SECTION 393 The Laws [Governing the Establishment of] an Eruv When a Festival Falls on Friday and the Laws [Governing the Establishment of] an Eruv [During] Bein Hashmashos (1-3)

סימן שצג דִּין עֵרוּב [בְּ]יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת וְדִין בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת לְעֵרוּב וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 Neither an eruv for a courtyard nor a shituf for a lane may be established on a festival that falls on Friday,1 because it appears as if one is correcting a situation.2

If the two days of a festival fall on Thursday and Friday, and one forgot and did not establish an eruv on the day before the festival, he may establish the eruv on the festival itself by making a conditional stipulation,3 i.e., on the first day of the festival, [the person] should say:4 “If today is an ordinary weekday,5 this [bread that I have set aside] should be considered as an eruv. If today is a sacred [day], my statements are of no consequence.” On the following day, he should say: “If today is a sacred [day], I established an eruv yesterday. If today is an ordinary weekday, this [bread that I have set aside] should be considered as an eruv.”

It is desirable counsel to use the [same] bread used to establish the eruv on the first day on the second day [as well], for if the eruv was made with other bread, it would be forbidden to eat both of them before nightfall on Friday.6

With regard to [which days] does the above apply? To the two days of [the other] festivals celebrated in the Diaspora. On the two days of Rosh HaShanah, by contrast, an eruv may not be established on a conditional basis, for they are considered as one long day, as will be explained in sec. 600[:3-4].7

א אֵין מְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְשִׁתּוּפֵי מְבוֹאוֹת בְּיוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת,א,1 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנִּרְאֶה כִּמְתַקֵּן דָּבָר.ב,2

וְאִם חָלוּ ב' יָמִים טוֹבִים בְּיוֹם ה' וּבְיוֹם ו', וְשָׁכַח וְלֹא עֵרֵב מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב – יְעָרֵב בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַל תְּנַאי,ג,3 שֶׁיֹּאמַר בְּיוֹם טוֹב א': 4 אִם הַיּוֹם חֹל5 – יְהֵא זֶה עֵרוּב, וְאִם הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ – אֵין בִּדְבָרַי כְּלוּם. וּלְמָחָר יֹאמַר: אִם הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ – הֲרֵי עֵרַבְתִּי אֶתְמוֹל, וְאִם הַיּוֹם חֹל – יְהֵא זֶה עֵרוּב. ד וְעֵצָה טוֹבָה שֶׁיְּעָרֵב לְמָחָר בְּפַת שֶׁעֵרֵב בָּהּ אֶתְמוֹל, שֶׁאִם יְעָרֵב בְּפַת אַחֶרֶת – יֵאָסֵר לֶאֱכוֹל שְׁתֵּיהֶן קֹדֶם שֶׁחָשְׁכָה לֵיל שַׁבָּת.ה,6

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּב' יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל גָּלֻיּוֹת. אֲבָל בְּב' יָמִים טוֹבִים שֶׁל רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְעָרֵב עַל תְּנַאי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם כְּיוֹם אֶחָד אָרֹךְ, ו כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ת"ר:ז,7

2 Both an eruv for a courtyard and a shituf for a lane may be established bein hashmashos,8 based on the rationale explained in sec. 261[:2].9

[The above] applies even if one already accepted tosefes Shabbos.10There are, [however, other authorities] who forbid [doing so] if one already accepted tosefes Shabbos. (Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion only with regard to tosefes Shabbos.11 If, however, the person already recited the Evening Service for Shabbos, he has accepted [not only tosefes Shabbos, but] the Shabbos itself, as evidenced by his recitation of the Evening Service for Shabbos. [Therefore, the person] is forbiddento perform any of the shvusim,12[just] as he is on Shabbos itself, with the exception of having another person perform [a forbidden activity on his behalf], as stated in sec. 261[:3] and sec. 263[:25].

Even when the person himself has yet to recite the [Shabbos] Evening Service, if the majority of the community has already recited that service,13 the [remainder] of the community [who have yet to pray] are drawn after them against their will.14 [This restriction begins] not [only] when [the community] has completed their prayers, but even at the very beginning of those prayers, i.e., when they responded Borchu, as explained in the above source.15)

ב אֶחָד עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְאֶחָד שִׁתּוּפֵי מְבוֹאוֹת מְעָרְבִים אוֹתָם בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,ח,8 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"א.ט,9

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כְּבָר קִבֵּל עָלָיו תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת. י וְיֵשׁ אוֹסְרִיןיא אִם קִבֵּל עָלָיו תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת10 (וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה בְּקַבָּלַת תּוֹסֶפֶת שַׁבָּת בִּלְבָד.11 אֲבָל אִם הִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת עַרְבִית שֶׁל שַׁבָּת – הֲרֵי קִבֵּל עָלָיו שַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ,יב כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִתְפַּלֵּל תְּפִלַּת לֵיל שַׁבָּת, וְנֶאֱסַר בְּכָל הַשְּׁבוּתִים12 כְּמוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת עַצְמָהּ, לְבַד מִמַּה שֶּׁנַּעֲשֶׂה עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"איג וְרס"ג.יד וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הוּא לֹא הִתְפַּלֵּל, אִם רֹב הַצִּבּוּר הִתְפַּלְלוּ13 – הַמִּעוּט נִמְשָׁכִים אַחֲרֵיהֶם בְּעַל כָּרְחָן,טו,14 וְלֹא מִשֶּׁגָּמְרוּ הַתְּפִלָּה, אֶלָּא אֲפִלּוּ מִשֶּׁהִתְחִילוּ אוֹתָהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ עֲנִיַּת "בָּרְכוּ", כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁםטז):15

3 [The food for] the eruv need only be intact [during] bein hashmashos.16 [Afterwards,] when night has certainly fallen, one may partake of it. ([The rationale is that] since the person’s dwelling was established in the place where the eruv is held [during] bein hashmashos, which is the time when Shabbos commences, that designation is not removed for the entire Shabbos, even though the person’s eruv was removed from that place.)17

One should break bread Shabbos morning [using the bread set aside for the eruv],18 (or use [that bread] for the night meal if he begins that meal when it is definitely night). [The rationale is that] since one mitzvah was performed with [this bread], it should be used to perform another mitzvah.19

Even if [the bread set aside for] the eruv was eaten bein hashmashos,] (after the fact,)20 [the person] acquires the rights [associated with the eruv, because it is possible that bein hashmashos is already considered as night, and it is possible that Shabbos already commenced. Hence, [since the matter concerns a point of] Rabbinic Law,21 we rule leniently.22

[The following rule applies] if [a person] established eruvin for two people23 – for one he established the eruv while it was still day [on Friday], and [the bread for] the eruv was eaten bein hashmashos, and for the other, he established the eruv [during] bein hashmashos, and [this eruv] remained intact until nightfall.24 [In this instance,] both [people] acquire the rights associated with an eruv.25 [The rationale is that] for the person whose eruv was eaten bein hashmashos, bein hashmashos is considered as [part of] the night, and for the person whose eruv was established bein hashmashos, bein hashmashos is considered as [part of] the day, for an eruv may not be established after nightfall. Even though [the agent] established eruvin for both [people] during the same bein hashmashos and [even though] the two leniencies are contradictory,26 this is of no consequence, because [the two leniencies are being applied] for two [different] people.27

If, however, [an agent] established an eruv for one person bein hashmashos and that eruv was eaten bein hashmashos, [the person] does not acquire the eruv. Leniency is not granted to the extent of saying that at the moment [during bein hashmashos that] he established the eruv it was still day, but when [the eruv] was eaten, it was already night, and [the person the eruv was established for] had already acquired the eruv.

ג הָעֵרוּב אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת קַיָּם אֶלָּא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,16 וְיָכוֹל לְאָכְלוֹ כְּשֶׁוַּדַּאי חֲשֵׁכָהיז (שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁנִּקְבְּעָה דִירָתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם עֵרוּב בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, שֶׁהוּא תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּתיח – שׁוּב אֵינָהּ נִפְקַעַת מִשָּׁם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנּוֹטֵל מִשָּׁם עֵרוּבוֹיט).17

וְיֵשׁ לִבְצוֹעַ עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת כ שַׁחֲרִיתכא,18 (אוֹ בִּסְעֻדַּת הַלַּיְלָה אִם סוֹעֵד מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה וַדַּאיכב), דְּהוֹאִיל וְנַעֲשֵׂית בּוֹ מִצְוָה אַחַת – יֵשׁ לַעֲשׂוֹת בּוֹ גַם כֵּן מִצְוָה אַחֶרֶת.כג,19

וַאֲפִלּוּ נֶאֱכַל עֵרוּבוֹ בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – קָנָה עֵרוּב (וּבְדִיעֲבַדכד),20 כִּי בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הוּא סְפֵק לַיְלָה, וְשֶׁמָּא נִכְנַס כְּבָר תְּחִלַּת הַשַּׁבָּת, וּסְפֵק דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים21 לְהָקֵל.כה,22

וַאֲפִלּוּ עֵרֵב לִשְׁנַיִם,23 לְאֶחָד עֵרֵב מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְנֶאֱכַל עֵרוּבוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, וּלְאֶחָד עֵרֵב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְנִשְׁאַר עֵרוּבוֹ קַיָּם עַד שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה24 – שְׁנֵיהֶם קָנוּ עֵרוּב,כו,25 שֶׁלְּאוֹתוֹ שֶׁנֶּאֱכַל עֵרוּבוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אָנוּ חוֹשְׁבִין שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הוּא לַיְלָה, וּלְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁעֵרֵב לוֹ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אָנוּ חוֹשְׁבִין שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת הוּא יוֹם, שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ.כז וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֵרֵב לִשְׁנֵיהֶם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת אֶחָד, וַהֲרֵי הֵן ב' קֻלּוֹת הַסּוֹתְרוֹת זוֹ אֶת זוֹכח,26 – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם לִשְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם.27 אֲבָל אִם עֵרֵב לְאֶחָד בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְנֶאֱכַל הָעֵרוּב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת – לֹא קָנָה עֵרוּב, וְאֵין מְקִלִּין כָּל כָּךְ לוֹמַר שֶׁבְּרֶגַע שֶׁעֵרֵב הָיָה עֲדַיִן יוֹם, וּכְשֶׁנֶּאֱכַל הָיָה כְּבָר לַיְלָה וּכְבָר קָנָה עֵרוּב:כט