SECTION 400 [The Laws Pertaining to] A Traveler Who Sat Down to Rest [in the Middle of his Journey] Without Knowing Whether or Not He is Within the Shabbos Limits [of a Town] (1)

סימן ת מִי שֶׁיָּשַׁב לוֹ בַּדֶּרֶךְ לָנוּחַ וְלֹא יָדַע אִם הוּא בַּתְּחוּם אִם לָאו וּבוֹ סְעִיף אֶחָד:

1 [When] a traveler who was on the way to enter a town sat down to rest [on Friday afternoon] and night fell without him knowing whether he had [entered] the town’s Shabbos limits, [if the traveler] later discovered that he was [indeed] within the Shabbos limits [of the town], the town is established as his Shabbos place.1 [The traveler] may enter [the town] on Shabbos, walk through the entire [town], and [proceed another] 2000 cubits beyond [the town] in all directions. [The above applies] despite the fact that [the traveler] intended to establish the place in which he was located [at the commencement of Shabbos] as his Shabbos place.2 [The rationale is that] had [the person] known that the town was within his Shabbos limits, he would not have desired to establish [the specific place where he rested as his] Shabbos place. Instead, [the person] would have [desired to establish his Shabbos place] together with the residents of the town. [Accordingly, the person] is considered to have established his Shabbos place together with [the residents of the town, and his Shabbos limits are established accordingly].

If, by contrast, [the person] had absolutely no intention to enter this town,3 [even though he had actually entered the town’s Shabbos limits, nevertheless,] the place in which he was located [at the onset of Shabbos]is established as his Shabbos place. [The person] is granted 2000 cubits [from that place] in all directions. If the 2000 [cubits] from his Shabbos place conclude in the middle of the town, [the person] may not proceed beyond that point. If [the person’s 2000 cubits] end at the outer boundary of the town, the entire town is considered as four cubits for him, as will be explained in sec. 408.4

Even if [the person] intended to enter this town while it was still day [on Friday], but explicitly stated bein hashmashos,5“The place where I am located constitutes my Shabbos place,” he specifically removed his Shabbos place from [that of] the residents of the town, and established the place in which he was located as his Shabbos place.6

א מִי שֶׁהָיָה בָּא בַדֶּרֶךְ לִכָּנֵס לָעִירא וְיָשַׁב בַּדֶּרֶךְ לָנוּחַ וְחָשְׁכָה לוֹ, וְלֹא יָדַע שֶׁהוּא בִּתְחוּם הָעִיר, וְאַחַר כָּךְ מָצָא עַצְמוֹ בִּתְחוּמָה.ב – קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בָּעִיר1 וְנִכְנָס לְתוֹכָהּ בְּשַׁבָּת, וּמְהַלֵּךְ אֶת כֻּלָּהּ וְחוּצָה לָהּ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ.ג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתְכַּוֵּן לִקְנוֹת שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ,2 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִלּוּ הָיָה יוֹדֵעַ שֶׁהָעִיר בְּתוֹךְ תְּחוּמוֹ לֹא הָיָה חָפֵץ לִקְנוֹת שְׁבִיתָה אֶלָּא עִם בְּנֵי הָעִיר – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּאִלּוּ קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה עִמָּהֶם.ד

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ כְּלָל לִכָּנֵס לְעִיר זוֹ,3 קָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, וּמִשָּׁם יֵשׁ לוֹ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ. וְאִם כָּלִים אַלְפַּיִם מִמְּקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ בַּחֲצִי הָעִיר, אֵינוֹ מְהַלֵּךְ בָּעִיר יוֹתֵר מֵחֶצְיָהּ.ה וְאִם כָּלִים בְּסוֹף הָעִיר, כָּל הָעִיר נֶחְשֶׁבֶת לוֹ כְּד' אַמּוֹת,ו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ח.ז,4

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לִכָּנֵס לְעִיר זוֹ, וּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת5 אָמַר בְּפֵרוּשׁ "שְׁבִיתָתִי בִּמְקוֹמִי"ח – הֲרֵי עָקַר שְׁבִיתָתוֹ מֵאַנְשֵׁי הָעִיר וְקָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹמוֹ:ט,6