SECTION 408 The Laws Applying to Depositing [Food for] an Eruv [Techumin] and Establishing a Shabbos Place (1)

סימן תח דִּין הַנָּחַת עֵרוּב וְקִנְיַן שְׁבִיתָה וּבוֹ סְעִיף אֶחָד:

1 Since the Shabbos limits are of Rabbinic origin,1 [the Sages] granted leniencies regarding them and permitted one who had to go 4000 cubits in one direction from a city to deposit food for two meals2 at the end of the 2000 [cubit limit] from the city [and then proceed further another 2000 cubits from that place on Shabbos]. This [convention] is called eruvei techumin; i.e., [the person] is joining [two] Shabbos limits, one with the other.3

[The person] should have the intent of establishing his Shabbos place where [the food for] his eruv was deposited or in a nearby place to which he could bring his food bein hashmashos4 and eat it, should he desire to be there bein hashmashos5 and eat it [there]. In this manner, his eruv is effective in establishing this as his Shabbos place bein hashmashos.6 It is considered as if [the person] was located there at the commencement of the Shabbos even though he will not [actually] be there bein hashmashos. [The rationale is that] a person’s attention is focused on the place where his food is located and [that place] is considered his dwelling.7 [Hence,] since [the person’s] food was deposited there bein hashmashos, it is as if he himself was located there at the commencement of the Shabbos. [Accordingly,] on the following day, [i.e., on Shabbos,] he may walk 2000 cubits in all directions [from that place], even though he was at home at the commencement of the Shabbos and spent the night there.

Although [the person] gains 2000 cubits because of his eruv – he may now walk 4000 [cubits] from the city in one direction, i.e. 2000 [cubits] until his eruv and 2000 [cubits] beyond [his eruv] – he forfeits the ability to proceed 2000 [cubits] from the city8 in the opposite directions.9 By way of illustration: If [a person] deposited his eruv at the end of the 2000 [cubits] to the east of the city’s [Shabbos limits], he may [proceed] only 2000 [cubits] in all directions from the place [the food for] his eruv [was deposited]. This includes the four corners [of the virtual square superimposed around him], each corner also [being within the virtual square of] 2000 [cubits in all directions], in the manner explained in sec. 399[:14].10 Thus, [all the] 2000 cubits to the west [of the person’s eruv] are to the east of the city, and he may not go even one step beyond the gate of the city to the north or the south – and needless to say, to the west of the city. Moreover, [the person] may not even walk [outside the city] across its entire eastern border if the city is wider than 4004 cubits, for that is the measure of the western side of [the person’s] eruv, i.e., 2000 [cubits] to the northwest corner [of the virtual square superimposed around him], 2000 [cubits] to the southwest corner [of the virtual square superimposed around him], and four cubits between them, that being the width of the place in which [the person] established the Shabbos place that the eruv acquired for him. For whoever deposits an eruv is granted [a virtual square of] four cubits there, as will be explained in sec. 409.11 When 2000 [cubits] are measured in every direction from [the person’s] eruv, the measurement [begins] outside these four cubits. Afterwards, [a virtual square is superimposed around them, thereby also] granting him the corners.


This concludes all the portions of Hilchos Techumin from the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch which are extant. From a comparison to the Shulchan Aruch of Rav Yosef Caro, it appears that there were additional subsections in this section. Similarly, sections 409-428 are not extant.

א מִפְּנֵי שֶׁתְּחוּמִין מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,1 הֵקֵלּוּ בָּהֶם, וְהִתִּירוּ לְמִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לֵילֵךְ ד' אֲלָפִים אַמָּה לְרוּחַ אַחַת מֵרוּחוֹת הָעִירא שֶׁיַּנִּיחַ מְזוֹן ב' סְעֻדּוֹתב,2 בְּסוֹף אַלְפַּיִם מִן הָעִיר,ג וְזֶהוּ הַנִּקְרָא "עֵרוּבֵי תְחוּמִין",3 שֶׁמְּעָרֵב הַתְּחוּמִין זֶה עִם זֶה.ד וְיִתְכַּוֵּן לִקְנוֹת שְׁבִיתָתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹה אוֹ סָמוּךְ לוֹ, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁיּוּכַל לְהָבִיא לְשָׁם עֵרוּבוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתו,4 וּלְאָכְלוֹ אִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה לִהְיוֹת שָׁם עַד בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתז,5 וּלְאָכְלוֹ, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ כָּךְ מוֹעִיל לוֹ עֵרוּבוֹ לִקְנוֹת שָׁם שְׁבִיתָה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,ח,6 שֶׁנַּחְשׁוֹב אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ שָׁבַת שָׁם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ שָׁם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם וְדִירָתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם מְזוֹנוֹתָיו הוּא,7 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁמְּזוֹנוֹתָיו מֻנָּחִים שָׁם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ הוּא עַצְמוֹ שָׁבַת שָׁם, וְיָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ לְמָחָר מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ,ט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשָּׁבַת וְלָן בַּבַּיִת.י

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אַף שֶׁמִּשְׂתַּכֵּר בְּעֵרוּבוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה, שֶׁעַכְשָׁו יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ מִן הָעִיר ד' אֲלָפִים לְרוּחַ אַחַת – אַלְפַּיִם עַד עֵרוּבוֹ וְאַלְפַּיִם לְהָלְאָה מֵעֵרוּבוֹ – הֲרֵי הוּא מַפְסִיד בּוֹ אַלְפַּיִם שֶׁמִּן הָעִיר8 לְרוּחוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת,יא,9 כְּגוֹן אִם הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ לְסוֹף אַלְפַּיִם לְמִזְרַח הָעִיר,יב אֵין לוֹ מִמְּקוֹם עֵרוּבוֹ אֶלָּא אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ עִם ד' קַרְנַיִם, שֶׁכָּל קֶרֶן הוּא גַם כֵּן אַלְפַּיִם כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ט.יג,10 נִמְצָא שֶׁהָאַלְפַּיִם שֶׁלְּמַעֲרָב הֵם בְּצַד מִזְרַח הָעִיר, וְאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ חוּץ לְשַׁעַר הָעִיר לְצַד צָפוֹן וּלְצַד דָּרוֹם אֲפִלּוּ פְּסִיעָה אַחַת, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר לְצַד מַעֲרַב הָעִיר. וַאֲפִלּוּ לְצַד מִזְרָחָהּ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ עַל פְּנֵי כֻלָּהּ אִם הִיא רְחָבָה יוֹתֵר מִד' אֲלָפִים וְד' אַמּוֹת,יד שֶׁזֶּהוּ שִׁעוּר שֶׁל מַעֲרַב עֵרוּבוֹ – אַלְפַּיִם שֶׁל רֹחַב קֶרֶן צְפוֹנִית מַעֲרָבִית וְאַלְפַּיִם שֶׁל רֹחַב קֶרֶן מַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית, וְד' אַמּוֹת בֵּינֵיהֶן כְּשִׁעוּר רֹחַב מְקוֹם קְנִיַּת שְׁבִיתָתוֹ שֶׁקּוֹנֶה לוֹ עֵרוּבוֹ, שֶׁכָּל הַמַּנִּיחַ עֵרוּב יֵשׁ לוֹ שָׁם ד' אַמּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ט,טו,11 כְּשֶׁמּוֹדְדִים לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ מֵעֵרוּבוֹ מוֹדְדִים מִחוּץ לְד' אַמּוֹת אֵלּוּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מְמַלְּאִים הַקְּרָנוֹת:


Fig. 137: The distances a person may proceed after establishing an eruv techumin 2000 cubits away from a city. a) The place where the eruv techumin was established
Fig. 137: The distances a person may proceed after establishing an eruv techumin 2000 cubits away from a city. a) The place where the eruv techumin was established