SECTION 440 The Laws [Applying] to Chametz Belonging to a Non-Jew that was Entrusted to a Jew (1-17)

סימן תמ דִּין חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי שֶׁהֻפְקַד אֵצֶל יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבוֹ י"ז סְעִיפִים:

1 The Torah states:1Chametz of yours shall not be seen.” Could [it be that] if one buried [chametz] in a storage pit2 so that it could no longer be seen or entrusted it to a non-Jew, that he would not violate [the prohibitions against possessing chametz] since it is not visible for him throughout the days of Pesach? [In resolution,] the Torah states,3 “For seven days, s’or4shall not be found in your homes,” [teaching us that one is liable] even if he buried [his chametz] or entrusted it [to another person], whether to a non-Jew or to a Jew. [Indeed,] even if the person to whom [the chametz] was entrusted accepted responsibility for it, [agreeing that] if it was stolen from him or if he lost it he would be liable to reimburse [the owner] for the value of his chametz – in which instance the person to whom it was entrusted would [also] violate the prohibition againsthaving [chametz] seen in his domain, as will be explained5 – nevertheless, the one who entrusted [the chametz also] violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz. The rationale is that] the actual chametz belongs to him.6

[True, the verse] states, “[S’or] shall not be found in your homes,” and this chametz [that the owner entrusted] is not in his home. Nevertheless, since the person to whom it was entrusted accepted [the chametz] willingly and permits [the owner of the chametz] to place it in his house, he [is considered to have] lent [the owner of the chametz] the place where the chametz was [stored]. Thus, this place [where the chametz is now located] has been acquired by [the owner of the chametz]. Therefore, [the owner of the chametz commits a] transgression for [possessing] the chametz placed there, just as if it was [actually] located in [the house] in which he resides. [The rationale is that] the Torah states, “S’or of yours shall not be seen throughout your domain,” i.e., [the word “domain” refers to] any place that is one’s domain, even if it is not the home where he [actually] resides.

By contrast, when one buries his chametz in a courtyard belonging to another person without [that person’s] knowledge, [i.e., the owner of the courtyard did not willingly accept the chametz,] it is not [considered as if the owner of the courtyard] lent [the owner of the chametz] a place in his courtyard to deposit his chametz. [Therefore, the owner of the chametz]7 does not [commit a] transgression because of [the chametz] according to Scriptural Law. [The rationale is that] the chametz is not [located] in the home or in the domain of its owner.8

Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, [even in such an instance, the owner] is obligated to obliterate [the chametz]9or sell it to a non-Jew10 on the day before Pesach before the sixth hour [of the day].11 [Our Sages required the owner of the chametz to do this] because the actual substance of the chametz belongs to him; it is just that it is not located in his domain. If [the owner] did not sell [the chametz he buried] before the sixth hour arrived, he is obligated to obliterate it from existence entirely. According to Rabbinic Law, [during Pesach, the owner] violates the prohibition against possessing chametz during every moment that he fails to [destroy it].12 If Pesach passed and [the owner] failed to obliterate it, all Jews are forbidden to eat and[/or] benefit from this chametz, as is the law regarding chametz that existed in a Jewish home during Pesach.13

א כָּתוּב בַּתּוֹרָהא,1 "לֹא יֵרָאֶה לְךָ חָמֵץ", יָכוֹל אִם טָמַן אוֹתוֹב בְּבוֹרג,2 עַד שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה,ד אוֹ שֶׁהִפְקִיד אוֹתוֹ בְּיַד נָכְרִי, לֹא יִהְיֶה עוֹבֵרה עָלָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה לוֹו כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח, תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַרז,3 "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים שְׂאֹר4 לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְּבָתֵּיכֶם", אֲפִלּוּ הִטְמִינוֹ אוֹ הִפְקִידוֹ בֵּין בְּיַד נָכְרִי בֵּין בְּיַד יִשְׂרָאֵל.ח אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנִּפְקָד קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּתט שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ יִתְחַיֵּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ דְּמֵי חֲמֵצוֹ, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהַנִּפְקָד עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,י,5 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן עוֹבֵר עָלָיו גַּם הַמַּפְקִיד בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא", כֵּיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ,יא,6 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְּבָתֵּיכֶם", וְחָמֵץ זֶה אֵינוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ,יב מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַנִּפְקָד קִבֵּל הַפִּקָּדוֹן מִדַּעְתּוֹ וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ, הֲרֵי הִשְׁאִיל לְהַמַּפְקִיד אֶת הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מֻנָּח עָלָיו, וַהֲרֵי מָקוֹם זֶה קָנוּי לְהַמַּפְקִיד, לְפִיכָךְ עוֹבֵר הוּא עַל הֶחָמֵץ הַמֻּנָּח שָׁם כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה מֻנָּח בְּבֵיתוֹיג שֶׁהוּא דָּר בּוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה1 "לֹא יֵרָאֶה לְךָ שְׂאֹר בְּכָל גְּבֻלֶךָ", כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא גְּבוּלוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁהוּא דָּר בּוֹ.יד

אֲבָל מִי שֶׁהִטְמִין חֲמֵצוֹ בַּחֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ (א) שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא הִשְׁאִיל לוֹ חֲבֵרוֹ מָקוֹם בַּחֲצֵרוֹ לְהַנִּיחַ שָׁם חֲמֵצוֹ – אֵינוֹ7 עוֹבֵר עָלָיו מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻנָּח לֹא בְּבֵיתוֹ וְלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ.טו,8

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, (ב) מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים חַיָּבטז לְבַעֲרוֹ9 אוֹ לְמָכְרוֹ לְאֵינוֹ יְהוּדִי10 בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית,יז,11 כֵּיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁלּוֹיח אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻנָּח בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ. וְאִם לֹא מְכָרוֹ עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי, וְכָל רֶגַע וְרֶגַעיט שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַעֲרוֹ הוּא עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.12 וְאִם עָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – הֲרֵי חָמֵץ זֶה אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, כְּדִין חָמֵץ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח בְּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל:כ,13

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2 Since a person transgresses because [he possesses] chametz even though it is entrusted to another person, or it is buried and [thus is] not visible to him, why does the Torah state [the prohibition using the wording: “Chametz of] yours shall not be seen”?14

[To teach] you that even [if there is] chametz that is visible to you and found in your house, nevertheless, you do not violate [this prohibition] unless it is [considered] “yours.” This excludes [a Jew from liability for] chametz belonging to a non-Jew that is entrusted to him.15 Even if [the non-Jew] is together with [the Jew] in his home, [i.e., even if the non-Jew] lives in [the Jew’s] house during Pesach, it is permitted [for the non-Jew to keep his chametz. The Jew does not transgress] because [the chametz] does not belong to [the Jew].

[The above] even [applies] to chametz belonging to a ger toshav16over whom and over whose property the Jews exercise control.17 [Furthermore, this rule] even [applies to a ger toshav] who lives in a courtyard owned by a Jew, and he and everything he owns is controlled by the [Jewish householder]. Nevertheless, as long as a Jew is not [identified as the owner] of this chametz, he is not obligated to destroy it.18

ב הוֹאִיל וְהָאָדָם עוֹבֵר עַל חֲמֵצוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא מֻפְקָד בְּיַד אֲחֵרִים אוֹ שֶׁהוּא טָמוּן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִרְאֶה לוֹ, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה "לֹא יֵרָאֶה לְךָ",14

לוֹמַר לְךָ שֶׁאַף הֶחָמֵץ הַנִּרְאֶה לְךָ וְהוּא מָצוּי בְּבֵיתְךָ, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין אַתָּה עוֹבֵר עָלָיו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן אֲנִי קוֹרֵא בּוֹ "לְךָ", כְּלוֹמַר שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלְּךָ, פְּרָט לַחֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי הַמֻּפְקָד בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל.15 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא עִמּוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁהוּא דָּר בּוֹ בְּפֶסַח – הֲרֵי זֶה מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ.כא

וַאֲפִלּוּ הֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁל גֵּר תּוֹשָׁבכב,16 שֶׁיַּד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שׁוֹלֶטֶת עָלָיוכג וְעַל נְכָסָיו,17 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא שָׁרוּי בַּחֲצֵרוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל וְהוּא וְכָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ כָּבוּשׁ תַּחַת יַד יִשְׂרָאֵל,כד אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֵין שֵׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל נִקְרָא עַל זֶה הֶחָמֵץ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ:כה,18

3 Nevertheless, according to Rabbinic Law, when a non-Jew brings his chametz to a Jew to entrust it to him for safekeeping, the Jew should not accept the chametz from him [from the beginning of the sixth hour on the day before Pesach onward.19 This restriction applies] even if [the Jew] does not touch the chametz with his hand, but merely tells the non-Jew, “My house is open to you. Place [the chametz] wherever you want.” [The Jew] is, nonetheless, forbidden [to keep the non-Jew’s chametz in his home. This is a prohibitive] decree lest [the Jew] forget and partake of [the chametz.20 This safeguard is necessary] since the non-Jew is not protecting his chametz from the Jew’s partaking of it.21 [On the contrary,] since [the non-Jew] already entrusted [his chametz] to [the Jew, it is obvious that] he relies on [the Jew’s] faithfulness.

If, however, the non-Jew does not entrust his chametz to [the Jew], it is permitted for [the Jew] to allow [the non-Jew] to enter [the Jew’s] house carrying his chametz.22 Even though the Jew sees [the non-Jew with his chametz], that is not of consequence. [The rationale is that] it is written, “[Chametz]of yours [shall not be seen,” which our Sages interpreted as implying,] “you may not see your own [chametz], but you [may] see [chametz] belonging to others.”

Nevertheless, if this non-Jew is [the Jew’s] servant23 or worker [whom the Jew is required to provide] with meals, [the Jew] should not allow [the non-Jew] to enter [his] house to partake of chametz. Even though the chametz belongs to the non-Jew, nevertheless, there is reason to be concerned about the impression that might be created, [i.e., others may] suspect that [the Jew] is feeding his [non-Jewish] servant chametz on Pesach. However, [a Jew] is permitted to allow other non-Jews [whom he is not required to provide] with meals to enter his house to eat their chametz.

It is, however, forbidden to allow [a non-Jew] to eat his chametz on the [same] table at the same time that a Jew is eating at [this] table. [This prohibition applies] even if this Jew is totally unacquainted with this non-Jew, and thus there is no concern that the non-Jew will [offer the Jew] some of his chametz to eat.24 Nevertheless, since even the slightest amount of chametz on Pesach [is forbidden, and] it is hard to conceive that not even one crumb of the non-Jew’s [food] will become mixed with the Jew’s [food, it is forbidden for the two to eat at the same table]. Even if the Jew is eating on a separate [table-]cloth, nevertheless, he should be stringent and not eat at the same table at which the non-Jew is eating. [This is implied by our Sages’ statement]:25 “We say to a Nazarite, ‘Go; take a circuitous route. Do not draw near to the vineyard.’”

ג וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים נָכְרִי שֶׁהֵבִיא חֲמֵצוֹ לְיִשְׂרָאֵל בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח19 כְּדֵי לְהַפְקִידוֹ אֶצְלוֹ – לֹא יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,כו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹגֵעַ בְּהֶחָמֵץ בְּיָדוֹ אֶלָּא הוּא אוֹמֵר לְהַנָּכְרִי: "הִנֵּה הַבַּיִת לְפָנֶיךָ הַנַּח בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁתִּרְצֶה"כז – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אָסוּר, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ,כח,20 שֶׁאֵין הַנָּכְרִי מְשַׁמֵּר חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,כט,21 כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הִפְקִידוֹ אֶצְלוֹ הֲרֵי סָמַךְ עַל נֶאֱמָנוּתוֹ.

אֲבָל אִם הַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ מַפְקִיד אֶצְלוֹ הֶחָמֵץ – מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לְבֵיתוֹ וַחֲמֵצוֹ עִמּוֹ.ל,22 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹאֶה אוֹתוֹ – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר "לְךָ" – שֶׁלְּךָ אִי אַתָּה רוֹאֶה, אֲבָל אַתָּה רוֹאֶה שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים.לא

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם נָכְרִי זֶה הוּא עַבְדּוֹ23 אוֹ פּוֹעֲלוֹ שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלָיו – אֵין לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לַבַּיִת לֶאֱכֹל חָמֵץ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ לְמַרְאִית הָעַיִן שֶׁיַּחְשְׁדוּ אוֹתוֹלב שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכִיל אֶת עַבְדּוֹ חָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח. אֲבָל נָכְרִי אַחֵר שֶׁאֵין מְזוֹנוֹתָיו עָלָיו – מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ לִכְנֹס לַבַּיִת לֶאֱכֹל מֵחֲמֵצוֹ.

אֲבָל אָסוּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ שֶׁיֹּאכַל מֵחֲמֵצוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל אוֹכֵל עַל זֶה הַשֻּׁלְחָן,לג אֲפִלּוּ אִם זֶה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֵין לוֹ שׁוּם הֶכֵּרוּת עִם זֶה הַנָּכְרִי,לד שֶׁאֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יַאֲכִילֶנּוּ הַנָּכְרִי מֵחֲמֵצוֹ,24 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁחָמֵץ בְּפֶסַח בְּמַשֶּׁהוּ, רָחוֹק הַדָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא יִתְעָרֵב פֵּרוּר אֶחָד שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי בְּשֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל.לה וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הוּא אוֹכֵל עַל מַפָּה מְיֻחֶדֶת,לו אַף עַל פִּי כֵן יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אוֹכֵל עָלָיו חֲמֵצוֹ, מִשּׁוּםלז,25 "לֵךְ לֵךְ אָמְרִינַן לִנְזִירָא, סְחוֹר סְחוֹר, לְכַרְמָא לֹא תִקְרָב":לח

4 It is, however, permitted to allow [a non-Jew] to partake of chametz on [a Jew’s] table when the Jew is not eating there. The Jew must, however, be careful to clean the table thoroughly after the non-Jew ate [there] so that no crumbs of [the non-Jew’s] chametz remain there.

Similarly, [the Jew] must take care that the non-Jew take all his chametz with him when he leaves the [Jew’s] house, without leaving [even] the slightest amount [of chametz] in the Jew’s home. [This] decree [was imposed as a safeguard] lest [the Jew] forget and partake [of the chametz]. Since [the Jew] regularly [partakes] of chametz throughout the year, the concern that he will forget [and partake of the chametz]26 is greater than the concern [that exists] with regard to other substances prohibited by Scriptural Law. [The reason for the difference is that] a person distances himself [from other prohibited substances] and will not forget [that they are] prohibited since he does not regularly [partake] of them.

Nevertheless, as long as the non-Jew is in the [Jew’s] home, there is no concern that the Jew will partake of the [non-Jew’s] chametz, for the non-Jew will guard it himself.

ד אֲבָל מֻתָּר לְהַנִּיחוֹ לֶאֱכֹל חֲמֵצוֹ עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל אוֹכֵל עָלָיו,לט רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְנַקּוֹת הַשֻּׁלְחָן יָפֶה אַחַר אֲכִילַת הַנָּכְרִי, שֶׁלֹּא יִשָּׁאֲרוּ שָׁם פֵּרוּרִין מֵחֲמֵצוֹ.מ

וְכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר כְּשֶׁיֵּלֵךְ הַנָּכְרִי מִבֵּיתוֹ שֶׁיִּטֹּל כָּל חֲמֵצוֹ עִמּוֹ, וְלֹא יִשְׁתַּיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ מְאוּמָה בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ,מא כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא רָגִיל בְּחָמֵץ כָּל הַשָּׁנָה – יֵשׁ בּוֹ לָחֹשׁ לְשִׁכְחָהמב,26 יוֹתֵר מִשֶּׁאָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁים בִּשְׁאָר אִסּוּרֵי תּוֹרָה, שֶׁאָדָם בּוֹדֵל עַצְמוֹ מֵהֶם וְאֵינוֹ שׁוֹכֵחַ אִסּוּרוֹ כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל בָּהֶם.מג

אֲבָל כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי בַּבַּיִת – אֵין לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִסְתַּפֵּק הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מֵחֲמֵצוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַנָּכְרִי הוּא מְשַׁמְּרוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ:מד

5 If the non-Jew departed and left his chametz in the Jew’s house without [the Jew’s] knowledge [or consent], but the Jew does not desire to arouse the anger of the non-Jew by casting [the non-Jew’s] chametz from his house to the public domain,27 he must make a barrier ten handbreadths high in front of [the chametz], so that he will have a distinguishing factor and will not forget about the prohibition against [eating] chametz, and will not [accidentally] partake of it.28 The barrier must be made so that it will be of a permanent nature that will block people’s access to that place. It should not be [made] from a sheet or the like, in which instance, it would be possible for people to pass under it. [Hence,] there [would be] reason for concern that one might partake of the chametz that is placed there.

If [the non-Jew left the chametz in the Jew’s home] on Shabbos or a festival when it is impossible to erect a barrier of a permanent nature,29 [the Jew] should cover [the chametz] with a utensil until the evening. [In this way, the chametz] will be hidden from [sight], and [no one] will come to partake of it.30 In the evening, [the Jew] must immediately [erect] a barrier as required by law. He should not rely on his having [already] covered [the chametz] with the utensil. [This] is a decree, [imposed as a safeguard] lest the utensil be removed so that it could be used, thereby revealing the chametz, at which time, [the Jew] may forget [that it is forbidden to eat chametz] and [come to] partake of it.

ה וְאִם הָלַךְ מִשָּׁם הַנָּכְרִי וְהִנִּיחַ חֲמֵצוֹ מֻנָּח בְּבֵית יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ,מה וְאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל רוֹצֶה (ג) לְהִתְגָּרוֹת עִם הַנָּכְרִי לְהַשְׁלִיךְ חֲמֵצוֹ מִן בֵּיתוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים27 – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים,מו,22 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה לוֹ הֶכֵּר וְלֹא יִשְׁכַּח עַל אִסּוּר חָמֵץ וְלֹא יָבֹא לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִמֶּנּוּ.מז

וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁתְּהֵא הַמְחִצָּה עֲשׂוּיָה מִדָּבָר קָבוּעַ שֶׁחוֹסֶמֶת הִיא הָעוֹבְרִים שָׁם, אֲבָל לֹא מִסָּדִין וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לֵילֵךְ וְלָבֹא תַּחַת הַסָּדִיןמח – יֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָבוֹאוּ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק מִן הֶחָמֵץ הַמֻּנָּח שָׁם.28 וְאִם הוּא שַׁבָּת אוֹ יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּה מִדָּבָר קָבוּעַמט,29 – יִכְפֶּה עָלָיו אֶת הַכְּלִי עַד הָעֶרֶב,נ כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה מְכֻסֶּה מִן הָעַיִן וְלֹא יָבוֹאוּ לֶאֱכֹל מִמֶּנּוּ,30 וְלָעֶרֶב מִיָּד יַעֲשֶׂה לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה כְּהִלְכָתָהּ, וְלֹא יִסְמֹךְ עַל כְּפִיַּת הַכְּלִי, גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִנָּטֵל הַכְּלִי לְצֹרֶךְ תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹנא וְיִתְגַּלֶּה הֶחָמֵץ וְיִשְׁכַּח וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ:

6 If it is clear and known that the non-Jew will not remain outside the home of the Jew where his chametz is located for more than approximately half the day, and then he will return to the Jew’s home to take his chametz, it is not necessary to erect a barrier in front of [the chametz. This rule] even [applies] on Chol HaMoed, when the labors [forbidden on the festivals] are permitted ([provided the activity involved does not] require a craftsman’s [expertise], as will be explained in sec. 540).31 [In such a situation,] it is sufficient to cover [the chametz] with a utensil until the non-Jew returns and takes his chametz. [The rationale is that since] the non-Jew will just tarry approximately half a day, there is no concern that the utensil will be [removed from the chametz] during this half day.

ו וְאִם הַדָּבָר בָּרוּר וְיָדוּעַ שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּהֶה הַנָּכְרִי חוּץ לְבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁחֲמֵצוֹ מֻנָּח בְּתוֹכוֹ רַק כַּחֲצִי הַיּוֹם וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַחֲזֹר לְבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִטֹּל חֲמֵצוֹ מִשָּׁם – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא חֻלּוֹ שֶׁל מוֹעֵד שֶׁמֻּתָּר בַּעֲשִׂיַּת מְלָאכָה (שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַעֲשֵׂה אֻמָּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תק"מנב,31), אֶלָּא דַּי לוֹ בִּכְפִיַּת כְּלִי עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא הַנָּכְרִי וְיִטֹּל חֲמֵצוֹ, דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁתַּהֶה הַנָּכְרִי רַק כַּחֲצִי הַיּוֹם – אֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִנָּטֵל הַכְּלִי בַּחֲצִי יוֹם זֶה:נג

7 All [the above applies] when the non-Jew departed and his chametz remained in the Jew’s home without the Jew’s knowledge [or consent]. Initially, however, the Jew should not allow [the non-Jew] to leave his home without [the non-Jew] taking his chametz with him.32 [This restriction applies] even if [the non-Jew] will only remain outside [the Jew’s] home for a brief time and even if he is willing to erect a barrier in front of [the chametz], as required by law.

ז וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁכְּבָר הָלַךְ לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי וְנִשְׁאַר חֲמֵצוֹ מֻנָּח בְּבֵית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעַת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה לֹא יַנִּיחֶנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֵילֵךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִטֹּל חֲמֵצוֹ עִמּוֹ,32 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא יִשְׁתַּהֶה שָׁם חוּץ לְבֵיתוֹ רַק שָׁעָה אַחַת, וַאֲפִלּוּ רוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה כְּהִלְכָתָהּ:נד

8 When does the above apply? During Pesach [itself] or on the day preceding Pesach from the sixth hour onward. However, before the sixth hour [on the day preceding Pesach], it is permitted to accept chametz entrusted by a non-Jew.33 Even though the entrusted [chametz] will remain in [the Jew’s] home throughout all the days of Pesach, it is not of consequence as long as [the Jew] erects [the required] partition in front of it, as explained.34

ח בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, אוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִשָּׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית וּלְמַעְלָה, אֲבָל קֹדֶם שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית מֻתָּרנה לְקַבֵּל פִּקְדוֹנוֹת חָמֵץ מִן הַנָּכְרִי,33 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַפִּקָּדוֹן בְּבֵיתוֹ כָּל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, רַק שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה כְּהִלְכָתָהּ,נו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:נז,34

9 When does the above apply?35 When the Jew is not responsible if the entrusted [chametz] is stolen or lost due to forces beyond his control,36 i.e., if the Jew will watch over [the chametz] in the manner that watchmen do, and [yet] it will [nevertheless] be stolen or lost, the Jew will not be liable to reimburse [the non-Jewish owner] neither according to the Torah’s law, nor according to the laws and statutes the [ruling] king [imposes] on his subjects.37 For example, [the Jew] accepted the entrusted [chametz from the non-Jew] without any preconditions, [i.e.,] the Jew did not tell [the non-Jew] that he [accepts] the obligation to pay him if [the chametz] is stolen or lost due to forces beyond his control.38

[The following laws apply] if, however, the Jew takes responsibility for the entrusted [chametz], i.e., if it is stolen or lost due to forces beyond his control, he will be obligated to pay [the non-Jewish owner] according to Torah Law, even though he was not negligent [in his duties as a watchman]. For example, when:

a) the Jew [specifically stipulated with the non-Jewish] owner, “If the [chametz] is stolen from me or lost [while I am watching it], I will reimburse you,” and the non-Jew [had the Jew] confirm this commitment with a [binding] kinyan sudar39so that he could not retract, or

b) alternatively, even if such a [binding legal] commitment was not made, but it was the law of the ruling king that [the watchman] must compensate [the owner], since [the watchman] made an explicit commitment to [compensate the owner in the event of such circumstances] at the time the object was entrusted to him, and the owner [only] entrusted [the object] to [the watchman] based on this [commitment.

In these instances,] the Jew must consider [the chametz] entrusted [to him] as actually his own, since he is [monetarily] responsible for it. [Thus,] according to Scriptural Law, [the Jewish watchman] is obligated to obliterate [the chametz entrusted to him] on the day before Pesach. If [the Jewish watchman] does not obliterate this [chametz], he violates a [Scriptural] prohibition,40 for it is written: “[S’or] shall not be found in your homes.” [The verse] does not state, “[S’or] of yours shall not be found in your homes,” [in which instance, leaven] belonging to others would be excluded. Instead, [the wording of the verse] compels us [to say] that [a Jew is even liable] for [chametz] belonging to others [that] is entrusted to him. [Nevertheless,] it also cannot be said that one is liable [for the chametz belonging to others] even when he did not accept responsibility for it, for it is written, “Chametz of yours shall not be seen,” [which our Sages interpret as meaning,] “You may not see your chametz, but you may see chametz belonging to others.” Thus, the verse, [“S’or shall not be found in your homes”] is [perforce] speaking about [an instance] when [the Jewish watchman] accepted responsibility [for the chametz entrusted to him]. Since [in this instance,] were [the chametz] to have been stolen or lost, the Jew would suffer the loss, [the chametz] is considered as actually his solely with regard to obliterating the chametz, as a result of a Scriptural decree.41

ט בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?נח,35 כְּשֶׁאֵין אַחֲרָיוּת הַפִּקָּדוֹן עַל יִשְׂרָאֵלנט מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס,ס,36 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאִם יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ, לֹא יִתְחַיֵּב הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ מִדִּין תּוֹרָה, וְלֹא מִדִּין הַמֶּלֶךְ וְחֻקָּיו עַל עַמּוֹ,סא,37 כְּגוֹן שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ הַפִּקָּדוֹן בִּסְתָם,סב וְלֹא אָמַר לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיִּתְחַיֵּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ אִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ בְּאֹנֶס.38

אֲבָל אִם אַחֲרָיוּת הַפִּקָּדוֹן עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,סג שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ בְּאֹנֶס יִתְחַיֵּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ מִדִּין תּוֹרָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא פָּשַׁע בִּשְׁמִירָתוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל: "אִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנִּי אֲשַׁלֵּם לְךָ", וְקָנָה מִמֶּנּוּ הַנָּכְרִיסד בְּקִנְיַן סוּדָרסה,39 שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזֹר בּוֹ, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא קָנָה מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלָּא שֶׁדִּין הַמֶּלֶךְ הוּא שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ כֵּן בְּפֵרוּשׁ בִּשְׁעַת הַפִּקָּדוֹן וְעַל סְמַךְ זֶה הִפְקִידוֹ אֶצְלוֹסו – הֲרֵי פִּקָּדוֹן זֶה נֶחְשָׁב לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְעִנְיַן בִּעוּר חָמֵץ כְּאִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, וְחַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִן הַתּוֹרָה. וְאִם לֹא בִּעֲרוֹ – עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּלֹא תַעֲשֶׂה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרסז,40 "לֹא יִמָּצֵא בְּבָתֵּיכֶם", וְלֹא נֶאֱמַר "לֹא יִמָּצֵא לָכֶם בְּבָתֵּיכֶם", פְּרָט לְשֶׁל אֲחֵרִים, אֶלָּא עַל כָּרְחָךְ אַף בְּשֶׁל אֲחֵרִים עוֹבֵר עָלָיו אִם הוּא מֻפְקָד אֶצְלוֹ.

וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹמַר אַף כְּשֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר נֶאֱמַרסח "לֹא יֵרָאֶה לְךָ" – שֶׁלְּךָ אִי אַתָּה רוֹאֶה, אֲבָל אַתָּה רוֹאֶה שֶׁל אֲחֵרִים, הָא אֵין הַכָּתוּב מְדַבֵּר אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת,סט כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה נִגְנַב אוֹ נֶאֱבַד חָל הַהֶפְסֵד עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹע מַמָּשׁ לְעִנְיַן בִּעוּר חָמֵץ בִּלְבַדעא מִגְּזֵרַת הַכָּתוּב:41

10 [Different laws apply] if, however, the Jew did not accept responsibility [for the chametz] if it were to be stolen or lost due to forces beyond his control. Even when the [non-Jewish owner] is a man of force who will compel [the Jew] to compensate him even when [the chametz] was stolen or lost due to forces beyond [the Jew’s] control, nevertheless, the chametz is not considered as his, since he did not accept responsibility for instances beyond his control. [Furthermore, in this instance, the Jew] is exempt according to Torah Law and according to the law of the [ruling] king, [i.e.,] the chametz [entrusted to him by the non-Jew] is not considered [the Jew’s] unless he accepts responsibility in the event of the theft of the non-Jew’s [chametz].

* Even if [the Jew] accepted [responsibility] to watch [the chametz] in an exemplary [manner], as watchmen do, and [even though the Jew agreed that] should he be negligent [in his duty] and not watch [the chametz] as watchmen [watch objects], he would be liable to pay [the non-Jewish owner], this is not [considered as] accepting responsibility [to the extent] that the entrusted [chametz] is considered as his own because he accepted responsibility for it. Instead, this is considered merely accepting responsibility to watch [the chametz, i.e., the Jew] committed himself to watch the chametz belonging to the non-Jew. [Thus,] if [the Jew] were to be negligent and not watch [the non-Jew’s chametz] properly, he is obligated to reimburse [the non-Jew. The rationale is that] one who is negligent is like one who damages property with his own hands.42 [Thus, the watchman is liable] since he committed himself to watch [the entrusted object] in the manner that watchmen do, and the [owner] relied on him and did not watch [the object] himself.43

י אֲבָל אִם לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרָיוּת גְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס,עב,* וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנָּכְרִי הוּא אַלָּם וְיִכְפֵּהוּ לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ אַף אִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּ בְּאֹנֶס, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת הָאֹנֶס וְהוּא פָּטוּר מִדִּין תּוֹרָה וּמִדִּין הַמֶּלֶךְ – אֵין הֶחָמֵץ נֶחְשָׁב כְּשֶׁלּוֹ, עַד שֶׁמִּתְחַיֵּב בְּאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ בִּגְזֵלַת הַנָּכְרִי:עג

* [אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו לְשָׁמְרוֹ שְׁמִירָה מְעֻלָּה כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים, וְאִם יִפְשַׁע בִּשְׁמִירָתוֹ וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים יִתְחַיֵּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ – אֵין זֶה נִקְרָא קַבָּלַת אַחֲרָיוּת לִהְיוֹת הַפִּקָּדוֹן נֶחְשָׁב כְּשֶׁלּוֹ עַל יְדֵי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּתוֹ, אֶלָּא זֶה נִקְרָא קַבָּלַת הַשְּׁמִירָה בִּלְבַד, שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו שֶׁיִּשְׁמֹר חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, וְאִם יִפְשַׁע וְלֹא יִשְׁמְרֶנּוּ יָפֶה – חַיָּב לְשַׁלֵּם לוֹ, שֶׁהַפּוֹשֵׁעַ הוּא כְּמַזִּיק בַּיָּדַיִם,עד, 42 כֵּיוָן שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו לִשְׁמֹר כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים, וְהַמַּפְקִיד סָמַךְ עָלָיו וְלֹא שְׁמָרוֹ בְּעַצְמוֹ]:43

11 All [the above]44 applies when [the Jew] accepted [the chametz] that was entrusted to him without any stipulations [and] without designating a place for [the non-Jew] to deposit it.45 Instead, the Jew took [the chametz] from the non-Jew and placed it in any given corner of his house with permission to move it, [i.e., the Jew has permission] to take [the chametz] from this corner [of the house] and place it in another corner, for he did not promise the non-Jew to designate a particular corner for his chametz. Similarly, [the above laws apply] when [the Jew] told the non-Jew, “My entire house is [open] for you. Put down your entrusted object wherever you want in the house.”46 Since the Jew did not designate a specific place for [the non-Jew’s] chametz, the chametz is transferred to the Jew [and he is given the authority] to move it from one corner and place it in another corner, just like [he could do with] his own chametz. Therefore, if [the Jew] accepted responsibility for [the non-Jew’s chametz], it becomes as if it is actually his own, and he is liable for its [possession].

[A more lenient ruling applies] if, [by contrast,] at the time [the non-Jew] entrusted [his chametz] to [the Jew, the Jew] designated a specific [place] for him [to place his chametz, i.e., the non-Jew’s] chametz would remain [in that place] until the non-Jew returned and took it from there, and [furthermore, either] the non-Jew deposited [his chametz] in the place designated for him by the Jew, or the Jew placed it there in the presence of the non-Jew, and promised him that this place would be designated for his chametz until the non-Jew [returned] and took it from there.47 [In such a situation,] since the chametz is not transferred to the Jew, and [the Jew] may not move it from this corner to another place [in his home],48 for he already assigned [this] corner to the non-Jew, he need not obliterate [the non-Jew’s chametz] even if he accepted responsibility [for the chametz] if it were to be stolen or lost due to forces beyond his control.49 ([The Jew] must, however, be careful to erect a partition in front of it as required by law, as explained.)50 [This is derived from the commandment, “S’or] shall not be found [in your domain.” That expression implies that the prohibition is limited to s’or or chametz] “found in your domain.” This [chametz belonging to the non-Jew] is not “found in your domain,” for it is placed in a corner designated for the non-Jew. Thus, [the situation] resembles [a Jew who] accepts responsibility for chametz belonging to a non-Jew which is located in the domain of a non-Jew, for which [the Jew] is not liable.

True, a Jew is liable for chametz that actually belongs to him that is located in the domain of a non-Jew, as explained above.51 Nevertheless, this chametz belongs to the non-Jew; it is only that the Jew is responsible for it. Accordingly, the laws that apply to chametz that actually belongs to a Jew do not apply to [this chametz], and [the Jew] is not liable for it unless it is transferred to [the Jew’s domain, and the Jew] may move it [and change its location] to any place he desires, as he may do with chametz that is actually his.

יא וְכָל זֶה44 כְּשֶׁקִּבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ הַפִּקָּדוֹן בִּסְתָם, שֶׁלֹּא יִחֵד לוֹ מָקוֹםעה לְהַנִּיחַ בּוֹ הַפִּקָּדוֹן,45 אֶלָּא נְטָלוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי וְהִנִּיחוֹ בְּאֵיזֶה זָוִית שֶׁבְּבֵיתוֹ, וּרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ לְטַלְטְלוֹ וּלְפַנּוֹתוֹ מִזָּוִית זוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הִבְטִיחַ לְהַנָּכְרִי לְיַחֵד קֶרֶן זָוִית אַחַת לַחֲמֵצוֹ.

וְכֵן אִם אָמַר לְהַנָּכְרִי: "הֲרֵי כָּל בֵּיתִי לְפָנֶיךָ, הַנַּח פִּקְדוֹנְךָ בְּאֵיזֶה מָקוֹם שֶׁתִּרְצֶה בַּבַּיִת",עו,46 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא יִחֵד לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל זָוִית מְיֻחֶדֶת לַחֲמֵצוֹ – הֲרֵי הֶחָמֵץ מָסוּר בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְפַנּוֹתוֹ מִקֶּרֶן זָוִית זוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ בְּזָוִית אַחֶרֶת כְּמוֹ חָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, לְפִיכָךְ אִם קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּתוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא נַעֲשָׂה כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ וְעוֹבֵר עָלָיו.

אֲבָל אִם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִפְקִיד אֶצְלוֹעז יִחֵד לוֹ זָוִית מְיֻחֶדֶת שֶׁיִּהְיֶה חֲמֵצוֹ מֻנָּח שָׁם עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא הַנָּכְרִי לִטְּלוֹ מִשָּׁם,עח וְהִנִּיחוֹ הַנָּכְרִי בְּעַצְמוֹ בְּאוֹתָהּ זָוִית שֶׁיִּחֵד לוֹ הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,עט אוֹ שֶׁהִנִּיחוֹ שָׁם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל (ד) בְּמַעֲמַד הַנָּכְרִי,פ וְהִבְטִיחַ לוֹפא שֶׁזָּוִית זוֹ תְּהֵא מְיֻחֶדֶת לַחֲמֵצוֹ עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא הַנָּכְרִי וְיִטְּלֶנָּה מִשָּׁם,47 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הֶחָמֵץ מָסוּר בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְטַלְטְלוֹ וּלְפַנּוֹתוֹ מִזָּוִית זוֹ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר,48 שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּבָר מָסַר אוֹתָהּ זָוִית לְהַנָּכְרִיפב – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ אַף שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת מִגְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס49 (רַק שֶׁיִּזָהֲרוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת לְפָנָיו מְחִצָּה כְּהִלְכָתוֹ,פג כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵרפד,50), שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר "לֹא יִמָּצֵא", מִי שֶׁמָּצוּי בְּיָדְךָ, יָצָא זֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָצוּי בְּיָדְךָ,פה שֶׁהֲרֵי הוּא מֻנָּח בְּזָוִית הַמְיֻחֶדֶת לַנָּכְרִי,49 וַהֲרֵי זֶה דּוֹמֶה לִמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי הַמֻּנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו.פו

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מַמָּשׁ הַמֻּנָּח בִּרְשׁוּת נָכְרִי הֲרֵי זֶה עוֹבֵר עָלָיו כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,פז,51 מִכָּל מָקוֹם חָמֵץ זֶה הוּא שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי, אֶלָּא שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ הוּא עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, לְפִיכָךְ אֵין לוֹ דִּין חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מַמָּשׁ,פח וְאֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוּא מָסוּר בְּיָדוֹ לְטַלְטְלוֹ וּלְפַנּוֹתוֹ לְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה כְּמוֹ חָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ:

12 When does the above apply? When at the time [the obligation to] obliterate this chametz [takes effect], i.e., [the beginning of] the sixth hour on the day before Pesach, this chametz was [already] located in the corner [the Jew] designated for it. Therefore, there is no need to obliterate it. Similarly, throughout all the days of Pesach, as long as the chametz is located in the corner [the Jew] designated for it, [the Jew] is not liable for its [possession] for the reason explained above.52 If, however, the Jew moved the chametz from the corner that he designated for it to another corner in the house, or to any other place in his domain, and when [the obligation to] obliterate [chametz] takes effect, [the non-Jew’s chametz] was located in that other corner, [the Jew] is obligated to obliterate it or to immediately return it to its [original] place.53

[This stringency applies] even if, before [the obligation to] obliterate [chametz] took effect, the Jew took this chametz and brought it to another non-Jew and deposited it in his home.54 Nevertheless, when [the obligation to] obliterate [chametz] takes effect, the Jew is obligated to [either] go and take [the chametz] from the domain of the non-Jewish [watchman] and obliterate it, or return it to the [original] corner which he designated for the non-Jew who entrusted [the chametz to him].

When does the above apply? When the second non-Jew [to whom the chametz] was [subsequently] entrusted did not accept responsibility for it [to the same degree] that the Jew did.55 If, however, the second non-Jew [to whom the chametz] was entrusted also accepted the full responsibility that the Jew had [accepted, the chametz] need not be obliterated. True, when chametz that actually belongs to a Jew is entrusted to a non-Jew, the fact that the non-Jew accepted [full] responsibility for it is not effective in exempting the Jew from the prohibition that [chametz belonging to him] not be seen, as explained above. Nevertheless, this chametz [fundamentally] belongs to a non-Jew. It is only that the Jew is responsible for [the non-Jew’s chametz] and as a result, it is considered as his. [Hence,] since [in the present situation] another non-Jew accepted the responsibility that was [previously incumbent] on the Jew, the Jew has no portion or right56 to this chametz. [Accordingly, the Jew] need not obliterate [the non-Jew’s chametz] at all, even when the Jew did not designate a specific place [for it when] the non-Jew entrusted [it to him].57

יב בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הַזֶּה בִּשְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר, דְּהַיְנוּ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח, הוּא מֻנָּח בְּאוֹתָהּ זָוִית שֶׁיִּחֵד לוֹ, וּלְכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ. וְכֵן בְּכָל יְמֵי הַפֶּסַח,פט כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ הוּא מֻנָּח בַּזָּוִית שֶׁיִּחֵד לוֹ אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר,52 אֲבָל אִם פִּנָּה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ מִזָּוִית זוֹ שֶׁיִּחֵד לוֹ לְזָוִית אַחֶרֶת שֶׁבַּבַּיִת אוֹ שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁבִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, וּכְשֶׁהִגִּיעַ שְׁעַת הַבִּעוּר הוּא מֻנָּח בְּאוֹתוֹ זָוִית הָאַחֶרֶת – חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ מִיָּד לִמְקוֹמוֹ.53

וַאֲפִלּוּ (ה) נָטַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ הַזֶּה קֹדֶם שֶׁהִגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר וְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְנָכְרִי אַחֵר וְהִפְקִידוֹ אֶצְלוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ,צ,54 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כְּשֶׁיַּגִּיעַ זְמַן הַבִּעוּר חַיָּב לֵילֵךְ וְלִטְּלוֹ מִיַּד הַנָּכְרִי וּלְבַעֲרוֹ, אוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לְאוֹתוֹ זָוִית שֶׁיִּחֵד לְהַנָּכְרִי הַמַּפְקִיד.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הַנִּפְקָד הַשֵּׁנִי לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת הֶחָמֵץ כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל,55 אֲבָל אִם כָּל הָאַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁהָיָה עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קִבֵּל עָלָיו גַּם כֵּן הַנָּכְרִי הַנִּפְקָד הַשֵּׁנִי – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ.

אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחָמֵץ שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל מַמָּשׁ הַמֻּפְקָד אֵצֶל נָכְרִי אַף שֶׁקִּבֵּל עָלָיו הַנָּכְרִי אַחֲרָיוּת אֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם לִפְטֹר אֶת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבֹר עָלָיו בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,צא,51 מִכָּל מָקוֹם חָמֵץ זֶה שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל נָכְרִי אֶלָּא שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ הוּא עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְעַל יְדֵי כֵן נַעֲשָׂה כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנָּכְרִי אַחֵר קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁהָיָה עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אֵין לְיִשְׂרָאֵל חֵלֶק וְנַחֲלָה56 בְּחָמֵץ זֶה, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ כְּלָלצב אַף אִם הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִחֵד זָוִית מְיֻחֶדֶת לַנָּכְרִי הַמַּפְקִיד:צג,57

13 There are [authorities who] differ with all [of the above],58 and maintain that whenever a Jew accepts [any degree of] responsibility for the chametz, the chametz is considered as actually his, and he is obligated to obliterate it on the day before Pesach according to Scriptural Law. [The Jew is obligated to obliterate the non-Jew’s chametz] even if he only accepted responsibility for theft or loss resulting from his negligence,59 [i.e.,] that [he would be responsible if he] did not watch [the chametz] in the manner that watchmen do, but [he did] not [accept] responsibility [for the chametz] if it were to be stolen or lost due to forces beyond his control.

Moreover, [this obligation can apply] even if [the Jew] did not accept any responsibility at all for [the entrusted chametz], whether its [theft or loss] resulted from negligence or forces beyond [his] control [if the Jew agreed] to watch over [the chametz] without charging the [owner],60 however the non-Jew was a man of force, and would expropriate payment from [the Jewish watchman] were [the chametz] to be stolen or lost because [the Jew] was negligent when watching it. [Since in this instance, the non-Jew would extract payment from the Jewish watchman,] the chametz is considered as [belonging to the Jewish watchman], and [the Jewish watchman] is obligated to obliterate it on the day before Pesach according to Scriptural Law.61

Similarly, even if [the Jew] rented a specific room in his home to the non-Jew [for him] to leave his chametz, thisdoes not exempt [the Jew] from his obligation [to obliterate the chametz]62 unless the chametz is not entrusted to the Jew, [i.e., he may not] move it and change its place to wherever he desires.

יג וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל כָּל זֶהצד,58 וְאוֹמְרִים דְּכָל שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּת הֶחָמֵץ הוּא עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אֶלָּא אַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁל גְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה הַבָּאִים מֵחֲמַת פְּשִׁיעוּתוֹ59 שֶׁלֹּא שָׁמַר כְּדֶרֶךְ הַשּׁוֹמְרִים, וְלֹא בְּאַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁל גְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה הַבָּאִים בְּאֹנֶס,צה וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת כְּלָל בֵּין מֵחֲמַת פְּשִׁיעָה בֵּין מֵחֲמַת אֹנֶס אֶלָּא (ו) לִשְׁמֹר בְּחִנָּם,צו,60 וְנִמְצָאצז שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי הוּא אַלָּם וְיִפָּרַע מִמֶּנּוּ אִם יִגָּנֵב וְיֹאבַד מִמֶּנּוּצח מֵחֲמַת (ז) פְּשִׁיעוּתוֹ בִּשְׁמִירָתוֹ – הֲרֵי חָמֵץ זֶה הוּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, וְחַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מִן הַתּוֹרָה.61

וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם הִשְׂכִּיר לַנָּכְרִי חֶדֶרצט (ח) מְיֻחָד בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ שָׁם חֲמֵצוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִפְטָר מֵחִיּוּבוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל זֶה,62 (אֶלָּא) שֶׁאֵין הֶחָמֵץ מָסוּר בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לְטַלְטְלוֹ וּלְפַנּוֹתוֹ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה:ק

14 Similarly, [according to this stringent opinion,] even if the Jew took the entrusted [chametz] and brought it to the home of another non-Jew, entrusting it to him, and the non-Jew accepted the [same] responsibility that was [originally incumbent] on the Jew, [the Jew] is nevertheless obligated to obliterate [the chametz.63 The rationale is that] the non-Jew will [demand] payment from the Jew for his chametz if it is stolen from or lost by the second non-Jew, for he has absolutely no [relationship with] the second non-Jew, inasmuch as he did not entrust anything to [the second non-Jew] at all. Therefore, this chametz is considered as belonging to the Jew, as if it were actually his. [The Jew] is obligated to obliterate [the chametz] even though it is entrusted to a non-Jew and the non-Jew accepted responsibility for it, [including] even responsibility for theft and loss by forces beyond his control, as explained above.64

[Different laws apply, however,] if, by contrast, the non-Jewish [owner] who [originally] entrusted the chametz [to a watchman] did not entrust it to the Jew at all. Instead, [the non-Jewish owner] entrusted [his chametz] to a non-Jew, and the Jew accepted responsibility for [the chametz] that was entrusted.65 [In that instance, the Jew] is not liable for [the possession of this chametz] even if the non-Jew to whom [the chametz] was [originally] entrusted never accepted any responsibility [at all].66 [The rationale is that the prohibition against possessing chametz is derived from the verse which states that chametz shall not be found] “in your homes,”67 and this chametz is not in the home or domain [of the Jew]. For the non-Jewish watchman [in whose home the chametz] was deposited did not lend the Jew the place in his home where the chametz [was deposited]. Instead, [the non-Jewish watchman] lent [that place] to the non-Jew who deposited the chametz with him.

Indeed, [the Jew] is not even required to obliterate [the chametz] according to Rabbinic Law. [The rationale is that] the physical substance of the chametz does not belong to [the Jew. Rather, the chametz] was only deemed as [the Jew’s] because he accepted responsibility for it. Therefore, the Sages did not establish a decree [in a situation where the Jew] did not [personally] entrust [the chametz] to the non-Jewish [watchman].68

יד וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ (ט) אִם נָטַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַפִּקָּדוֹן וְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְבֵית נָכְרִי אַחֵר וְהִפְקִידוֹ אֶצְלוֹ וְקִבֵּל עָלָיו הַנָּכְרִי הַשֵּׁנִי כָּל הָאַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁהָיָה עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן חַיָּב לְבַעֵר,63 דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁאִם יִגָּנֵב אוֹ יֹאבַד מֵהַנָּכְרִי הַשֵּׁנִי הֲרֵי נָכְרִי הַמַּפְקִיד חוֹזֵר עַל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיְּשַׁלֵּם לוֹ חֲמֵצוֹ, וְאֵין לוֹ כְּלוּם עַל הַנָּכְרִי הַשֵּׁנִי, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִפְקִיד בְּיָדוֹ מְאוּמָה, לְפִיכָךְ נֶחְשָׁב חָמֵץ זֶה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּאִלּוּ הָיָה שֶׁלּוֹ מַמָּשׁ, שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ אַף אִם הוּא מֻפְקָד בְּיַד נָכְרִי וְקִבֵּל עָלָיו הַנָּכְרִי אֲפִלּוּ אַחֲרָיוּת שֶׁל גְּנֵבָה וַאֲבֵדָה בְּאֹנֶס,קא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.קב,64

אֲבָל אִם הַנָּכְרִי הַמַּפְקִיד לֹא הִפְקִיד כְּלָל אֶת הֶחָמֵץ בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶלָּא הִפְקִידוֹ בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי אַחֵר וְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל קִבֵּל עָלָיו אַחֲרָיוּת הַפִּקָּדוֹן65 – אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַנָּכְרִי הַנִּפְקָד לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו שׁוּם אַחֲרָיוּת,קג,66 שֶׁהֲרֵי נֶאֱמַר67 "בְּבָתֵּיכֶם", וְזֶה הֶחָמֵץ אֵינוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ וּבִרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁהֲרֵי נָכְרִי הַנִּפְקָד לֹא הִשְׁאִיל לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אֶת הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ מֻנָּח עָלָיו בְּבֵיתוֹ, אֶלָּא לְהַנָּכְרִי הַמַּפְקִיד אֶצְלוֹ הוּא שֶׁהִשְׁאִילוֹ.קד

וְאַף מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבַעֲרוֹ,קה דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁגּוּף הֶחָמֵץ אֵינוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ, אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי שֶׁאַחֲרָיוּתוֹ עָלָיו הוּא נַעֲשָׂה כְּשֶׁלּוֹ, לְפִיכָךְ לֹא גָּזְרוּ עָלָיו חֲכָמִים בְּשֶׁלֹּא הִפְקִידוֹ הוּא בְּעַצְמוֹ בְּיַד הַנָּכְרִי:68

15 Needless to say, [the Jewish watchman is not obligated to obliterate the chametz] if after the non-Jewish owner entrusted his chametz to the Jewish [watchman] and the Jewish [watchman] accepted responsibility for it, the Jewish [watchman later] brought [the chametz] back to the home of its [non-Jewish] owner and entrusted it to him.69 Even if the non-Jewish [owner] stipulated that the Jew still [remain] responsible for the entrusted [chametz] as he was originally, nevertheless, the Jew is not liable for [possession of the chametz] even according to Rabbinic Law. [The rationale is that the chametz] is neither in the Jew’s home nor in his domain.

טו וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר (י) שֶׁאִם אַחַר שֶׁהִפְקִיד הַנָּכְרִי בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ אֶת חֲמֵצוֹ בְּיַד הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְקִבֵּל עָלָיו הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרָיוּת חָזַר הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל וְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְבֵית בְּעָלָיו הַנָּכְרִי וְהִפְקִידוֹ אֶצְלוֹ,69 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִתְנָה עִמּוֹ הַנָּכְרִי שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עָלָיו עֲדַיִן אַחֲרָיוּת הַפִּקָּדוֹן כְּמוֹ שֶׁהָיָה מִקֹּדֶם, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵינוֹ עוֹבֵר עָלָיו אֲפִלּוּ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּבֵיתוֹ וְלֹא בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁל הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל:קו

16 With regard to the halachah in all four matters where there is [a difference of opinion] between the first opinion and the second opinion,70 as an initial [and preferred] option, one should act stringently according to the latter opinion, and return the entrusted [chametz] to its owner71 or sell it to another non-Jew72 before the onset of the sixth hour on the day before Pesach. Nevertheless, after the fact, when the sixth hour [on the day before Pesach] already arrived and thus, it is no longer possible to sell [the chametz] to a non-Jew, as will be explained in sec. 443[:3],73 and additionally, the non-Jewish owner of the chametz is not in the city so that it can be returned to him, one may rely on the first opinion in all these matters.74 [Thus,] the Jewish [watchman] is not obligated to obliterate [the chametz] from existence entirely.75 Instead, it is permitted for him [to allow the chametz] to remain in his possession until its non-Jewish owner returns to the city.

Even if [the non-Jewish owner of the chametz] returns in the middle of Pesach, [the Jewish watchman] should return his chametz to him immediately upon his arrival76 to obviate the concern over the violation of a Scriptural prohibition raised by the latter opinion, were [the watchman] to leave [the chametz in his possession any longer].77 ([The Jewish watchman] must, however, be careful not to touch [the chametz] with his hands, as will be explained in sec. 444:13.)78

After Pesach, it is even permitted to eat this chametz.79 [This leniency applies] even if [the Jewish watchman] did not return [the chametz] to its [non-Jewish] owner until after Pesach.

טז וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה בְּכָל אַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ בֵּין סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה70 – יֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר לְכַתְּחִלָּה כַּסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה,קז דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיַּחֲזִיר הַפִּקָּדוֹן לִבְעָלָיו,71 (יא) אוֹ שֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ לְנָכְרִי אַחֵרקח,72 קֹדֶם שֶׁתַּגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח. אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁכְּבָר הִגִּיעַ שָׁעָה שִׁשִּׁית שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְמָכְרוֹ לְנָכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ג,קט,73 וְגַם הַנָּכְרִי בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ אֵינוֹ בָּעִיר שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בְּכָל זֶה,74 וְאֵין הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ מִן הָעוֹלָם לְגַמְרֵי,75 אֶלָּא מֻתָּר לוֹ לְהַשְׁהוֹת חָמֵץ זֶה עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא בְּעָלָיו הַנָּכְרִי לָעִיר. אֲפִלּוּ בָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח – יַחֲזִיר לוֹ חֲמֵצוֹקי מִיָּד בְּבוֹאוֹ76 (רַק שֶׁיִּזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא יִגַּע בּוֹ בְּיָדָיו, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"דקיא,78), כְּדֵי לָצֵאת מֵחֲשַׁשׁ אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ בִּשְׁהִיָּה זוֹקיב לְפִי סְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.77 וְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח מֻתָּר חָמֵץ זֶה אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲכִילָה,79 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הֶחֱזִירוֹ לִבְעָלָיו עַד אַחַר הַפֶּסַח:

17 Nevertheless, [stringency is required] in every situation in which [the watchman] is obligated to obliterate [the chametz] even according to the first opinion, and he forgot or was prevented by forces beyond his control from obliterating it. Even though the actual substance of the chametz belonged to the non-Jew [on Pesach], since the Jewish [watchman] violated the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz], it is forbidden for every Jew to eat and[/or] to benefit from [this chametz],80 as is the rule with regard to chametz belonging to a Jew that [remained in the possession of a Jew] during Pesach, as will be explained in sec. 448[:1].

Nevertheless, if the non-Jewish owner of the chametz comes to take his chametz, the Jewish [watchman] is permitted to give it to him. [This rule applies] whether [the non-Jew] comes in the middle of Pesach or after the holiday. [The Jewish watchman] is not considered to have repaid his debt with an object from which he is forbidden to benefit. [The rationale is that] the Jew is not at all obligated to the non-Jew,81 for the non-Jew’s chametz is intact and [the Jew] is [in effect] telling him, “Your property [is here] before you, [take it].”82

True, there is reason for concern that after Pesach, the non-Jew will sell this chametz to another Jew who is unaware that a Jew violated the prohibition against having [this chametz] seen [in his domain], and thus it is forbidden to eat and/or benefit from [this chametz. As a result of his lack of awareness, the Jewish purchaser] will [unwittingly] eat and[/or] benefit from [this chametz]. Nevertheless, this concern [is not of sufficient weight] for us to compel the Jewish watchman to obliterate the chametz belonging to the non-Jew, and pay him for its value from his own pocket.83 [The Sages] only enacted a prohibition [due to] such a concern when [a Jew] sells chametz that actually belongs to him to a non-Jew, and there is a possibility that an undesirable consequence for another Jew will result [from it, i.e., another Jew will purchase] this chametz from the non-Jew, as will be explained in sec. 467[:2ff.].84 [In the instance described here], by contrast, [the Jew] is not selling [the non-Jew] anything; it is just that [the Jew] is not purchasing [the chametz from the non-Jew. Hence, the Jew] should not be compelled to [obliterate this chametz]. It is only that if [the Jew] desires on his own to “do what is good and upright”85 and obliterate [the chametz], paying the non-Jew the value of [his chametz], so that an undesirable consequence may not result for another Jew because of him, [his conduct is commendable and] may blessings descend upon him.86

יז אֲבָל כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא חַיָּב לְבַעֲרוֹ אַף לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה וְשָׁכַח אוֹ נֶאֱנַס וְלֹא בִּעֲרוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁגּוּף הֶחָמֵץ הוּא שֶׁל הַנָּכְרִי, מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה" וּ"בַל יִמָּצֵא" – (יב) הֲרֵי הוּא אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה לְכָל אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל,קיג,80 כְּדִין חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו הַפֶּסַח שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תמ"ח.קיד

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם בָּא הַנָּכְרִי בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ לִטֹּל חֲמֵצוֹ, בֵּין שֶׁבָּא בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח בֵּין שֶׁבָּא לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח – רַשַּׁאי הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לִתְּנוֹ לוֹ וְאֵין זֶה כְּפוֹרֵעַ חוֹבוֹ מֵאִסּוּרֵי הֲנָאָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא נִתְחַיֵּב הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל כְּלוּם לְהַנָּכְרִי,81 כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲמֵצוֹ הוּא בְּעֵין – הֲרֵי אוֹמֵר לוֹ "הֲרֵי שֶׁלְּךָ לְפָנֶיךָ".קטו,82

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִמְכֹּר הַנָּכְרִי אֶת הֶחָמֵץ הַזֶּה לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁעָבַר עָלָיו יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּ"בַל יֵרָאֶה", וְעַל יְדֵי כֵן אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה וּבַהֲנָאָה,קטז וְיֹאכַל וְיֵהָנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ, (יג) מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִפְּנֵי חֲשָׁשָׁא זוֹ אֵין לָנוּ לָכֹף אֶת הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הַנִּפְקָד שֶׁיְּבַעֵר חֲמֵצוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי וִישַׁלֵּם לוֹ דָּמָיו מִכִּיסוֹ.83 וְלֹא אָסְרוּ מִפְּנֵי זֶה אֶלָּא לִמְכֹּר לְנָכְרִי חֲמֵצוֹ84 מַמָּשׁקיז אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לָבֹא תַּקָּלָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר שֶׁיִּקַּח חֲמֵצוֹ מִן הַנָּכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"ז.קיח אֲבָל זֶה אֵינוֹ מוֹכֵר לוֹ כְּלוּם, אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵין לָנוּ לָכֹף אוֹתוֹ עַל כָּךְ,קיט רַק אִם יִרְצֶה מֵעַצְמוֹ לַעֲשׂוֹת הַטּוֹב וְהַיָּשָׁר85 לְבַעֵר וּלְשַׁלֵּם לְהַנָּכְרִי דָּמָיו כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא תָּבֹא תַּקָּלָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר עַל יָדוֹ – (יד) תָּבֹא עָלָיו בְּרָכָה:86