SECTION 404 The Laws Governing Whether [the Prohibition against Going Beyond] the Shabbos Limits Applies Ten Handbreadths Above [the Ground] (1-4)

סימן תד דִּין אִם יֵשׁ תְּחוּמִין לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה טְפָחִים וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 There is an unresolved question whether or not [the prohibition against going beyond] the Shabbos limits applies [when one travels] ten handbreadths above [the ground],1 e.g., a person [departed his Shabbos limits by] jumping [from one] pillar ten handbreadths high [to another pillar of the same height], and neither of [the pillars] were four handbreadths by four handbreadths [in area]. [The same question applies] even if [the person] walked from one edge of one tall pillar [that was] less than four handbreadths by four handbreadths [in area]2 to the other edge, that was located partially within the Shabbos limits and partially outside of them. [The reason why one might say that this is permitted is that] there is a question as to whether the Shabbos limits apply [at a height of more than] ten handbreadths [above the ground. The rationale is that] it is possible that walking [on a surface] ten handbreadths above [the ground] is not considered as walking [in a halachic context].

[Different rules apply with regard to] a pillar that is four handbreadths by four handbreadths [in area]. Since it is comfortable to walk on [such a pillar],3 there is no question that [walking on] it is considered as walking in a full sense and is just like walking on the ground. The pillar is considered as if it is part of the earth’s surface [and it is merely as if] in this place, [the earth] is thick and protrudes like a pillar.4[When,] by contrast, [the pillar measures] less than four handbreadths [by four handbreadths in area], since it is not comfortable to walk upon [such a pillar],5 it is as if the person is walking in the air, and a doubt exists [as to whether in a halachic sensethis is considered as walking].

A similar [question exists] when one proceeds by leaping above ten handbreadths high using [the power of one of G‑d’s mystic] names,6 and also with regard to a ship that proceeds more than ten handbreadths above the seabed.7 This resembles leaping in the air because as it proceeds, [the ship] does not rest on the earth in the same [way] a person rests when he walks by foot.8

א הַמְהַלֵּךְ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים,א,1 כְּגוֹן שֶׁקָּפַץ עַל גַּבֵּי עַמּוּדִיםב שֶׁגְּבוֹהִים י' טְפָחִים וְאֵין בְּכָל אֶחָד מֵהֶם ד' טְפָחִים עַל ד' טְפָחִים,1 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ עַמּוּד אֶחָד גָּבוֹהַּ וְאֵין בּוֹ ד' טְפָחִים עַל ד' טְפָחִים, שֶׁעוֹמֵד מִקְצָתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם וּמִקְצָתוֹ חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וּמְהַלֵּךְ עַל גַּבּוֹ מִשְּׂפָתוֹ אֶל שְׂפָתוֹ,ג,2 – הֲרֵי זֶה סָפֵק אִם יֵשׁ תְּחוּמִין לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים אוֹ לָאו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר שֶׁהִלּוּךְ גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים אֵינוֹ נִקְרָא הִלּוּךְ.ד אֲבָל עַמּוּד שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' טְפָחִים עַל ד' טְפָחִים,ה כֵּיוָן שֶׁנּוֹחַ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הֲלִיכָתוֹ,ו,3 אֵין בּוֹ סָפֵק שֶׁהִלּוּךְ גָּמוּר הוּא,ז וַהֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְהַלֵּךְ בָּאָרֶץ,ח,1 שֶׁרוֹאִין אֶת הָעַמּוּד כְּאִלּוּ הוּא מִגּוּף הָאָרֶץ, שֶׁהִיא עָבָה כַּאן וּבוֹלֶטֶת כְּמוֹ עַמּוּד.ט,4 אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִד' טְפָחִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹחַ לְהַלֵּךְ בּוֹי,5 – הֲרֵי זֶה כִּמְהַלֵּךְ בַּאֲוִיר,יא וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ סָפֵק.יב

וְכֵן הַמְהַלֵּךְ בִּקְפִיצָה עַל יְדֵי שֵׁם6 לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים.יג וְכֵן סְפִינָה הַהוֹלֶכֶת לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִיםיד מִקַּרְקָעִית הַמַּיִםטו,7 דּוֹמָה לִקְפִיצָה בָּאֲוִיר, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ נָחָה בַּהֲלִיכָתָהּ עַל הָאָרֶץטז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנָּח אָדָם הַהוֹלֵךְ בְּרַגְלָיו:8

2 Stringency is required regarding such [issues that are] matters of doubt only [when the matter concerns a question of] Scriptural Law, e.g., [going] from within twelve mil9to beyond twelve mil,according to those [authorities] who maintain that Scriptural Law [prescribes] Shabbos limits of twelve mil.10

[Moreover, stringency is required only] when all the twelve mil are deemed a public domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law, [according to the specifications] explained in sec. 345[:11.11 Only then does the area] resemble the encampment [of the Jews] in the desert [after the Exodus], which was a public domain in a complete sense, and is the source from which the Scriptural prohibition [against going beyond] the Shabbos limits was derived, as explained in sec. 396[:1]. If, however, one of the specifications of a public domain is lacking and [thus,] it is permitted to carry within [the entire area] according to Scriptural Law, it is – needless to say – also permitted to walk through [the area] in its entirety.12

It was already explained in sec. 345[:11] that it is customary [to follow the opinion of] those [authorities] who maintain that there is no [concept of a] public domain in a complete sense in the present era.13

ב וְסָפֵק זֶה – אֵין הוֹלְכִין בּוֹ לְהַחֲמִיר אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁל תּוֹרָה,יז כְּגוֹן מִתּוֹךְ י"ב מִיל9 לְחוּץ לְי"ב מִיל לְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁתְּחוּם י"ב מִיל הוּא מִן הַתּוֹרָה.יח,10

וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כָּל הַי"ב מִיל רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה מִן הַתּוֹרָה, עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה,יט,11 כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּהְיוּ דוֹמִים לְדִגְלֵי מִדְבָּר שֶׁהָיוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה, שֶׁמִּשָּׁם לָמְדוּ אִסּוּר הַתְּחוּמִים מִן הַתּוֹרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ו.כ אֲבָל אִם חָסֵר אֶחָד מִתְּנָאֵי רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁמִּן הַתּוֹרָה מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּכֻלּוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהַלֵּךְ בְּכֻלּוֹ.כא,12

וּכְבָר נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה שֶׁנָּהֲגוּ כְּהָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁעַכְשָׁו אֵין לָנוּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה:כב,13

3 When, however, the matter in doubt involves a point of Rabbinic Law, leniency is granted, since all authorities agree that the Scriptural prohibition [against going beyond] the Shabbos limits does not apply [to travel] on seas and rivers even [when one goes] beyond twelve mil, because [these bodies of water]do not resemble the encampment [of the Jews] in the desert. Therefore, [there is room for leniency when] a person is traveling in a ship on Shabbos and arrives at a harbor [on that day]. If [the ship] was always traveling ten handbreadths above seabed or riverbed from the commencement of the Shabbos until [the time when] the ship reached the harbor, [the person] is not considered [as one who] went beyond his Shabbos limits – [in which instance,] he would not be permitted to proceed beyond the four cubits [of the place where he is located] – since [while the person was traveling ten handbreadths above the seabed] he did not yet establish a Shabbos place. [The person] establishes his Shabbos place [only] when he reaches a place that is less than ten handbreadths [from the bed of the sea or river], i.e. near the harbor, and [from that point, the person] is granted 2000 cubits in every direction.14

Even when there is a doubt whether [a ship] was traveling more than ten handbreadths above [the seabed throughout Shabbos], leniency is granted.15

If, however, it is known that in one place, [a ship] was less than ten handbreadths [from the seabed after the] commencement of the Shabbos, and it sailed from there beyond 2000 [cubits, the person] is granted only four cubits [from the place the ship docks], as is the law regarding a person who goes beyond [his] Shabbos limits. [The rationale is that the person] acquired a Shabbos place in the place that was less than ten handbreadths [above the bed of the sea or river]. Nevertheless, the entire ship is considered as four cubits for him, as will be explained in sec. 405[:7]. Needless to say, [this stringency applies] if [the person] once left [the ship and set foot on] dry land after nightfall [on Friday].

Even so, if [the person] finds himself in a situation where it is permitted for him to leave the ship and enter the port [and then] enter the city, e.g. rain is [falling] upon him or the sun is shining upon him and causing him discomfort,16 or he must relieve himself and does not have a private place unless he enters the city, in which instances, [the person] is permitted to enter [the city], as will be explained in sec. 406[:1, 3], the entire city is considered as four cubits for [this person] if it is surrounded by walls [that were erected to enclose the area] for the purpose of human habitation. [The person] may walk through the entire city, since he was permitted to enter it [on Shabbos]. This same law applies if [the person] was compelled to enter the city, e.g., non-Jews pushed him into the city. Needless to say, [this law also applies] if the ship itself enters the city.17 [In this instance, the city] is considered as four cubits [for the traveler] if it is surrounded by walls [that were erected] for the purpose of human habitation.

When does the above apply? When [the ship] sailed beyond the Shabbos limits from the place where it was less than ten handbreadths [above the bed of the sea or river]. If, however, [the ship] had yet to sail 2000 [cubits] from that place, and it entered the city and [the 2000 cubits of the person’s Shabbos limits] end in the middle of the city, [the person] is forbidden to go beyond that midpoint, even though he was permitted to enter the city. [The rationale is that when one enters] a city [on Shabbos, the entire city] is [only] considered as four cubits for a person who departs his Shabbos limits, but not for [one] who is measuring 2000 cubits from his Shabbos place, as explained in sec. 403[:1].18

ג אֲבָל כְּשֶׁסָּפֵק זֶה הוּא בְּשֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם, הוֹלְכִין בּוֹ לְהָקֵל. וְהוֹאִיל וְאֵין בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּהָרוֹת אִסּוּר תְּחוּמִין שֶׁל תּוֹרָה לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֲפִלּוּ בְּיוֹתֵר מִי"ב מִיל, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן דּוֹמִים לְדִגְלֵי מִדְבָּר, לְפִיכָךְ מִי שֶׁבָּא בִּסְפִינָה בְּשַׁבָּת וְהִגִּיעַ לְנָמָל – אִם מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת עַד שֶׁהִגִּיעַ לְנָמָל לְעוֹלָם הָיְתָה מְהַלֶּכֶת לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים מִקַּרְקַע הַיָּם אוֹ הַנָּהָר, אֵין לוֹ דִּין יוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת, לְפִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה, וּבְמָקוֹם שֶׁפָּגַע בּוֹ לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים סָמוּךְ לְנָמָל – שָׁם הוּא קוֹנֶה שְׁבִיתָה, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ.כג,14

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא סָפֵק אִם הָיְתָה מְהַלֶּכֶת לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים הוֹלְכִים לְהָקֵל.כד,15

אֲבָל אִם יָדוּעַ שֶׁהָיְתָה בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים מִשֶּׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת, וְהִפְלִיגָה מִשָּׁם חוּץ לְאַלְפַּיִם – אֵין לוֹ מִשָּׁם אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת כְּדִין יוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי קָנָה כְּבָר שְׁבִיתָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהָיְתָה לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים.כה אֶלָּא שֶׁכָּל הַסְּפִינָה נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת,כו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"[ה].כז וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם יָצָא פַּעַם אֶחָד לַיַּבָּשָׁה מַמָּשׁ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה.כח

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם הוּא בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לָצֵאת מִן הַסְּפִינָה לְנָמָל וְלִכָּנֵס לָעִיר, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַגְּשָׁמִים יוֹרְדִים עָלָיו אוֹ שֶׁהַחַמָּה זוֹרַחַת עָלָיוכט וּמְצַעַרְתּוֹ,ל,16 אוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִנְקָבָיו וְאֵין לוֹ מָקוֹם צָנוּעַ עַד שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס לָעִיר, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לוֹ לִכָּנֵס,לא כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ולב – הֲרֵי כָּל הָעִיר לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת אִם הִיא מֻקֶּפֶת מְחִצּוֹת לְדִירָה, וּמְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּכְנַס לְתוֹכָהּ בִּרְשׁוּת. וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם נִכְנַס בְּאֹנֶס, כְּגוֹן שֶׁדְּחָפוּהוּ נָכְרִים לְתוֹךְ הָעִיר.לג וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם נִכְנְסָה הַסְּפִינָה עַצְמָהּ לְתוֹךְ הָעִיר,לד,17 שֶׁהִיא חֲשׁוּבָה כְּד' אַמּוֹת אִם מֻקֶּפֶת לְדִירָה.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהִפְלִיגָה חוּץ לַתְּחוּם מֵהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהָיְתָה שָׁם לְמַטָּה מִי' טְפָחִים. אֲבָל אִם עֲדַיִן לֹא הִפְלִיגָה מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם אַלְפַּיִם, וְנִכְנְסָה לָעִיר, וְכָלְתָה מִדָּתוֹ בַּחֲצִי הָעִיר – אָסוּר לְהַלֵּךְ יוֹתֵר מֵחֶצְיָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּכְנַס לָהּ בִּרְשׁוּת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הָעִיר נֶחְשֶׁבֶת כְּד' אַמּוֹת אֶלָּא לְיוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם, אֲבָל לֹא לְמִי שֶׁמּוֹדֵד אַלְפַּיִם מִמְּקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ,לה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ג:לו,18

4 When a person arrives [at a place] on Shabbos from outside his Shabbos limits [and a festival begins that Saturday night, the person] is permitted to walk beyond four cubits on the festival that follows, because [Shabbos and the festival] are [two distinctly] separate [periods] of holiness.19

[The person’s] establishment of his [festival] place on Shabbos is not forbidden because of [the prohibition of] preparing for a festival on Shabbos,20 [even though as a result, the person is permitted] to walk more than four cubits on the festival, since when he established his [festival] place on Shabbos, he did not make any statement whatsoever.21

ד הַבָּא בְּשַׁבָּת מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם, מֻתָּר לֵילֵךְ בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו חוּץ לְד' אַמּוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְׁתֵּי קְדֻשּׁוֹת הֵן,לז,19 וְאֵין בְּזֶה אִסּוּר הֲכָנָה מִשַּׁבָּת לְיוֹם טוֹב20 בְּמַה שֶּׁמְּהַלֵּךְ כַּאן בְּיוֹם טוֹב יוֹתֵר מִד' אַמּוֹת עַל יְדֵי שֶׁכְּבָר קָנָה כַּאן שְׁבִיתָה בְּשַׁבָּת, הוֹאִיל וּבִשְׁעַת קְנִיָּתוֹ שְׁבִיתָה כַּאן בְּשַׁבָּת לֹא אָמַר כְּלוּם:לח,21