SECTION 405 The Laws Governing One Who Goes Beyond His Shabbos Limits (1-9)

סימן תה דִּין הַיּוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 A person who went even one cubit beyond his Shabbos limits may not re-enter [them1 so that he could again] be considered like a resident of the city.2 [Instead, the person] is granted only four cubits from the place he is standing in all directions ([i.e., in any direction] he desires), as explained in sec. 396[:2].3 Even though the measure of four cubits that the Sages granted [the person] when he went beyond his Shabbos limits overlaps with the 2000-cubit Shabbos limits from which he departed, in this instance, the intersection of those limits does not enable [the person] to apply [the principle]: Since he was permitted to enter the Shabbos limits from which he departed, it is as if he never departed. [That principle is applied] only when one was permitted to go [beyond his Shabbos limits],4 for example, to save lives, as will be explained in sec. 407[:1]. Similarly, [this principle] is applied when [the person] went beyond those limits unintentionally, e.g., non-Jews or other forces beyond his control took [the person] beyond [his Shabbos limits. Only in such instances] is the intersection of the limits [the Sages granted the person with his original Shabbos limits] effective5 in causing him to be considered as never having left his Shabbos limits and being able [to proceed] 2000 [cubits] in all directions from his original Shabbos place.

א מִי שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת, לֹא יִכְנוֹסא,1 לִהְיוֹת כִּבְנֵי הָעִיר,2 וְאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹתב מֵעֲמִידַת רַגְלָיו לְכָל רוּחַג (שֶׁיִּרְצֶהד), כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ו.3 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁתְּחוּם זֶה שֶׁל ד' אַמּוֹת שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים כְּשֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם הוּא מֻבְלָע בְּתוֹךְ תְּחוּם אַלְפַּיִם שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנּוּ, אֵין הַבְלָעַת תְּחוּמִים אֵלּוּ מוֹעֶלֶת לוֹמַר: כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס בִּרְשׁוּת בְּתוֹךְ תְּחוּם שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנּוּ – שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלָל, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יָצָא מִמֶּנּוּ בִּרְשׁוּת,ה,4 כְּגוֹן לְהַצִּיל נְפָשׁוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ז.ו וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם יָצָא שֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהוּ נָכְרִים אוֹ אֵיזֶה אֹנֶס אַחֵר – מוֹעֶלֶת הַבְלָעַת תְּחוּמִין אֵלּוּז,5 שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא מִתְּחוּמוֹ מֵעוֹלָם, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ מֵהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁשָּׁבַת בּוֹ:

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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2 If one [of a person’s feet] was inside [his] Shabbos limits and one foot was outside [his] Shabbos limits,6 [the person] may re-enter [his Shabbos limits] and be considered like [one of] the residents of his city. Since only one [of the person’s feet stepped beyond] the Shabbos limits, most [of his body] remains inside his Shabbos limits. [Thus it is considered as if the person never left his Shabbos limits.]

ב הָיְתָה רַגְלוֹ אַחַת תּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וְרַגְלוֹ אַחַת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם6 – יִכָּנֵס לִהְיוֹת כִּבְנֵי עִירוֹ,ח,1 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֶלָּא רַגְלוֹ אַחַת, עֲדַיִן רֻבּוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם:ט,1

3 When a person was even just one cubit beyond the Shabbos limits of a city at the commencement of the Shabbos, he may not enter [those limits and] be considered like a resident of the city. [Instead, the person] may only walk 2000 [cubits] in all directions from the place where he was located at the commencement of the Shabbos. ([The person] may walk three cubits inside the city.7 [The rationale is that the person] is granted 2000 cubits beyond the four cubits that constitute his Shabbos place, as explained in sec. 396[:1].) See sec. 408[:1] below.8

ג מִי שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם וְהוּא חוּץ לִתְחוּם הָעִיר, אֲפִלּוּ אַמָּה אַחַת – לֹא יִכְנוֹסי לִהְיוֹת כִּבְנֵי הָעִיר,1 וְאֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ אֶלָּא אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ מִמָּקוֹם שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹםיא (וְיָכוֹל לַהֲלוֹךְ בָּעִיר ג' אַמּוֹת,יב,7 שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם חוּץ מִד' אַמּוֹת שֶׁהֵן מְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ויג), עַיֵּן לְקַמָּן בְּסִמָּן ת"ח:יד,8

4 When a ship on which a person was traveling set out on the sea, he may proceed through the entire ship, since his Shabbos place was established within its walls.

[The following laws apply] if the walls of the ship were breached on Shabbos. If the ship was proceeding [at sea, the person] may proceed throughout the entire [ship]. If [however, the ship] is standing still, [the person] may only walk four cubits [from his location on the ship]. If [the ship] does not have walls ten [handbreadths] high [around its deck], but it has sufficient depth to hew out a space [that will bring the walls to a height] of ten [handbreadths, the person] may proceed throughout the entire [ship].9

[When] a person unintentionally went beyond his Shabbos limits,10 it is permitted to form for him an enclosure [consisting] of people11 who made an eruv [techumin] in the direction [where the person went],12 and [thus] may go there [and be instructed to surround the person, thereby] making a form of enclosure around him.13 [The person] may [proceed] while surrounded [by these people until he] enters (the [city’s] Shabbos limits, or at least [arrives at a point] less than four cubits from those limits, for [the person] may enter the Shabbos limits from there even without an enclosure).14

[When the people make such an enclosure for the person, he is permitted to enter the city’s Shabbos limits,] because the entire area within the enclosure is considered as four cubits for him.15 And since [the person] entered the [city’s] Shabbos limits in a permitted manner, it is as if he never left those limits. [The person is granted this leniency] because he went beyond the Shabbos limits unintentionally. [The above applies] provided [the people] who are forming the enclosure do not know that they are being called [there] for this purpose,16 as explained in sec. 362[:14].17

Even if the area within this enclosure is more than 2000 cubits,18 it is all considered as four cubits for the person who went beyond the Shabbos limits, even though it is not considered as four cubits for someone who did not go beyond his Shabbos limits. [This restriction was imposed because] the enclosure was made on Shabbos, as explained in sec. 403[:1]; (see the rationale [explained] there).19

If, however, [a person] went beyond his Shabbos limits intentionally, he is forbidden to walk more than four cubits20 even inside an enclosure, as will be explained.21

ד מִי שֶׁהִפְלִיגָה סְפִינָתוֹ בַּיָּם – מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ, הוֹאִיל וְשָׁבַת בַּאֲוִיר מְחִצּוֹת. וְאִם נִפְחַת דָּפְנֵי הַסְּפִינָה בְּשַׁבָּת, אִם הִיא מְהַלֶּכֶת – מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ, וְאִם הִיא עוֹמֶדֶת – אֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת. וְאִם בְּרֹאשָׁהּ אֵין לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת עֲשָׂרָה, וְיֵשׁ בְּקַרְקָעִיתָהּ לַחֲקוֹק וּלְהַשְׁלִימָהּ לַעֲשָׂרָה – מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ:טו,9

מִי שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת10 – מֻתָּר לַעֲשׂוֹת לוֹ מְחִצָּה שֶׁל בְּנֵי אָדָםטז,11 שֶׁעֵרְבוּ לְאוֹתוֹ רוּחַיז,12 וִיכוֹלִים לֵילֵךְ שָׁם, וְיַעֲשֶׂה סְבִיבָיו כְּמוֹ מְחִצָּה,13 וְיִכָּנֵס בֵּינֵיהֶם (עַד תּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם אוֹ עַד פָּחוֹת מִד' אַמּוֹת לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ גַּם בְּלֹא מְחִצָּה לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּםיח).14 וְכֵיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס תּוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם בִּרְשׁוּת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל הַהֶקֵּף שֶׁתּוֹךְ הַמְּחִצָּה נַעֲשָׂה לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת15 – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא כְּלָל מִתְּחוּמוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיָּצָא שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת.יט וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יֵדְעוּ אוֹתָם שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית מֵהֶם הַמְּחִצָּה שֶׁלְּשֵׁם כָּךְ נִקְרְאוּ,כ,16 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ב.כא,17

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַהֶקֵּף שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ מְחִצָּה זוֹ הוּא יוֹתֵר מֵאַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה18 – נֶחְשָׁב כֻּלּוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת לְזֶה שֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם,כב אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב כְּד' אַמּוֹת לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא יָצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, הוֹאִיל וְנַעֲשֵׂית הַמְּחִצָּה בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ג (עַיֵּן שָׁם הַטַּעַםכג).19

אֲבָל אִם יָצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם לָדַעַת – אָסוּר לֵילֵךְכד אֲפִלּוּ בְּתוֹךְ מְחִצָּהכה יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת,20 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:כו,21

5 When non-Jews took a person beyond his Shabbos limits [against his will, a person] went beyond [his Shabbos limits] himself because an untoward spirit took hold of him22 and his mind became disturbed,23 [one went beyond his Shabbos limits] because of any other force beyond his control, or [one went beyond his Shabbos limits] unintentionally, he is granted four cubits [in the place where he stops walking].24 If, [due to any of the above circumstances, the person] was brought back into his original Shabbos limits, it is as if he never left. The entire city is considered as four cubits for [this person], as it was originally, and [he may proceed] beyond [the city] for 2000 cubits in all directions. If, however, [the person] intentionally returned to his Shabbos limits,25 he is only granted four cubits. [This ruling] also applies if [the person] returned [to within his Shabbos limits] unintentionally, if he went beyond [those limits] intentionally.

Nevertheless, if [the person] returns to his city,26 [the term “four cubits” is understood according to its expanded meaning], and the entire city is considered as four cubits for him27 if [the city] was enclosed by walls for the sake of habitation.28 [This leniency applies] even if [the person] went beyond his Shabbos limits intentionally and returned intentionally, since he established his Shabbos place within its walls. [The person] may not, however, leave the city.29

ה מִי שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהוּ נָכְרִים חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא מֵעַצְמוֹ עַל יְדֵי שֶׁאֲחָזַתּוּ רוּחַ רָעָהכז,22 וְנִטְרְפָה דַעְתּוֹ,כח,23 אוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא עַל יְדֵי שְׁאָר כָּל אֹנֶס,כט אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁגַג וְיָצָאל – אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת.24 הֶחֱזִירוּהוּ לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם – כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא,22 וַהֲרֵי כָּל הָעִיר לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת כְּבַתְּחִלָּה, וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ.לא אֲבָל אִם חָזַר לָדַעַת לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם – אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת.25 וְכֵן אִם אֲפִלּוּ חָזַר שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת, אֶלָּא שֶׁיָּצָא לָדַעַת.לב,22

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם, אִם חָזַר לְעִירוֹ26 – כָּל הָעִיר חֲשׁוּבָה לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹתלג,27 אִם הִיא מֻקֶּפֶת מְחִצּוֹת לְדִירָה,לד,28 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יָצָא לָדַעַת וְחָזַר לָדַעַת, הוֹאִיל וְשָׁבַת בַּאֲוִיר מְחִצּוֹתֶיהָ. אֶלָּא שֶׁאָסוּר לָצֵאת חוּצָה לָהּ:לה,29

6 When does the above [leniency] apply? When [the person] returns to the city in which he established his Shabbos place. If, however, [the person entered] another city, he is granted only four cubits, even if [the city] was surrounded by walls for the sake of habitation. [Indeed,] even if [the person stops] in a courtyard or a house, he is granted only four cubits [in a strict, literal sense]. The entire [enclosure] is not considered as four cubits for [this person] since he did not establish his Shabbos place within its confines.30

When does [the stringency mentioned in the previous clause] apply? When [the person] intentionally went beyond his Shabbos limits or he intentionally entered this city or this house that was beyond the four cubits that the Sages granted him [after he was taken beyond his Shabbos limits by forces beyond his control]. If, however, non-Jews took [a person] beyond his Shabbos limits [against his will,] and left him in a city31 enclosed for the sake of habitation,32 or in a pen, a corral,33 or a cave (which is used for human habitation, or which is less than beis sasayim [in area]),34 [the person is permitted to proceed throughout the entire city or enclosure. This leniency also applies] if [the person] was taken [beyond the Shabbos limits] by any other forces beyond his control35 and which caused him to enter one of these places, or [the person] unintentionally went beyond the Shabbos limits, entered one of these [places], and [only] while there remembered [that he had gone beyond his Shabbos limits. The person] may walk through the entire [city or enclosure], for the entire [city or enclosure] is considered as [only] four cubits for him, since it is enclosed with walls [that were constructed] for human habitation. Even though [the person] did not establish his Shabbos place within the confines [of this area], he is granted this leniency because [his presence there resulted from factors] beyond his control.

ו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁחָזַר לָעִיר שֶׁשָּׁבַת בָּהּ. אֲבָל בְּעִיר אַחֶרֶת – אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹתלו אֲפִלּוּ מֻקֶּפֶת מְחִצּוֹת לְדִירָה.לז וַאֲפִלּוּ בֶּחָצֵר אוֹ בַּבַּיִתלח אֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת, וְאֵין כֻּלּוֹ נֶחְשָׁב לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא שָׁבַת בַּאֲוִיר מְחִצּוֹת אֵלּוּ.לט,30

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁיָּצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם לָדַעַת, אוֹ שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָדַעַתמ בְּעִיר זוֹמא אוֹ בְּבַיִת זֶה שֶׁהֵן חוּץ לְד' אַמּוֹתמב שֶׁנָּתְנוּ לוֹ חֲכָמִים. אֲבָל הוֹצִיאוּהוּ נָכְרִים חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וּנְתָנוּהוּ הֵם בָּעִירמג,31 הַמֻּקֶּפֶתמד לְדִירָה,מה,32 אוֹ בְּדִיר אוֹ בְּסַהַרמו,33 אוֹ בִּמְעָרָה (שֶׁהִיא לְדִירָהמז אוֹ שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם34), אוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱנַס בִּשְׁאָר אֹנֶסמח לָצֵאת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם35 וְלִכָּנֵס לְאֶחָד מִמְּקוֹמוֹת אֵלּוּ, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁגַגמט וְיָצָא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם22 וְנִכְנַס לְאֶחָד מֵאֵלּוּ, וְנִזְכַּר וְהוּא בְּתוֹכוֹ – מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלּוֹ, שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ נֶחְשָׁב לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת הוֹאִיל וּמֻקָּף מְחִצּוֹת לְדִירָה,נ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא שָׁבַת בַּאֲוִירוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא אָנוּס:

7 Similarly, when a person is travelling on a ship on Shabbos and the ship enters a city that was enclosed for the purpose of habitation, [the person] may proceed throughout the entire [city].36 This [situation] is not considered as [similar to one in which a person] intentionally went beyond [his Shabbos limits] since he was on the ship while it was still day [on Friday], which is a time when it was permitted to go beyond the Shabbos limits. On Shabbos, the ship took [the person] beyond his Shabbos limits; he [personally] did not do anything.37

If, however, [the ship] did not enter a city that was enclosed for the purpose of habitation, [the person] is forbidden to disembark from the ship if it was located less than ten handbreadths [from the bed of the sea or river at any time] after the commencement of the Shabbos and sailed more than 2000 cubits from that place, as explained in sec. 404[:3].

When does [the above]38 apply? When [the person] was on the ship while it was still day [on Friday] (and did not disembark from [the ship] to dry land [after] the commencement of the Shabbos,or [the person] did disembark from [the ship but was] in a place where he could not stay until Saturday night, e.g., the ship belonged to non-Jews who would not wait for him [for the duration of the Shabbos] and he had to return to the ship [on Shabbos. The person is therefore [considered as] compelled by forces beyond his control to return to the ship and to go beyond the Shabbos limits of that place while on it.)39

[Different rules,] however, [apply to] individuals who establish their Shabbos place on a ship, then disembark [from the ship] and sleep in their homes [Friday] night, return to the ship on [the Shabbos]day, and then depart [on the ship.40 These people] are considered as having departed [the Shabbos limits] intentionally. [Thus, even] if they enter a city that was surrounded by walls for the sake of habitation, it is not considered as four cubits for them, since they did not establish their Shabbos place inside its walls. [Furthermore,] they are forbidden to disembark from the ship [and enter] the city even though [the ship] never [sailed in waters that were less than] ten handbreadths [deep.41 The rationale is that] even if one would postulate that the Shabbos limits do not apply above ten handbreadths42 and the person did not establish a Shabbos place bein hashmashos when he was on the ship,43 he nevertheless established a Shabbos place afterwards in his home.44

Nevertheless, the entire ship is considered as four cubits for [this person], even if it traveled [less than] ten handbreadths [above the bed of the sea or river] the entire [time.45 The person] may walk throughout the entire [ship] even after it sailed beyond the Shabbos limits. [The rationale is that the person] established his Shabbos place within the walls [of the ship.46 The person] may not, however, go from one ship to another.47 He is, nonetheless, permitted to board a small boat [at the side of the larger ship] to relieve himself 48 and then return to the larger ship, as will be explained in sec. 406[:1].49

If the walls of the ship were breached and they were [no longer] ten handbreadths high, [the person] is not permitted to walk more than four cubits [from his place on the ship. This stringency applies] even if [the person] did not leave [the ship] from the time the Shabbos commenced, but [the ship] was located in one place [where the waters were] less than ten handbreadths [deep] when the Shabbos commenced and [later] sailed more than 2000 [cubits] from that place. [The rationale is that] since [the ship] lacks walls [of sufficient height, in that instance], the entire [ship] is not considered as four cubits.50

(Even if [the ship lacking walls ten handbreadths high] is located ten [handbreadths] above [the bed of the sea or river, the person] may not proceed more than four cubits upon it. [Our Sages’] statement that the Shabbos limits do not apply ten [handbreadths above the ground] is relevant only regarding the ship’s progress on the water’s surface. That bears a similarity to jumping in the air and is not considered as walking, as stated in sec. 404[:1]. When, by contrast, a person walks in a ship, it is [considered as if he is] walking [normally], as if he is walking on ordinary land.51

When does the above apply? When the ship is [docked or anchored]. When, however, the ship is moving, one may walk throughout the ship in all instances. [The rationale is that] before [the person] will be able to walk even one step (of [the] four cubits), the ship will take him beyond these four cubits and position him in another four cubits, regardless of his will. In that [new place, the person] is also granted four cubits. [This situation] is comparable to one who was taken away from his four cubits by non-Jews and put down in another four cubits, in which instance, he may proceed four cubits in the [new place].52 Similar [logic applies] when [the ship] proceeds from the [second] four cubits to a new four cubits, and so on, ad infinitum.)

If [the ship only] has walls ten [handbreadths high] in its middle portion, but not at its bow, e.g., its middle portion is deep, but it is inclined and raised at its bow, as is true regarding many small boats, [the entire ship is] nonetheless considered as [only] four cubits, even when it is [docked or anchored. The rationale is that the entire ship] is considered as a private domain; its bow is considered like apertures [in the wall] of a private domain, which are considered as [part of] the private domain, as explained in sec. 345[:8].

[The above applies] even if the middle portion [of the ship] is less than ten [handbreadths] deep, but [that depth] could be reached by hewing out [its hull], i.e., the boards of its hull are thick enough so that with them, [the boat’s depth] would be ten [handbreadths. In this instance, the boards] are joined [with the actual depth of the ship], and they complete [the required measure, i.e., together] they are considered as ten handbreadths, enabling the person to walk throughout] the entire ship , [for the entire ship is considered] as [only] four cubits. [The rationale for this leniency is that] from the exterior, [the ship] has a wall that is ten [handbreadths] high, for the thickness of the exterior [boards of its hull] is joined with its existing walls (for from the outside, the thickness [of the hull] is considered as [part of the ship’s] wall which is standing on [the ship’s] base, based on the principle of gud asik,53as explained in sec. 345[:1]).

This [situation] resembles a courtyard whose ground is five handbreadths higher than [that of] the [adjoining] courtyard, and there is a wall five handbreadths high intervening between them. Thus, the wall is ten handbreadths high only for the lower courtyard, but it is not ten [handbreadths] high for the higher courtyard. Nevertheless, it is considered as a wall in a complete sense for both [courtyards], as explained in sec. 372[:8], since even for the upper courtyard [the wall] is ten handbreadths high on the outside.54

Moreover, since there is [sufficient depth] in the [boat’s] hull to hew out [a portion] and reach [a depth of] ten [handbreadths], it is considered as if [the hull] had [actually] been hewed out. [The rationale is that one of the Sages] maintains55 that in all instances, [the bottom of a domain] should be considered as hewed out to complete [the required measure]. His words may be relied on with regard to the Shabbos limits because the halachah follows the lenient views in that regard.56

ז וְכֵן מִי שֶׁבָּא בִּסְפִינָה בְּשַׁבָּת, וְנִכְנְסָה הַסְּפִינָה לְתוֹךְ עִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת לְדִירָה – מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ.נא,36 וְאֵין זֶה כְּיָצָא לָדַעַת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהָיָה כְּבָר בַּסְּפִינָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, שֶׁהִיא שְׁעַת הֶתֵּר לָצֵאת חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וּבְשַׁבָּת הוֹצִיאַתּוּ הַסְּפִינָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וְהוּא לֹא עָשָׂה כְּלוּם.נב,37 אֲבָל אִם לֹא נִכְנְסָה לְעִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת [לְ]דִירָה – אָסוּר לָצֵאת מֵהַסְּפִינָהנג אִם הָיְתָה בְּמָקוֹם לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת, וְהִפְלִיגָה מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם יוֹתֵר מֵאַלְפַּיִם,נד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ד.נה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?38 כְּשֶׁהָיָה בַּסְּפִינָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם (וְלֹא יָצָא מִמֶּנָּה לַיַּבָּשָׁה מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת, אוֹ שֶׁיָּצָא מִמֶּנָּה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה אֶפְשָׁר לוֹ לְהִשָּׁאֵר שָׁמָּה עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, שֶׁהַסְּפִינָה שֶׁל נָכְרִים וְלֹא יַמְתִּינוּ עָלָיו וְהֻצְרַךְ לַחֲזוֹר לַסְּפִינָה, שֶׁזֶּהוּ אָנוּס הוּא בַּחֲזִירָתוֹ לַסְּפִינָהנו וּבִיצִיאָתוֹ בָּהּ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם).39 אֲבָל אֵלּוּ שֶׁקּוֹנִים שְׁבִיתָה בַּסְּפִינָה,נז וְיוֹצְאִים מִמֶּנָּה לְבָתֵּיהֶם לָלוּן, וּלְמָחָר נִכְנָסִים לַסְּפִינָה וּמַפְלִיגִים40 – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּיוֹצֵא לָדַעַת,נח וְאִם נִכְנַס לָעִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת [לְ]דִירָה אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא שָׁבַת בַּאֲוִיר מְחִצּוֹתֶיהָ. וְאָסוּר לָצֵאת מֵהַסְּפִינָה לָעִירנט אַף אִם לֹא הָיְתָה לְעוֹלָם לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים,41 לְפִי שֶׁאַף אִם תִּמְצֵי לוֹמַר שֶׁאֵין תְּחוּמִים לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים42 וְלֹא קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת כְּשֶׁהָיָה בַּסְּפִינָה,43 מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה אַחַר כָּךְ בְּבֵיתוֹ.ס,44

אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם הַסְּפִינָה כֻּלָּהּ נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיְתָה מְהַלֶּכֶת הַכֹּל לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים,סא,45 וְיָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ בְּכֻלָּהּ אַף לְאַחַר שֶׁהִפְלִיגָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, הוֹאִיל וְשָׁבַת בַּאֲוִיר מְחִצּוֹתֶיהָ.סב,46 אֲבָל אָסוּר לָצֵאת מִסְּפִינָה לִסְפִינָה.סג,47 וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם יָכוֹל לִכָּנֵס לִסְפִינָה קְטַנָּה לַעֲשׂוֹת צְרָכָיו48 וְלַחֲזוֹר לִסְפִינָה גְדוֹלָה,סד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ו.49

וְאִם נִפְחֲתוּ דָּפְנֵי הַסְּפִינָה בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵינָן גְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים – אֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת,סה וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא יָצָא מִמֶּנָּה מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת וְהִפְלִיגָה מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם יוֹתֵר מֵאַלְפַּיִם, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת – אֵין כֻּלָּהּ כְּד' אַמּוֹת.סו,50

(וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים אֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת, שֶׁלֹּא אָמְרוּ "אֵין תְּחוּמִין לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה" אֶלָּא בְּהִלּוּךְ הַסְּפִינָה עַל פְּנֵי הַמַּיִם, שֶׁהוּא דוֹמֶה לִקְפִיצָה בַּאֲוִיר וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא הִלּוּךְ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ד.סז אֲבָל הִלּוּךְ הָאָדָם בְּתוֹךְ הַסְּפִינָה – הִלּוּךְ הוּא, כְּמוֹ הַמְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ.סח,51

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהִיא עוֹמֶדֶת. אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִיא מְהַלֶּכֶת – מְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ בְּכָל עִנְיָן,סט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁטֶּרֶם שֶׁיַּסְפִּיק לְהַלֵּךְ (ד' אַמּוֹת) אֲפִלּוּ פְּסִיעָה אַחַת, נוֹטַלְתּוֹ הַסְּפִינָה מִד' אַמּוֹת אֵלּוּ וּמַנִּיחָתוֹ בְּד' אַמּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת עַל כָּרְחוֹ, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ שָׁם ד' אַמּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת, כְּמוֹ מִי שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהוּ נָכְרִים מִד' אַמּוֹת וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְּד' אַמּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ שָׁם ד' אַמּוֹת,52 וְכֵן מֵאוֹתוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת לְד' אַמּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת, וְכֵן לְעוֹלָםע).

וְאִם בְּאֶמְצָעָהּ יֵשׁ לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת עֲשָׂרָה וּבְרֹאשָׁהּ אֵין לָהּ,עא כְּגוֹן שֶׁהִיא עֲמֻקָּה בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ וּבְרֹאשָׁהּ הִיא מְשֻׁפַּעַת וְהוֹלֶכֶת כְּלַפֵּי מַעְלָה קְצָת, כְּדֶרֶךְ סְפִינוֹת קְטַנּוֹת – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֻּלָּהּ כְּד' אַמּוֹת אֲפִלּוּ כְּשֶׁעוֹמֶדֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הִיא, שֶׁרָאשֶׁיהָ הֵם כְּחוֹרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁנִּדּוֹנִים כִּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,עב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה.עג

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם גַּם בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָהּ אֵינָהּ עֲמֻקָּה עֲשָׂרָה, אֶלָּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ לַחֲקוֹק לְהַשְׁלִימָהּ לַעֲשָׂרָה,עד דְּהַיְנוּ עֹבִי הַנְּסָרִים שֶׁבְּקַרְקָעִיתָהּ שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ כְּדֵי לְהַשְׁלִים גָּבְהָהּ לַעֲשָׂרָה – הֲרֵי הֵם מִצְטָרְפִים לְהַשְׁלִימָהּעה וְנַעֲשֵׂית כֻּלָּהּ כְּד' אַמּוֹת, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהּ מְחִצּוֹת שֶׁהֵן גְּבוֹהוֹת עֲשָׂרָה מִבְּחוּץ, שֶׁעֹבִי קַרְקָעִיתָהּ שֶׁמִּן הַצְּדָדִים כְּלַפֵּי חוּץ מִצְטָרֵף הוּא עִם הַמְּחִצּוֹת אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו (לְפִי שֶׁאַף עֹבִי זֶה שֶׁמִּן הַצְּדָדִים רוֹאִים אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ עוֹמֵד כִּמְחִצָּה עַל גַּבֵּי קַרְקָעִיתָהּ, מִשּׁוּם תּוֹרַת "גּוּד אַסֵּק",53 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"העו). וַהֲרֵי זֶה דוֹמֶה לְחָצֵר שֶׁקַּרְקָעִיתָהּ גָּבוֹהַּ מֵחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת ה' טְפָחִים, וְכֹתֶל גָּבוֹהַּ ה' טְפָחִים מַפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְאֵין כֹּתֶל זֶה גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים אֶלָּא לְחָצֵר הַנְּמוּכָה אֲבָל לְהַגְּבוֹהָה אֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ י', וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הִיא מְחִצָּה גְמוּרָה לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ב,עז הוֹאִיל שֶׁאַף לְחָצֵר הַגָּבוֹהַּ הוּא גָבוֹהַּ י' מִבְּחוּץ.54 וְעוֹד, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּקַרְקָעִיתָהּ יֵשׁ כְּדֵי לַחֲקוֹק לְהַשְׁלִימָהּ לַעֲשָׂרָה – אָנוּ רוֹאִים כְּאִלּוּ הוּא חָקוּק, כִּי יֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרעח,55 שֶׁבְּכָל מָקוֹם אוֹמְרִים "חוֹקְקִים לְהַשְׁלִים", וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם לְעִנְיַן תְּחוּמִין,עט שֶׁהֲלָכָה כְּדִבְרֵי הַמֵּקֵל בָּהֶם:פ,56

8 If a person boarded a ship [on Shabbos]with the intent not to journey beyond the Shabbos limits [on that day], however, the ship did travel beyond those limits, but it later [reversed course and] returned to the port from which it departed, the person is considered as if he did not leave [his Shabbos limits.] He is considered as one who was taken beyond his Shabbos limits by non-Jews and then returned to them by [the non-Jews].57

Moreover, [this leniency may apply] even if [one] boarded the ship with the intent of leaving [the Shabbos limits], but boarded [the ship] while it was still day [on Friday] and did not disembark [from] it after the commencement of the Shabbos.58Even though [the ship] was less than ten handbreadths [above the bed of the sea or the river] and thus, [the person’s] Shabbos place was established in that [city], nevertheless, if [the ship journeyed beyond the Shabbos limits, but] afterwards returned within the Shabbos limits of the person’s Shabbos place, it is considered as if [the person] did not leave [those limits. The rationale is that] since the person boarded [the ship] on Friday, it is as if he departed [his Shabbos limits] unintentionally, as was explained.59

ח אִם נִכְנַס לִסְפִינָהפא עַל דַּעַת שֶׁלֹּא לְהַפְלִיג חוּץ לַתְּחוּם,פב וְיָצְאָה הַסְּפִינָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְחָזְרָה לַאֲחוֹרֶיהָ לַנָּמָל שֶׁהִפְלִיגָה מִשָּׁם – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא, שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהוּ נָכְרִים חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְהֶחֱזִירוּהוּ לִתְחוּמוֹ.57 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִכְנַס עַל מְנָת לְהַפְלִיג, אֶלָּא שֶׁנִּכְנַס מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְלֹא יָצָאפג מִמֶּנָּה מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת,58 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהָיְתָה לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים, שֶׁקָּנָה שָׁם שְׁבִיתָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם אַחַר כָּךְ חָזְרָה לְתוֹךְ תְּחוּם הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁקָּנָה שָׁם שְׁבִיתָה – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצָא, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָהּ מֵעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, הֲרֵי זֶה כְּיוֹצֵא שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר:59

9 When produce was taken beyond the Shabbos limits and then returned – even intentionally – to those limits, it is as if [the produce] never left [the Shabbos limits]. What is the reason? [The produce] was removed [from the Shabbos limits] and returned [to them] by factors beyond its control.60 [Hence,] the entire city is considered as four cubits for [this produce] as it initially was, and [such produce] may be taken 2000 [cubits] beyond [the city] in all directions on a festival,61 when it is permitted to take [articles] from one domain to another.62 And if it is Shabbos, [the produce] is at least permitted to be eaten in the place [where it was deposited].

[This leniency is granted] even to the Jew for whose sake [the produce] was returned. The laws governing [such produce] are not the same as [those governing] other entities brought from outside the Shabbos limits, in which instance, [those objects] are forbidden for the person for whom they were brought.63 [The rationale for the distinction is that] this produce was already located within these Shabbos limits on this Shabbos. [Therefore,] even the person who returned [the produce to its original location] – though he violated a prohibition [by doing so] – is not penalized [by being prohibited] from eating [the produce] on [that] Shabbos.

(This instance is not comparable to one who tithes his produce on Shabbos,who was penalized and prohibited from eating [the produce on that Shabbos],64because [in that instance, it was] the performance of the forbidden act [itself that] made the produce fit to be eaten, for it was not fit to be eaten beforehand, since it was tevel.65By contrast, this produce was fit [to be eaten] by [the person] when it was with him outside the Shabbos limits. Bringing [the produce] back within the Shabbos limits did not increase its fitness to be eaten. Thus, [the person] did not benefit from the prohibited activity when eating [the produce].

Nor does [this instance] resemble [that of a person] who, on Shabbos, cooks produce that is fit to be eaten raw. [Such produce] is forbidden66 because [an act] prohibited by Scriptural Law was performed with it. In contrast, [the prohibition against bringing an article from outside] the Shabbos limits is [only] Rabbinic [in origin].)67

[The following laws apply] as long as [the produce] was not returned [to within its original Shabbos limits], but was still outside them: If [the produce] was taken beyond [its Shabbos limits] unintentionally, [one] is permitted to eat [the produce], but it is forbidden to move [the produce] beyond the four cubits [in which it is located].68 If [the produce] was taken beyond [its Shabbos limits] intentionally, even someone for whom [the produce] was not taken [beyond its Shabbos limits] is forbidden [to partake of it. This instance] does not resemble [one in which objects were] brought from beyond the Shabbos limits by a non-Jew, [in] which [case the objects] are permitted for someone for whom they were not brought.69 Since a Jew committed a prohibition [by bringing the produce beyond its Shabbos limits, our Sages] ruled more stringently and forbade its use by everyone.

Nevertheless, it is permitted to carry [this produce] within the four cubits [in which it is located. This produce] is not deemed muktzeh even though it is not fit to be eaten by any Jew.70 Since [the produce] is prohibited only as a penalty, [the Sages] only desired to apply this penalty to eating, but not to carrying [the produce].

ט פֵּרוֹת שֶׁהוֹצִיאָם חוּץ לַתְּחוּם וְהֶחֱזִירָם לִתְחוּמָם, אֲפִלּוּ בְּמֵזִיד – הֲרֵי הֵם כְּאִלּוּ לֹא יָצְאוּ. מַה טַּעַם? אֲנוּסִים הֵם בִּיצִיאָתָם וּבַחֲזָרָתָם.פד,60 וַהֲרֵי כָּל הָעִיר לָהֶם כְּד' אַמּוֹת כְּבַתְּחִלָּה וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ,פה אִם הוּא יוֹם טוֹב61 שֶׁהַהוֹצָאָה מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת מֻתֶּרֶת בּוֹ,62 וְאִם הוּא שַׁבָּת – מֻתָּרִים עַל כָּל פָּנִים בַּאֲכִילָה בִּמְקוֹמָם.פו

וַאֲפִלּוּ לְאוֹתוֹ יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֶחֱזִירָם לְצָרְכּוֹ אֵין דִּינָם כִּשְׁאָר דָּבָר הַבָּא מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם, שֶׁאָסוּר לְמִי שֶׁהוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,פז,63 הוֹאִיל וּפֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ הָיוּ כְּבָר בִּתְחוּם זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת זוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ הַמַּחֲזִיר עַצְמוֹ, שֶׁעָשָׂה אִסּוּר – אֵין קוֹנְסִין אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלֵם בְּשַׁבָּת.פח

(וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְהַמְעַשֵּׂר פֵּרוֹת בְּשַׁבָּת,פט שֶׁקָּנְסוּ אוֹתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכַל מֵהֶם,צ,64 לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי עֲשִׂיַּת הָאִסּוּר נִתְקְנוּ לַאֲכִילָה, שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ רְאוּיִים כְּלָל מִקֹּדֶם לְכֵן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם טֶבֶל.65 אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת אֵלּוּ הָיוּ רְאוּיִים לוֹ כְּשֶׁהָיָה עִמָּהֶם חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וְלֹא הוֹעִיל לוֹ כְּלוּם לַאֲכִילָתָם בְּמַה שֶּׁהֶחֱזִירָם לִתְחוּמָם, וְאֵינוֹ נֶהֱנֶה מִן הָאִסּוּר בַּאֲכִילָתוֹ אוֹתָם.צא

וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְהַמְבַשֵּׁל בְּשַׁבָּתצב פֵּרוֹת הַנֶּאֱכָלִים חַיִּים שֶׁאֲסוּרִים,66 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעָשָׂה בָּהֶם אִסּוּר שֶׁל תּוֹרָה, אֲבָל תְּחוּמִין הֵם מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםצג).67

וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הֻחְזְרוּ וְהֵם חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אִם הוֹצִיאָם בְּשׁוֹגֵג – מֻתָּרִים לְאָכְלָםצד,67 וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם חוּץ מִד' אַמּוֹת,צה,68 וְאִם הוֹצִיאָם בְּמֵזִיד – אֲסוּרִין אֲפִלּוּ לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא הוֹצִיאָם בִּשְׁבִילוֹ.צו וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְבָא מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְמִי שֶׁלֹּא הוּבָא בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,צז,69 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הָאִסּוּר עַל יְדֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל, הֶחֱמִירוּ יוֹתֵר לֶאֱסוֹר לְכָל אָדָם.צח

וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם תּוֹךְ ד' אַמּוֹת,צט וְאֵין לָהֶם דִּין מֻקְצֶה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם רְאוּיִים בַּאֲכִילָה לְשׁוּם אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל.70 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּרָן אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם קְנָס, לֹא רָצוּ לִקְנוֹס אֶלָּא בַּאֲכִילָה וְלֹא בְּטִלְטוּל:ק