [the Jew] told [the non-Jew], “From this time onward, all [of the chametz given as security] will be yours if I do not pay you by the date set for repayment,” [and] even [though] that date arrived before Pesach and the borrower did not repay [the non-Jewish creditor] and thus, the chametz was acquired outright by the non-Jew,25 nevertheless, since [the chametz] is located in the domain of the Jew, he is responsible for it according to Scriptural Law. [Thus,] were [the chametz] to be stolen or lost, he would be obligated to pay [the non-Jew] his entire debt, for he did not stipulate, “You will receive payment only from this chametz.” Instead, [the Jew] borrowed [the money] from [the non-Jew] without a specific commitment. [Thus] by taking this loan, all of the Jew’s property became bound by the lien for the debt.26 Even though the Jew transferred ownership of the chametz to [the non-Jew] in the event that he did not pay [the non-Jew] on time, nevertheless, this transfer of ownership did not release the lien from the remainder of [the Jewish borrower’s] property. [Hence,] if the chametz would be stolen from [the Jew] or lost, the Jew would suffer the loss. [Hence, the chametz] is deemed as his, and he is obligated to obliterate it on the day before Pesach according to Scriptural Law.27

If [the Jew] does not obliterate [the chametz before Pesach], it is forbidden to benefit from it after Pesach, as is the law [applying to] chametz belonging to a Jew that existed [in his possession] over Pesach. If the non-Jewish [lender] comes to take possession of [the chametz offered as security], the Jew is obligated to redeem it from him and obliterate it. [The Jew] should not permit [the non-Jewish lender] to take it, [for by doing so,] he would be paying his debt with substances from which it is forbidden to benefit, as explained above.28

ז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁחָמֵץ הַזֶּה הָיָה מֻנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, אֲבָל אִם הָיָה מֻנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל,לז שֶׁלֹּא מִשְׁכְּנוֹ בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי מֵעוֹלָם,לח אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יְהֵא כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁלְּךָלט אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ לִזְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן", וַאֲפִלּוּ הִגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹמ וּכְבָר נִקְנָה הֶחָמֵץ לַנָּכְרִי לַחֲלוּטִין,מא,25 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מֻנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הֲרֵי הוּא חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹמב מִדִּין תּוֹרָה, שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ יִתְחַיֵּב לִפְרֹעַ לוֹ כָּל חוֹבוֹ מִשָּׁלֵם, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא אָמַר לוֹ "לֹא יְהֵא לְךָ פֵּרָעוֹן רַק מִזֶּה הֶחָמֵץ",מג אֶלָּא לָוָה מִמֶּנּוּ בִּסְתָם, וּבְהַלְוָאָה זוֹ נִשְׁתַּעְבְּדוּ כָּל נִכְסֵי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְפִרְעוֹן חוֹבוֹ.26

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הִקְנָה לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ בְּאִם שֶׁלֹּא יִפְרַע לוֹ בִּזְמַנּוֹ, מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּהַקְנָאָה זוֹ לֹא נִפְקַע שִׁעְבּוּדוֹ מִשְּׁאָר נְכָסָיו, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ הֶחָמֵץ אוֹ יֹאבַד חָל הַהֶפְסֵד עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ וְחַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִן הַתּוֹרָה.27 וְאִם לֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח כְּדִין חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח. וְאִם בָּא הַנָּכְרִי לִטֹּל אוֹתוֹ – מְחֻיָּב הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִיָּדוֹ וּלְבַעֲרוֹ וְלֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ לִטֹּל אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא פּוֹרֵעַ חוֹבוֹ בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה,מד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:מה,28

8 If, however, the Jew stipulated with the non-Jew that if the chametz would be stolen from him or lost, he would not be responsible for it, and instead, the non-Jew would forfeit his debt, [the Jew] need not obliterate it.29 [In that instance,] the laws applying to [the chametz are the same as those that would apply if the chametz] had been situated in the domain of the non-Jew throughout all the days of Pesach, as explained above.30

ח אֲבָל אִם הִתְנָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עִם הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ הֶחָמֵץ אוֹ יֹאבַד לֹא יִתְחַיֵּב הוּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ אֶלָּא הַנָּכְרִי יַפְסִיד חוֹבוֹ – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ,29 וַהֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה מֻנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח,מו וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה:מז,30

9 If before Pesach, the Jew transferred ownership of the chametz to the non-Jew through a formal contractual act that effectively transferred its ownership to the non-Jew, so that the chametz would be [the non-Jew’s] property outright – e.g., [the Jew] transferred ownership of [the chametz] to [the non-Jew]31 through a kinyan sudar32 or [a kinyan] agav karka33(as stated in Choshen Mishpat, sections 195, 205, and 202; see also sec. 194)34 – even when [the chametz] is situated in the Jew’s domain, it is as if it was never the Jew’s chametz, because it had already been acquired in an absolute manner by the non-Jew before Pesach.

Therefore, even though at the time the non-Jew gave the loan to [the Jew], the Jew told him, “If I do not pay you by this-and-this time, you may collect your debt from me [from this chametz] from that time onward, and the remainder [of the chametz] will be mine,” and the time for the payment of the debt did not arrive until after Pesach, and when that time arrived [the Jew] paid [the non-Jew the money] he owed him, and the non-Jew agreed to leave [the Jew] his chametz, it is [nonetheless] permitted to benefit from this chametz.35 [The rationale is that] the Jew did not violate any [prohibition even though the chametz remained in his home], since he transferred ownership of [the chametz] to the non-Jew through a valid kinyan before Pesach, as payment of his debt. If so, the Jew utterly removed himself [from the ownership of the chametz]. Thus, the Jew is not responsible for the theft or the loss of the chametz by forces beyond his control unless he explicitly accepted responsibility for the theft or loss of the chametz by forces beyond his control.36 In that instance, it would be forbidden to benefit from the chametz, as is true with regard to other chametz belonging to a Jew that [existed in his possession] during Pesach, as explained in sec. 440[:9-10].

If the Jew stipulated to the non-Jew that from the time he transferred ownership [of the chametz], he would not be responsible [for it] even though it was lost or stolen due to his negligence, [i.e.,] because he failed to guard it as watchmen do, [the Jew] is permitted – even initially – to leave this chametz in his [own] home.37 However, [the Jew] must be careful to erect a partition ten-handbreadths high in front of [the chametz], as explained in sec. 440[:5]. Consult that source.

ט וְאִם הִקְנָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר הַמּוֹעִיל לְהַקְנוֹתוֹ לְהַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה קָנוּי לוֹ לַחֲלוּטִין אַף כְּשֶׁהוּא מֻנָּח עֲדַיִן בִּרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,מח כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִקְנָה לוֹ31 עַל יְדֵי (ג) קִנְיַן סוּדָרמט,32 אוֹ אַגַּב קַרְקַענ,33 (כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן קצ"הנא וְר"הנב וְר"ב,נג וְעַיֵּן שָׁם בְּסִימָן קצ"דנד)34 – הֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא הָיָה חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מֵעוֹלָם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִקְנָה לְהַנָּכְרִי לַחֲלוּטִין קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח.

וּלְפִיכָךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִלְוָה לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי אָמַר לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל: "אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי תִּגְבֶּה מִמֶּנִּי חוֹבְךָ מֵאוֹתוֹ זְמַן וָאֵילָךְ וְהַמּוֹתָר יִהְיֶה שֶׁלִּי",נה וְלֹא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, וּכְשֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן פָּרַע לוֹ חוֹבוֹ וְנִתְרַצָּה הַנָּכְרִי לְהַנִּיחַ לוֹ חֲמֵצוֹ – הֲרֵי חָמֵץ זֶה מֻתָּר בַּהֲנָאָה,נו,35 כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא עָבַר עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּלוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר הִקְנָה אוֹתוֹ לְהַנָּכְרִי בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּעַד פִּרְעוֹן חוֹבוֹ, אִם כֵּן כְּבָר נִסְתַּלֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ הַ[יִּשְׂרָאֵל] מִכֹּל וָכֹל, וְשׁוּב אֵין אַחֲרָיוּת הֶחָמֵץ מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס עַל יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן הַסְּתָם,נז אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קִבֵּל עָלָיו בְּפֵרוּשׁ אַחֲרָיוּת הֶחָמֵץ מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס,36 דְּאָז נֶאֱסַר הֶחָמֵץ בַּהֲנָאָה כִּשְׁאָר חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מ.נח

וְאִם הִתְנָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עִם הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּת מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁהִקְנָה לוֹ וָאֵילָךְ אֲפִלּוּ מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה מֵחֲמַת פְּשִׁיעָהנט שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ יָפֶה כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים – אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹת חָמֵץ זֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ,ס,37 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מסא עַיֵּן שָׁם:

10 [The following laws apply when] a Jew loaned money to a non-Jew and the non-Jew gave the Jew chametz as security [for the loan]:38 [If the non-Jew] told [the Jew]: “If I do not pay you by this-and-this time, you will acquire the chametz from the present time onward,”39 and that time arrived without [the non-Jew] paying,40 even though [a)] the time for payment did not arrive until after Pesach41 and [b)] throughout the days of Pesach, the non-Jew was responsible for the chametz42 – for the Jew stipulated that even if [the chametz] would be stolen from him or lost, he would not forfeit his debt for this reason – it is [nevertheless] forbidden to benefit from this chametz [after Pesach].

Even if [the chametz] was located in the house of its non-Jewish owner throughout all the days of Pesach, [because] the Jew reversed [the matter] and entrusted [the chametz originally entrusted to him] to [the non-Jew, giving it back to him before Pesach], nevertheless, since the time [for payment] arrived and [the non-Jew] did not pay [the Jew], the ownership of the chametz retroactively became transferred to the Jew from before Pesach, [i.e.,] from the moment the non-Jew gave the chametz to [the Jew] as security and told him, “[This chametz] will be yours from the present time onward if I do not pay you by this-and-this time.”43 Thus, [the chametz] resembles chametz belonging to a Jew that was entrusted to a non-Jew throughout all the days of Pesach, (from which it is forbidden to benefit, as explained in sec. 440[:1]). Therefore, the Jew is obligated to obliterate this chametz on the day before Pesach just like [he must obliterate] his own chametz, lest the non-Jew not pay him on time and thus retroactively, the chametz would be his and [thus,] he would violate the prohibition against possessing [chametz] because of it.

י יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהִלְוָה לְנָכְרִי וּמִשְׁכֵּן הַנָּכְרִי אֶת חֲמֵצוֹ בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵלסב,38 וְאָמַר לוֹ: "אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי יְהֵא חָמֵץ זֶה קָנוּי לְךָסג מֵעַכְשָׁו",סד,39 וְהִגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן וְלֹא פְּרָעוֹ,40 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,סה וְכָל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הַנָּכְרִי,42 שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹסו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאַף אִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ אוֹ יֹאבַד לֹא יַפְסִיד אֶת חוֹבוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּךְ – הֲרֵי חָמֵץ זֶה אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה.41 אֲפִלּוּ הָיָה מֻנָּח כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח בְּבֵית הַנָּכְרִי בְּעָלָיו,סז שֶׁחָזַר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְהִפְקִידוֹ אֶצְלוֹ,סח אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן וְלֹא פְּרָעוֹ הֲרֵי נִקְנָה הֶחָמֵץ לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְמַפְרֵעַ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁמִּשְׁכֵּן אֶצְלוֹ הַנָּכְרִי וְאָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יְהֵא שֶׁלְּךָ אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי"43 – הֲרֵי זֶה כַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל הַמֻּפְקָד בְּיַד נָכְרִי כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח (שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מסט), לְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעֵר זֶה הֶחָמֵץ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח כְּחָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ,ע שֶׁמָּא לֹא יִפְרַע לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בִּזְמַנּוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ וְעָבַר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא":עא,11

11 If [the Jewish lender] transgressed and did not obliterate [the chametz], and the non-Jew came in the middle of Pesach to redeem [the chametz, the Jew] is permitted to accept the money from him and allow him to take his chametz. [The Jew] is not considered to be profiting from a substance from which it is forbidden to benefit.44 [The rationale is that] since the non-Jew redeemed his chametz [within the prescribed time], it never became the Jew’s property retroactively.

יא וְאִם עָבַר וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ וּבָא הַנָּכְרִי תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח לִפְדּוֹתוֹ – רַשַּׁאי לְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ הַמָּעוֹת וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיִּטֹּל חֲמֵצוֹ, וְאֵין זֶה מִשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה,44 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי פּוֹדֵהוּ – נִמְצָא שֶׁלְּמַפְרֵעַ לֹא הָיָה שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעוֹלָם:עב

12 [A more lenient ruling45 applies] when [the non-Jew] did not entrust [the chametz] to the Jew as security before Pesach.46 Instead, from the moment [the Jew] gave the loan to [the non-Jew] until after Pesach, the chametz was located in the non-Jew’s house, [and it was only] after Pesach that the Jew brought [the chametz] into his own home. [Seemingly, stringency would be required,] since the time [the Jew] set for repayment [of the loan] already arrived before Pesach and [the non-Jew] failed to repay [it]. Thus, as a result, the chametz was already transferred by the non-Jew [to the Jew] in an absolute sense before Pesach. [The rationale is that] because [the non-Jew] said, “You will acquire the chametz from the present time onward if I do not pay you,” [the agreement] is not considered an asmachta, even according to Jewish Law.47 Nevertheless, [the Jew has yet to fully acquire the chametz. The rationale is that] since the Jew did not draw the chametz into his home before Pesach,48 he did not acquire [the chametz since] he only [paid] money,49 i.e., [he gave the non-Jew] the money that he lent him for which the chametz [served as security. The rationale is that] monetary payment alone is insufficient for a Jew to acquire any entity from a non-Jew, or for a non-Jew [to acquire any entity] from a Jew.50 Instead, [to acquire the entity, the purchaser] must draw it into his possession, for the reason explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 194.51 Consult that text. Accordingly, [since the Jew never formally acquired] the chametz, it is permitted to [benefit from this chametz] after Pesach. It is even [permitted] to partake of it.

[Moreover,[ even if [the non-Jew] gave the chametz [to the Jewish creditor] before Pesach, [leniency is granted] if [the non-Jew] did not tell him, “You will acquire [the chametz]from the present time onward…,” but only told him, “If I do not pay you at the appointed time, you will acquire [the chametz] from that time onward,” and the time for payment did not arrive until after Pesach. [In that instance as well, if] throughout all the days of Pesach, the non-Jew was responsible in the event of the chametz having been stolen or lost due to forces beyond [the Jew’s] control, [the chametz is considered as chametz belonging to a non-Jew. The rationale is that the non-Jew] did not stipulate with the Jew that if the chametz would be stolen from him or lost he would forfeit his debt, and according to Jewish Law, a Jew is not responsible for security entrusted to him by a non-Jew in the event of its theft or loss due to forces beyond his control. [The rationale is that] even for security entrusted to [a Jewish creditor] by a fellow Jew, [the creditor] is only responsible because of the laws incumbent on a watchman, for [according to these laws] he is considered a paid watchman for the reason explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 72.52 [Here, however, this law is not germane, for] the laws of watchmen do not apply with regard to the property of a non-Jew, for the Torah [introduces those laws by] saying,53 “When a man will give to his fellow,” [thus,] excluding a non-Jew.54 Therefore, even though the time for payment arrived [after Pesach] and [the non-Jew] did not pay [the Jew, and] the chametz thus became the Jew’s property outright, nevertheless, throughout all the days of Pesach, [the chametz] still belonged to the non-Jew. The Jew was not obligated to obliterate [the security] according to the letter of the law, since according to Jewish Law, he was not responsible for theft or loss [of the security due to] forces beyond his control. Thus, [the security] is governed by the laws applying to chametz belonging to a non-Jew that was in [the non-Jew’s] possession throughout Pesach, which is permitted even to be eaten.

Even if before Pesach, the conduct of the non-Jew led the Jew to realize that [the non-Jew] intended to leave his chametz [permanently] in the possession [of the Jew] in an absolute sense, and not to ever redeem it from him, this is of no consequence. The Jew does not violate the prohibition against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] with [this chametz] unless the non-Jewtransferred ownership of his chametz to [the Jew] before Pesach through a completely binding contractual act that is effective so that [the non-Jew] could not retract [his transfer of ownership of the chametz] according to Jewish Law. For example, [the non-Jew] told [the Jew], “I hereby give you as a gift – or sell to you in an outright sale in return for the money that you lent me – my chametz that is in your possession,” or [the non-Jew] tells [the Jew], “[The chametz] shall be yours in exchange for my debt.” [Were such statements to have been made the Jew would have been liable for possessing the chametz,] because with [such a] statement, the Jew acquires the chametz,55 as explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 73.56

יב וְאִם45 לֹא מִשְׁכְּנוֹ בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח,46 אֶלָּא מִשָּׁעָה שֶׁהִלְוָה לוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הָיָה מֻנָּח הֶחָמֵץ בְּבֵית הַנָּכְרִי וְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הוֹלִיכוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְבֵיתוֹ,עג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַזְּמַן פֵּרָעוֹן שֶׁקָּבַע לוֹ כְּבָר הִגִּיעַ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁכְּבָר נֶחְלַט לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ מֵהַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יְהֵא שֶׁלְּךָ אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ", וְאֵין כָּאן אַסְמַכְתָּאעד אֲפִלּוּ בְּדִינֵינוּ,עה,47 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן (ד) שֶׁלֹּא מָשַׁךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ לְבֵיתוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח48 לֹא קָנָה אוֹתוֹ בְּדָמִים בִּלְבַד,49 דְּהַיְנוּ בְּאוֹתָן מָעוֹת שֶׁהִלְוָה לוֹ עַל חֲמֵצוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִנָּכְרִי וְנָכְרִי מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה שׁוּם דָּבָר בְּכֶסֶף בִּלְבַד50 אֶלָּא בִּמְשִׁיכָה, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן קצ"דעו,51 עַיֵּן שָׁם, וּלְפִיכָךְ חָמֵץ זֶה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה.

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִשְׁכְּנוֹ בְּיָדוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אִם לֹא אָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יְהֵא שֶׁלְּךָ", אֶלָּא אָמַר לוֹ "אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי יְהֵא שֶׁלְּךָ מֵאוֹתוֹ זְמַן וָאֵילָךְ", וְלֹא הִגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, וְכָל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הַנָּכְרִיעז מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס, שֶׁלֹּא הִתְנָה עִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב מִמֶּנּוּ הֶחָמֵץ אוֹ יֹאבַד יַפְסִיד חוֹבוֹ, וּמִדִּין תּוֹרָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁבְּיָדוֹ מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס,עח שֶׁאַף בְּאַחֲרָיוּת הַמַּשְׁכּוֹן שֶׁמֻּשְׁכָּן אֶצְלוֹ מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל חֲבֵרוֹ אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא מִדִּין שׁוֹמְרִין, שֶׁהוּא עָלָיו כְּשׁוֹמֵר שָׂכָר, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ע"ב,עט,52 וְאֵין דִּין שׁוֹמְרִין לְמָמוֹן שֶׁל נָכְרִי,פ שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה:פא,53 "כִּי יִתֵּן אִישׁ אֶל רֵעֵהוּ", פְּרָט לְשֶׁל נָכְרִי,פב,54 לְפִיכָךְ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹ וְנֶחְלַט הֶחָמֵץ בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח הָיָה עֲדַיִן שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי, וְלֹא הָיָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְחֻיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה חַיָּב מִדִּין תּוֹרָה בְּאַחֲרָיוּת מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס, וַהֲרֵי דִּינוֹ כַּחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא מֻתָּר אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה.

וַאֲפִלּוּ רָאָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִדַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח שֶׁהוּא רוֹצֶה לִשְׁקֹעַ חֲמֵצוֹ בְּיָדוֹ לַחֲלוּטִין שֶׁלֹּא לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ לְעוֹלָם – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, וְאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה", אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִקְנָה לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי אֶת חֲמֵצוֹ קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר הַמּוֹעִיל שֶׁלֹּא יוּכַל לַחֲזֹר בּוֹ מִדִּין תּוֹרָה,פג כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ "חֲמֵצִי שֶׁתַּחַת יָדְךָ הֲרֵינִי נוֹתְנוֹ לְךָ בְּמַתָּנָה אוֹ בִּמְכִירָה גְּמוּרָה בְּעַד הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁהִלְוֵיתָ לִי", אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ "יִהְיֶה שֶׁלְּךָ בְּעַד חוֹבִי", שֶׁבַּאֲמִירָהפד נִקְנָה הֶחָמֵץ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל,55 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ע"ג:פה,56

13 If, however, the time for [the loan’s] repayment arrived before Pesach and [the non-Jew] did not pay [the Jew] at that time, the chametz was already acquired by the Jew with a binding transaction before Pesach, for the non-Jew told [the Jew], “If I do not pay you at this-and-this time, [the security] will be yours entirely.”

Even though [the non-Jew] did not say, “From this time onward, [the chametz] shall be yours…,” the laws pertaining to an asmachta do not apply.57 [This ruling should be followed] even if the chametz is worth far more than the debt. [The rationale is that] according to secular law, the Jew acquires all the chametz, and the non-Jew cannot redeem it by force, [without the Jew’s consent,] because secular law does not recognize the concept of an asmachta. If so, the Jew also acquires [the chametz] according to Jewish Law. For this is what the Torah prescribes if a Jew and a non-Jew come [before a judge] for a decision: If it is possible to [rule in favor of] the Jew according to Jewish Law, one should tell the non-Jew, “This is our law.” If it is possible to [rule in favor of the Jew] according to secular law, one should tell [the non-Jew], “This is in accordance with [your] laws.”58

Therefore, [the Jewish lender] is obligated to obliterate [this chametz] on the day before Pesach according to Scriptural Law. If he did not obliterate [the chametz] until after Pesach, it is forbidden to benefit from the chametz, as is the law with regard to chametz belonging to a Jew that existed [in his possession] during Pesach.

יג אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא פָּרַע לוֹ בִּזְמַנּוֹ – הֲרֵי כְּבָר נִקְנָה הֶחָמֵץ לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמַר לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי "אִם לֹא אֶפְרַע לְךָ לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי יִהְיֶה כֻּלּוֹ שֶׁלְּךָ".פו,55

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יִהְיֶה שֶׁלְּךָ", אֵין כָּאן דִּין אַסְמַכְתָּא,57 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הוּא שָׁוֶה הַרְבֵּה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי חוֹבוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁבְּדִינֵיהֶם זָכָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵלפז בְּכָל הֶחָמֵץ, וְאֵין הַנָּכְרִי יָכוֹל לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי בְּדִינֵיהֶם אֵין דָּנִין דִּין אַסְמַכְתָּא, אִם כֵּן אַף (ה) בְּדִינֵינוּ זָכָה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכָּךְ הוּא דִּין הַתּוֹרָה: אִם בָּאוּ לְפָנֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָכְרִי לְדִין, אִם יָכוֹל אַתָּה לְזַכּוֹת אֶת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּדִין תּוֹרָה – אֱמוֹר לְהַנָּכְרִי: כָּךְ הוּא בְּדִינֵינוּ, וְאִם אַתָּה יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹתוֹ בְּדִינֵיהֶם – אֱמוֹר לוֹ: כָּךְ הוּא בְּדִינֵיהֶם,פח,58 וּלְפִיכָךְ חַיָּב הוּא לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְאִם לֹא בִּעֲרוֹ עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה כְּדִין חָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח:

14 [When a non-Jew entrusted chametz as security to a Jew,] even if the time for repayment [of the debt] did not arrive until after Pesach, and [the non-Jew] did not tell [the Jew], “From this time onward, [the chametz] shall be yours…,” the Jew is nevertheless obligated to obliterate [the chametz] on the day before Pesach. [The rationale is that] if [the chametz] would be stolen or lost because of [the Jew’s] negligence in guarding it, he would be held responsible for [its loss]. The statement59 that the laws of watchmen do not [apply with regard to] property belonging to a non-Jew] is relevant] only with regard to theft and loss resulting from forces beyond his control, but not [to theft and loss] resulting from the negligence [of the watchman. The rationale is that] a person who is negligent is comparable to one who damages [property] with his hands.60 For as explained previously in sec. 440[:16], as an initial preference, one must obliterate [chametz] on the day before Pesach even when he is only liable [and responsible] for theft and loss resulting from his negligence.

יד וַאֲפִלּוּ לֹא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, וְגַם לֹא אָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יִהְיֶה שֶׁלְּךָ", אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ מֵחֲמַת פְּשִׁיעוּתוֹ בִּשְׁמִירָתוֹ יִתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ: אֵין דִּין שׁוֹמְרִין לְמָמוֹן שֶׁל נָכְרִי, אֶלָּא לְעִנְיַן גְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה הַבָּאִים בְּאֹנֶס, אֲבָל לֹא (ו) לְעִנְיַן הַבָּאִים עַל יְדֵי פְּשִׁיעָה,פט שֶׁהַפּוֹשֵׁעַ הוּא כְּמַזִּיק בַּיָּדַיִם.צ,60 וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן ת"מצא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְבַעֵר בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח אַף אִם אֵינוֹ חַיָּב אֶלָּא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת גְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה הַבָּאִים עַל יְדֵי פְּשִׁיעָה:

15 If [the Jewish lender] stipulated with the non-Jew that throughout all the days of Pesach, he would not be liable [and responsible] even for theft and loss that results from his negligence, he need not obliterate [the chametz] even as an initial preference, provided that the time for payment did not arrive until after Pesach and [the non-Jew] did not tell [the Jew], “From this time onward, [this chametz] shall be yours….”61 [The Jew] must, however, be careful to erect a partition ten-handbreadths high in front of [the chametz].62

טו וְאִם הִתְנָה עִם הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁכָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח לֹא יִתְחַיֵּב אֲפִלּוּ בְּאַחֲרָיוּת גְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה הַבָּאִים עַל יְדֵי פְּשִׁיעָה, אֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹצב אִם לֹא הִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַפֵּרָעוֹן עַד לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי "מֵעַכְשָׁו יִהְיֶה שֶׁלְּךָ",61 רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים:צג,62

16 [The following laws apply when] a Jew gives his chametz to a non-Jew as a gift, dependent [on a stipulation, i.e., the Jew] stipulated with [the non-Jew] that if [the Jew] will not perform this-or-this action for him by this-and-this time, all the chametz will be [gifted to the non-Jew, and] acquired by him from the present time onward. Although [the designated] time arrived before Pesach and [the Jew] did not perform the [specified] action and [accordingly,] the chametz was transferred outright to the non-Jew, nevertheless, according to Jewish Law, the non-Jew did not acquire the chametz, because [the agreement] was merely an asmachta. [The rationale is that] the Jew [originally] had in mind that he would certainly have the opportunity to perform the [specified] action by the [designated] time, and [it was specifically] on that basis that he gave [the non-Jew the chametz.63 According to Jewish Law,]a gift is not acquired when an asmachta [is involved], even when [the giver of the present] said, “This will be yours from the present time onward.” [The rationale is that the declaration,] “From the present time onward…” is only effective in preventing an agreement from being considered an asmachta [when they are said] regarding security [and not with regard to a gift], for the reason explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 207.64

Therefore, it is forbidden to benefit from this chametz after Pesach, i.e., no Jew may purchase it from the non-Jew, because the Jewish owner of the chametz violated the prohibition65 against possessing [chametz because of this chametz] if he did not retract [the original agreement] and [instead,] give it to the non-Jew as an outright present before Pesach without any stipulation, in the manner explained above.66

If the chametz is still in the Jew’s possession – [i.e.,] he had yet to give it to the non-Jew– it is forbidden for [the Jew] to give it to [the non-Jew],67 as is the law with regard to all articles from which it is forbidden to benefit; they may not be given to a non-Jew. If, however, [the Jew] already gave [the chametz] to the non-Jew before Pesach, even though it is forbidden to benefit from [the chametz] after Pesach, nevertheless the Jew is not obligated to redeem it from the non-Jew in order to obliterate it from existence. [The rationale is that the Jew] does not derive any benefit from his chametz being transferred in an absolute manner to the non-Jew, since he did not give it to [the non-Jew] in exchange for a debt, but only as a present.

טז יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁנָּתַן חֲמֵצוֹ לְנָכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָה עַל תְּנַאי שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ: "אִם לֹא אֶעֱשֶׂה לְךָ דָּבָר פְּלוֹנִי לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי יִהְיֶה כָּל הֶחָמֵץ קָנוּי לְךָ מֵעַכְשָׁו", אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכְּבָר הִגִּיעַ הַזְּמַן קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא עָשָׂה אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר וּכְבָר נֶחְלַט הֶחָמֵץ לְהַנָּכְרִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּדִינֵינוּ לֹא זָכָה הַנָּכְרִי בֶּחָמֵץ הַזֶּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אַסְמַכְתָּא בְּעָלְמָא הִיא זוֹ שֶׁסָּמַךְ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בְּדַעְתּוֹ, שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יוּכַל לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ אוֹתוֹ דָּבָר לִזְמַן פְּלוֹנִי, וְעַל סְמַךְ זֶה נָתַן לוֹ,צד,63 וְאַסְמַכְתָּא אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה בְּמַתָּנָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ "מֵעַכְשָׁו יְהֵא שֶׁלְּךָ", שֶׁאֵין אֲמִירַת "מֵעַכְשָׁו" מוֹעֶלֶת לְהוֹצִיא מִדִּין אַסְמַכְתָּא אֶלָּא לְגַבֵּי מַשְׁכּוֹן בִּלְבַד, מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִימָן ר"ז,צה,64

וּלְפִיכָךְ חָמֵץ זֶה הוּא לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח אָסוּרצו בַּהֲנָאָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לִקְנוֹתוֹ מֵהַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁהֲרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ עָבַר65 עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא"צז,11 אִם לֹא חָזַר וּנְתָנוֹ לַנָּכְרִי בְּמַתָּנָה גְּמוּרָה קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח בְּלִי שׁוּם תְּנַאי, וְעַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.צח,66

וְאִם הֶחָמֵץ הוּא עֲדַיִן בִּרְשׁוּת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁלֹּא נְתָנוֹ עֲדַיִן לְיַד הַנָּכְרִי – אָסוּר לוֹ לִתְּנוֹ לוֹ, כְּדִין כָּל אִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה שֶׁאָסוּר לִתֵּן אוֹתוֹ לְנָכְרִי.67 אֲבָל אִם כְּבָר נְתָנוֹ לְיַד הַנָּכְרִי קֹדֶם הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא אָסוּר בַּהֲנָאָה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מְחֻיָּב לִפְדּוֹתוֹ מֵהַנָּכְרִי כְּדֵי לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין מַגִּיעַ לוֹ שׁוּם הֲנָאָה מִמַּה שֶּׁחֲמֵצוֹ נֶחְלַט בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נְתָנוֹ לוֹ בְּעַד חוֹבוֹ אֶלָּא בְּתוֹרַת מַתָּנָה:צט