SECTION 401 [That] a Person who was Sleeping while on a Journey [when the Shabbos Commenced] is Granted 2000 Cubits in All Directions [from the Place where He was Located] (1-2)

סימן תא מִי שֶׁיָּשֵׁן בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְחָשְׁכָה לוֹ קוֹנֶה אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 Every person’s Shabbos place is established in the place where [he was located when] the Shabbos commenced. [The person] is granted 2000 cubits from [that place] in all directions, even though he did not [explicitly] state,1“The place where I am located constitutes my Shabbos place.” [The rationale is that] since [the person] could have made such a statement had he so desired, it is [considered] as if he did so.2 [Moreover,] a Shabbos place is even established for someone who fell asleep [before Shabbos] while on a journey [and continued sleeping at] nightfall if he is outside the Shabbos limits of a town.3 [The person] is granted 2000 [cubits] in all directions [from the place where he was sleeping],4 even though he did not intend to establish [a Shabbos place] at all. [The rationale is that] since [the person] would have established a Shabbos place were he to have been awake, [the Shabbos place] is established for him [although] he was asleep.5 All of [the person’s] possessions are similarly [granted the same Shabbos limits] as he is.6

In contrast, a Shabbos place is not established for ownerless objects, [for they] do not have owners who can establish a Shabbos place for them. The Shabbos place [for ownerless objects] is not established as a matter of course.7 Instead, [the Shabbos limits of an ownerless object] are the same as those of the first person who acquires [the object].8 [The person who acquires the object] may take it to any place where he may go, even beyond the Shabbos limits of the town [in which the object was originally located], if [the person] established an eruv [techumin that enabled him to go] there.9

By contrast, the Shabbos place of objects belonging to a non-Jew is determined by the place [where they are located during bein hashmashos on Friday]. Even though the concept of a Shabbos place does not apply with regard to [the object’s] owners,10 [our Sages] issued a restrictive decree regarding objects belonging to non-Jews lest [taking leniencies with regard to these objects lead to taking leniencies with regard to] objects belonging to Jews.11 [Therefore,] if a non-Jew brought [such objects] from beyond their Shabbos limits,12 [a Jew] may only move them four cubits [from the place where the non-Jew deposited them.13 There is, however, one leniency:] If [a non-Jew] brought [such objects] into a town, they are governed by the same law that applies when non-Jews took [a person by force] and brought him outside his Shabbos limits. [If] they release [the kidnapped person] in a town, the entire town is considered as four cubits for him, since he was removed [from his Shabbos limits] against his will, as will be explained in sec. 405[:6].14 [The above applies] provided the town was enclosed for the purpose of habitation, for [the principle that an entire inhabited area] is considered as only four cubits does not apply in a place that was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation, as explained in sec. 396[:1].

([This situation] does not resemble [the laws that apply to a person who] established his Shabbos place in a town, even one that is not surrounded by walls at all. [With regard to this person’s Shabbos limits,] the entire [town] is considered as his four cubits, because the measurement of the 2000 [cubits of his Shabbos limits] only begins from the furthermost house [in the town], since all of the houses of the town are located within 70-and-a-fraction cubits of each other.15 Nevertheless, the entire town is not considered as four cubits in a complete sense for [this person]. Instead, only the house [where the person] established his Shabbos place [is deemed as his Shabbos place. It is just that since] the other houses [in the town] are located within 70-and-a fraction-cubits of each other, the measurement [of the 2000 cubits] is not begun from them. However, when [a person] goes beyond his Shabbos limits, an entire town [or city] is not considered as [only] four cubits unless it is surrounded by walls [constructed] for the purpose of habitation.)

[As a rule,] it can be assumed that towns were enclosed for the purpose of habitation, for [it is common practice] to first build homes, and then enclose them.16 In contrast, [it can be assumed] that chateaus17 were not enclosed for the purpose of habitation.

א כָּל אָדָם קוֹנֶה שְׁבִיתָה בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ מִשָּׁם אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא אָמַר1 "שְׁבִיתָתִי בִּמְקוֹמִי",א שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה הָיָה אוֹמֵר – הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָמַר.ב,2 וַאֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁיָּשֵׁן בַּדֶּרֶךְ וְחָשְׁכָה לוֹ – קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ אִם הוּא חוּץ לִתְחוּם הָעִיר,ג,3 וְיֵשׁ לוֹ מִשָּׁם אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַד,4 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן לִקְנוֹת שְׁבִיתָה כְּלָל, שֶׁהוֹאִיל וְאִם הָיָה נֵעוֹר הָיָה קוֹנֶה – קוֹנֶה גַם כֵּן כְּשֶׁהוּא יָשֵׁן.ה,5 וְכָל חֲפָצָיו כָּמֹהוּ.ו,6

אֲבָל חֶפְצֵי הֶפְקֵר, שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם בְּעָלִים שֶׁיּוּכְלוּ לְהַקְנוֹת לָהֶם שְׁבִיתָה – לֹא קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָה מֵאֲלֵיהֶם,ז,7 אֶלָּא הֲרֵי הֵם כְּרַגְלֵי הַזּוֹכֶה בָּהֶם תְּחִלָּה,ח,8 שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְהוֹלִיכָם לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּלֵךְ הוּא, וַאֲפִלּוּ חוּץ לִתְחוּם הָעִיר אִם עֵרֵב לְשָׁם.9

אֲבָל חֶפְצֵי הַנָּכְרִי קוֹנִים שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹמָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּעֲלֵיהֶם לָאו בְּנֵי שְׁבִיתָה הֵם,10 שֶׁגָּזְרוּ עַל חֶפְצֵי הַנָּכְרִי גְּזֵרָה מִשּׁוּם חֶפְצֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל,ט,11 וְאִם הוֹצִיאָם הַנָּכְרִי חוּץ לַתְּחוּם12 – אֵין לָהֶם אֶלָּא ד' אַמּוֹת.13 אֶלָּא שֶׁאִם הֱבִיאָם לָעִירי – דִּינָם כְּמוֹ שֶׁהוֹצִיאוּהוּ נָכְרִים חוּץ לַתְּחוּם11 וּנְתָנוּהוּ בָּעִיר, שֶׁכָּל הָעִיר נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת,יא הוֹאִיל וְיָצָא בְּאֹנֶס, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ה.יב,14

וְהוּא שֶׁתְּהֵא הָעִיר מֻקֶּפֶת מְחִצּוֹתיג לְדִירָה,יד שֶׁכָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקָּף לְדִירָה אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב כְּד' אַמּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ו.טו

(וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לְשָׁבַת בְּעִיר, שֶׁכֻּלָּהּ נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ מֻקֶּפֶת מְחִצּוֹת כְּלָל,טז לְפִי שֶׁאֵין מַתְחִילִין לִמְדּוֹד לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אֶלָּא מִבַּיִת הַחִיצוֹן, הוֹאִיל וְכָל בָּתֵּי הָעִיר מֻבְלָעִים זֶה בְּתוֹךְ ע' וְשִׁירַיִם שֶׁל זֶה.15 אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם אֵין כָּל הָעִיר נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת מַמָּשׁ, אֶלָּא בֵּיתוֹ שֶׁקָּנָה בּוֹ שְׁבִיתָה בִּלְבָד, וּשְׁאָר הַבָּתִּים הֵם מֻבְלָעִים זֶה בְּתוֹךְ ע' אַמָּה וְשִׁירַיִם שֶׁל זֶה, וְאֵין מַתְחִילִין הַמְּדִידָה מֵהֶם. אֲבָל לְיוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם אֵין כָּל הָעִיר נֶחְשֶׁבֶת כְּד' אַמּוֹת עַד שֶׁתְּהֵא מֻקֶּפֶת מְחִצּוֹת לְדִירָה).

וּסְתָם עֲיָרוֹת מֻקָּפוֹת לְדִירָה, שֶׁבּוֹנִים בָּתִּים תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַקִּיפִים אוֹתָם.16 אֲבָל סְתָם מִבְצָרִים17 אֵינָן מֻקָּפִים לְדִירָה:יז

2 [For the above reason,] when a Jew lent out his articles to a non-Jew, and the non-Jew returned [the articles] to [the Jew] on Shabbos, [the Jew]must be careful not to carry [these items] within a town [for] more than four cubits from the place where the non-Jew deposited them if the town is not surrounded by a wall. For example, if one person carried [the article] two cubits, a second person should not carry them for more than [an additional] two cubits.18

If, however, [the non-Jew] deposited [the articles] in a courtyard, it is permitted to carry [the articles] throughout the entire [courtyard], for the entire [courtyard] is considered as four cubits. Similarly, our lanes that are modified with a tzuras hapesach are considered as enclosed for the purpose of habitation, for [the common practice] is to first build the houses [in a lane] and then to modify it with a tzuras hapesach. (The same laws apply if [the lanes] were modified with a lechi or a beam, for [such an enclosure] is considered as four cubits with regard to one who left his Shabbos limits, just as [such an enclosure] is considered as four cubits with regard to carrying, [i.e.,] one is permitted to carry throughout [such lanes].)19

ב וְלָכֵן יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהִשְׁאִיל כֵּלָיו לְנָכְרִי וְהֶחֱזִירָם לוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁלֹּא לְטַלְטְלָם בָּעִיר חוּץ לד' אַמּוֹת מֵהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁהִנִּיחָם שָׁם הַנָּכְרִייח אִם אֵין הָעִיר מֻקֶּפֶת מְחִצּוֹת,יט כְּגוֹן אִם טִלְטְלָם אֶחָד ב' אַמּוֹת – לֹא יְטַלְטְלֵם הַשֵּׁנִי יוֹתֵר מִב' אַמּוֹת.כ,18

אֲבָל אִם הִנִּיחָם בְּחָצֵר מֻתָּר לְטַלְטְלָם בְּכֻלָּהּ, שֶׁכֻּלָּה כְּד' אַמּוֹת.כא וְכֵן מְבוֹאוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ הַמְּתֻקָּנִים בְּצוּרַת פֶּתַח נִקְרָאִים מֻקָּפִים לְדִירָה,כב שֶׁהֲרֵי בּוֹנִים בָּתִּים תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ עוֹשִׂים צוּרַת פֶּתַחכג (וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם מְתֻקָּנִים בְּלֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה,כד שֶׁהֵם כְּד' אַמּוֹת לְעִנְיַן יוֹצֵא חוּץ לַתְּחוּם כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֵם כְּד' אַמּוֹת לְעִנְיַן טִלְטוּל, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּכֻלָּםכה):19