SECTION 402 The Laws that Apply to a Trench Filled with Water [Located] Between the Shabbos Limits of Two [Towns] (1-2)

סימן תב דִּין חָרִיץ מַיִם שֶׁבֵּין ב' תְּחוּמִין וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 When water collected within a trench1 located between the Shabbos limits [of two towns]2 and filled it, with part of [the trench] located in the Shabbos limits of one town and part in the Shabbos limits of the other, [the residents of] both towns are forbidden to draw [water] from it [on Shabbos], even though [the residents of] each [town] are drawing water from within their own Shabbos limits. [The rationale is that] the Shabbos place of any entity within the Shabbos limits of a town is not defined as [the place where it is located bein hashmashos on Friday] and from there, it is granted [Shabbos limits of] 2000 [cubits] in every direction. Instead, [the Shabbos place of the entity] is dependent on the town, and the [entire] town is considered as its Shabbos place. [Thus,] if [an entity] is located at the end of a town’s Shabbos limits [at the commencement of Shabbos,] it cannot be taken beyond these limits [during that Shabbos].3

[To relate these concepts to the water mentioned above:] Since the Shabbos place of a portion of this water is considered as being in one town,4 [while the Shabbos place of] another portion is considered as being in the other [town], and [since] the water [of the two towns] intermingles, [the residents of neither town may draw water from the trench].5

The laws pertaining to this water are not the same as those pertaining to ownerless articles that do not have a Shabbos place at all.6 [The reason for the distinction is that] since [the water] is close to the town, the residents of the town have in mind to use it. Hence, it is [considered] as rainwater [that falls] near a town, which may be taken wherever the residents of the town may go, as explained in sec. 397[:17.7 Therefore,] the residents [of a town] in one Shabbos limit may not draw water from within [the trench even though it is] within their Shabbos limits, because the water from the other Shabbos limits is intermingled with it.

[To enable the residents of both towns to draw water on Shabbos,] a partition ten handbreadths high8 must be [erected] in the trench at the end of the Shabbos limits, separating between the water [associated with one town] and the water [associated with] the other. It is even acceptable to make [a partition] of reeds located less than three handbreadths apart [from each other9 and thus] the water merges between the reeds. [Moreover,] even if [the partition] is hanging,10 i.e., it does not reach the bottom of the trench, and thus, the water merges below [the partition,] it is of no consequence, for [our Sages] ruled leniently regarding [a partition] in water. It is merely necessary that the water [in the two portions of the trench] appear separate, as explained in sec. 355[:10]11 and sec. 376[:1].

If the water is [continuously] flowing or welling up from the earth, no modification is necessary, for a [defined] Shabbos place was never established for such water. Instead, it may be taken wherever the first person who draws it may go, as explained in sec. 397[15].

א חָרִיץ מָלֵא מַיִםא מְכֻנָּסִיםב,1 שֶׁהוּא בֵּין ב' תְּחוּמֵי שַׁבָּת,2 מִקְצָתוֹ בִּתְחוּם עִיר זוֹ וּמִקְצָתוֹ בִּתְחוּם עִיר אַחֶרֶת – שְׁתֵּי הָעֲיָרוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת לְמַלֹּאת מִמֶּנּוּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד מְמַלֵּא מִתּוֹךְ תְּחוּמוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁכָּל מַה שֶּׁהוּא בִּתְחוּם הָעִיר אֵינוֹ קוֹנֶה שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ לִהְיוֹת לוֹ מִשָּׁם אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ, אֶלָּא אַחַר הָעִיר הוּא נִגְרָר וְקוֹנֶה שְׁבִיתָה בָּעִיר, וְאִם הוּא בְּסוֹף תְּחוּמָהּ – אֵין יָכוֹל לָזוּז מִשָּׁם וּלְחוּץ.ג,3 וְאִם כֵּן מַיִם אֵלּוּ, חֶצְיָם קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָה בְּעִיר זוֹ4 וְחֶצְיָם בְּזוֹ, וְהֵם מִתְעָרְבִים אֵלּוּ בְּאֵלּוּ.5 וְאֵין דִּין מַיִם אֵלּוּ כְּדִין חֶפְצֵי הֶפְקֵר שֶׁאֵינָם קוֹנִים שְׁבִיתָה כְּלָל,ד,6 לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם סְמוּכִים לָעִיר, דַּעַת אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר עֲלֵיהֶם, וַהֲרֵי הֵם כִּגְשָׁמִים הַסְּמוּכִים לָעִיר שֶׁהֵם כְּרַגְלֵי אַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר,ה כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ז;ו,7 וְאֵין בְּנֵי תְּחוּם זֶה יְכוֹלִים לְמַלֹּאת מִתּוֹךְ תְּחוּמָן, מִפְּנֵי עֵרוּב מַיִם שֶׁל תְּחוּם אַחֵר.ז

וְצָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת מְחִצָּהח גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִיםט,8 בְּסוֹף הַתְּחוּמִין שֶׁבֶּחָרִיץ, לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין מַיִם לְמַיִם. וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל קָנִיםי סְמוּכִים זֶה לְזֶה פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים,יא,9 שֶׁהַמַּיִם מְעֹרָבִים בֵּין קָנֶה לַחֲבֵרוֹ;יב וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא תְּלוּיָה,יג,10 שֶׁאֵינָהּ מַגַּעַת עַד קַרְקָעִית הֶחָרִיץ, שֶׁהַמַּיִם מְעֹרָבִים מִתַּחְתֶּיהָיד – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁקַּל הוּא שֶׁהֵקֵלּוּ בְּמַיִם,טו,10 שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ רַק שֶׁיִּהְיוּ נִרְאִים כְּמֻבְדָּלִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"הטז,11 וְשע"ו.יז וְאִם הַמַּיִם מוֹשְׁכִים אוֹ נוֹבְעִים – אֵין צָרִיךְ שׁוּם תִּקּוּן, שֶׁאֵינָם קוֹנִים שְׁבִיתָה כְּלָל, וַהֲרֵי הֵם כְּרַגְלֵי הַמְמַלֵּא רִאשׁוֹן,יח,10 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ז:יט

2 When a storage cavity for straw is located between the Shabbos limits [of two towns, the residents of] one [town] may feed [their animals from the straw] on one side [of the storage cavity] and [the residents of] the other [town] may feed [their animals from the straw] on the other side [of the storage cavity]. There is no concern that perhaps [the residents of] one [town] will take straw from the Shabbos limits of the other.12

ב בּוֹר שֶׁל תֶּבֶן הָעוֹמֵד בֵּין שְׁנֵי תְחוּמִיןכ – אֵלּוּ מַאֲכִילִין מִכַּאן וְאֵלּוּ מַאֲכִילִין מִכַּאן, וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא אֵלּוּ יִקְחוּ מִתְּחוּם שֶׁל אֵלּוּ:כא,12