SECTION 406 [The Laws Applying to a Person] Who Unknowingly Went Beyond His Shabbos Limits (1-3)

סימן תו מִי שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 When a person who went beyond his Shabbos limits – and thus is [restricted to going] only four cubits1 – must relieve himself, he may go outside those [four cubits] until he finds a private place to relieve himself. [The person is granted this leniency] because “the consideration of personal dignity is very weighty.”2 It is desirable counsel [that when going beyond his four cubits, a person] draw close3 to the Shabbos limits from which he departed, for if he does not find a private place until he reaches those limits, he may enter [them.4 This is beneficial for the person because] once he enters [those limits], it is as if he never left [them at all], since he had license to [re]enter [them].5

If, however, [the person] found a private place before [he reached those limits], he should not enter [his Shabbos limits], but relieve himself there. [The person] may [then] distance himself from the place where he relieved himself until the odor is no longer perceptible. [The person] is then granted four cubits from this [new] place. If, [in the process of] distancing himself from the odor, [the person] enters his Shabbos limits, it is as if he never left them, since the Sages gave [the person] license to [re]enter [his Shabbos limits] out of consideration for his dignity; [the Sages] did not require him to [remain] in a place of filth or one where a [foul] odor [prevails].

When does the above apply? When [the person] left his Shabbos limits unintentionally.6 If, by contrast, [the person] departed his Shabbos limits intentionally, even though he was permitted to enter the Shabbos limits from which he departed, he is granted only four cubits in that place, unless he entered the city7 in which he [originally] established his Shabbos place, as explained in sec. 405[:5].

א מִי שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת1, וְהֻצְרַךְ לִנְקָבָיו – יָכוֹל לָצֵאת מֵהֶן עַד שֶׁיִּמְצָא מָקוֹם צָנוּעַ לִפָּנוֹת, שֶׁגָּדוֹל כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת.א,2 וְעֵצָה טוֹבָה לוֹ שֶׁיִּתְקָרֵב3 לְצַד תְּחוּמוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנּוּ, שֶׁאִם לֹא יִמְצָא מָקוֹם צָנוּעַ עַד תְּחוּמוֹ – יָכוֹל לִכְנוֹס,4 וּלְאַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנַס הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס בִּרְשׁוּת.ב,5 אֲבָל אִם מָצָא מָקוֹם צָנוּעַ קֹדֶם – לֹא יִכְנוֹס, אֶלָּא יִפָּנֶה שָׁם וְיִתְרַחֵק מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּפְנֶה עַד שֶׁיִּכְלֶה הָרֵיחַ, וְשָׁם יֵשׁ לוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת. וְאִם נִתְרַחֵק מֵהָרֵיחַ וְנִכְנַס בִּתְחוּמוֹ – כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס בִּרְשׁוּת חֲכָמִים, שֶׁחָסוּ עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ וְלֹא הִצְרִיכוּהוּ לַעֲמוֹד בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף אוֹ רֵיחַ רָע.ג בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁיָּצָא שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת.ד,6 אֲבָל אִם יָצָא לָדַעַת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְנַס בִּרְשׁוּת לְתוֹךְ תְּחוּם שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנּוּ – אֵין לוֹ שָׁם אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת,ה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן נִכְנַס לָעִיר7 שֶׁשָּׁבַת בָּהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ה:ו

2 [There is a difference of opinion regarding the meaning of] the phrase, must relieve himself” mentioned [in the previous subsection]. Some authorities interpret [that phrase] as meaning, “even to urinate,” while others maintain that [the Sages] only granted the leniency of going beyond four cubits in consideration of personal dignity when one must defecate. With regard to urination, by contrast, the consideration of personal dignity is not that great, for one may urinate in the presence of others.8

Similarly, with regard to abiding in a place of filth, that is not such a great concern with regard to urine, since it is absorbed in its place.9

(One should act stringently, following the words of [these later authorities]), for theirs is the later ruling.10

ב זֶה שֶׁאָמַרְנוּ בְּהֻצְרַךְ לִנְקָבָיו – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםז אֲפִלּוּ לִקְטַנִּים, וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםח שֶׁלֹּא הֵקֵלּוּ מִשּׁוּם כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת לָצֵאת חוּץ לְד' אַמּוֹת אֶלָּא בִּגְדוֹלִים, אֲבָל בִּקְטַנִּים אֵין כְּבוֹד הַבְּרִיּוֹת כָּל כָּךְ, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַשְׁתִּינִים מַיִם בִּפְנֵי רַבִּים,ט,8 וְגַם אֵין לָחוּשׁ שֶׁיַּעֲמוֹד בְּמָקוֹם מְטֻנָּף, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁבְּמֵי רַגְלַיִם אֵין כָּל כָּךְ טִנּוּף, שֶׁנִּבְלָעִים בִּמְקוֹמָם.י,9 (וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּדִבְרֵיהֶםיא) דְּבַתְרָאִי נִינְהוּ:10

3 Our Sages did not only grant [the above] leniency when a person needed to relieve himself, but also when rain was falling on him or the sun was beating down upon him and causing him discomfort, as explained in sec. 404[:3].

ג לֹא בְּהֻצְרַךְ לִנְקָבָיו בִּלְבָד הֵקֵלּוּ כֵּן, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ אִם גְּשָׁמִים יוֹרְדִים עָלָיו אוֹ שֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת עָלָיו וּמְצַעַרְתּוֹ,יב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ד:יג