SECTION 397 The Laws Governing the Shabbos Place [Granted to] A Person and His Articles; [the License to] Proceed 2000 Cubits (1-20)

סימן שצו דִּין שְׁבִיתַת הַיָּחִיד וְכֵלָיו וּמַהֲלַךְ אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה וּבוֹ כ' סְעִיפִים:

1 In addition to his four cubits1 or the place where he was located at the commencement of the Shabbos,2every person [is granted] 2000 cubits in all directions,3 [that area being reckoned as] a square, similar to a square tablet, in the manner to be described in sec. 399[:14].

א כָּל אָדָם יֵשׁ לוֹ חוּץ מִד' אַמּוֹתא,1 אוֹ מֵהַמָּקוֹם שֶׁשָּׁבַת בּוֹב,2 אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ,3 מְרֻבָּעוֹת כְּטַבְלָא מְרֻבַּעַת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ט: ג

2 [The following law applies when] the Shabbos commenced when a person was located in an unenclosed group of fields, which was distant from [the closest] town and whose Shabbos limits were not marked. [If the person] does not know how to measure [the 2000 cubits of] his Shabbos limits, he should proceed 2000 ordinary steps [from his current location],4 walking in an ordinary manner. This will constitute [his] Shabbos limits, for when a person walks, [he ordinarily takes steps that are] a cubit from the end of one foot to the end of the other, i.e., there is a space of about half a cubit between one foot and the other and [the measure of] his foot [together] with his shoe is also about half a cubit.5

ב קִדֵּשׁ עָלָיו הַיּוֹם בַּבִּקְעָה הַרְחֵק מִן הָעִיר, שֶׁאֵין שָׁם תְּחוּמֵי שַׁבָּת מְסֻמָּנִים וְאֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לְשַׁעֵר תְּחוּם שַׁבָּת – מְהַלֵּךְ אַלְפַּיִם פְּסִיעוֹת בֵּינוֹנִיּוֹתד,4 כְּדֶרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם, וְזֶהוּ תְּחוּם שַׁבָּת, כִּי דֶרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם אַמָּה ה מֵרֹאשׁ גּוּדָל רֶגֶל זוֹ עַד רֹאשׁ גּוּדָל רֶגֶל זוֹ, שֶׁמַּרְחִיק כַּחֲצִי אַמָּה בֵּין רֶגֶל לְרֶגֶל. וּמְקוֹם מַצַּב הָרֶגֶל עִם הַמִּנְעָל הוּא גַם כֵּן כַּחֲצִי אַמָּה:ו,5

3 Just as on Shabbos and festivals a person is not allowed to walk more than 2000 cubits in any direction from his location at the commencement of the Shabbos [or festival],6 so too, his articles and animals may not be taken by anyone beyond the 2000 cubits granted to their owner.7 [The rationale is that] the Shabbos [or festival]place [of the person’s articles and animals] is designated as the location of their owner at the time the Shabbos [or festival]commenced, even though [the articles and animals] were not located there when the sanctity of the day took effect.8

If the owners [of the articles and animals] established an eruv [techumin] in one direction,9 no other person may take [the articles or animals] even one step further in the other direction than the owner himself could go.

ג כְּשֵׁם שֶׁאֵין אָדָם רַשַּׁאי לְהַלֵּךְ בְּשַׁבָּת וְיוֹם טוֹב ז אֶלָּא אַלְפַּיִם אַמָּה לְכָל רוּחַ חוּץ לִמְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ,6 כָּךְ כֵּלָיו וּבְהֶמְתּוֹ ח אֵין יְכוֹלִים שׁוּם אָדָם לְהוֹלִיכָם חוּץ לְאַלְפַּיִם שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵיהֶם,ט,7 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁקָּנוּ שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹם שְׁבִיתַת בַּעֲלֵיהֶם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ שָׁם כְּשֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ הַיּוֹם.י,8 וְאִם עֵרְבוּ בַּעֲלֵיהֶם לְרוּחַ אַחַת – אֵין שׁוּם אָדָם יָכוֹל לְהוֹלִיכָם לְרוּחַ הָאַחֶרֶת אֲפִלּוּ פְּסִיעָה אַחַת בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין הַבְּעָלִים יְכוֹלִים לְהַלֵּךְ:יא,9

4 When a person entrusts his animal to his son, [the Shabbos and festivallimits of the animal] are determined according to where the father may go,10 i.e., a person may only take the animal to a place where the father may go, and not to a place where the son may go, even when [the father] entrusted [the animal] to [his son] while it was still day [on Friday. The rationale is that] it is an ordinary practice for people to entrust their property to their children,11 but their intent is not to transfer it to their [children’s] domain.

ד הַמּוֹסֵר בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לִבְנוֹ, הֲרֵי הִיא כְּרַגְלֵי הָאָב,יב,10 שֶׁאֵין שׁוּם אָדָם יָכוֹל לְהוֹלִיכָהּ אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהָאָב יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ וְלֹא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁהַבֵּן יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּסָרָהּ לוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,יג לְפִי שֶׁדֶּרֶךְ בְּנֵי אָדָם לְהַפְקִיד חֶפְצֵיהֶם בְּיַד בְּנֵיהֶם11 וְאֵין כַּוָּנָתָם לִמְסוֹר בִּרְשׁוּתָם:יד

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

The new layout – with the original text and the facing translation – provides a unique user-friendly approach to studying the Alter Rebbe’s work. An inclusive commentary provides insightful explanations and guidelines for actual practice.

5 When, by contrast, a person entrusts his animal to a herder, even if he entrusts [the animal] to [the herder] on a festival,12 and not while it was still day [on the day preceding the festival, the festivelimits of the animal] are determined according to where the herder may go.13 [This rule applies] whether [the herder] is a Jew or a non-Jew. [The rationale is that] it can be assumed that [the owner] had the intent from [before the festival]to entrust [the animal] to [the herder] on the day of the festival. [Therefore,] the festival place acquired for [the animal] is that of the herder. [This law applies] even if [the herder] is a non-Jew, as will be explained in sec. 401[:1].14

If [the owner] entrusted [the animal] to two herders, [the festivallimits of the animal] are determined according to where its owner may go, since neither of [the herders] acquired [responsibility] for it.15 [This applies] even if [the owner] entrusted [the animal] to the two [herders] on the day preceding the festival but did not clarify his words [at that time. Instead, the owner] clarified his words on the festival, stating that he entrusted [the animal] to one of [the herders], and that this was his intent on the day before the festival. Nevertheless, since at the time the holiness of the festival took effect, it was not clear to whom [the owner] entrusted [his animal], neither of [the herders] acquired [responsibility] for it. [The animal therefore] remained in the domain of its owner and [its festivallimits] are determined according to where its owner may go.

ה אֲבָל הַמּוֹסֵר בְּהֶמְתּוֹ לְרוֹעֶה, אֲפִלּוּ מְסָרָהּ לוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב12 וְלֹא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם – הֲרֵי הִיא כְּרַגְלֵי הָרוֹעֶה,טו,13 בֵּין שֶׁהוּא יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּין שֶׁהוּא נָכְרִי,טז לְפִי שֶׁמִּן הַסְּתָם גַּם מֵאֶתְמוֹל הָיָה בְּדַעְתּוֹ לְמָסְרָהּ לוֹ הַיּוֹם, וְקָנְתָה שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹם שְׁבִיתַת הָרוֹעֶהיז וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא נָכְרִי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"א.יח,14 וְאִם מְסָרָהּ לְב' רוֹעִים – הֲרֵי הִיא כְּרַגְלֵי בְעָלֶיהָ,יט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא קָנָה אֶחָד מֵהֶם.כ,15 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם מְסָרָהּ לִשְׁנֵיהֶם מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְלֹא בֵרֵר דְּבָרָיו, וּבְיוֹם טוֹב בֵּרֵר דְּבָרָיו שֶׁמְּסָרָהּ לְאֶחָד מֵהֶם, וְאֵלָיו נִתְכַּוֵּן מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן כֵּיוָן שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁקִּדֵּשׁ הַיּוֹם לֹא הָיָה מְבֹרָר עֲדַיִן לְאֵיזֶה מֵהֶם מְסָרָהּ, לֹא קָנוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם, וְנִשְׁאֲרָה בִּרְשׁוּת הַבְּעָלִים וְלָכֵן הִיא כְּרַגְלָיו:כא

6 [The festivallimits of] an ox belonging to a herder16 are determined according to where any of the residents of that town may go. Even if the herder established an eruv [techumin] in one direction, that does not prevent one of the residents of the town who purchased [the animal] from him on the festival to lead [the animal] 2000 cubits in the other direction. [This is permitted] because on the preceding day, [the herder] already transferred the ownership [of the animal] to the residents of the town, because they frequently purchase [livestock] from him.17

If, however, [the animal] was purchased [by] a resident of another town who made an eruv [techumin that enabled him to reach this town, that person] may not lead [the animal] to his town.18

ו שׁוֹר שֶׁל רוֹעֶה16 – כְּרַגְלֵי אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר,כב שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ עֵרֵב הָרוֹעֶה לְרוּחַ אַחַת אֵינוֹ מְעַכֵּב עַל אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר שֶׁלְּקָחוֹֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב מִלְּהוֹלִיכוֹ אַלְפַּיִם לְרוּחַ הָאַחֶרֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁמֵּאֶתְמוֹל מַעֲמִידוֹ בִּרְשׁוּת בְּנֵי הָעִיר, לְפִי שֶׁרְגִילִים לִקַּח מִמֶּנּוּ.כג,17 אֲבָל אִם אֶחָד מֵעִיר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁעֵרֵב לְעִיר זוֹ לְקָחוֹֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב – אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהוֹלִיכוֹ לְעִירוֹ:כד,18

7 By contrast, [the festivallimits of] an ox fattened for slaughter are determined according to where the person who purchases it with the intent of slaughtering it on the festival may go,19 even if he is from another town. Similarly, if the owner [of the ox] slaughtered it on the festival20 and sold its meat, each of the purchasers may take his portion to the place he goes, even if he is from another town. [The rationale is that] the intent of the owner was to also sell [the ox’s meat] to other people aside from the residents of his town. [This is acceptable for the following reason:] Since [the ox] was being fattened for slaughter, everyone, [even people from the surrounding area,] will hear of it and come to purchase [its meat].

ז אֲבָל שׁוֹר שֶׁל פַּטָּם הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי מִי שֶׁלְּקָחוֹכה לְשָׁחֳטוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב,כו,19 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מֵעִיר אַחֶרֶת.כז וְכֵן אִם שְׁחָטוֹ בְּעָלָיו בְּיוֹם טוֹב20 וּמָכַר בְּשָׂרוֹ – הֲרֵי כָּל אֶחָד מֵהַלּוֹקְחִים מוֹלִיךְ מָנָתוֹ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא הוֹלֵךְ,כח אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מֵעִיר אַחֶרֶת,כט מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדַּעַת בְּעָלָיו לְמָכְרוֹ גַּם לַאֲנָשִׁים אֲחֵרִים חוּץ מֵאַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְפֻטָּם וְהַכֹּל שׁוֹמְעִים שִׁמְעוֹ וּבָאִים לִקְנוֹתוֹ: ל

8 [The Shabbos limits of] articles that are designated for [only] one of [a number of] brothers who share a common household are determined according to where [that brother] may go. If [an article] was not designated [for one of the brothers in particular, the brothers] may only take [the article] to a place where all [the brothers] are permitted to go.21

ח כֵּלִים הַמְיֻחָדִים לְאֶחָד מֵהָאַחִים שֶׁבַּבַּיִת – הֲרֵי הֵם כְּרַגְלָיו, וְשֶׁאֵינָם מְיֻחָדִים – אֵינָם יְכוֹלִים לְהוֹלִיכָם אֶלָּא לְמָקוֹם שֶׁכֻּלָּם יְכוֹלִים לְהַלֵּךְ:לא,21

9 When, on the day before a holiday,22 two people [arrange to] borrow the same cloak [from a person to wear on the holiday], one [intending] to wear [the cloak] in the morning of the festival and the other [intending] to wear it towards evening, [the holiday limits] of this [cloak] are dependent on both [borrowers],23 i.e., [the borrowers] may only bring [the cloak] to a place to which they may both go.24 [Accordingly,] if one [of the borrowers] established an eruv [techumin] 2000 cubits to the east [of where the cloak was located at the commencement of the festival] and the other [borrower] established an eruv [techumin] 2,000 cubits to the west [of where the cloak was located at the commencement of the festival], they may not move [the cloak] from the place it was located at the commencement of the festival. [The rationale is that] the one who established his eruv to the east may not go even one step to the west of the place [the cloak] was located at the commencement of the festival [while wearing the cloak], and the one who established his eruv [techumin] to the west may not go even one step to the east [while wearing this cloak], as will be explained in sec. 408[:1].

ט שְׁנַיִם שֶׁשָּׁאֲלוּלב מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹבלג,22 חָלוּק אֶחָד, זֶה לֵילֵךְ בּוֹ יוֹם טוֹב שַׁחֲרִית וְזֶה לֵילֵךְ בּוֹ עַרְבִית – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם,23 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאֵין יְכוֹלִים לְהוֹלִיכוֹ אֶלָּא לְמָקוֹם שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם יְכוֹלִים לְהַלֵּךְ.24 וְאִם עֵרֵב זֶה לְסוֹף אַלְפַּיִם לְמִזְרָח, וְזֶה לְסוֹף אַלְפַּיִם לְמַעֲרָב – לֹא יְזִיזוּהוּ מִמְּקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתָם, שֶׁהֲרֵי זֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב לְמִזְרָח אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַלֵּךְ לְמַעֲרָב מִמְּקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ פְּסִיעָה אַחַת, וְזֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב לְמַעֲרָב אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ לְמִזְרָח אֲפִלּוּ פְּסִיעָה אַחַת,לד כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ח:


Fig. 111: The festival limits when an eruv techumin was established for a garment in different directions by two partners. a) The furthest point the garment may be taken to the west; b) The place where the eruv techumin was deposited to the west of the city; c) The city; d) The place where the eruv techumin was deposited to the east of the city; e) The furthest point the garment may be taken to the east
Fig. 111: The festival limits when an eruv techumin was established for a garment in different directions by two partners. a) The furthest point the garment may be taken to the west; b) The place where the eruv techumin was deposited to the west of the city; c) The city; d) The place where the eruv techumin was deposited to the east of the city; e) The furthest point the garment may be taken to the east

10 When two people purchased an animal in partnership and slaughtered it on a holiday, [the holiday limits of] all of the meat is determined according to where both partners may go, even though they divided [the meat] and each [one] took his [respective] portion. [The principle of bereirah does not apply] because bein hashmashos, while the animal was alive, [the portions of the animal belonging to each partner also] derived nurture from [the portion belonging] to the other [partner].25

By contrast, if [two people] purchased a jug of wine in partnership on the day before the festival, and divided it on the holiday, [the holiday limits of each partner’s] portion are determined according to where [that partner] may go.26 [The rationale is that] the principle of bereirah applies with regard to [matters of Rabbinic Law],27 i.e., we say that retroactively, it was clarified that [the portion each one received] was the portion designated for him on the day before the festival. [Hence,] the festival place it acquires is the same as that of its [owner].

י ב' שֶׁלָּקְחוּ בְּהֵמָה בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת וּשְׁחָטוּהָ בְּיוֹם טוֹב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁחֲלָקוּהָ וְלָקְחוּ כָּל אֶחָד מָנָתוֹ – הֲרֵי כָּל הַבָּשָׂר שֶׁל זֶה וְזֶה כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם,לה לְפִי שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת יָנַק כָּל אֶחָד מֵחֲבֵרוֹ כְּשֶׁהָיְתָה הַבְּהֵמָה בְּחַיֶּיהָ.לו,25 אֲבָל אִם לָקְחוּ חָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וַחֲלָקוּהָ בְּיוֹם טוֹב – הֲרֵי חֶלְקוֹ שֶׁל כָּל אֶחָד מֵהֶם כְּרַגְלָיו,לז,26 לְפִי שֶׁבְּשֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם יֵשׁ בְּרֵרָה,לח,27 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאָנוּ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁהֻבְרַר הַדָּבָר לְמַפְרֵעַ שֶׁזֶּה הָיָה חֶלְקוֹ הַמַּגִּיעַ לוֹ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְקָנָה שְׁבִיתָה בִּמְקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתוֹ:לט

11 When a person borrows an article from a friend on the day prior to a holiday – even if he did not take it until nightfall28 – [the festival limits of the article] are determined according to where the borrower may go. [The rationale is that] since [the owner] consented to lend [the article] to [his friend] while it was still day [on the day before the holiday, it is considered as if the owner] transferred [the article]29 to [his friend’s] domain [at that time, thereby giving the friend license] to take [the article] wherever he desires.

If, by contrast, [the person] borrowed [the article] on the holiday, [the festival limits of the article] are determined according to where the owner may go. Even if [the person] borrows this article from [its owner] on every holiday, we do not say that [the owner] transferred [the article] to [the borrower’s] domain [before the holiday], because [it is possible that the lender thought this festival would be an exception, and this time the person would not come to borrow the article]. Since [the borrower] did not come to borrow [the article] from [the owner] on the day before the festival, the lender [may have] thought that the borrower found someone else to lend [such an article] to him, and [therefore the borrower] would not borrow [the article] from him [on this occasion].

יא הַשּׁוֹאֵל כְּלִי מֵחֲבֵרוֹ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, מ אֲפִלּוּ לֹא לְקָחוֹֹ עַד הַלַּיְלָה,מא,28 הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי הַשּׁוֹאֵל, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם לְהַשְׁאִילוֹ – הֶעֱמִידוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹמב,29 שֶׁיּוֹלִיכֶנּוּ לְמָקוֹם שֶׁיִּרְצֶה. אֲבָל אִם שְׁאָלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּיוֹם טוֹב – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי הַמַּשְׁאִיל. וַאֲפִלּוּ דַּרְכּוֹ לְשָׁאֳלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ בְּכָל יוֹם טוֹב, אֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁמֵּאֶתְמוֹל הֶעֱמִידוֹ בִּרְשׁוּתוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לְשָׁאֳלוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, סָבוּר הַמַּשְׁאִיל שֶׁמָּא מְצָאוֹ אָדָם אַחֵר שֶׁהִשְׁאִיל לוֹ וְלֹא יִשְׁאַל מִמֶּנּוּ:מג

12 When a woman borrows water or salt from a friend on a festival30 [to use] in the kneading of dough or spices [to use] in the preparation of food, [the festival limits of] the dough or the food are determined according to where both [women] may go.31

We do not say that the water or the salt will become batel in the dough.32 [The rationale is that the water and the salt] are considered as a davar sheyeish lo matirin.33 True, [the principle that] a davar sheyeish lo matirin never becomes batel applies only when it becomes mixed into a substance of the same type. When, however, [a davar sheyeish lo matirin] is mixed into a substance of a different type,34 [the davar sheyeish lo matirin] may become batel even when it will become permitted afterwards (yeish lo matirin).35 Nevertheless, since the water and the salt come to improve the dough, they are – in this context – considered to be of the same type.36

יב הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁשָּׁאֲלָה מֵחֲבֶרְתָּהּמד בְּיוֹם טוֹבמה,30 מַיִם אוֹ מֶלַח לְעִסָּתָהּ וּתְבָלִין לִקְדֵרָתָהּמו – הֲרֵי הָעִסָּה וְהַתַּבְשִׁיל כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁתֵּיהֶן,31 וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁיִּבָּטְלוּ הַמַּיִם וּמֶלַח בְּעִסָּה,32 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא דָבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין.מז,33 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁדָּבָר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין אֵינוֹ בָטֵל אֶלָּא בְּמִין שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמִינוֹ, אֲבָל בְּשֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ34 בָּטֵל הוּא אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ מַתִּירִין,מח,35 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַמַּיִם וּמֶלַח בָּאִים לְתַקֵּן הָעִסָּה, הֲרֵי הֵם עִמָּהּ כְּמִין בְּמִינוֹ לְעִנְיָן זֶה:מט,36

13 When [a person] takes a coal from [another person] on a festival,37 he should not carry it any further than the [the person] giving [him the coal] may go.38 If, however, [the person] lights a candle or a piece of wood belonging to him from [another person’s] flame,39 [the festival limits of the newly lit candle or wood] are determined according to where the one who lit [the candle or piece of wood] may go.40

יג לָקַח מֵחֲבֵרוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב גַּחֶלֶת,37 לֹא יוֹלִיכֶנָּה אֶלָּא כְּרַגְלֵי הַנּוֹתֵן.38 אֲבָל אִם הִדְלִיק נֵר אוֹ עֵץ שֶׁלּוֹ מִשַּׁלְהֶבֶת חֲבֵרוֹ39 – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי זֶה שֶׁהִדְלִיק:נ,40

14 [The holiday limits of the water in] a cistern belonging to a private person are [determined according to] where [the cistern’s] owner may go.

[The holiday limits of water in a cistern] belonging to a city are [determined according to] where the residents of the city may go. If a person from another city came and drew [water] together with [the city’s residents], he may only bring it to where the residents of the city may go, i.e., 2000 cubits [outside the city] in all directions, if none of [the city’s residents] made an eruv [techumin].

If one of [the residents of] the city made an eruv [techumin] to the north and another [made an eruv techumin] to the south, the one [who made an eruv techumin to the north] may bring [water from the cistern] to the north as far as he can go, and the other [who made an eruv techumin to the south] may bring [water from the cistern] to the south as far as he can go. [The rationale is that these two people] are partners in the cistern41 and the principle of bereirah is applied, as stated [above] (in subsection 10) with regard to a jug of wine.42

When, however, a person from another city came and drew [water] from one of these [cisterns] for himself, he may not move [the water] from the place where it was located at the commencement of the festival43 [even] if one of [the city’s residents] made an eruv [techumin] at the end of 2000 cubits to the north and another [made an eruv techumin] at the end of 2000 cubits to the south. [The rationale is that the holiday limits of] the water are determined according to where both of [these residents] may go, because [the person from the other city] is drawing [water] that also belongs to both of them. [In this instance,] it is not appropriate to apply the principle of bereirah, because [since the person drawing the water is a resident of another city, he] does not have a portion in [the water in] this cistern at all. By contrast, if one of the residents of the city drew [water] for [the person from the other city] and gave it to him, [the person from the other city] may take [the water] to wherever the person who drew [it] may go, for he drew [the water for this person] from his own portion and then gave it to [the person from the other city], and thus the principle of bereirah may be applied [to this water].44

[The holiday limits of the water] in an ownerless cistern45 are determined according to where the person who draws the water first46 may go. True, a [Shabbos or festival place] is not determined for this water bein hashmashos, for a [Shabbos or festival place] is not determined for ownerless objects.47 Nevertheless, when this [person] came and [drew water], thereby acquiring the ownerless water as his, [the Shabbos or festival place] of this water is determined as that of [the one who drew it].48

יד בּוֹר שֶׁל יָחִיד – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּרַגְלֵי בְעָלִים, וְשֶׁל אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר – כְּרַגְלֵי אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר.נא

וְאִם מִי שֶׁהוּא מֵעִיר אַחֶרֶת בָּא וּמִלֵּא עִמָּהֶם – אֵינוֹ מוֹלִיכָם אֶלָּא כְּרַגְלֵי אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר, דְּהַיְנוּ אַלְפַּיִם לְכָל רוּחַ, אִם כֻּלָּם לֹא עֵרְבוּ. וְאִם אֶחָד מֵהָעִיר עֵרֵב לְצָפוֹן וְאֶחָד לְדָרוֹם – זֶה מוֹלִיךְ לְצָפוֹן כְּרַגְלָיו וְזֶה לְדָרוֹם כְּרַגְלָיו, שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵם שֻׁתָּפִים בַּבּוֹר,41 וְיֵשׁ בְּרֵרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחָבִית שֶׁל יַיִן (בִּסְעִיף י).42 אֲבָל אִם מִי שֶׁהוּא מֵעִיר אַחֶרֶת בָּא וּמִלֵּא מֵהֶם לְעַצְמוֹ – לֹא יְזִיזֵם מִמְּקוֹם שְׁבִיתָתָם43 אִם זֶה עֵרֵב לְסוֹף אַלְפַּיִם לְצָפוֹן וְזֶה לְסוֹף אַלְפַּיִם לְדָרוֹם, שֶׁהֲרֵי מַיִם אֵלּוּ הֵם לוֹ כְּרַגְלֵי שְׁנֵיהֶן, שֶׁגַּם מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם הוּא מְמַלֵּא. וְאֵין שַׁיָּךְ לוֹמַר בּוֹ "יֵשׁ בְּרֵרָה", כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק כְּלָל בְּבוֹר זֶה. אֲבָל אִם אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הָעִיר מִלֵּא וְנָתַן לוֹ – מוֹלִיכָן כְּרַגְלֵי הַמְמַלֵּא, שֶׁהֲרֵי מֵחֶלְקוֹ מִלֵּא וְנָתַן לוֹ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּרֵרָה.נב,44

וּבוֹר שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר45 – כְּרַגְלֵי הַמְמַלֵּאנג רִאשׁוֹן,נד,46 שֶׁאַף שֶׁלֹּא קָנוּ הַמַּיִם שׁוּם שְׁבִיתָה בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, שֶׁחֶפְצֵי הֶפְקֵר אֵינָם קוֹנִים שְׁבִיתָה,נה,47 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כְּשֶׁבָּא זֶה וּמִלֵּא, וְזָכָה בְּמַה שֶּׁמִּלֵּא מִן הַהֶפְקֵר – הֲרֵי קָנוּ אָז שְׁבִיתָה כִּשְׁבִיתָתוֹ:נו,48

15 All the above49 applies to water that has collected, i.e., it has gathered50 and is now stationary, e.g., [pooled] rain water. By contrast, flowing rivers, even though they do not emerge [from a spring],51 since they stream forward and move, do not have a defined Shabbos or festival place.52 [This applies] even if [the rivers] belong to a [given] person.53 Similarly, wellsprings that emerge [from the earth], even though they do not proceed beyond the place where they emerge and flow outward,54 since they are not stationary, they do not have a defined Shabbos or festival place even if they belong to one person. Therefore, [a river’s Shabbos or festival place] is determined according to where the person who draws the water first may go. [The rationale is that] it is at the time [that this water is drawn] that its Shabbos or festival place is defined, since it is then that [the water] is separated from the place from which it emerged or the place from where it was flowing.

טו וְכָל זֶה49 בְּמַיִם מְכֻנָּסִיםנז,50 שֶׁהֵם קְווּיִם וְעוֹמְדִים, כְּגוֹן מֵי גְשָׁמִים.נח אֲבָל נְהָרוֹת הַמּוֹשְׁכִים,נט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם נוֹבְעִים,ס,51 הוֹאִיל וְהֵם נָדִים וְנָעִים – לֹא קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָהסא,52 אֲפִלּוּ הֵם שֶׁל יָחִיד.סב,53 וְכֵן מַעְיָנוֹת הַנּוֹבְעִים,סג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין יוֹצְאִין מִמְּקוֹם נְבִיעָתָם לִמָּשֵׁךְ לְהָלְאָה,סד,54 הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָם נָחִים – לֹא קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָה אֲפִלּוּ הֵם שֶׁל יָחִיד. וּלְפִיכָךְ הֵם כְּרַגְלֵי הַמְמַלֵּא רִאשׁוֹן,סה,46 שֶׁאָז קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָה כִּשְׁבִיתָתוֹ,סו כֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּפְסְקוּ אָז מִמְּקוֹם נְבִיעוּתָם אוֹ מִמְּקוֹם הִלּוּכָם:

16 When [rivers and streams] flow from outside [a town’s] Shabbos limits into those limits [on Shabbos, the residents] may draw water from [such rivers and streams] on Shabbos. Needless to say, this is permitted on a holiday. [The rationale is that a Shabbos or festival] place outside the Shabbos [or festival] limits was not determined for [this water].55

טז הָיוּ בָּאִים מִחוּץ לַתְּחוּם לְתוֹךְ הַתְּחוּם – מְמַלְּאִים מֵהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּיוֹם טוֹב,סז הוֹאִיל וְלֹא קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָה כְּלָל חוּץ לַתְּחוּם:55

17 When rain [falls] on a festival within the festival limits of a town, [the festival limits of the water] are determined according to where the town’s residents may go.56 How much more so does this apply when [the rain fell] within the town itself. [The rationale is that the rain’s] festival place was not determined while [the water was] in the ocean or in the clouds, because [the water] is continuously moving there.57

יז גְּשָׁמִים הַיּוֹרְדִיםסח בְּיוֹם טוֹבסט בְּתוֹךְ תְּחוּם הָעִיר ע – הֵם כְּרַגְלֵי אַנְשֵׁי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר,56 וְכָל שֶׁכֵּן כְּשֶׁיָּרְדוּ לְתוֹךְ הָעִיר עַצְמָהּ,עא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא קָנוּ שְׁבִיתָה בְּאוּקְיָנוּס אוֹ בֶּעָבִים, הוֹאִיל וְהֵם נָדִים וְנָעִים שָׁם:עב,57

18 If one drew water from an ownerless cistern for the sake of another person, [the Shabbos or festival limits of the water] are determined according to where the person who drew it may go.58 True, [the person for whom the water was drawn] acquires it at the time that it was drawn [in accordance with the principle]:59 When a person lifts up an ownerless lost object on behalf of another person, the person [on whose behalf it was lifted] acquires [the object at that moment]. Nevertheless, [the basis for] the acquisition is only because had he desired [to do so, the person who took possession of the water on behalf of the other person] could have acquired it for himself, [and] therefore, he may also acquire it for another person. Hence, [in this instance,] since [the person for whom the water was drawn] acquires [the water] only by virtue of [the person who draws it], the water may only be taken where the person [who drew it] may go.

יח מִלֵּא מַיִם מִבּוֹר שֶׁל הֶפְקֵר לְצֹרֶךְ חֲבֵרוֹ – הֵם כְּרַגְלֵי הַמְמַלְּאִים.עג,58 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת הַמִּלּוּי זָכָה בָהֶם חֲבֵרוֹ,59 שֶׁהַמַּגְבִּיהַּ מְצִיאָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ קָנָה חֲבֵרוֹ,עד מִכָּל מָקוֹם זְכִיָּה זוֹ אֵינָהּ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁאִם הָיָה רוֹצֶה הָיָה זוֹכֶה בָּהֶם לְעַצְמוֹ, יָכוֹל לִזְכּוֹת בָּהֶם גַּם כֵּן לַחֲבֵרוֹ. וְכֵיוָן שֶׁלֹּא זָכָה אֶלָּא מִכֹּחוֹ – הֲרֵי הֵם כְּרַגְלָיו:עה

19 When a person has produce entrusted [for safekeeping] in another town that is outside [his] festivallimits and the residents of that town made an eruv [techumin so that they could] visit him, they should not bring him his produce,60 because his produce is governed by the same [festival limits] as he is.61

When does the above apply? When the person [in whose domain the produce was deposited] set aside a corner [of his home for the person to deposit his produce],62 telling him, “Leave [your produce] in this corner.” In such an instance, [the owner of the home] did not accept responsibility for guarding [the produce] at all. His sole intent was as if to say, “My house is open for you. Place [your produce] in this corner and guard it yourself.”63 (Needless to say, [this ruling applies] if [the homeowner] explicitly told [the owner of the produce], “My house is open for you. Put [your produce] down wherever you want,” in which instance, [the homeowner] did not accept responsibility for guarding [the produce] at all, as stated in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 291.)64

If, however, when [the owner of the produce] deposited it, [the owner of the house] accepted [the produce] without comment, he accepted [the responsibility of] guarding it. Hence, [the festival limits of the produce] are determined according to where [the owner of the house] may go, since [the produce] was entrusted to him to guard.65

יט מִי שֶׁהָיוּ לוֹ פֵּרוֹת מֻפְקָדִים בְּעִיר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁחוּץ לַתְּחוּם, וְעֵרְבוּ בְּנֵי אוֹתָהּ הָעִיר לָבֹא אֶצְלוֹ – לֹא יָבִיאוּ לוֹ מִפֵּרוֹתָיו,60 שֶׁפֵּרוֹתָיו כָּמֹהוּ.עו,61

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַנִּפְקָד יִחֵד לוֹ קֶרֶן זָוִית,עז,62 שֶׁאָמַר לוֹ "הַנִּיחֵם בְּזָוִית זוֹ", שֶׁאָז לֹא קִבֵּל עָלָיו שְׁמִירָתָן כְּלָל, רַק כַּוָּנָתוֹ הִיא "הֲרֵי בֵּיתִי לְפָנֶיךָ, הַנַּח לְךָ בְּזָוִיּוֹת זוֹ וּשְׁמוֹר לְךָ"עח,63 (וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם אָמַר לוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ "הִנֵּה הַבַּיִת לְפָנֶיךָ, הַנַּח לְךָ בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁתִּרְצֶה" – שֶׁלֹּא קִבֵּל עָלָיו שְׁמִירָתָן כְּלָל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִמָּן רצ"[א]עט).64 אֲבָל אִם כְּשֶׁהִפְקִידָם אֶצְלוֹ קִבְּלָם מִמֶּנּוּ סְתָם פ – הֲרֵי קִבֵּל עָלָיו שְׁמִירָתָן וַהֲרֵי הֵם כְּרַגְלָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם מְסוּרִים בְּיָדוֹ לְשָׁמְרָן:פא,65

20 When a person invited guests on a festival, he should not send portions of food with [his guests] to a place where he himself would not be able to go66 unless he transferred ownership of these portions to [his guests]67 via another person68 on the day before the festival.

כ מִי שֶׁזִּמֵּן אֶצְלוֹ אוֹרְחִים בְּיוֹם טוֹב – לֹא יוֹלִיכוּ בְּיָדָם מָנוֹת לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין בַּעַל הַסְּעֻדָּה יָכוֹל לֵילֵךְ,66 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן זִכָּה לָהֶם בְּמָנוֹת אֵלּוּפב,67 עַל יְדֵי אַחֵרפג,68 מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב: