SECTION 475 The Remaining Laws Pertaining to the Seder (1-33)

סימן תעה יֶתֶר דִּינֵי הַסֵּדֶר וּבוֹ ל"ג סְעִיפִים:

1 After completing the Haggadah and the [initial psalms of] Hallel, one must [ritually] wash his hands again for the sake of the meal. [He should] recite the blessing Al netilas yadayim, even though he had already washed his hands for the sake of [eating] the vegetable that was dipped.1

[The rationale is that] during the recitation of the Haggadah and the Hallel, [a person will have] diverted his attention from guarding his hands,2 and because his hands are active,3 there is concern that [they may have] touched a place of filth.4

א אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנָּטַל יָדָיו לְצֹרֶךְ טִבּוּל הַיְרָקוֹת,א אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל יָדָיו לַסְּעוּדָהב וּלְבָרֵךְ "עַל נְטִילַת יָדָיִם"ג אַחַר גְּמַר הַהַגָּדָה וְהַהַלֵּל,1 לְפִי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה וְהַהַלֵּל הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו,2 וְיֵשׁ לָחֹשׁ שֶׁמָּא נָגַעד בִּמְקוֹם הַטִּנֹּפֶת,ה,4 שֶׁהַיָּדַיִם עַסְקָנִיּוֹת הֵן:ו,3

2 Even if one did not divert his attention from guarding his hands during the recitation of the Haggadah and the Hallel, he must nevertheless, [ritually,] wash his hands again for the meal. [However, he] should not recite a blessing [over the washing. The rationale is that] when he washed his hands for the sake of dipping the vegetables he did not have in mind that this washing [was also] for the sake of the meal.

[The law is that] whenever one [ritually] washes his hands for [the purpose of eating] something dipped in liquid, this washing is not effective [in granting him] license to eat bread [as a result of this washing] if he did not have this in mind at the time he washed, as explained in section 158[:13].5

If, however, when [the person] washed his hands for the vegetables he had in mind that this washing [would] also be for the meal, he need not wash [his hands] again for the meal, provided that he did not divert his attention from guarding his hands during the recitation of the Haggadah and the Hallel. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is not proper to conduct oneself in that manner, as explained in section 164[:1-2].6

ב וְאַף אִם בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה וְהַהַלֵּל לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל יָדָיו לַסְּעוּדָהז בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה, לְפִי כְּשֶׁנָּטַל יָדָיו לְצֹרֶךְ טִבּוּל הַיְרָקוֹת לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה לוֹ נְטִילָה זוֹ לַסְּעוּדָה, וְכָל הַנּוֹטֵל יָדָיו לְדָבָר שֶׁטִּבּוּלוֹ בְּמַשְׁקֶה – אֵין נְטִילָה זוֹ עוֹלָה לוֹ לֶאֱכֹל לֶחֶם אִם לֹא הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ לְכָךְ בִּשְׁעַת נְטִילָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קנ"ח.ח,5

וְאִם כְּשֶׁנָּטַל יָדָיו לְטִבּוּל הַיְרָקוֹת הָיָה דַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה לוֹ נְטִילָה זוֹ גַּם לַסְּעוּדָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלִטֹּל לַסְּעוּדָה אִם לֹא הִסִּיחַ דַּעְתּוֹ מִשְּׁמִירַת יָדָיו בִּשְׁעַת אֲמִירַת הַגָּדָה וְהַלֵּל.ט וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, לְכַתְּחִלָּה אֵין נָכוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ד:י,6

3 Although on every festival a person is obligated to break bread on two loaves, as will be explained in sec. 529,7 nevertheless, there are authorities who maintain that on the night of Pesach, all that is necessary is to have one-and-a-half loaves. [Their rationale is based] on the Sages’ interpretation8 of the fact that the phrase,9 lechem oni (“the bread of affliction”), is written [in the Torah] without [the letter] vav. [Thus, the phrase could be read as lechem ani, “poor man’s bread,”] implying that there should be [only] a broken piece of matzah, for that is the habit of a poor man, [to have only a broken piece of bread. These authorities maintain that] the Sages interpreted [the verse in this manner] solely to minimize [the obligation of breaking bread on] two [whole] loaves, [thus teaching that] one [of the two loaves] need not be whole.

Others maintain that the interpretation was intended solely to augment [the obligation of] two loaves, [i.e.,] that in addition to the two whole matzos on which one must break bread as on other festivals, one must also have another piece [of matz­ah with which to fulfill the obligation of] “poor man’s bread.” This is the universally accepted custom and one should not deviate from it except in a pressing situation, as will be explained in sec. 482[:4].10

ג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב חַיָּב הָאָדָם לִבְצֹעַ עַל לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תקכ"ט,יא,7 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּלֵיל פֶּסַח יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיב שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ כִּי אִם אַחַת וּמֶחֱצָה, לְפִי שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁדָּרְשׁוּ חֲכָמִיםיג,8 מִמַּה שֶּׁכָּתוּביד "לֶחֶם עֹנִי" חָסֵר וָא"ו, שֶׁתְּהֵא הַמַּצָּה פְּרוּסָה כְּדַרְכּוֹ שֶׁל עָנִי – לֹא דָּרְשׁוּ אֶלָּא לִגְרֹעַ מִלֶּחֶם מִשְׁנֶה, שֶׁאַחַת מֵהֶם לֹא תִּהְיֶה שְׁלֵמָה.טו

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםטז שֶׁלֹּא דָּרְשׁוּ אֶלָּא לְהוֹסִיף עַל לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה, שֶׁמִּלְּבַד ב' מַצּוֹת שְׁלֵמוֹת שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ עֲלֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר יוֹם טוֹב – צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת עוֹד פְּרוּסָה אַחַת מִשּׁוּם "לֶחֶם עֹנִי".יז וְכֵן הַמִּנְהָג פָּשׁוּט,יח וְאֵין לְשַׁנּוֹת אֶלָּא בִּשְׁעַת הַדְּחָק,יט כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תפ"ב:כ,10

4 When reciting the blessing HaMotzi, one must hold11 the two whole [matzos]12 with the broken piece [of matzah13positioned] between the two whole [matzos].14 One should not place the broken piece on top. [The rationale is that] first one must recite the blessing HaMotzi and then the blessing al achilas matzah [“concerning the eating of matzah”].15The blessing HaMotzi is [being recited] over the whole [matzah], while the blessing al achilas matzah is [being recited] over the broken piece,16 “the poor man’s bread.” If the broken piece would be on top, one would have to bypass a mitzvah17 when he recites the blessing HaMotzi first [over the whole matzah].

ד וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאחַז שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׁלֵמוֹת12 בְּיָדוֹכא,11 בִּשְׁעַת בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא",כב וְהַפְּרוּסָה13 תִּהְיֶה בֵּין שְׁתֵּי הַשְּׁלֵמוֹת,כג,14 וְלֹא יַנִּיחַ הַפְּרוּסָה מִלְמַעְלָה, לְפִי שֶׁבַּתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" וְאַחַר כָּךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה",כד,15 וּבִרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" הִיא עַל הַשְּׁלֵמָה וּבִרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" הִיא עַל הַפְּרוּסָה,כה,16 שֶׁהִיא "לֶחֶם עֹנִי", וְאִם הַפְּרוּסָה תִּהְיֶה מִלְמַעְלָה – יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲבֹר עַל הַמִּצְוֹת17 כְּשֶׁיְּבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא" בַּתְּחִלָּה:כו

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 After reciting the blessing HaMotzi, one should leave hold of the third [matzah] that is whole18 and hold the broken piece of matzah below and the top [matzah] above, and recite the blessing al achilas matzah.

One should not release the upper matzah that is whole before [reciting] the blessing al achilas matzah, and needless to say, one should not break off any portion of [the upper matzah] until after completing the blessing al achilas matzah. [The rationale is that] there are authorities who maintain that the blessing HaMotzi [was ordained to be recited] over the piece [of the matzah], for it is “poor man’s bread,” and the blessing al achilas matzah [was ordained to be recited] over the whole [matzah]. Therefore, it is desirable to satisfy both opinions and initially recite both blessings [while holding both the upper matzah and the piece of the broken matz­ah]. Afterwards, [the person] should break off an olive-sized portion19 from the upper, whole [matzah] and an olive-sized portion from the piece [of the middle matzah].

True, for the blessing HaMotzi, there is no need to break off an olive-sized portion according to the fundamentals of the law. Instead, one may recite HaMotzi on the smallest amount [of bread or matzah]. Nevertheless, it is necessary to break off an olive-sized portion for the blessing al achilas matzah, since one may not recite that blessing on a portion that is smaller than an olive-sized portion, for one does not fulfill his obligation with [eating] less than an olive-sized portion.20 If so, according to the authorities who maintain that the blessing al achilas matzah is being recited over the upper, whole [matzah], an olive-sized portion must be broken off from it. And according to the first opinion, (which deserves primacy),21 the blessing al achilas matzah is being recited over the piece [of the middle matzah]. Therefore, in order to satisfy both [opinions], it is necessary to break off an olive-sized portion from each one.

ה וּלְאַחַר שֶׁגָּמַר בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" – יֵשׁ לְהַשְׁמִיט הַשְּׁלִישִׁית הַשְּׁלֵמָה מִן יָדוֹ,18 וְיֶאֱחֹז בַּפְּרוּסָה מִלְּמַטָּה וּבְהָעֶלְיוֹנָה מִלְמַעְלָה וִיבָרֵךְכז "עַלכח אֲכִילַת מַצָּה".

אֲבָל לֹא יַשְׁמִיט מִיָּדוֹ מַצָּה הַשְּׁלֵמָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה",כט וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁלֹּא יִבְצַע מִמֶּנָּה כְּלוּם עַד לְאַחַר גְּמַר בִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה",ל לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלא שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" הִיא עַל הַפְּרוּסָה, שֶׁהִיא "לֶחֶם עֹנִי", וּבִרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" הִיא עַל הַשְּׁלֵמָה, לְפִיכָךְ טוֹב לָצֵאת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם,לב וּלְבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה שְׁתֵּי בְּרָכוֹת אֵלּוּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִבְצַע כְּזַיִת19 מֵהָעֶלְיוֹנָה הַשְּׁלֵמָה וּכְזַיִת מֵהַפְּרוּסָה.לג

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" בִּלְבַד אֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ כְּזַיִת מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ "הַמּוֹצִיא",לד מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּשְׁבִיל בִּרְכַּת "אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" צָרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ כְּזַיִת, שֶׁעַל פָּחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּפָחוֹת מִכְּזַיִת,לה,20 וְאִם כֵּן לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" הִיא עַל הַשְּׁלֵמָה הָעֶלְיוֹנָה – צָרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ מִמֶּנָּה כְּזַיִת, וְלַסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהלו (שֶׁהִיא עִקָּרלז)21 שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" הִיא עַל הַפְּרוּסָה – צָרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ כְּזַיִת מִן הַפְּרוּסָה, לְפִיכָךְ לָצֵאת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם צָרִיךְ לִבְצֹעַ כְּזַיִת מִזּוֹ וּכְזַיִת מִזּוֹ:לח

6 One should eat these two olive-sized portions [of matzah] together, i.e., he should put them into his mouth at the same time. [The rationale is that] if [the person] will first eat the olive-sized portion associated with the blessing HaMotzi,22 i.e., the [olive-sized portion from the upper,] whole [matzah] and then [eat] the olive-sized portion [of matzah] associated with the blessing al achilas matzah, i.e., the piece [of the middle matzah], he will be making an interruption between reciting the blessing al achilas matzah and eating an olive-sized portion from the piece [of the middle matzah] by eating an olive-sized portion from the whole [matzah].

Conversely, according to the authority who maintains that the blessing HaMotzi is associated with the piece [of the middle matzah], if one will first eat an olive-sized portion from the piece [of the middle matzah], and then an olive-sized portion of the whole [matzah], he will be making an interruption between reciting the blessing al achilas matzah and eating an olive-sized portion from the whole [matzah]. Therefore, [the person] should put [both olive-sized portions] into his mouth at the same time.

[The person] need not swallow them both at the same time. Instead, he should crush them in his mouth and then first swallow one entire olive-sized portion at one time, and then swallow the second olive-sized portion at one time.23

ו וּשְׁנֵי כְּזַיִת אֵלּוּ צָרִיךְ לְאָכְלָם בְּיַחַד,לט דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיַּכְנִיסֵם לְפִיו בְּבַת אַחַת,מ שֶׁאִם יֹאכַל מִתְּחִלָּה אֶת הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "הַמּוֹצִיא"22 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁל הַשְּׁלֵמָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ יֹאכַל הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁל הַפְּרוּסָה – יִהְיֶה מַפְסִיק בֵּין בִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" לַאֲכִילַת כְּזַיִת מֵהַפְּרוּסָה בַּאֲכִילַת מַצָּה כְּזַיִת מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה, וְכֵן לְהָאוֹמֵר שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" הִיא עַל הַפְּרוּסָה, אִם יֹאכַל מִתְּחִלָּה הַכְּזַיִת מֵהַפְּרוּסָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַכְּזַיִת מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה – הֲרֵי הוּא מַפְסִיק בֵּין בִּרְכַּת אֲכִילַת מַצָּה לַאֲכִילַת כְּזַיִת מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה,מא לְפִיכָךְ יַכְנִיסֵם לְפִיו בְּבַת אַחַת.

אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְבָלְעָם בְּבַת אַחַת, אֶלָּא יְרַסְּקֵם בְּפִיו, וְיִבְלַע בַּתְּחִלָּה כְּזַיִת אֶחָד כֻּלּוֹ בְּבַת אַחַת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִבְלַע כְּזַיִת הַשֵּׁנִי בְּבַת אַחַת:מב,23

7 If a person is unable to crush the two olive-sized portions together in his mouth [at the same time], he should first eat the olive-sized portion associated with [the blessing] HaMotzi,24i.e., [the portion from] the whole [matzah] according to the first opinion (which deserves primacy), and then the olive-sized portion associated with [the blessing al] achilas matz­ah. After the fact, partaking of the matzah associated with the blessing HaMotzi is not considered an interruption between reciting the blessing al achilas matzah and eating an olive-sized portion from the piece [of the middle matzah. The rationale is that eating this olive-sized portion] is necessary for the sake of eating the olive-sized portion [from the broken matzah].

[The intent is that] since the blessing HaMotzi must also be recited over the olive-sized portion from the piece [of the middle matzah, and that blessing is associated primarily with the whole matzah, eating from the whole matzah is not considered an interruption].25

ז וְאִם אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְרַסֵּק בְּפִיו שְׁנֵי הַזֵּיתִים בְּיַחַד – יֹאכַל בַּתְּחִלָּה הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "הַמּוֹצִיא",24 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁל הַשְּׁלֵמָה לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה (שֶׁהִיא עִקָּרמג), וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "אֲכִילַת מַצָּה",מד וְאֵין אֲכִילַת הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "הַמּוֹצִיא" חָשׁוּב הֶפְסֵק בְּדִיעֲבַד בֵּין בִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" לַאֲכִילַת כְּזַיִת מֵהַפְּרוּסָה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא לְצֹרֶךְ אוֹתוֹ כְּזַיִת,מה דְּהַיְנוּ לְצֹרֶךְ בִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ גַּם עַל אוֹתוֹ כְּזַיִת שֶׁל הַפְּרוּסָה:מו,25

8 All the above applies as an initial preference. After the fact, however, even if one ate only one olive-sized portion, whether from the whole [matzah] or the piece [of the middle matzah], he fulfills his obligation.26 [This ruling applies] even when [the person] ate many [small portions at a time], one after the other, as long as [the entire time] from when he first began to eat until he finished eating was no longer than k’dei achilas p’ras,27i.e., [the amount of time it takes to eat a portion the size of] three eggs.28 (See sec. 612[:4].)29

[One fulfills his obligation] even if he spoke extensively in the midst of eating the olive-sized portion. He need not repeat the blessing al achilas matzah and, needless to say, he need not repeat the blessing HaMotzi since he did not speak between the blessing and when he began to eat.30 (See sec. 432[:7].)31

ח וְכָל זֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה,מז אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד אֲפִלּוּ לֹא אָכַל אֶלָּא כְּזַיִת אֶחָד בִּלְבַד, בֵּין מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה בֵּין מֵהַפְּרוּסָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ אָכַל בָּזֶה אַחַר זֶה בַּאֲכִילוֹת הַרְבֵּה, אִם אֵין מִתְּחִלַּת אֲכִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָהמח עַד סוֹףמט אֲכִילָה אַחֲרוֹנָה יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס,27 דְּהַיְנוּ ג' בֵּיצִיםנ,28 (עַיֵּן סִימָן תרי"בנא,29) – יָצָא.26

וַאֲפִלּוּ הֵשִׂיחַ הַרְבֵּה בְּאֶמְצַע הַכְּזַיִת בֵּין אֲכִילָה לַאֲכִילָה – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה", וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר "הַמּוֹצִיא", כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הֵשִׂיחַ בֵּין בְּרָכָה לִתְחִלַּת הָאֲכִילָה30 (עַיֵּן סִימָן תל"בנב,31):

9 When one first eats the olive-sized portion associated with [the blessing] HaMotzi and then [eats] the olive-sized portion associated with [the blessing al] achilas matzah,32 he must also recline while eating the olive-sized portion associated with [the blessing] HaMotzi, [i.e.,] the olive-sized portion of the whole [matzah]. ([By doing so, the person] also satisfies the opinion of the authorities who maintain that the blessing al achilas matzah is associated with the olive-sized portion of the whole [matzah],33and one fulfills his obligation [to eat matzah] with it. [That obligation] can only be fulfilled when [one eats the matzah] while reclining.34

True, according to their opinion, one should first eat the olive-sized portion from the piece [of the middle matzah] that is associated with [the blessing] HaMotzi and afterwards [eat] the olive-sized portion of the whole [matzah]. If, however, one does the opposite, [he is not transgressing] an outright prohibition, even according to their opinion. It is only that according to the opinion [of these authorities], as an initial preference, it is proper to begin eating the olive-sized portion from the piece [of the middle matzah] because they maintain that this [matzah] is associated with the blessing HaMotzi.

Nevertheless, primacy is given to the first opinion, which maintains that the blessing Ha­Motzi which is recited initially,is associated with the olive-sized portion of the whole [matzah]. Therefore, it is necessary to place the piece [of the middle matzah] under the whole [matzah] before breaking off a piece [of the whole matzah], so that one will not have to bypass a mitzvah, as explained above.35 Accordingly, one should first eat an olive-sized portion from the whole [matzah]. Weight is given to the second opinion only with regard to matters that would not arouse any concern even according to the first opinion, for example, to eat an olive-sized portion of the whole matzah while reclining.)

ט כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל בַּתְּחִלָּה הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "הַמּוֹצִיא" וְאַחַר כָּךְ הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" – צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב גַּם בַּאֲכִילַת כְּזַיִת שֶׁל "הַמּוֹצִיא",נג דְּהַיְנוּ כְּזַיִת שֶׁל הַשְּׁלֵמָה.32

(כְּדֵי לָצֵאת גַּם לְהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁהַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל הַשְּׁלֵמָה עָלָיו הוּא מְבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה"33 וּבוֹ הוּא יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וְאֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא אֶלָּא בַּהֲסִבָּה.נד,34 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלְּדִבְרֵיהֶם צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל תְּחִלָּה הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל הַפְּרוּסָהנה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁל "הַמּוֹצִיא"נו וְאַחַר כָּךְ כְּזַיִת שֶׁל הַשְּׁלֵמָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הִפֵּךְ אֵין בְּכָאן אִסּוּר גָּמוּר אַף לְפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּכַתְּחִלָּהנז נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר לְהַקְדִּים הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל הַפְּרוּסָה לְפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה הִיא עַל הַפְּרוּסָה. אֲבָל הָעִקָּר הוּא כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה שֶׁבִּרְכַּת "הַמּוֹצִיא" שֶׁמְּבָרֵךְ בַּתְּחִלָּה הִיא עַל הַשְּׁלֵמָה, וּלְפִיכָךְ צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ הַפְּרוּסָה תַּחַת הַשְּׁלֵמָה קֹדֶם הַבְּצִיעָה, שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לַעֲבֹר עַל הַמִּצְוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,נח,35 וְלָכֵן אוֹכֵל בַּתְּחִלָּה הַכְּזַיִת מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה, וְאֵין אָנוּ חוֹשְׁשִׁין לַסְּבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ חֲשָׁשׁ אַף לְפִי סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, כְּגוֹן לֶאֱכֹל כְּזַיִת שָׁלֵם מֵהַשְּׁלֵמָה בַּהֲסִבָּהנט):

10 There are some who are accustomed to dip in salt the olive-sized portion [of matzah over which the blessing] HaMotzi [is recited] and [the olive-sized portion of matzah over which the blessing] al achilas matzah [is recited].36 This is not the custom in these regions. [It is acceptable not to dip the matzah in salt,] because bread [made from fine flour] does not require salt, as explained in sec. 167[:8].

True, during the other days of Pesach, the matzah is dipped in salt even though it is [made from fine flour]. Nevertheless, on these two nights of Pesach, it is not customary to do so, [as an expression of how one] cherishes the matzah, [and] fulfills his obligation with matzah that does not have any other flavor mixed in with it at all.37 Nevertheless, according to the fundamentals of the law, there is no concern [should one dip the matzah in salt].38

(By contrast, one should refrain from dipping matzah in liquids according to the fundamentals of the law, as stated in sec. 461[:12].)39

י יֵשׁ נוֹהֲגִין לְטַבֵּל בְּמֶלַחס אֶת הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "הַמּוֹצִיא" וְשֶׁל "אֲכִילַת מַצָּה".36 וּבִמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵין נוֹהֲגִין כֵּן,סא לְפִי שֶׁפַּת נְקִיָּה אֵין צָרִיךְ מֶלַח,סב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קס"ז.סג וְאַף שֶׁבִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַפֶּסַח מַטְבִּילִין הַמַּצָּה בְּמֶלַח אַף שֶׁהִיא נְקִיָּה,סד מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּב' לֵילוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁל פֶּסַח – אֵין נוֹהֲגִין כֵּן, מִפְּנֵי חִבּוּב מַצָּה,סה לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בְּמַצָּה שֶׁאֵין עִמָּהּ תַּעֲרֹבֶת טַעַם אַחֵר כְּלָל.37 אֲבָל מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין אֵין לָחֹשׁ לָזֶה.סו,38

(אֲבָל לְטַבֵּל הַמַּצָּה בְּמַשְׁקִין – יֵשׁ לִמְנֹעַ מֵעִקַּר הַדִּין,סז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תס"אסח,39):

11 After eating the olive-sized portion [over which the blessing al] achilas matzah [was recited], one should immediately40 take an olive-sized portion41 of maror and submerge it entirely in charoses to kill the kappa in the maror so that [eating the maror] will not harm him.42 ([The term kappa] refers to a type of worm that infests maror; charoses kills it.)43

In the present era, it is not customary to submerge [the maror] entirely [in the charoses], only to dip a portion [into it]. There are those who justify the custom, [explaining that] kappa is not found at present. [The maror] is dipped in the charoses only as a mitzvah, [because the charoses] recalls the mortar.44 Even though [the charoses is a mitzvah], a blessing is not recited over it, because it is secondary to the maror, and is included in the blessing recited over the maror.45

יא אַחַר שֶׁאָכַל הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה – יִקַּחסט מִיָּדע,40 כְּזַיִת41 מָרוֹר וִישַׁקְּעֶנּוּ כֻּלּוֹ בַּחֲרֹסֶת,עא,42 כְּדֵי לְהָמִית אֶת הַקַּפָּאעב (פֵּרוּשׁעג מִין תּוֹלַעַת יֵשׁ בַּמָּרוֹר וְהוּא מֵת עַל יְדֵי הַחֲרֹסֶת43) שֶׁבַּמָּרוֹר שֶׁלֹּא יַזִּיקֶנּוּ. וְעַכְשָׁו אֵין נוֹהֲגִין לְשַׁקְּעוֹ כֻּלּוֹ, אֶלָּא בְּטִבּוּל מִקְצָתוֹ.עד וְיֵשׁ שֶׁמְּיַשְּׁבִין הַמִּנְהָג, לְפִי שֶׁקַּפָּא זֶה אֵינוֹ מָצוּי בֵּינֵינוּ,עה וְאֵין מַטְבִּילִין בַּחֲרֹסֶת אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם מִצְוָה,עו שֶׁהוּא זֵכֶר לַטִּיט.עז,44 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין מְבָרְכִין עָלָיו, לְפִי שֶׁהוּא טָפֵל לַמָּרוֹרעח וְנִפְטָר בְּבִרְכַּת הַמָּרוֹר:עט,45

12 After dipping [the maror] in the charoses, one should recite the blessing [praising G‑d], “Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the eating of maror.”46 One should not recite the blessing before dipping the maror [in the charoses], because the mitzvah ofeating [the maror] should be performed in as immediate proximity to the recitation of the blessing as possible.

When dipping [the maror] in the charoses, one should be careful to remove [the maror] immediately and not leave it in [the charoses] extensively, lest the bitterness of the maror be nullified by the kiyuha of the charoses.47 For this reason, one should shake the charoses off [the maror] immediately after dipping [the maror in it].48

יב וְאַחַר שֶׁטִּבְּלוֹ בַּחֲרֹסֶת – יְבָרֵךְ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר",פ,46 וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ קֹדֶם הַטִּבּוּל, לְפִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִתְכֹּף הַבְּרָכָה לַעֲשִׂיַּת הַמִּצְוָה, דְּהַיְנוּ הָאֲכִילָה, בְּכָל מַה שֶּׁאֶפְשָׁר.פא וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְטַבְּלוֹ בַּחֲרֹסֶת – יִזָּהֵר לְהוֹצִיאוֹ מִיָּד, וְלֹא יַשְׁהֶנּוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ, שֶׁמָּא יִתְבַּטֵּל טַעַם מְרִירָתוֹפב עַל יְדֵי הַקִּיּוּהָא שֶׁבַּחֲרֹסֶת.פג,47 וּמִטַּעַם זֶה צָרִיךְ לְנַעֵר הַחֲרֹסֶת מֵעָלָיו מִיָּד לְאַחַר הַטִּבּוּל:פד,48

13 Even though, for the reason explained in sec. 472[:14],49 it is not necessary to recline while eating the maror,50 if one desires to recline, he may.

יג אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב בַּאֲכִילַת מָרוֹרפה,50 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ב,פו,49 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם רָצָה לְהָסֵב רַשַּׁאי:פז

14 True, as an initial preference, [when eating the] matzah one should swallow the entire olive-sized portion at once.51 Nevertheless, if it is difficult for [a person] to swallow the [entire] olive-sized portion of maror at once,52 he may rely on the authorities who maintain that it is not necessary to swallow the entire olive-sized portion at once. Instead, one may swallow [the maror] bit by bit, as long as [the entire time] from when he began [eating the maror] until he finished [eating it] is not more than k’dei achilas p’ras.29

יד אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּמַּצָּה צָרִיךְ לִבְלֹעַ כָּל הַכְּזַיִת בְּבַת אַחַת לְכַתְּחִלָּה,פח,51 מִכָּל מָקוֹם בַּמָּרוֹר אִם קָשֶׁה עָלָיו לִבְלֹעַ כְּזַיִת בְּבַת אַחַתפט,52 – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרצ שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לִבְלֹעַ כָּל הַכְּזַיִת בְּבַת אַחַת, אֶלָּא יָכוֹל לְבָלְעוֹ מְעַט מְעַט, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁהֶה מִתְּחִלָּה וְעַד סוֹף יוֹתֵר מִכְּדֵי אֲכִילַת פְּרָס:29

15 According to Scriptural Law, the mitzvah of [eating] maror applies only in the era when the Pesach sacrifice was eaten,53 as it is written:54 “You shall eat [the Pesach sacrifice] together with matzah and bitter herbs.” In the present era, by contrast, [the obligation to eat maror] is only of Rabbinic origin, ordained to commemorate the [Beis Ha]Mikdash.55

By contrast, the obligation to eat matzah on the first night [of Pesach] is of Scriptural origin even in the present era,56 as it is written:57 “In the evening, you shall eat matzos.” [That verse] makes no mention of the Pesach sacrifice.

טו מִצְוַת מָרוֹר מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא בִּזְמַן שֶׁהַפֶּסַח נֶאֱכָל,53 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרצא,54 "עַל מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ", אֲבָל בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםצב שֶׁתִּקְּנוּ זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ.צג,55

אֲבָל חִיּוּב אֲכִילַת מַצָּה בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן אַף בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה,צד,56 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרצה,57 "בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת", וְלֹא הֻזְכַּר שָׁם פֶּסַח:

16 Therefore,58 in the present era, if a person wrapped59 an olive-sized portion of matz­ah together with an olive-sized portion of maror and chewed them together60 and ate them, he would not fulfill his obligation.61 [The rationale is that] the maror, which is a Rabbinic ordinance, would nullify the taste of the matzah, which is a Scriptural [Commandment].

By contrast, in the era of the Beis HaMikdash, when [the mitzvah to eat] maror was also Scripturally [commanded, if one ate the matzah and maror in the manner described,] he would fulfill his obligation of [eating] matzah and his obligation of [eating] maror.62 [The rationale is that] the mitzvos of the Torah do not nullify each other. They are all of the same weight, for they all [involve] fulfilling the commandments of the Holy One, blessed be He. Moreover, according to the opinion of Hillel the Elder,63 a person does not fulfill his obligation as prescribed by the Torah unless he wraps [together] an olive-sized portion of the Pesach sacrifice, an olive-sized portion of maror, and an olive-sized portion of matzah and eats them together, in fulfillment of the charge,54 “You shall eat [the Pesach sacrifice] together with matzah and bitter herbs.”

טז לְפִיכָךְ,58 אִם כָּרַךְ59 אָדָם כְּזַיִת מַצָּה וּכְזַיִת מָרוֹרצו וּלְעָסָן יַחַדצז,60 וַאֲכָלָן בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,61 שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים מְבַטֵּל אֶת טַעַם הַמַּצָּה שֶׁהִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.צח

אֲבָל בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר הוּא גַּם כֵּן מִן הַתּוֹרָה – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מַצָּה וִידֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר,צט,62 לְפִי שֶׁמִּצְוֹת שֶׁל תּוֹרָה אֵינָן מְבַטְּלוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹ,ק שֶׁשְּׁקוּלִין הֵן כְּאַחַת, שֶׁכֻּלָּן קִיּוּם מִצְוֹתָיו שֶׁל הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵן.קא

וְלֹא עוֹד, אֶלָּא שֶׁלְּפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל הַזָּקֵןקב,63 אֵין אָדָם יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כּוֹרֵךְ כְּזַיִת פֶּסַח וּכְזַיִת מָרוֹר וּכְזַיִת מַצָּהקג וְאוֹכְלָן בְּיַחַד, לְקַיֵּם מַה שֶּׁנֶּאֱמַר:קד,54 "עַל מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים יֹאכְלֻהוּ":

17 True, in the present era, when maror is a Rabbinic ordinance and matzah a Scriptural [Commandment], even Hillel would agree that if a person wrapped the [matzah and maror] together and ate them, he would not fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah], for [the flavor of] the maror would nullify the flavor of the matzah.64 Accordingly, one is obligated to eat an olive-sized portion of matzah alone – without maror – to fulfill the obligation of matzah according to Scriptural Law.65

Nevertheless, according to Hillel, [a person] does not [– even in the present era –] fulfill his obligation [to eat] maror unless he takes an additional olive-sized portion of matzah, wraps it with an olive-sized portion of maror, and eats them together.

[The rationale is that] the Sages ordained that in the present era, maror [be eaten] as a remembrance of the Beis HaMikdash [in a manner representative] of the Scriptural obligation [observed] at that time. And in the era of the Beis HaMikdash, according to Hillel, one would not fulfill his obligation for maror according to Scriptural Law unless he [eats it] wrapped together with matzah. Therefore, in the present era as well, one must wrap it together with matzah.

יז וְאַף בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה שֶׁמָּרוֹר אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים וּמַצָּה הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְאִם כְּרָכָן בְּיַחַד וַאֲכָלָן אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ אַף לְפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל, שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר מְבַטֵּל אֶת טַעַם הַמַּצָּה,64 וְאִם כֵּן חַיָּב הוּא לֶאֱכֹל כְּזַיִת מַצָּה בִּלְבַדָּהּ בְּלֹא מָרוֹר לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבַת מַצָּה מִן הַתּוֹרָה,65 מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר לְפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נוֹטֵל עוֹד כְּזַיִת מַצָּה וְכוֹרְכוֹ עִם כְּזַיִת מָרוֹר וְאוֹכְלָן בְּיַחַד,קה שֶׁהֲרֵי מָרוֹר בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה תִּקְּנוּהוּ חֲכָמִים זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ,קו שֶׁהָיָה אָז חִיּוּבוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וּבִזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר מִן הַתּוֹרָה לְפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן כּוֹרְכוֹ עִם הַמַּצָּה, לְפִיכָךְ גַּם עַכְשָׁו צָרִיךְ לְכָרְכוֹ עִם מַצָּה:קז

18 [However,] Hillel’s fellow [Sages] differed with him and maintained that it was not necessary to wrap59 [matzah and maror and eat them together] at all,62 neither according to Scriptural Law in the era of the Beis HaMikdash, nor according to Rabbinic Law in the present era.

According to their words, [in the present era]66 if first one ate an olive-sized portion of matzah alone and then ate an olive-sized portion of maror wrapped together with an olive-sized portion of matzah, he would not fulfill his obligation for maror, because the olive-sized portion of matzah in the wrap is a matter left to a person’s choice and is not a mitzvah at all according to their understanding. [Hence, the matzah will detract from the mitzvah] of maror [because] it will nullify the flavor of the maror in the wrap when [the person] chews them together.

According to Hillel, by contrast, the matzah in the wrap is a Rabbinic obligation. [Hence,] it does not nullify the flavor of the maror, for it is also a Rabbinic obligation. The two are equivalent and [therefore,] do not nullify each other.67

Since the halachah was not unequivocally determined, neither according to Hillel, nor according to the Sages [who differed with him], to satisfy both opinions, a person [must do the following]:61 He must eat an olive-sized portion of matzah alone, without maror and recite the blessing al achilas matzah. With this olive-sized portion, he fulfills his obligation [to eat matzah] according to Scriptural Law, even according to Hillel.68 Afterwards, [the person] must eat an olive-sized portion of maror alone, without matzah and recite the blessing al achilas maror.69With this olive-sized portion, he fulfills his obligation [to eat] maror according to the other Sages.70 Afterwards, [the person] should wrap an olive-sized portion of matzah and an olive-sized portion of maror [together] and eat them together as a remembrance of the Beis HaMikdash, as Hillel [maintains]. He should not recite a blessing61 – neither over the matzah, nor over the maror – when [eating] this wrap, for perhaps the halachah follows the Sages [who differ with Hillel, and maintain] that [eating] this wrap does not [fulfill] a mitzvah at all. Moreover, even according to Hillel, [the person] fulfills his obligation with the blessings that he recited over the matzah71 and the maror previously.72

[For this reason,] one should be careful not to speak concerning any matter that does not concern the meal73 from the time he recites the blessing al achilas matzah until he eats this wrap, so that this blessing and the blessing [recited] over the maror will also cover this wrap [to satisfy] Hillel’s opinion. If, however, one violated [these instructions] and spoke [before eating the korech], he need not recite another blessing, for perhaps the halachah follows the views of the other Sages.74

However, if one transgressed and spoke about a matter that did not concern the meal between the recitation of the blessing and the beginning75 of eating matzah or maror, a second blessing must be recited. [Moreover,] as an initial preference, one should not speak between the recitation of the blessing and the beginning of eating [these foods], even about matters concerning the meal.

There are some who are careful not to speak about matters that do not concern the meal from the time they recite the blessing al achilas matzah until they eat the afikoman, so that the blessing will also cover eating the afikoman.76This is, [however,] an excessive stringency.

It is customary in these regions to say [the following] before eating the wrap: “This is what Hillel did when the Beis HaMikdash stood.77 He would wrap matzah and maror…” The Pesach sacrifice should not be mentioned. True, Hillel would include an olive-sized portion of the Pesach sacrifice in this wrap. Nevertheless, since we say “This78 is what [Hillel did],” and we do not have a Pesach sacrifice, we do not mention it. Nonetheless, one who does mention it is not remiss.79

יח וּלְפִי שֶׁחוֹלְקִין עָלָיו חֲבֵרָיו עַל הִלֵּל וְאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְכָרְכָם59 כְּלָל,קח,62 לֹא מִן הַתּוֹרָה בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּם וְלֹא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה, וּלְפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם66 אִם אוֹכֵל בַּתְּחִלָּה כְּזַיִת מַצָּה בִּלְבַדָּהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ אוֹכֵל כְּזַיִת מָרוֹר בִּכְרִיכָה עִם כְּזַיִת מַצָּה – לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר, לְפִי שֶׁכְּזַיִת מַצָּה שֶׁבַּכְּרִיכָה הִיא רְשׁוּת וְאֵין בָּהּ שׁוּם מִצְוָה לְפִי דִּבְרֵיהֶם, וַהֲרֵי הוּא מְבַטֵּל אֶת טַעַם הַמָּרוֹר שֶׁבַּכְּרִיכָה כְּשֶׁלּוֹעֲסָן יַחַד.

אֲבָל לְפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל שֶׁהַמַּצָּה שֶׁבַּכְּרִיכָה הִיא חוֹבָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים – אֵינָהּ מְבַטֶּלֶת אֶת טַעַם הַמָּרוֹר שֶׁהוּא גַּם כֵּן חוֹבָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים, וְהֵן זֶה כְּזֶה, וְאֵינָן מְבַטְּלִין זֶה אֶת זֶה.קט,67

וְכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִפְסְקָה הֲלָכָה לֹא כְּהִלֵּל וְלֹא כַּחֲבֵרָיו, לְפִיכָךְ לָצֵאת יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם61 – צָרִיךְ אָדָם שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת מַצָּה בִּלְבַד בְּלֹא מָרוֹר, וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה",קי שֶׁבִּכְזַיִת זֶה הוּא יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה אַף לְפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל,קיא,68 וְאַחַר כָּךְ צָרִיךְ שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּזַיִת מָרוֹר בִּלְבַד בְּלֹא מַצָּה, וִיבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר",קיב,69 שֶׁבִּכְזַיִת זֶה הוּא יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר לְפִי דִּבְרֵי חֲבֵרָיו,70 וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִכְרֹךְ כְּזַיִת מַצָּהקיג וּכְזַיִת מָרוֹר וְיֹאכְלֵם בְּיַחַד זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ כְּהִלֵּל,קיד וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל כְּרִיכָה זוֹקטו,61 לֹא בִּרְכַּת הַמַּצָּה וְלֹא בִּרְכַּת הַמָּרוֹר, שֶׁמָּא הֲלָכָה כַּחֲבֵרָיו וְאֵין בִּכְרִיכָה זוֹ שׁוּם מִצְוָה, וְאַף לְפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל הוּא יוֹצֵא בְּבִרְכַּת הַמַּצָּה71 וְהַמָּרוֹר שֶׁבֵּרַךְ כְּבָר.קטז,72

וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְהָשִׂיחַ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעִנְיַן הַסְּעוּדָה73 מִשֶּׁבֵּרַךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כְּרִיכָה זוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה בְּרָכָה זוֹ וּבִרְכַּת הַמָּרוֹר גַּם לִכְרִיכָה זוֹקיז לְפִי דַּעַת הִלֵּל. וְאִם עָבַר וְשָׂח – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ עַל כְּרִיכָה זוֹ,קיח שֶׁמָּא הֲלָכָה כַּחֲבֵרָיו.קיט,74

אֲבָל אִם עָבַר וְשָׂח בֵּין הַבְּרָכָה לְהַתְחָלַת75 אֲכִילַת הַמַּצָּה אוֹ הַמָּרוֹר – צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וּלְבָרֵךְ אִם שָׂח בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעִנְיַן הַסְּעוּדָה. וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר שֶׁהוּא מֵעִנְיַן הַסְּעוּדָה – אֵין לְהָשִׂיחַ לְכַתְּחִלָּה בֵּין הַבְּרָכָה לְהַתְחָלַת הָאֲכִילָה.קכ

וְיֵשׁ נִזְהָרִין בָּזֶה שֶׁלֹּא לְהָשִׂיחַ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֵעִנְיַן הַסְּעוּדָה מִשֶּׁבֵּרַךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה" עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל הָאֲפִיקוֹמָן, כְּדֵי שֶׁתַּעֲלֶה בְּרָכָה זוֹ גַּם לַאֲכִילַת אֲפִיקוֹמָן.קכא,76 וְחֻמְרָא יְתֵרָא הִיא.קכב

נוֹהֲגִין בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לוֹמַר קֹדֶם אֲכִילַת כְּרִיכָה זוֹ: "כֵּן עָשָׂה הִלֵּל בִּזְמַן שֶׁבֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ קַיָּםקכג,77 הָיָה כּוֹרֵךְ מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר כוּ'". וְאֵין מַזְכִּירִין פֶּסַח,קכד אַף שֶׁהִלֵּל הָיָה כּוֹרֵךְ גַּם כְּזַיִת פֶּסַח בִּכְרִיכָה זוֹ,קכה מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִים: "כֵּן78 עָשָׂה", וְאָנוּ אֵין לָנוּ פֶּסַח – לְפִיכָךְ אֵין מַזְכִּירִין אוֹתוֹ.קכו וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, הַמַּזְכִּיר – לֹא הִפְסִיד:קכז,79

19 It is not necessary to dip the maror [used in] this wrap in charoses, because one already fulfilled the mitzvah of charoses when dipping the maror the first time.80 Also, there is no concern about kappa81in this maror, since one eats it in a wrap with matzah.82

There are authorities who differ with the above and maintain that [this maror] must [also] be dipped in charoses. [Their rationale is that] this wrap is a remembrance of [the practice in] the Beis HaMikdash according to Hillel, and Hillel would fulfill the mitzvah of eating charoses with the maror in the korech, since he did not eat maror at all before [eating] this wrap.83

The [prevailing] custom in these regions is to follow the first opinion. However, fundamentally, the halachah follows the second opinion.84

יט הַמָּרוֹר שֶׁל כְּרִיכָה זוֹ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְטָבְלוֹ בַּחֲרֹסֶת,קכח שֶׁכְּבָר קִיֵּם מִצְוַת חֲרֹסֶת בְּטִבּוּל מָרוֹר רִאשׁוֹן.80 וְגַם אֵין לָחֹשׁ לַקַּפָּא81 שֶׁבְּמָרוֹר זֶה שֶׁאוֹכְלוֹ עִם מַצָּה בִּכְרִיכָה.קכט,82 וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִיםקל שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְטָבְלוֹ בַּחֲרֹסֶת, שֶׁהֲרֵי כְּרִיכָה זוֹ הִיא זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ כְּהִלֵּל, וְהִלֵּל הָיָה מְקַיֵּם מִצְוַת חֲרֹסֶת בְּמָרוֹר זֶה שֶׁבַּכְּרִיכָה,קלא שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הָיָה אוֹכֵל מָרוֹר כְּלָל קֹדֶם כְּרִיכָה זוֹ.קלב,83 וְהַמִּנְהָג בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ כַּסְּבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה,קלג אֲבָל הָעִקָּר הוּא כַּסְּבָרָא הַשְּׁנִיָּה:קלד,84

20 There are authorities who maintain that it is not necessary to recline when eating the korech, since it is eaten with maror, and one need not recline [when eating] maror.85 There are [other] authorities who maintain that it is necessary to recline, because one must recline when [eating] matzah. True, one already ate matzah while reclining.86 Nevertheless, [eating] this wrapis a remembrance of [the practice in the era of] the Beis HaMikdash according to Hillel’s [opinion], and Hillel would not eat matz­ah before [partaking of] this wrap. [Thus,] he would fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] with the matzah in this wrap. [Hence,] he was required to recline while eating it. Accordingly, we must also recline [while eating the korech].

Fundamentally, the halachah [follows this reasoning],87 as explained in sec. 472[:14]. Nevertheless, after the fact, [if] one forgot and ate [the korech] without reclining, he may rely on the first opinion, and he need not eat [the korech] again while reclining.88

כ כְּרִיכָה זוֹ – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלה שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ הֲסִבָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאוֹכְלִין בָּהּ מָרוֹר, וּמָרוֹר אֵין צָרִיךְ הֲסִבָּה.קלו,85 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלז שֶׁצְּרִיכָה הֲסִבָּה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמַּצָּה צְרִיכָה הֲסִבָּה. וְאַף שֶׁכְּבָר אָכַל מַצָּה בַּהֲסִבָּה,86 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּרִיכָה זוֹ הִיא זֵכֶר לַמִּקְדָּשׁ כְּהִלֵּל, וְהִלֵּל לֹא הָיָה אוֹכֵל מַצָּה קֹדֶם כְּרִיכָה זוֹ, וּבַמַּצָּה שֶׁבִּכְרִיכָה זוֹ הוּא יוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, וְהָיָה צָרִיךְ לְהָסֵב בַּאֲכִילָתָהּ, לְפִיכָךְ גַּם אֲנַחְנוּ צְרִיכִים לְהָסֵב.קלח וְכֵן עִקָּר,קלט,87 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן תע"ב.קמ

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, בְּדִיעֲבַד שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְאָכַל בְּלֹא הֲסִבָּה – יֵשׁ לִסְמֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל בַּהֲסִבָּה:קמא,88

21 The matzah and the maror in this wrap must be swallowed all at once.89 As an initial preference, one should be careful to swallow the entire olive-sized portion of matzah and the entire olive-sized portion of maror while they are crushed in his mouth. However, if it is difficult for [a person] to swallow two olive-sized portions at one time, he may swallow some of the olive-sized portion [of matzah] and some of the olive-sized portion [of maror] at one time, and then swallow some more of the olive-sized portion [of matzah] and some of the olive-sized portion [of maror] at one time until he eats the two olive-sized portions in their entirety.90

כא הַמַּצָּה וְהַמָּרוֹר שֶׁבִּכְרִיכָה זוֹ – צָרִיךְ לִבְלֹעַ אוֹתָהּ בְּבַת אַחַת.קמב,89 וּלְכַתְּחִלָּה יִזָּהֵר לִבְלֹעַ כָּל הַכְּזַיִת מַצָּה בְּבַת אַחַת עִם כָּל הַכְּזַיִת מָרוֹר כְּשֶׁהֵן מְרֻסָּקִים בְּפִיו,קמג אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן קָשֶׁה עָלָיוקמד לִבְלֹעַ ב' הַזֵּיתִים בְּבַת אַחַת, שֶׁאָז יָכוֹל לִבְלֹעַ מְעַט מִכְּזַיִת זֶה וּמְעַט מִכְּזַיִת זֶה בְּבַת אַחַת, וְאַחַר כָּךְ יַחֲזֹר וְיִבְלַע מְעַט מִכְּזַיִת זֶה וּמְעַט מִכְּזַיִת זֶה בְּבַת אַחַת, עַד שֶׁיֹּאכַל כָּל הַשְּׁנֵי זֵיתִים:90

22 When a person has no other vegetables to eat for the dipping before reciting the Haggadah91 except those types of vegetables over which he could fulfill the obligation of maror,92 he should [eat one of those types of vegetables after] dipping them in vinegar or salt water before reciting the Haggadah. He should recite the blessing al achilas maror over them.93 [At this time, the person] need not eat an olive-sized portion of [maror].94

Afterwards, after eating the olive-sized portion with which he fulfilled the mitzvah to eat matzah, [the person] should dip an olive-sized portion of maror in charoses and eat it without [first reciting] a blessing. [A blessing should not be recited] since [the person] cannot recite the blessing [praising G‑d], “Who sanctified us with His mitzvos and commanded us to eat maror,” when eating [maror at] this [time], because he already ate from it beforehand. Even though [the person] makes an extensive interruption between [reciting] the blessing al achilas maror and [eating] the olive-sized portion of maror that he eats after [eating the] matzah, that is not significant. [The rationale is that] since [the person] tasted some maror directly after reciting the blessing, he already began [the fulfillment of] the mitzvah. Thus, no interruption was made between the blessing and the beginning of the observance of the mitzvah.95

Nevertheless, even if [a person] ate an olive-sized portion or more of maror when dipping before reciting the Haggadah, he must still eat another olive-sized portion [of maror] after eating matzah.96 [The rationale is that] the first time he ate [maror], it was solely to arouse the wonderment of the children.97 It is [only] through eating [the maror] the second time that he fulfills the obligation [to eat] maror, for this is the initially preferred manner of [performing] the mitzvah: not to fulfill the obligation of [eating] maror until after fulfilling the obligation of [eating] matzah, as [implied by] the verse:54 “You shall eat [the Pesach sacrifice] together with matzah and bitter herbs.”98

כב מִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ שׁוּם יְרָקוֹת לֶאֱכֹל בְּטִבּוּל קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה91 כִּי אִם מִינֵי יְרָקוֹת שֶׁיּוֹצְאִים בָּהֶם יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר92 – יְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם "עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר"93 כְּשֶׁמַּטְבִּילָם בְּחֹמֶץ אוֹ בְּמֵי מֶלַח קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה,קמה וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל מֵהֶם כְּזַיִת,קמו,94 וְאַחַר כָּךְ, אַחַר שֶׁאָכַל הַכְּזַיִת שֶׁל "אֲכִילַת מַצָּה"קמז – יַטְבִּיל כְּזַיִת מָרוֹר בַּחֲרֹסֶת וְיֹאכְלֶנּוּ בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה,קמח שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְבָרֵךְ עַל אֲכִילָה זוֹ "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר", כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר אָכַל מִמֶּנוּ קֹדֶם לָכֵן.קמט

וְאַף שֶׁמַּפְסִיק הַרְבֵּה בֵּין בִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר" לְהַכְּזַיִת מָרוֹר שֶׁאוֹכֵל אַחַר הַמַּצָּה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמִּיָּד אַחַר הַבְּרָכָה טָעַם מְעַט מֵהַמָּרוֹרקנ – הֲרֵי הִתְחִיל בַּמִּצְוָה, וְאֵין כָּאן הֶפְסֵק בֵּין הַבְּרָכָה לִתְחִלַּת עֲשִׂיַּת הַמִּצְוָה.קנא,95

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ אָכַל כְּזַיִת מָרוֹר אוֹ יוֹתֵר בַּטִּבּוּל שֶׁקֹּדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה, אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל כְּזַיִת אַחַר אֲכִילַת מַצָּה,96 לְפִי שֶׁהָאֲכִילָה הָרִאשׁוֹנָה אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי לְהַתְמִיהַּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת,קנב,97 וּבַאֲכִילָה הַשְּׁנִיָּה הוּא שֶׁיּוֹצֵא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר, שֶׁכָּךְ הִיא הַמִּצְוָה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁלֹּא לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר קֹדֶם שֶׁיָּצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מַצָּה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקנג,54 "עַל מַצּוֹת וּמְרֹרִים":קנד,98

23 When one eats maror before reciting the Haggadah, he should recite the blessing Borei pri haadamah before the blessing al achilas maror,99provided [the species of maror he is eating] is fit to be eaten when it is raw, e.g., romaine lettuce and the like. However, if [the species of maror] is not at all fit to be eaten raw, e.g., horseradish (called chrain) and the like, he should only recite the blessing al achilas maror.100

כג וּכְשֶׁאוֹכֵל מֵהַמָּרוֹר קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה – יְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "בּוֹרֵא פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה" קֹדֶם בִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר"קנה,99 אִם הוּא רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי, כְּגוֹן חֲזֶרֶת וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהּ, אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לַאֲכִילָה כְּלָל כְּשֶׁהוּא חַי, כְּגוֹן הַתַּמְכָא (שֶׁקּוֹרִין קרין) וְכַיּוֹצֵא בּוֹ – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו כִּי אִם בִּרְכַּת "עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר":קנו,100

24 All the above applies101 when it is impossible for [the person] to find other vegetables [to dip in vinegar or salt water before reading the Haggadah].99 If, however, it is possible to find [other vegetables], it is desirable to seek them out so that [the person] will not have to recite the blessing al achilas maror when he dips them [in vinegar or salt water] before reciting the Haggadah, for there is an authority102 who maintains that it is not proper to [recite the blessing al achilas maror at this time]. (See Yoreh Deah, sec. 296,103 [which explains] which species are [classified as] vegetables.)

כד וְכָל זֶה101 כְּשֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לִמְצֹא שְׁאָר יְרָקוֹת,99 אֲבָל אִם אֶפְשָׁר לְמָצְאָם – טוֹב לַחֲזֹר אַחֲרֵיהֶם,קנז שֶׁלֹּא יִצְטָרֵךְ לְבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מָרוֹר" כְּשֶׁמְּטַבְּלוֹ קֹדֶם אֲמִירַת הַהַגָּדָה, שֶׁיֵּשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרקנח,102 שֶׁאֵין נָכוֹן לַעֲשׂוֹת כֵּן.

(וְעַיֵּן בְּיוֹרֶה דֵּעָה סִימָן רצ"וקנט,103 מַה הֵם הַמִּינֵי יְרָקוֹת):

25 If one swallows matzah without chewing it, he fulfills his obligation104 even though he did not sense the taste of matzah in his mouth. [The rationale is that] since his throat105 derived satisfaction from it, this is called eating. Nevertheless, as an initial preference, one must chew [the matzah] until he senses its taste in his mouth.

By contrast, if one swallowed maror without chewing, to the extent that he did not taste the bitterness in his mouth, he did not fulfill his obligation.104 [The rationale is that] the Torah requires that one feel the food’s bitterness in his mouth, to recall that [the Egyptians] “embittered their lives.”106

כה בָּלַע מַצָּהקס וְלֹא לְעָסָהּקסא – יָצָא104 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הִרְגִּישׁ טַעַם מַצָּה בְּפִיו,קסב דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁנֶּהֱנָה גְּרוֹנוֹ105 מִמֶּנָּהקסג – הֲרֵי זוֹ נִקְרֵאת אֲכִילָה.קסד אֲבָל לְכַתְּחִלָּה צָרִיךְ לְלָעֳסָהּ עַד שֶׁיַּרְגִּישׁ טַעְמָהּ בְּפִיו.קסה

אֲבָל אִם בָּלַע מָרוֹרקסו וְלֹא לְעָסוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּרְגִּישׁ טַעַם מְרִירָתוֹ בְּפִיוקסז – לֹא יָצָא,104 שֶׁהַתּוֹרָה הִקְפִּידָה לְמָרֵר פִּיו שֶׁל אוֹכֵל, זֵכֶר לְ"וַיְמָרְרוּ אֶת חַיֵּיהֶם":קסח,106

26 If one swallows matzah and maror together [without chewing them], even though he does not fulfill his obligation [to eat] maror, he fulfills his obligation [to eat] matzah.104 [The Sages’ statement] that maror nullifies the flavor of matzah107 applies only when one chews them together. [The rationale is that when a person chews the matzah and maror together], he senses their taste in his mouth and thus, the taste of maror, which is merely a Rabbinic ordinance, nullifies the taste of matzah, which is a Scriptural [Commandment]. When, however, one swallows [the two] without chewing them [and thus] does not sense their taste at all, the maror does not nullify the matzah.108

כו בָּלַע מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר כְּאֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מָרוֹר – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבַת מַצָּה.קסט,104 וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁהַמָּרוֹר מְבַטֵּל אֶת טַעַם הַמַּצָּה,קע,107 אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁלּוֹעֲסָן יַחַד,קעא שֶׁאָז הוּא מַרְגִּישׁ טַעְמָן בְּפִיו, וְלָכֵן מְבַטֵּל טַעַם הַמָּרוֹר שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֶת טַעַם הַמַּצָּה שֶׁהִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה, אֲבָל כְּשֶׁבּוֹלְעָן בְּלִי לְעִיסָה שֶׁאֵין מַרְגִּישׁ טַעְמָן כְּלָל – אֵין הַמָּרוֹר מְבַטֵּל אֶת הַמַּצָּה:108

27 Even if the maror is wrapped around the matzah and thus intervenes between the matzah and one’s pharynx, that is not significant. Since both [matzah and maror] are both types of food, they are considered as being of the same type, and an entity of one type is never considered as an intervention relative to another entity of its type.109 If, however, one covered the matzah with palm bast and swallowed it, he does not fulfill his obligation.104 [The rationale is that] palm bast is not a food. [Hence,] it intervenes between the matzah and [the person’s] pharynx, and this is not the way one eats.

כז וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמָּרוֹר כָּרוּךְ סְבִיב הַמַּצָּה וְנִמְצָא שֶׁהוּא חוֹצֵץ בֵּין הַמַּצָּה לְבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,קעב כֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם מִינֵי מַאֲכָל – הֲרֵי הֵן כְּמִין אֶחָד, וּמִין בְּמִינוֹ אֵינוֹ חוֹצֵץ.קעג,109 אֲבָל אִם כָּרַךְ הַמַּצָּה בְּסִיב וּבְלָעָהּ – לֹא יָצָא,קעד,104 שֶׁהַסִּיב שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִין מַאֲכָל חוֹצֵץ בֵּין הַמַּצָּה לְבֵית הַבְּלִיעָה,קעה וְאֵין דֶּרֶךְ אֲכִילָה בְּכָךְ:קעו

28 If one ate matzah without [the proper] intent – i.e., he did not intend to fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] with this eating – he [nevertheless] fulfilled his obligation.110 [The Sages’] statement that whenever a person performs a mitzvah without intent, i.e., he did not intend to fulfill his obligation when performing the act, he does not fulfill his obligation, applies only with regard to mitzvos that do not involve any physical satisfaction, for example, the recitation of the Shema ([see] sec. 60[:5]),111 the sounding of the shofar ([see] sec. 589[:5]),112 taking the lulav ([see] sec. 651),113 and the like. [In those instances,] when one does not intend to perform a mitzvah, he does not fulfill the mitzvah at all, for he is merely performing a casual activity.114 His act is not considered as performing a mitzvah.

By contrast, mitzvos that involve eating, for example, the Pesach sacrifice, matzah, maror, and the like [are governed by different rules]. Since they [lead to] physical satisfaction, even though one did not intend to fulfill his obligation by eating, he fulfills his obligation.115 [The rationale is that] since the body, despite [the person’s] intentions, derives satisfaction from eating [the food], he is said to have eaten [it] and thus, he fulfilled the mitzvah of eating.

Therefore, even if [the person] did not desire to eat matzah, and non-Jews or robbers compelled him to eat it, he fulfills his obligation by eating [the matzah in] this [manner]116 because – [even though it was] against his will – his body derived satisfaction from eating it.

כח אָכַל מַצָּה בְּלֹא כַּוָּנָה, שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ – יָצָא.קעז,110

וְלֹא אָמְרוּ שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן שֶׁלֹּא בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּעֲשִׂיָּה זוֹ, לֹא יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ, אֶלָּא בְּמִצְוֹת שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶן הֲנָאַת הַגּוּף כְּלָל, כְּגוֹן קְרִיאַת שְׁמַע (בְּסִימָן ס'קעח,111), וּתְקִיעַת שׁוֹפָר (בְּסִימָן תקפ"טקעט,112), וּנְטִילַת לוּלָב (בְּסִימָן תרנ"אקפ,113), וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, שֶׁכְּשֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן בַּעֲשִׂיָּתָן לְשֵׁם מִצְוָה – לֹא קִיֵּם הַמִּצְוָה כְּלָל, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא כְּמִתְעַסֵּק בְּעָלְמָא,114 וְאֵין עֲשִׂיָּתוֹ נִקְרֵאת עֲשִׂיַּת מִצְוָה. אֲבָל מִצְוֹת הַתְּלוּיוֹת בַּאֲכִילָה, כְּגוֹן פֶּסַח מַצָּה וּמָרוֹר וְכַיּוֹצֵא בָּהֶן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהֶן הֲנָאָה לַגּוּף, אַף שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן לָצֵאת בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ,קפא,115 שֶׁהֲרֵי עַל כָּרְחוֹ נֶהֱנָה הַגּוּף מֵאֲכִילָה,116 וַהֲרֵי זוֹ נִקְרֵאת אֲכִילָה, וְנִמְצָא שֶׁקִּיֵּם מִצְוַת הָאֲכִילָה.

וּלְפִיכָךְ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא רָצָה לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּהקפב וּכְפָאוּהוּ נָכְרִים אוֹ לִסְטִים לְאָכְלָהּ – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ,קפג כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ נֶהֱנָה מִמֶּנָּה גּוּפוֹ:

29 All the above117 applies when [the person] knew that this night was Pesach and that it was matzah [that he was eating], but he ate [the matzah] without the intent [to fulfill the mitzvah] or [he ate it] against his will.118

If, however, [a person] did not know that the night was Pesach and he ate matzah, even [if he ate it] willingly, and similarly, even if he knew that the night was Pesach, but he had in mind to eat meat, but instead matzah came to hand and he ate it while thinking it was meat, he did not fulfill his obligation [to eat matzah] when eating.119

If, however, [a person] ate maror in such circumstances,120 he fulfills his obligation. [The rationale is that] in the present era, [eating] maror is a Rabbinic ordinance,121 and the intent [to fulfill one’s obligation] is not an absolute imperative for all the mitzvos that are Rabbinic ordinances.122

There are authorities who differ with the latter conclusion and maintain that mitzvos that are Rabbinic ordinances also require [that one fulfill them] with intent, because all [the practices] established by our Sages were ordained in a manner resembling Scriptural practices.123 It is desirable to give weight to their words and eat maror again with the intent [to fulfill one’s obligation, but] without reciting a blessing.124

כט וְכָל זֶה117 כְּשֶׁהוּא יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁלַּיְלָה זוֹ פֶּסַח וְשֶׁזּוֹ הִיא מַצָּה אֶלָּא שֶׁאֲכָלָהּ שֶׁלֹּא בְּמִתְכַּוֵּן אוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בִּרְצוֹנוֹ,118 אֲבָל אִם לֹא יָדַע שֶׁהַלַּיְלָה פֶּסַח וְאָכַל מַצָּה אֲפִלּוּ בִּרְצוֹנוֹ, וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם יָדַע שֶׁהַלַּיְלָה פֶּסַח, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיָה סָבוּר לֶאֱכֹל בָּשָׂר וְנִזְדַּמְּנָה לוֹ מַצָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ כְּסָבוּר שֶׁזֶּהוּ בָּשָׂר – לֹא יָצָא בַּאֲכִילָה זוֹ.קפד,119

אֲבָל אִם אָכַל מָרוֹר בְּעִנְיָן זֶה120 – יָצָא,קפה לְפִי שֶׁמָּרוֹר בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,קפו,121 וְכָל מִצְוָה מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים אֵין צָרִיךְ כַּוָּנָה.קפז,122

וְיֵשׁ חוֹלְקִין עַל זֶה וְאוֹמְרִיםקפח שֶׁגַּם הַמִּצְוֹת מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים צְרִיכוֹת כַּוָּנָה, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁתִּקְּנוּ חֲכָמִים תִּקְּנוּ כְּעֵין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה.קפט,123 וְטוֹב לָחֹשׁ לְדִבְרֵיהֶם, לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל מָרוֹר בְּכַוָּנָה בְּלֹא בְּרָכָה:קצ,124

30 If, however, a person ate [matzah] under these circumstances125 on the night of the [second] day of the festival celebrated in the Diaspora, all authorities agree that he is required to eat [matzah] again, even though [the observance of that day] is a Rabbinic ordinance.126 [The rationale is that it is universally accepted that] no distinction at all should be made between the first day of a holiday and the second [day celebrated in the Diaspora]127 lest [the second day] be treated with disrespect as a result.128

ל אֲבָל אִם אָכַל בְּעִנְיָן זֶה125 בְּלֵיל יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת אַף שֶׁהוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים126 – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן צָרִיךְ לַחֲזֹר וְלֶאֱכֹל לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, שֶׁאֵין לְחַלֵּק כְּלָל בֵּין יוֹם טוֹב רִאשׁוֹן לְשֵׁנִי בְּשׁוּם דָּבָר,127 שֶׁלֹּא יָבוֹאוּ בּוֹ לְזַלְזֵל עַל יְדֵי כֵן:קצא,128

31 A person who ate matzah while in the midst of an epileptic fit when he was not in control of his actions, but who regained his health afterwards [on that night], is obligated to eat [matzah] again after he regained his health. [The rationale is that] when he first ate [matzah], he was exempt from all the mitzvos.129

לא מִי שֶׁאָכַל מַצָּה כְּשֶׁהוּא נִכְפֶּה בְּעֵת שְׁטוּתוֹ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְרַפֵּא – חַיָּב לֶאֱכֹל אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְרַפֵּא, לְפִי שֶׁאֲכִילָה רִאשׁוֹנָה הָיְתָה בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהָיָה פָּטוּר מִכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת:קצב,129

32 The obligation to eat matzah applies only on the first night [of Pesach],130 as it is written:131 “In the evening, you shall eat matzos.” On all the other nights and days [of Pesach], one is adjured solely not to eat chametz. [The intent is that] if he desires to eat bread [consisting of flour] kneaded with water, he must be careful that it does not become chametz. Instead, he must bake [the dough] while it is [fit to become] matzah, when it has yet to become chametz. Concerning this, the Torah states,132 “You shall eat matzah for seven days,” i.e., [matzah] and not chametz.133 If, however, one does not at all desire to eat bread [consisting of flour] kneaded with water [during Pesach], but instead, [desires] to eat other foods, he may.

True, on a festival, one is obligated to eat bread, as stated in sec. 188[:10].134 Nevertheless, he may eat a loaf kneaded with mei peiros,135 which is rich matzah. (See, [however,] sec. 462[:7, which states that] in these regions, it is not customary [to eat] rich matzah at all.) However, poor man’s bread136 need only be eaten on the first night [of the holiday].137

[This concept is derived as follows:]138 It is written:139 “You shall eat matzos for six days140 and on the seventh day there shall be a convocation.” Thus, the seventh day is a subject that had been included [in the general category], and then was singled out to teach [something new]. For it was included in [the charge]: “You shall eat matzah for seven days,” but here, the seventh day was singled out [and removed from] the general category of days when matzah must be eaten to teach that there is no obligation to eat matzah on the seventh day.

[One of the principles of Scriptural interpretation is:]141 When a particular instance was included in a general category and then singled out [and removed] from that category, it was singled out not only to inform us with regard to its specific instance, but rather to inform us with regard to everything else included within the general category.

[Thus, the implication is that just as] one is not obligated to eat matzah [on the seventh day, so too, he need not eat matzah] during any of these seven days;142 it is only that he may not eat chametz, as explained [above].

[Our Sages continue:] Is it possible that this [release also applies] to the first night? [That cannot be, for] the verse states: “In the evening, you shall eat matzos.” [Thus,] the verse establishes an obligation [to eat matzah that night].

When one eats an olive-sized portion [of matzah that night], he fulfills his obligation according to Scriptural Law.143

לב וְאֵין חִיּוּב אֲכִילַת מַצָּה אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד,קצג,130 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַרקצד,131 "בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת". אֲבָל שְׁאָר כָּל הַלֵּילוֹת וְכָל הַיָּמִים – אֵינוֹ מֻזְהָר אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל חָמֵץ,קצה דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאִם רוֹצֶה לֶאֱכֹל פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם – יִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא תָּבֹא לִידֵי חִמּוּץ, אֶלָּא יֹאפֶנָּה כְּשֶׁהִיא מַצָּה שֶׁלֹּא נִתְחַמְּצָה עֲדַיִן. וְעַל זֶה אָמְרָה תּוֹרָה:קצו,132 "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצֹּת", כְּלוֹמַר וְלֹא חָמֵץ.קצז,133 אֲבָל אִם לֹא רָצָה לֶאֱכֹל כְּלָל פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמַיִם אֶלָּא שְׁאָר מִינֵי מַאֲכָלִים – הָרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ.קצח

וְאַף שֶׁבְּיוֹם טוֹב חַיָּב לֶאֱכֹל פַּת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִימָן קפ"ח,קצט,134 מִכָּל מָקוֹם יָכוֹל לֶאֱכֹל פַּת שֶׁנִּלּוֹשָׁה בְּמֵי פֵּרוֹת135 שֶׁהִיא מַצָּה עֲשִׁירָהר (וְעַיֵּן סִימָן תס"ברא שֶׁבִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵין נוֹהֲגִין בְּמַצָּה עֲשִׁירָה כְּלָל). אֲבָל "לֶחֶם עֹנִי"136 אֵין צָרִיךְ לֶאֱכֹל אֶלָּא בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן בִּלְבַד,137 שֶׁנֶּאֱמַררב,138 "שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצּוֹת140 וּבַיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי עֲצֶרֶת וְגוֹ'",139 הֲרֵי יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי הוּא דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה בִּכְלָל, וְיָצָא מִן הַכְּלָל לְלַמֵּד, שֶׁהֲרֵי הָיָה בִּכְלַל "שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תֹּאכַל מַצֹּת", וְכָאן יָצָא יוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִכְּלַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה, לְלַמֶּדְךָ שֶׁאֵין חוֹבָה לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁהָיָה בִּכְלָל וְיָצָא מִן הַכְּלָל לְלַמֵּד, לֹא לְלַמֵּד עַל עַצְמוֹ יָצָא, אֶלָּא לְלַמֵּד עַל הַכְּלָל כֻּלּוֹ יָצָא,141 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכָּל הַשִּׁבְעַת יָמִים אֵינוֹ מֻזְהָר לֶאֱכֹל מַצָּה142 אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לֶאֱכֹל חָמֵץ עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. יָכוֹל אַף בַּלַּיְלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן כֵּן? תַּלְמוּד לוֹמַר: "בָּעֶרֶב תֹּאכְלוּ מַצֹּת", הַכָּתוּב קְבָעוֹ חוֹבָה.רג

וּמִשֶּׁאָכַל כְּזַיִת – יָצָא יְדֵי חוֹבָתוֹ מִן הַתּוֹרָה:רד,143

33 If a person was held back by forces beyond his control and did not eat matzah on this night,144 there is no way he can compensate for this on other nights or days. Therefore, when a person eats matzah on the other nights or days, he does not recite the blessing al achilas matzah, even though he had yet to eat matzah from the onset of the holiday and had yet to recite a blessing on it.

לג וְאִם נֶאֱנַס וְלֹא אָכַל מַצָּה בְּלַיְלָה זֶה144 – אֵין לוֹ תַּשְׁלוּמִין בִּשְׁאָר לֵילוֹת וְיָמִים.רה לְפִיכָךְ כְּשֶׁאוֹכֵל מַצָּה בִּשְׁאָר לֵילוֹת וְיָמִים – אֵינוֹ מְבָרֵךְ "עַל אֲכִילַת מַצָּה"רו אַף שֶׁלֹּא אָכַל מַצָּה עֲדַיִן מִכְּנִיסַת הַפֶּסַח וְלֹא בֵּרַךְ עָלֶיהָ:רז