Hilchos Mechiras Chametz: The Laws [Governing] the Sale of Chametz

הִלְכוֹת מְכִירַת חָמֵץ

As is well-known among those distinguished for their [knowledge of] halachah,1many of the texts authored by the Rishonim were not yet published in the era of the Acharonim,2[e.g.,] Turei Zahav, Magen Avraham, and the authorities who follow [in the footsteps of] their [rulings. Indeed, these previous halachic works have remained unknown] until shortly before this present era. This is evident from the [gloss of] Shitah Mekubetzes to several tractates3 and other similar [texts]. Accordingly, one should certainly not rule leniently, relying on leniencies found in the works of the later authorities, [when their leniencies are in opposition to the words of the Rishonim]. In particular, this applies with regard to a severe Scriptural prohibition like chametz [on Pesach, whose severity is reflected by the fact] that the Torah prohibited [not only its consumption, but also forbade] its being seen [in one’s domain] and its [very] possesion.4

Anyone who surmises that the sale of chametz is [merely] a Rabbinic [safeguard]5 because of the universally [followed custom that chametz is nullified] – for customarily everyone nullifies his chametz, declaring, “May all chametz be nullified and be considered ownerless” – unwittingly errs. [The rationale is that] the chametz being sold is not included in the [declaration of] nullification nor is it considered ownerless, for [the person] has the intent of reacquiring it after Pesach,6 as explained in a responsum of Rashba,7citing the Talmud Yerushalmi.8 Rama also rules in this manner in his Darchei Moshe,9as does Pri Chadash.10 Accordingly, if the sale [of chametz] is not valid according to law, [the owner] violates the prohibitions against having [chametz]seen [in his domain] and possessing [chametz].11 Therefore, one should rule stringently regarding the matter.12

The primary laws regarding the sale of chametz to a non-Jew [when the seller’s] intent is that [the non-Jew] will return [the chametz] to him [after Pesach] that are mentioned in the works of the Rishonim,13 the Tosefta, Tractate Pesachim,14 and the Talmud Yerushalmi,15 concern a sale made with actual money,16 not on credit.17 [Later authorities] recently sought to ordain that [only a minimal amount actually be paid by the non-Jew initially and that the bill of sale] state, “The remainder [owed me] I extended to [the non-Jew] as a loan.”18 Even [using such a statement] is not effective according to the understanding of the leading Rishonim,19 as is plainly evident from the statements of [one of] the leading Acharonim, Rav Yisrael Isserlin, in [his] Terumas HaDeshen.20 He did not find a [way to validate] a sale by extending credit and having [the non-Jew] consider [the unpaid balance] as a loan; consult that text.

Accordingly, the only manner in which a sale on credit is effective is when another Jew acts as an intermediary,21 in a manner that the Jew who owns the chametz will never have any [further] involvement whatsoever with the non-Jewish purchaser of the chametz. The non-Jew will [thus] not remain at all obligated to the owner of the chametz. Instead, [the non-Jewish purchaser] will be [required to pay] another Jew22 to whom this chametz never belonged.23 Also, the debt which the non-Jew accepted will be [specifically] payable after Pesach, as explained in this document that is being sent to you.24 From it, any person can learn how to compose a bill of sale25 for all types of chametz that he possesses, for it is impossible to mention all types [of chametz] in [this] text.

The fundamental principle is that the Jewish owner of the chametz must willingly and sincerely consent that if the non-Jew desires, [the non-Jew] may sell all the chametz [the Jew sold him to a third party] according to the fair price that it is possible to receive [for this chametz] in this town. Since [the seller/owner] willingly and sincerely consents to [accept] the price that [the non-Jew] could receive from a purchaser in this town, [that agreement] is equivalent to the establishment of a price [for his chametz],26 i.e., it is as if he said “[I agree to sell the chametz at a price] evaluated by three people,”27 or even “…[evaluated] by one person”.28 See [the gloss of] Beis Yosef at the end of Choshen Mishpat, sec. 206. Even though [the seller] knows that [the non-Jew] will not exercise [this right, it is of no consequence.29 The rationale is that] since [the reason the non-Jew] does not do so is only [a result of] his own free will, i.e., it is his desire to return [the chametz] to the Jew, the sale is entirely valid, as the Gemara states in Bava Metzia, ch. 5:30 “[The difference is,] he made the statement of his own volition.”31

Additionally, accepting the debt as a loan is not at all valid with regard to the sale of the rooms32 [where the chametz] is held, according to the understanding of the leading Rishonim. [Accordingly] the only valid way [to transfer ownership of the rooms where the chametz is kept] is through renting [them to the non-Jew], as explained in the [accompanying] text, and as I elaborated upon in a distinctive document33 that elucidates all the particulars detailed in this text.

[A Sample Bill of Sale for Chametz]

My signature below attests on my behalf [with a strength equivalent to the testimony of] 100 witnesses,34 how I have sold to ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, in an unconditional, complete, and binding sale all the [different] types of chametz that I own in this-and-this room [in my courtyard] whose boundaries are such and such,35 [for a price] equivalent to its current fair market value in this town (in a village, one should write: “to its fair market value in the town of ___ which is near this village”), as it could be sold at the present time in this town in such a transaction. The intent is the price that could be received from purchasers in this town who would purchase [this chametz] with cash, so that they could transport it to a place where [it would be sold for] a higher price or so that they could sell it here in smaller quantities, for example, whiskey [that could be sold] in small measures that are called sheink, or beer, malted grain,36 or other types of chametz.37 [Similarly, this bill of sale includes] utensils that were used for chametz that have actual chametz [attached] to them.38 The total sum includes all the chametz mentioned above. [Any] pieces of chametz found in these rooms that are not saleable items and would not be purchased by anyone are also included in the sale.39 [Hence,] they are [transferred to the ownership] of ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, [when he pays] the total sum mentioned above.

From the total value of the money due [me] from ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, for all the chametz in the rooms mentioned above according to the terms of sale mentioned above, I will subtract, after the measuring (or weighing) [of the chametz,40 from the fair value of the chametz] half a ruble for him as a profit that he will earn for [any] trouble [he incurred] in [the sale of this] chametz [which was conducted] according to the terms of sale mentioned above, for cash. He has permission to sell [portions of this chametz] even during Pesach to [other] non-Jews in the town or outside the town, even at a higher price than the terms of sale mentioned above, and the profit will be his. Similarly, if a Jew will come from outside the town after the conclusion of the holiday and give [___ the non-Jew] a higher [price], the profit is his.

I hereby grant [___ the non-Jew] and all [his] customers the right to enter my property. I have already given him the keys so that with them,41 he can acquire the chametz in the rooms mentioned above. I have given him my hand [to formalize] this sale as is the practice of local merchants.42 I have also received from [___ the non-Jew] all the money [due] for the chametz until the very last perutah, i.e., I received one gold piece (called a zadatik in Russian) as a deposit, as is the [local] business practice,43 and for the remainder until payment of the entire sum due me from ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, after measuring (or weighing) [the chametz], I have received from [the non-Jew] a signed statement44 from ___, the son of ___,45 that he will act as an areiv kablan – a guarantor on behalf of ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document. He46 formalized his obligation through a kinyan sudar,47to pay the entire sum due [me] from [___, the non-Jew,] after subtracting a half ruble and one gold piece, as mentioned above,48 at the time of payment designated in the signed statement mentioned above.

From this time [onward], all the chametz has been acquired by ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, in a completely [binding] agreement without any conditions or exclusions whatsoever. I have no complaints, claims, or allegations against him at all.

[Regarding] any and all money that will accrue to ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, for the chametz – should he sell it in its entirety or partially – to another Jew after Pesach or to [other] non-Jews even during Pesach, [___, the non-Jew,] is obligated to pay in its entirety to _____, the son of _____, who has signed the document mentioned above,49 and not to me at all, not even one perutah. ____, the undersigned [who is] mentioned above, promised to wait for [___, the non-Jew,] the entire day following Pesach, so that if [the non-Jew] did not sell [the chametz] to [other] non-Jews during Pesach, he could sell it to Jews in the town (in a village, one should wait two days, to give the non-Jew the opportunity to travel to a nearby town to sell [the chametz] there) so that he could earn the half ruble mentioned above if he wishes to trouble [himself and sell the chametz], or perhaps a Jew will come from outside the town and offer a price higher than that mentioned above for the sale of [the chametz]. If ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, does not desire to take the trouble to do the above, [the Jew serving as the guarantor; i.e., the areiv kablan] ____, whose [name] is signed [on] the document mentioned above, may receive [the chametz] from him, giving [the non-Jew] a small amount [of money] as a profit, as they will agree between themselves. I, the undersigned, am in no way a party [to their agreement].

In addition, I have rented as an outright rental the places where the all the chametz mentioned above is located to ___, the non-Jew, the bearer of this document, in return for one gold piece for every room, from today until one or two days (in a village, two or three days) after Pesach, so that he can then sell the chametz to a Jew in our town or outside our town, as mentioned above. I have received from [___, the non-Jew,] the money for the abovementioned rental in cash,50 and I have also given him the keys [to these rooms], as mandated by Torah Law. By virtue of his formally acquiring [the rights to] the rooms he is renting, [___ the non-Jew] will acquire all the chametz in them;51 thereby reinforcing his acquisition [in the manner that was mentioned] above.52

License is granted to translate this document into Russian in any place where the law of the Czar, may his glory be exalted, is in force and copy it on the form of a harbovy53 and pay the duty due the Czar, may his glory be exalted, so that this document will have the legal power of a contract conforming to the practices and laws of the Czar,54 may his glory be exalted. This applies both to the rental of the rooms mentioned above, as well as to the sale of the chametz mentioned above.

As confirmation, I have signed [below], today, the fourteenth of Nissan,55 here, in ___.56

This text should be read in Russian57 to the non-Jew. The same is true regarding the text [that immediately follows] to be signed by the areiv kablan (the guarantor). The entire matter should be thoroughly explained to [the non-Jew], from beginning to end.58

[The following] is the text to be signed by the areiv kablan:

My signature below attests on my behalf [with a strength equivalent to the testimony of] 100 witnesses that the entire sum is owed by ___, the son of ___, the non-Jew, to __, the son of ___, the Jew,59 for all the chametz he purchased from [___, the son of ___, the Jew] through a binding act of contract and an outright sale via the transaction explained in the deed of sale transferred to him. I, the undersigned, obligate myself to pay to the Jew mentioned above, at the time when payment comes due, no later than two days after this Pesach, in cash, according to the reckoning to be reached after the measuring (or the weighing) of the chametz without any complaints, claims, or allegations at all, on behalf of the non-Jew mentioned above, if he sells [the chametz] to others. And even if [the non-Jew] does not sell [the chametz] at all and I receive it from him [as payment] for his debt, I obligate myself to sell it and pay ___, the son of ___, mentioned above, at the time when payment is due as mentioned above, unless he is willing to receive the chametz as payment for the debt [owed] him.60 I have accepted this obligation and formalized it with a kinyan sudar with ___ the son of ___ mentioned above. As confirmation, I have signed [below].

The Jew who owns the chametz should actually conduct himself in this manner, i.e., he should extend the edge of his garment so that [the guarantor], the signer [of the document], will take hold of it, as is the practice whenever a kinyan sudar [is performed].61 When [a Jew] lives alone in a village62 and he does not have a son of bar mitzvah age,63 or [if he has] a [Jewish] butler who does not know how to sign [his name, the butler] should give the pen to the home owner so that he should sign [the butler’s] name [on his behalf,64 signing,] ____, the son of ____, [doing so] after [the butler] took hold of the garment.65

A person [in this situation] who does not have a Jewish butler should travel to a village where Jews live or to a nearby town, even several days or weeks before Pesach, and seek a Jewish friend to sign a document [containing] the above text [stating his agreement to serve as] an areiv kablan (guarantor)for the non-Jew to whom [the Jew] intends to sell the chametz. [The guarantor] should formalize [his agreement through] a kinyan sudar in the accepted manner, i.e., [the guarantor] should take hold of [the owner/seller’s] garment to obligate himself with a completely [binding] obligation, as explained above.

When [the owner/seller of the chametz] returns home, he should give [the document] mentioned above, [that was] signed by his friend, [the guarantor], to the non-Jew [who will purchase the chametz] about an hour or two before the [actual] sale of the chametz. He should tell [the non-Jew] that his friend mentioned above sent [the non-Jew] this signed [document] out of his kindness and goodness, because he seeks the welfare of [the non-Jew] and desires that [the non-Jew] earn a half-ruble if [the non-Jew] desires to take the trouble to sell the chametz to others, or [sell it to the guarantor] according to the sum they will agree upon if he does not desire to take that trouble, as mentioned above.

Afterwards, when [the owner] actually sells the chametz, before he gives the non-Jew the keys [to the rooms where the chametz is stored] and the bill of sale, he should ask the non-Jew to give him [the document] mentioned above, [that was] signed by his friend, [the guarantor].

After [receiving the document from the non-Jew, the seller] should give [the non-Jew] the bill of sale and the keys. He should read the bill of sale and [also the document] signed by [the guarantor] mentioned above [to the non-Jew,] and explain the entire matter thoroughly to him, as mentioned above.

It is proper that, if possible, the non-Jewish purchaser [of the chametz] should stand near the rooms where the chametz is stored when [the Jewish owner/seller] gives him the keys.66

[When a person] owns beer that is covered with ice, martzva in popular parlance, that would spoil and cause [him] a great [financial] loss were it to be removed from under the ice, he should write [the following] in the bill of sale: “The building above the ice known as a lidovna, will be rented to [the non-Jew] until after Pesach, and the cistern holding the ice – and the ice as well – will be rented to him for the entire summer, until the beer is sold.” [The Jew] should establish with him a fair price – several rubles67 – [i.e.,] the value [the non-Jew] could receive in this town from whoever wishes to purchase the beer at a fair price. [It should] also [be agreed] that [the non-Jew] should pay several rubles as rental for the ice over the course of the summer, until the beer is sold. The [entire] sum due from the non-Jew for the beer after it is measured and the several rubles more for the rental of the ice, should all be included in [the document] signed by the areiv kablan (guarantor) mentioned above who obligated himself via a kinyan sudar to pay the entire [sum] to the owner of the chametz in cash68 a day or two after Pesach, as mentioned above. [The guarantor] will receive the entire [sum] from the non-Jew, who will receive it from a purchaser in the town, if [the non-Jew] wishes to make the profit of half a ruble mentioned above.

נוֹדָע בַּשְּׁעָרִים הַמְּצֻיָּנִים בַּהֲלָכָה,3 אֲשֶׁר הַרְבֵּה מִסְּפָרִים הָרִאשׁוֹנִים זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה לֹא יָצְאוּ לְאוֹר הַדְּפוּס עֲדַיִן בִּימֵי הָאַחֲרוֹנִים זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה4 הַטּוּרֵי זָהָב וּמָגֵן אַבְרָהָם וְהַנִּמְשָׁכִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם, עַד עַתָּה קָרוֹב לְדוֹרוֹתֵינוּ אֵלֶּה,א כְּנִרְאֶה בַּעֲלִיל מִסֵּפֶר שִׁיטָה מְקֻבֶּצֶת עַל כַּמָּה מַסֶּכְתּוֹתב,5 וְכַיּוֹצֵא בוֹ. וְלָזֹאת וַדַּאי אֵין לִסְמוֹךְ לְהָקֵל לְמַעֲשֶׂה עַל הַקֻּלּוֹת שֶׁנִּמְצְאוּ בְּדִבְרֵי הָאַחֲרוֹנִים זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה, וּבִפְרָט בְּאִסּוּר תּוֹרָה חָמוּר כְּחָמֵץ שֶׁהֶחְמִירָה תּוֹרָה בְּבַל יֵרָאֶה וּבַל יִמָּצֵא.6

וּמִי שֶׁעוֹלֶה עַל דַּעְתּוֹג שֶׁמְּכִירַת חָמֵץ הוּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים7 לְפִי הַמִּנְהָג שֶׁהַכֹּל מְבַטְּלִין הֶחָמֵץ וְאוֹמְרִים כָּל חֲמִירָא לִבָּטֵל וְלֶהֱוֵי הֶפְקֵר כוּ', שְׁגָגָה הִיא בְּיָדוֹ, כִּי חָמֵץ הַנִּמְכָּר אֵינוֹ בִּכְלַל בִּטּוּל וְהֶפְקֵר מֵאַחַר שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ עָלָיו לַחֲזוֹר וְלִזְכּוֹת בּוֹ אַחַר הַפֶּסַח,8 כִּמְבֹאָר בִּתְשׁוּבַת הָרַשְׁבָּ"אד,9 בְּשֵׁם יְרוּשַׁלְמִיה,10 וְכֵן פָּסַק הָרְמָ"א בְּדַרְכֵי מֹשֶׁהו,11 וּבִפְרִי חָדָשׁ,ז,12 וְלָזֹאת אִם הַמְּכִירָה אֵינָהּ כַּדָּת עוֹבֵר עָלָיו בְּבַל יֵרָאֶה וּבַל יִמָּצֵא,ח,13 וְאִם כֵּן יֵשׁ לוֹמַר בְּזֶה.ט,14

וְהִנֵּה עִקַּר דִּין מְכִירַת חָמֵץ לְנָכְרִי וְדַעְתּוֹ שֶׁיַּחֲזִירֶנּוּ לוֹ לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח הַמֻּזְכָּר בְּדִבְרֵי הָרִאשׁוֹנִים זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָהי,15 וְהַתּוֹסֶפְתָּא דִפְסָחִיםיא,16 וְהַיְרוּשַׁלְמִייב,17 הוּא בְּמוֹכֵר בְּמָעוֹת מְזֻמָּנִיםיג,18 וְלֹא בְּהַקָּפָה,19 וַחֲדָשִׁים מִקָּרוֹב בָּאוּיד לְתַקֵּן לִכְתּוֹב וְהַמּוֹתָר זָקַפְתִּי עָלָיו בְּמִלְוֶה כוּ'.20 וְגַם זֶה אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לְפִי דַעַת גְּדוֹלֵי הָרִאשׁוֹנִיםטו זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה,21 וּכְנִרְאֶה בַּעֲלִיל מִמַּה שֶּׁכָּתְבוּ בְּזֶה גְּדוֹלֵי הָאַחֲרוֹנִים מַהַרָא"י זִכְרוֹנוֹ לִבְרָכָה בִּתְרוּמַת הַדֶּשֶׁן,טז,22 שֶׁלֹּא מָצָא תַּקָּנָה לִמְכּוֹר בְּהַקָּפָה וְלִזְקוֹף עָלָיו בְּמִלְוֶה עַיֵּן שָׁם, וְלָזֹאת אֵין תַּקָּנָה אַחֶרֶת לִמְכּוֹר בְּהַקָּפָה אֶלָּא לִהְיוֹת יַד יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר בְּאֶמְצָע,יז,23 שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיֶה לְהַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ שׁוּם עֵסֶק בָּעוֹלָם עִם הַנָּכְרִי הַקּוֹנֶה הֶחָמֵץ, וְלֹא יִהְיֶה הַנָּכְרִי נִשְׁאָר חַיָּב כְּלוּם לְבַעַל הֶחָמֵץ אֶלָּא לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר24 שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ עֲדַיִן מֵעוֹלָם,יח,25 וְגַם הַחוֹב שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב לוֹ הַנָּכְרִי הַזְּמַן פֵּרָעוֹן הוּא לְאַחַר הַפֶּסַח,יט כְּפִי הַמְבֹאָר בְּנוּסָח זֶה הַשָּׁלוּחַ אֲלֵיכֶם,כ,26 אֲשֶׁר מִתּוֹכוֹ יוּכַל כָּל אָדָם לִכְתּוֹב שְׁטַר מְכִירָה,כא,27 עַל מִינֵי חָמֵץ שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ, אֲשֶׁר אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְפָרֵט כָּל הַמִּינִים בִּכְתָב.כב

וְעִקַּר הַכֹּל שֶׁיִּהְיֶה הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ סָבוּר וְקִבּוּל בֶּאֱמֶת שֶׁאִם יִרְצֶה הַנָּכְרִי יִמְכּוֹר כָּל הֶחָמֵץכג בְּמִקָּח הַשָּׁוֶה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְקַבֵּל בְּעִיר זוֹ, דְּמֵאַחַר שֶׁהוּא סָבוּר וְקִבּוּל בֶּאֱמֶת בְּמִקָּח זֶה שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְקַבֵּל מִמִּי שֶׁיִּרְצֶה לִקְנוֹת [בְּ]עִיר זוֹ הָוֵי פִּסּוּק דָּמִים,כד,28 וּכְמוֹ בְּאוֹמֵר כִּדְשַׁיְמוּהוּ בִּתְלָתָאכה,29 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ אֶחָד,30 עַיֵּן בֵּית יוֹסֵף חֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סוֹף סִימָן ר"ו,כו הֲגַם שֶׁיּוֹדֵעַ בּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵּן,כז,31 כִּי מֵאַחַר שֶׁמַּה שֶּׁאֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כֵּן אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מֵרְצוֹנוֹ הַטּוֹב שֶׁרוֹצֶה לְהַחֲזִירוֹ לַיִּשְׂרָאֵל הֲרִי זוֹ מְכִירָה גְמוּרָה, כִּדְאִיתָא בְּהֶדְיָא בִּגְמָרָא פֶּרֶק ה' דְּבָבָא מְצִיעָאכח,32 דְּאָמַר לֵהּ מִדַּעְתֵּיהּ.33

וְהִנֵּה אַף גַּם בִּמְכִירַת הַחֲדָרִים אֵין מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם לִזְקוֹף בְּמִלְוֶה34 לְפִי דַעַת גְּדוֹלֵי הָרִאשׁוֹנִים זִכְרוֹנָם לִבְרָכָה,כט וְאֵין תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא בִּשְׂכִירוּת,ל כְּפִי הַמְבֹאָר בְּנוּסָח זֶה, וְכַאֲשֶׁר הֶאֱרַכְתִּי בְּקוּנְטְרֵס מְיֻחָדלא,35 עַל כָּל פְּרָטֵי הַמְבֹאָרִים בְּנוּסָח זֶה:לב

חֲתִימַת יָדִי דִּלְמַטָּה תָּעִיד עָלַי כְּמֵאָה עֵדִים,לג,36 אֵיךְ שֶׁמָּכַרְתִּי לְעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתָב זֶה בִּמְכִירָה גְמוּרָה וַחֲלוּטָה בְּלִי שׁוּם תְּנַאי כָּל מִינֵי חָמֵץלד שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי בְּחֶדֶר פְּלוֹנִי וּפְלוֹנִי הַמְסֻמָּן בִּמְצָרָיולה,37 כוּ' כְּפִי הַשַּׁעַר וּמִקָּח הַשָּׁוֶה שֶׁבְּעִיר זוֹ (וּבִכְפָר יִכְתּוֹב כְּפִי הַשַּׁעַר וּמִקָּח הַשָּׁוֶה שֶׁבְּעִיר פְּלוֹנִי הַסְּמוּכָה לַכְּפָר) לְפִי הָעֵת וּזְמַן דְּהָאִידְנָא שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לִמְכּוֹר כַּאן בְּעִיר זוֹ בְּמִקָּח זֶה, דְּהַיְנוּ כְּפִי הַמִּקָּח שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְקַבֵּל מֵהַקּוֹנִים שֶׁבְּעִיר זוֹ שֶׁיִּקְנוּ בִּמְזֻמָּנִים בִּכְדֵי לְהוֹלִיכָם לִמְקוֹם הַיֹּקֶר, אוֹ בִּכְדֵי לִמְכּוֹר כַּאן מְעַט מְעַט,39 כְּגוֹן יֵין־שָׂרָף בְּמִדּוֹת קְטַנּוֹת שֶׁקּוֹרִין שֵׁיינְ"ק,לו וְכֵן בְּשֵׁכָר וְכֵן בִּתְבוּאָה מְחֻמֶּצֶת38 וְכֵן בִּשְׁאָר מִינֵי חָמֵץ, וְכֵן כֵּלִים מְחֻמָּצִים שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם חָמֵץ בְּעֵין.לז,40 וּבִכְלַל סַךְ הַכֹּל הָעוֹלֶה מִכָּל הֶחָמֵץ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל נִכְלְלוּ גַם כֵּן בִּמְכִירָה זוֹ חֲתִיכוֹת חָמֵץ שֶׁיִּמָּצְאוּ בַּחֲדָרִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיללח וְאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם מִקָּח כְּלָל וְאֵין עֲלֵיהֶם שׁוּם קוֹנֶה41 וַהֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל הֶעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה בְּעֶרֶךְ סַךְ הַכֹּל הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל. וּמִסַּךְ כָּל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ מֵהֶעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה בְּעַד כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבַּחֲדָרִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל לְפִי מִקָּח הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל לְאַחַר הַמְּדִידָה (אוֹ הַמִּשְׁקָל)לט,42 הֲרֵינִי פּוֹחֵת לוֹ חֲצִי רוּבְּלמ שֶׁיַּרְוִיחַ לְעַצְמוֹ בְּעַד טִרְחָתוֹ לִמְכּוֹר הֶחָמֵץ בְּמִקָּח הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל עַל מְזֻמָּנִים. וּרְשׁוּת בְּיָדוֹ לִמְכּוֹר אַף גַּם תּוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח לַעֲרֵלִים שֶׁבָּעִיר אוֹ שֶׁחוּץ לָעִיר וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּיֹקֶר מִמִּקָּח הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל וְהָרֶוַח שֶׁלּוֹ, וְכֵן אִם יָבֹא יְהוּדִי מִחוּץ לָעִיר בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב וְיִתֵּן יוֹתֵר הָרֶוַח שֶׁלּוֹ. וַהֲרֵינִי נוֹתֵן לוֹ וּלְכָל הַקּוֹנִים דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל בַּחֲצֵרִי.מא וּכְבָר מָסַרְתִּי לוֹ הַמַּפְתֵּחוֹת לִקְנוֹת בָּהֶםמב הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבַּחֲדָרִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל.43 וְגַם נָתַתִּי לוֹ יָדִי עַל הַמְּכִירָה הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל כְּדֶרֶךְ הַתַּגָּרִים.מג,44 וְגַם קִבַּלְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל דְּמֵי הֶחָמֵץ עַד פְּרוּטָה אַחֲרוֹנָה, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁקִּבַּלְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ א' זָהָב מְזֻמָּן עַל עֵרָבוֹן שֶׁקּוֹרִין זַאדַאטִיק כְּמִנְהַג הַסּוֹחֲרִים,מד,45 וְעַל הַמּוֹתָר עַד תַּשְׁלוּם כָּל הַסַּךְ שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה וְיַגִּיעַ מֵעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה לְאַחַר הַמְּדִידָה (אוֹ הַמִּשְׁקָל) כְּבָר קִבַּלְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ חֲתִימַת יַד46 פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי47 שֶׁנִּכְנַס בְּעָרֵב קַבְּלָןמה בְּעַד הֶעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה, וְנִתְחַיֵּב48 בְּקִנְיַן אַגַּב סוּדָרמו,49 לְסַלֵּק בַּעֲדוֹ כָּל הַסַּךְ שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ מִמֶּנּוּ, אַחַר נִכּוּי חֲצִי רוּבְּלמז וְא' זָהָבמח הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,50 לִזְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן הַמְבֹאָר בַּחֲתִימַת יָד הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל. וּמֵעַתָּה נִקְנֶה כָּל הֶחָמֵץ לֶעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה מֵעַכְשָׁו מַמָּשׁ בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר לַחֲלוּטִין בְּלִי שׁוּם תְּנַאי וְשִׁיּוּר כְּלָל, וְאֵין לִי עָלָיו שׁוּם טְעָנוֹת וּמַעֲנוֹת וּפִתְחוֹן פֶּה בָּעוֹלָם, וְכָל הַמָּעוֹת שֶׁיַּגִּיעַ לְיַד הֶעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה בְּעַד הֶחָמֵץ כְּשֶׁיִּמְכְּרֶנּוּ כֻּלּוֹ אוֹ מִקְצָתוֹ לִיהוּדִי אַחַר פֶּסַח, אוֹ לַעֲרֵלִים אַף גַּם בְּתוֹךְ הַפֶּסַח, מְחֻיָּב לְסַלֵּק הַכֹּל לְיַד פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי48 הֶחָתוּם בַּחֲתִימַת יָד הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל,51 וְלֹא לְיָדִי כְּלָל, אֲפִלּוּ פְּרוּטָה אַחַת. וְהֶחָתוּם הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל48 הִבְטִיחַ לְהַמְתִּין לוֹ כָּל הַיּוֹם אִסְרוּ חַג בְּאִם שֶׁלֹּא יִמְכּוֹר בַּפֶּסַח לַעֲרֵלִים, בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיּוּכַל לְמָכְרוֹ לַיְּהוּדִים שֶׁבָּעִיר (וּבִכְפָר יַמְתִּין ב' יָמִים בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיִּסַּע הֶעָרֵל לָעִיר הַסְּמוּכָה לִמְכּוֹר שָׁם), בִּכְדֵי שֶׁיִּשְׂתַּכֵּר חֲצִי רוּבְּל הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל אִם יִרְצֶה לִטְרוֹחַ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא יָבֹא יְהוּדִי מִחוּץ לָעִיר וְיִתֵּן יוֹתֵר מִמִּקָּח הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל. וְאִם לֹא יִרְצֶה הֶעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה לִטְרוֹחַ בְּאֵלֶּה אֲזַי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהֶחָתוּם הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל יְקַבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ בַּחֲזָרָה, וְיִתֵּן לוֹ רֶוַח דָּבָר מוּעָט כַּאֲשֶׁר יִתְפַּשְּׁרוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְלִי הַחוֹתֵם מַטָּה אֵין לִי שׁוּם עֵסֶק בָּזֶה.מט וְעוֹד זֹאת הִשְׂכַּרְתִּי בִּשְׂכִירוּת גְּמוּרָה לֶעָרֵל מוֹסֵר כְּתַב זֶה אֶת מְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁל כָּל הֶחָמֵץ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, בְּמִקַּח א' זָהָב בְּעַד כָּל חֶדֶר מֵהַיּוֹם עַד כְּלוֹת יוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם (וּבִכְפָר ב' אוֹ ג' יָמִים) אַחַר הַפֶּסַח, שֶׁיּוּכַל אָז לִמְכּוֹר הֶחָמֵץ לִיהוּדִי שֶׁבְּעִירֵנוּ אוֹ שֶׁחוּץ לָעִיר הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל. וְקִבַּלְתִּי מִמֶּנּוּ דְּמֵי הַשְּׂכִירוּת הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל בִּמְזֻמָּנִים.נ,52 וְגַם מָסַרְתִּי לוֹ הַמַּפְתֵּחוֹת כְּדִין תּוֹרָה.43 וְאַגַּב קִנְיַן שְׂכִירוּת הַחֲדָרִיםנא יִהְיֶה קָנוּי לוֹ כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁבָּהֶם53 בְּיֶתֶר שְׂאֵת וְיֶתֶר עֹז עַל קִנְיָן דִּלְעֵיל.נב,54 וְהָרְשׁוּת נְתוּנָה לְהַעְתִּיק מִכְתָּב זֶה בִּלְשׁוֹן רוּסְיָאנג בְּאֵיזֶה מְקוֹם מִשְׁפַּט הַקֵּיסָר יָרוּם הוֹדוֹ עַל נְיָר הַארְבָּאווִי55 וּלְשַׁלֵּם נְתִינַת הַקֵּיסָר יָרוּם הוֹדוֹ לִהְיוֹת תֹּקֶף מִכְתָּב זֶה כְּתֹקֶף קָאנְטְרַאקְ"ט הַנַּעֲשֶׂה כְּנִמּוּס וְדָת הַקֵּיסָר יָרוּם הוֹדוֹ,56 הֵן עַל שְׂכִירוּת הַחֲדָרִים הַנִּזְכָּרִים לְעֵיל וְהֵן עַל מְכִירַת חָמֵץ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל. וְלִרְאָיָהנד בָּאתִי עַל הֶחָתוּם הַיּוֹם יוֹם י"ד נִיסָןנה,57 פֹּה כוּ':58

וְלִקְרוֹת נוּסַח הַמִּכְתָּב הַזֶּה בִּלְשׁוֹן רוּסְיָאנו,59 בְּאָזְנֵי הֶעָרֵל, וְגַם נוּסַח חֲתִימַת יָד מֵהֶעָרֵב קַבְּלָן, וּלְהַסְבִּיר לוֹ הֵיטֵב כָּל הָעִנְיָן מֵרֹאשׁ וְעַד סוֹף.60 וְזֶהוּ נוּסַח חֲתִימַת יָד מֵהֶעָרֵב קַבְּלָן:

חֲתִימַת יָדִי דִּלְמַטָּה תָּעִיד עָלַי כְּמֵאָה עֵדִים, אֵיךְ שֶׁכָּל הַסַּךְ שֶׁמַּגִּיעַ מֵעָרֵל פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי לַיְּהוּדִי פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי61 בְּעַד כָּל הֶחָמֵץ שֶׁקָּנָה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקִנְיָן גָּמוּר וּמְכִירָה חֲלוּטָה, בְּמִקָּח הַמְבֹאָר בִּשְׁטַר מְכִירָה שֶׁמָּסַר לְיָדוֹ, מְחֻיָּב אֲנִי הֶחָתוּם מַטָּה לְסַלֵּק לַיְּהוּדִי הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל לִזְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן, לֹא יְאֻחַר מִשְּׁנֵי יָמִים אַחַר הַפֶּסַח הַלָּז, בִּמְזֻמָּנִים, בְּלִי שׁוּם טְעָנוֹת וּמַעֲנוֹת וּפִתְחוֹן פֶּה בָּעוֹלָם, בְּעַד הֶעָרֵל הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, כְּפִי הַחֶשְׁבּוֹן שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה אַחַר הַמְּדִידָה (אוֹ הַמִּשְׁקָל), אִם יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ הֶעָרֵל לַאֲחֵרִים,נז וְאַף גַּם אִם לֹא יִמְכְּרֶנּוּ כְּלָל וַאֲקַבְּלֶנּוּ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּחוֹבוֹ הֲרֵינִי מְחֻיָּב לְמָכְרוֹ בְּעַצְמִי לְסַלֵּק לִידֵי פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל61 לִזְמַן פֵּרָעוֹן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, אִם לֹא שֶׁיִּתְרַצֶּה מֵרְצוֹנוֹ הַטּוֹב לְקַבֵּל הֶחָמֵץ בְּפִרְעוֹן חוֹבוֹ.62 וְחִיּוּב זֶה קִבַּלְתִּי בְּקִנְיָן אַגַּב סוּדָר מִיַּד פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,61 וְלִרְאָיָה בָּאתִי עַל הֶחָתוּם:

וְכָכָה יַעֲשֶׂה בֶּאֱמֶת יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּעַל הֶחָמֵץ, לִתֵּן כְּנַף בִּגְדוֹ שֶׁיֹּאחֵז בּוֹ הֶחָתוּם, כַּנָּהוּג בְּכָל קִנְיָן אַגַּב סוּדָר.63 וְהַדָּר בִּכְפָר יְחִידִי64 וְאֵין לוֹ בֵּן בַּעַל מִצְוָה65 וְלֹא מְשָׁרֵת שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַחְתּוֹם, יִמְסוֹר הַמְּשָׁרֵת הַקֻּלְמוֹס לְיַד בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁיַּחְתּוֹם שְׁמוֹ66 פְּלוֹנִי בֶּן פְּלוֹנִי, אַחַר שֶׁיֹּאחֵז בַּבֶּגֶד.67 וּמִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ מְשָׁרֵת יְהוּדִי כְּלָל יִסַּע לִכְפָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ שָׁם יִשְׂרְאֵלִים אוֹ לָעִיר הַסְּמוּכָה, וַאֲפִלּוּ כַּמָּה יָמִים אוֹ שָׁבוּעוֹת לִפְנֵי פֶסַח, וִיבַקֵּשׁ שָׁם מֵאֵיזֶה יְהוּדִי אוֹהֲבוֹ שֶׁיִּתֵּן לוֹ חֲתִימַת יָד עַל עַרְבוּת קַבְּלָנוּת כְּנוּסַח הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל בְּעַד הֶעָרֵל אֲשֶׁר בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִמְכּוֹר לוֹ הֶחָמֵץ, וְגַם יִקְנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקִנְיָן אַגַּב סוּדָר כַּנָּהוּג, שֶׁיֹּאחֵז בְּבִגְדוֹ לְהִתְחַיֵּב חִיּוּב גָּמוּר כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל.

וּבְבוֹאוֹ לְבֵיתוֹ יִמְסוֹר חֲתִימַת יָד הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל מֵאוֹהֲבוֹ לְיַד הֶעָרֵל כְּמוֹ שָׁעָה וּשְׁתַּיִם קֹדֶם מְכִירַת הֶחָמֵץ, וְיֹאמַר לוֹ שֶׁחֲתִימַת יָד זוֹ שָׁלַח אוֹהֲבוֹ הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל בְּחַסְדּוֹ וְטוּבוֹ, שֶׁחָפֵץ בְּטוֹבָתוֹ שֶׁיַּרְוִיחַ חֲצִי רוּבְּ"ל אִם יִרְצֶה לִטְרוֹחַ לִמְכּוֹר הֶחָמֵץ לַאֲחֵרִים, וּכְפִי הַסַּךְ שֶׁיִּתְפַּשְּׁרוּ אִם לֹא יִרְצֶה לִטְרוֹחַ כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, וְאַחַר כָּךְ בִּשְׁעַת מְכִירַת הֶחָמֵץ מַמָּשׁ לִפְנֵי מְסִירַת הַמַּפְתֵּחוֹת וְהַשְּׁטַר מְכִירָה לְיַד הֶעָרֵל יְבַקֵּשׁ מֵהֶעָרֵל שֶׁיִּמְסוֹר חֲתִימַת יַד אוֹהֲבוֹ הַנִּזְכֶּרֶת לְעֵיל,נח וְאַחַר כָּךְ יִמְסוֹר הַשְּׁטַר מְכִירָה וְהַמַּפְתֵּחוֹת, וְיִקְרָא לְפָנָיו הַשְּׁטַר מְכִירָה וְגַם מִכְתַּב חֲתִימַת יָד הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, וְיִסְבּוֹר לוֹ הַכֹּל בַּאֵר הֵיטֵב כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל:

נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר אִם אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עָרֵל הַקּוֹנֶה עוֹמֵד בְּצַד וְסָמוּךְ לְהַחֲדָרִיםנט שֶׁהֶחָמֵץ בָּהֶם בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמּוֹסֵר לוֹ הַמַּפְתֵּחוֹת:68

וּמִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שֵׁכָר תַּחַת הַקֶּרַח שֶׁקּוֹרִין מארצוו"ע, וְאִם יוֹצִיאוּהוּ מִתַּחַת הַקֶּרַח יִתְקַלְקֵל וְיִהְיֶה הֶפְסֵד מְרֻבֶּה, יִכְתּוֹב בִּשְׁטַר מְכִירָה הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, שֶׁהַבִּנְיָן שֶׁעַל הַקֶּרַח שֶׁקּוֹרִין לִידָאווְנַ"א מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ עַד אַחַר הַפֶּסַח וְהַבּוֹר שֶׁבּוֹ הַקֶּרַח מֻשְׂכָּר לוֹ עִם הַקֶּרַח לְכָל הַקַּיִץ, עַד שֶׁיֻּמְכַּר הַשֵּׁכָר, וְיִפְסוֹק לוֹ אֵיזֶה מִקָּח הַשָּׁוֶה כַּמָּה רוּבְּל כְּמוֹ שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר לְקַבֵּל בְּעִיר זוֹ מִמִּי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לִקְנוֹת הַשֵּׁכָר בְּמִקָּח הַשָּׁוֶה, וְגַם לְשַׁלֵּם שְׂכִירוּת כַּמָּה רוּבְּל בְּעַד הַקֶּרַח לְכָל הַקַּיִץ עַד שֶׁיִּמְכּוֹר הַשֵּׁכָר, וְסַךְ הַזֶּה שֶׁיַּעֲלֶה וְיַגִּיעַ מֵהֶעָרֵל בְּעַד הַשֵּׁכָר אַחַר הַמְּדִידָה וְעוֹד כַּמָּה רוּבְּל בְּעַד שְׂכִירוּת הַקֶּרַח יִהְיֶה נִכְלָל הַכֹּל בַּחֲתִימַת יַד הֶעָרֵב קַבְּלָן הַנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל,ס שֶׁנִּתְחַיֵּב בְּקִנְיָן אַגַּב סוּדָר לְסַלֵּק הַכֹּל לְבַעַל הֶחָמֵץ בִּמְזֻמָּנִים בְּיוֹם אוֹ יוֹמַיִם אַחַר הַפֶּסַח כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל, וְהוּא יְקַבֵּל הַכֹּל מֵהֶעָרֵל שֶׁיְּקַבֵּל מֵאֵיזֶה קוֹנֶה שֶׁבָּעִיר אִם יִרְצֶה לְהִשְׂתַּכֵּר חֲצִי רוּבְּל כַּנִּזְכָּר לְעֵיל: