SECTION 392 The Laws [Governing the Establishment of] Eruvin for Towns [and Cities] (1-9)

סימן שצב דִּין עֵרוּבִין לְעִיר וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 When a town1 is the private property of one person – i.e., he built it for himself with the intent of renting its [homes] to the general public – it does not at all resemble a public domain2 in the full sense.3 If [the] lanes [of the town] were modified as required by law with [either] a lechi,4 a beam,5 a tzuras hapesach,6or gates, as explained in sec. 364:[1, 4, its residents] may all join in one shituf7and they may carry throughout the entire town. [The residents of the town] need not leave any portion [of the town outside the shituf].8

[These laws apply] even if afterwards [these properties] were owned by many people, [i.e., the owner] sold portions [of the town] to many others. Similarly, if [the person] built [the town] with the intent of [selling of parts of it and] settling [other] residents in [these areas], but left the thoroughfares and marketplaces as his own property, as is the practice of kings,9 it [nevertheless remains categorized as] a town that is private property, and [all its residents] may join in one shituf. ([This ruling applies] even if afterwards, the owner sold [the thoroughfares and marketplaces] to many others.) [This ruling] also [applies even when the properties of a town] always [belonged] to many people, [but the town] has only one entrance.10 [Such a town] does not resemble a public domain and [its residents] may join in one shituf.

If, however, [a town’s properties] belonged to many people11 and it has two entrances12 – the populace entering through one and departing through the other – and it thus resembles a public domain, the entire town may not be encompassed by an eruv,13 even if its lanes were modified as required by law. [This stringency applies] even if afterward [the town] became the [private] property of one person, lest it [be sold and] become [the property of] many people again. [Nevertheless, a shituf may be established] if one area – even one house14 – is left [outside the shituf. The residents of] the remainder [of the town] may join in the shituf.

The participants in the shituf are permitted [to carry] throughout the entire town except for the area that was left outside [the shituf. The participants in the shituf] are forbidden to take into that place articles that were located in their homes at the commencement of the Shabbos.15 If there are many [residents in] the excluded [area], they are permitted [to carry] in their area by establishing a separate shituf. [The residents of this area] are, [however,] forbidden [to take] articles that were located in their homes at the commencement of the Shabbos [into] the remainder of the city.

This requirement [was instituted to create] a distinction, so that [the residents] would know that [it was because of] the eruv [that they were] permitted to carry in this town [despite the fact] that many people pass through [its thoroughfare or marketplace] and [thus] it resembles a public domain. [The distinction is made because the participants in the shituf] may not carry in the area that was excluded and [whose residents] did not participate in the shituf with them, but instead, they carry [only] in their [area] and the others [only] in their [area. This draws attention to the eruv.] If, however, no [area] was excluded, [the populace at large] would lose consciousness of the eruv. The laws of a public domain would be forgotten,16 because [the town’s residents] would see that people carry [throughout] this town [whose thoroughfare or marketplace] resembles a public domain.

According to the authorities who maintain that any public area that 600,000 people do not pass through every day is not considered a public domain in a complete sense17 – for, [according to these authorities,] when there is less [human traffic] than 600,000 people [in an area], it is not considered that many pass through the area – it is not necessary to exclude an area in a city [whose houses are owned by] many people unless 600,000 pass through it every day. At present, it is customary to rely on this [leniency] and not to exclude an area in any city.18

א עִיר1 שֶׁהָיְתָה קִנְיַן א יָחִיד, שֶׁבְּנָאָהּ יָחִיד לְעַצְמוֹ שֶׁיַּשְׂכִּירֶנָּה לְרַבִּים, ב שֶׁאֵין זוֹ דוֹמָה כְּלָל לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים2 גְּמוּרָהג,3 – אִם הִכְשִׁירוּ מְבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ כְּהִלְכָתָם בְּלֶחִי 4 אוֹ קוֹרָה5 אוֹ צוּרַת פֶּתַח6 אוֹ בִּדְלָתוֹת,ד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ד,ה הֲרֵי הֵם יְכוֹלִים לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף כֻּלָּם שִׁתּוּף אֶחָד 7 וִיטַלְטְלוּ בְּכָל הָעִיר.ו וְאֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְשַׁיֵּר מִמֶּנָּה כְּלוּםז,8 אֲפִלּוּ נַעֲשֵׂית שֶׁל רַבִּים,ח שֶׁמְּכָרָהּ אַחַר כָּךְ לְרַבִּים.ט,2 וְכֵן אִם בְּנָאָהּ לְהוֹשִׁיב בָּהּ דִּיּוּרִין, וְשִׁיֵּר לְעַצְמוֹ דְּרָכִים וּפְלַטְיוֹת כְּדֶרֶךְ שֶׁהַמְּלָכִים עוֹשִׂיםי,9 – הֲרֵי זוֹ עִיר שֶׁל יָחִיד, וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִים כֻּלָּם שִׁתּוּף אֶחָד (אֲפִלּוּ מְכָרָהּ אַחַר כָּךְ לְרַבִּים). וְכֵן אִם הָיְתָה שֶׁל רַבִּים מֵעוֹלָם, וְאֵין לָהּ אֶלָּא פֶּתַח אֶחָדיא,10 – אֵין זוֹ דוֹמָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,יב וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִין כֻּלָּם שִׁתּוּף אֶחָד.

אֲבָל אִם הָיְתָה שֶׁל רַבִּים11 וְיֵשׁ לָהּ ב' פְּתָחִים,12 שֶׁהָעָם נִכְנָסִים בְּזוֹ וְיוֹצְאִים בְּזוֹ,יג שֶׁהִיא דוֹמָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים – אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִכְשִׁירוּ מְבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ כְּהִלְכוֹתֶיהָ,יד אֵין מְעָרְבִין13 אֶת כֻּלָּהּ אֲפִלּוּ נַעֲשֵׂית אַחַר כָּךְ שֶׁל יָחִיד,טו כִּי שֶׁמָּא תַּחֲזוֹר וְתֵעָשֶׂה שֶׁל רַבִּים,טז אֶלָּא מְשַׁיְּרִין מִמֶּנָּה מָקוֹם אֶחָד, אֲפִלּוּ בַּיִת אֶחָד,יז,14 וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִים הַשְּׁאָר. וְיִהְיוּ אֵלּוּ הַמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִים מֻתָּרִים בְּכָל הָעִיר חוּץ מֵאוֹתוֹ מָקוֹם שֶׁשִּׁיְּרוּ, שֶׁאֲסוּרִים לְהוֹצִיא לְשָׁם כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּבָתֵּיהֶם.יח,15 וְיִהְיוּ אוֹתָם הַנִּשְׁאָרִים מֻתָּרִים בִּמְקוֹמָם בְּשִׁתּוּף שֶׁעוֹשִׂים לְעַצְמָם אִם הֵם רַבִּים, וַאֲסוּרִים בִּשְׁאָר כָּל הָעִיריט בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּבָתֵּיהֶם. וְדָבָר זֶה מִשּׁוּם הֶכֵּר הוּא, כְּדֵי שֶׁיֵּדְעוּ שֶׁהָעֵרוּב הִתִּיר לָהֶם לְטַלְטֵל כ בְּעִיר זוֹ, שֶׁרַבִּים בּוֹקְעִים בָּהּ וְדוֹמָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמָּקוֹם שֶׁנִּשְׁאַר שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף עִמָּהֶם אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין בּוֹ אֶלָּא אֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן וְאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן.כא אֲבָל אִם לֹא הָיָה שִׁיּוּר – הָיָה הָעֵרוּב מִשְׁתַּכֵּחַ,כב וְהָיְתָה מִשְׁתַּכַּחַת תּוֹרַת רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםכג,16 עַל יְדֵי שֶׁרוֹאִין שֶׁמְּטַלְטְלִין בְּעִיר זוֹ הַדּוֹמָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.

וּלְדִבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִיםכד שֶׁכָּל רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁאֵין ס' רִבּוֹא בּוֹקְעִין בָּהּ בְּכָל יוֹם אֵינָהּ רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים גְּמוּרָה,17 שֶׁבְּפָחוֹת מִס' רִבּוֹא אֵינָהּ נִקְרֵאת בְּקִיעַת רַבִּים – אֵין צָרִיךְ לַעֲשׂוֹת שִׁיּוּר לְעִיר שֶׁל רַבִּים, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן שִׁשִּׁים רִבּוֹא בּוֹקְעִים בָּהּ בְּכָל יוֹם.כה וְעַל זֶה סוֹמְכִין עַכְשָׁו, שֶׁאֵין נוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת שִׁיּוּר לְשׁוּם עִיר:כו,18

2 When a town [whose properties] belong to many people has [only] one entrance, but [it has] a ladder in another location along its wall, the ladder at the wall is not considered as an entrance to require the exclusion of an area.19 [The rationale is that] a ladder is only considered as an entrance when [doing so] leads to a leniency,20 but not when [doing so] leads to a stringency, as explained in sec. 375[:1]. Even if many ladders were set up, one next to the other over a span of more than ten [cubits], their [presence] does not nullify the [existing] wall [and prevent it] from being considered a partition.21

When [a town] has two entrances, but there is a garbage dump (which prevents many people from passing through)22 in front of one of them, it is as if [the town] has only one entrance.23

ב עִיר שֶׁל רַבִּים שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ פֶּתַח אֶחָד, וְסֻלָּם בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר בְּחוֹמָתָהּ – אֵין הַסֻּלָּם שֶׁבַּחוֹמָה נֶחְשָׁב כְּפֶתַח לְהַצְרִיכָהּ שִׁיּוּר,כז,,19 שֶׁהַסֻּלָּם אֵינוֹ נֶחְשָׁב כְּפֶתַח אֶלָּא לְהָקֵל20 אֲבָל לֹא לְהַחֲמִיר,כח,19 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ה.כט וַאֲפִלּוּ הֶעֱמִיד הַרְבֵּה סֻלָּמוֹת זֶה בְּצַד זֶה בְּרֹחַב יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר – אֵינָם מְבַטְּלִים הַחוֹמָה אֲשֶׁר שָׁם מִתּוֹרַת מְחִצָּה.ל,21

וְאִם יֵשׁ לָהּ שְׁנֵי פְתָחִים, וְיֵשׁ אַשְׁפָּה לִפְנֵי אֶחָד מֵהֶםלא (שֶׁמּוֹנַעַת בְּקִיעַת הָרַבִּים שָׁםלב)22 – הֲרֵי זוֹ כְּאִלּוּ אֵין לָהּ אֶלָּא פֶּתַח אֶחָד: 23

3 The houses that are excluded [from the shituf of a city need not be an important part of it]. Even if only [the] backs [of the houses] open to the city, and the houses face its outskirts, and they do not have windows [opening] to the city – [in which instance,] even if [their owners] desired to join in the shituf, they would be unable to24 – [such houses] may be considered as [the houses] excluded [from the shituf,] while [all] the other [houses in the town] may be included [in the shituf. This ruling applies] even if there is only one [such] house, and even if it is [not an actual house, but merely] a barn or a storage place for straw, which need not be included in an eruv.25

However, [with regard to] the houses of non-Jews, there are authorities who maintain that they may not be considered as [the houses] excluded [from the shituf]. Other authorities permit this.

ג הַבָּתִּים שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים אוֹתָם שִׁיּוּר לָעִיר – אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָם פְּתוּחִים לָעִיר אֶלָּא אֲחוֹרֵיהֶם לָעִיר וּפְנֵיהֶם לְחוּץ, וְאֵין לָהֶם חַלּוֹנוֹת לָעִיר, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ אִם רָצוּ לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף יַחַד, אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים.24 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא רַק בַּיִת אֶחָד, וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא בֵּית הַבָּקָר אוֹ בֵּית הַתֶּבֶן שֶׁאֵין צָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב כְּלָללג,25 – עוֹשִׂים אוֹתָם שִׁיּוּר וּמְעָרְבִים אֶת הַשְּׁאָר.לד

אֲבָל בָּתֵּי הַנָּכְרִים – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםלה שֶׁאֵינָם מוֹעִילִים לַעֲשׂוֹתָם שִׁיּוּר לָעִיר, וְיֵשׁ מַתִּירִין:לו

4 When all the residents of a city joined in a shituf [for the entire city]except [for the residents of] one lane, [the residents of this lane] cause all [the other residents of the city] to be forbidden [to carry]. If [the residents of this lane] built a ledge four handbreadths high in front of the entrance to their lane, they do not cause all [the other residents of the city] to be forbidden [to carry],26 because they withdrew themselves from using the [other] lanes [of the city]. Even though [the residents of that lane] pass through [the other lanes] on Shabbos, the mere passage of their feet does not cause [the residents of the other lanes] to be forbidden [to carry,] since [the residents of this lane] withdrew themselves from using [the lanes that were included in the shituf by building the ledge], as explained in sec. 386[:9].

If, however, [the residents of] all the lanes joined together in shitufim – even though they did not join together in a common shituf, but rather [the residents of] each lane [made an individual shituf]– they do not cause each other to be forbidden [to carry. The rationale is that the feet of each of the inhabitants of the city are considered as] “the feet of [one who] is permitted [to carry] in his own place.”27 Accordingly, [these individuals] do not cause [carrying] to be prohibited [in other] places by simply passing through [them,] for they do not use [those lanes] on Shabbos since they did not join in an eruv with [the local residents].

When [the residents of] each lane established an independent shituf, there is no need to exclude any [single area from the shitufim]28 because there is no greater exclusion than [making individual shitufim, for then] each [lane] is excluded from the others.

When does the above29 apply? When a town was always the property of many people and thus, excluding an area was always required. When, [however,] the town originally belonged to one person, even if [later] it became the property of many people, since there is no need to exclude [any area]30 and [the city’s residents] became accustomed to join all the lanes in one shituf, all [the lanes] are considered as one single lane. [Accordingly, the residents of such a town] may not divide up [into separate groups] and make separate shitufim for each individual lane unless [the residents of] each [lane] build a ledge31 in front of the entrances [to their lanes] to distinguish their domain from [that of] the other [residents of the town], so that they will not cause [the residents of] all the other [lanes] to be forbidden [to carry].

ד עִיר שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ כָּל יוֹשְׁבֶיהָ חוּץ מִמָּבוֹי אֶחָד, הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר עַל כֻּלָּם.לז,19 וְאִם בָּנוּ אִצְטְבָאלח גְּבוֹהָה ד' טְפָחִיםלט עַל פֶּתַח הַמָּבוֹי – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶם,26 שֶׁהֲרֵי סִלֵּק עַצְמוֹ מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּמְבוֹאוֹתֵיהֶם. מ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹבֵר בָּהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת, אֵין הַעֲבָרָה בְּרֶגֶל בִּלְבָד אוֹסֶרֶת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁסִּלֵּק עַצְמוֹ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ,מא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ו.מב

אֲבָל אִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ כָּל הַמְּבוֹאוֹת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ יַחַד אֶלָּא מָבוֹי מָבוֹי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ – אֵינָן אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה,מג מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא רֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ27 וְאֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִמְקוֹמָהּ בְּהַעֲבָרָה בִּלְבָד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ מִשְׁתַּמֶּשֶׁת שָׁם בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא עֵרְבָה עִמָּהֶם.מד

וּכְשֶׁמְּעָרְבִין מָבוֹי מָבוֹי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְשַׁיֵּר כְּלוּם, שֶׁאֵין לְךָ שִׁיּוּר גָּדוֹל מִזֶּה – שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד נַעֲשֶׂה שִׁיּוּר לַחֲבֵרוֹ.מה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּעִיר שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל רַבִּים מֵעוֹלָם, שֶׁמֵּעוֹלָם הֻצְרְכוּ לְשִׁיּוּר. אֲבָל עִיר שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל יָחִיד,מו אֲפִלּוּ נַעֲשֵׂית שֶׁל רַבִּים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין צְרִיכִין לְשִׁיּוּר30 וְהֻרְגְּלוּ לְעָרֵב כָּל הַמְּבוֹאוֹת יַחַדמז בְּשִׁתּוּף אֶחָד – הֲרֵי נַעֲשׂוּ כֻלָּם כְּמָבוֹי אֶחָד, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לֵחָלֵק וּלְעָרֵב מָבוֹי מָבוֹי בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִבְנֶה כָּל אֶחָד אִצְטְבָא31 עַל פִּתְחוֹמח לַחֲלוֹק רְשׁוּתוֹ מֵהֶם19 כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֶאֱסוֹר עַל כֻּלָּם:

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 [The following rules apply] when a city was always the property of many people: If [the city] is surrounded by a wall [at least] ten handbreadths high and [there are] gates [in the wall] so that it is permitted [to carry] in the public domain existing within [the city],32 an eruv may not be made to include only a portion of [that public domain,33 dividing it] along its length, i.e., [the residents of] the lanes on one side of the public domain34 would establish one eruv and those on the other side would establish a second eruv. [See fig. 105.] Even if the residents of one side [of the public domain] are willing to give [the rights to] the entire public domain to [the residents of] the other side [of the public domain, i.e., they would allow the residents of the other side of the public domain to have exclusive] use [of the public domain] on Shabbos for [articles taken] from their homes,35 and [the residents of the first side would] not [make use of the public domain, such a division] is not effective at all. [The rationale is that the residents of the first side of the public domain] also must pass through the public domain on Shabbos,and when doing so they cause [the residents of] the other side [of the public domain] to be forbidden [to carry].

A similar law [applies in a lane.] The residents of a lane may not divide the lane across its length, i.e., those living on one side will make an eruv for themselves and those living on the other side will make a [separate] eruv for themselves. [The rationale is that] since [people from] both [sides of the lane] pass through [the lane] on Shabbos, that passage causes the others to be forbidden to carry, so long as they do not [completely] withdraw from using [the lane on Shabbos. Such a withdrawal can be accomplished by the residents of] each [courtyard within the lane] building a ledge in front of the entrance to their courtyard, as explained in sec. 386[:9].36

[The residents of the city] may, however, divide the city across its width,37 i.e., [the residents of] both sides of the public domain who live near one entrance [to the city] will establish an eruv among themselves, while [the residents of] both sides of the public domain who live near the other entrance [to the city] will establish an eruv among themselves. [See fig. 105.]38

[Such a division is possible] provided [the residents] make a tzuras hapesach in the middle of the public domain or in the middle of the lane, where [the areas encompassed by] the eruvin are set off, so that each domain will be distinct from the other and thus each [domain] will not be entirely open to a place [where its residents] are forbidden [to carry]. For [the residents of one side of a lane or a public domain] are forbidden to use the other [part of the lane or public domain] for [articles located] in their homes [at the commencement of the Shabbos] and [the residents of] the other side are forbidden [to use] the first side, since [the residents of both sides of the lane or the public domain] did not make a common eruv.39

If the place where the division is made, [i.e.,] the center of the lane or the public domain, is no wider than ten cubits, it is sufficient [to erect] a barrier four handbreadths wide [on one side of the lane or public domain] or two strips of any thickness, [one at either side of the lane or public domain,] for such modifications are effective in dividing domains, as stated in sec. 363[:32, 38].40 A ledge, by contrast, is not effective [in creating a division] in a place where many people walk.41

(When a tzuras hapesach, two strips of any thickness, or a barrier four [handbreadths wide] was erected, and [thus created a division] between one domain and the other, it is of no consequence that many people pass through that place on Shabbos.42[The situation] resembles one in which two courtyards are located one behind the other.43 [In that instance, although the residents] of the inner courtyard [pass through the outer courtyard, nevertheless, they] are deemed “the feet of [one who] is permitted [to carry] in his own place,” who do not cause [carrying] to be forbidden in the outer [courtyard, as long as] they merely pass through without using it. [The rationale is that] the outer [courtyard] is primarily used by [its] residents].44 True, [the residents of] the inner [courtyard] may also make use of [the outer courtyard] during the week.45 Nevertheless, since on Shabbos [the residents of the inner courtyard] withdrew themselves from using the outer [courtyard] since they did not establish an eruv with [its residents], that is significant enough for them not to cause [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry] merely by passing through, since the degree to which the [residents of the] two [courtyards] make use of the outer [courtyard] is not equal; [rather,] it is used by the residents of the outer [courtyard far] more than by the residents of the inner [courtyard. Note a comparable ruling] in sec. 386[:9.46 Similarly,] in this instance, when the domains were divided and the residents of one domain47 withdrew from using the other domain on Shabbos,48 it is effective, since the two [domains] are not used equally by [the residents of] both [domains. The reason being:] each [domain] is necessary for the people who dwell in it and is not that necessary for the people dwelling in the [other] domain, for they have their own domain that can be used for anything they desire. [Moreover, the residents of the second domain] also have an entrance49 through which they can depart if they so desire. Accordingly, the people who do not dwell [in that domain] do not cause those who dwell there to be forbidden [to carry] merely by their passing through.

Even when a lane with merely one entrance was divided across its width with a tzuras hapesach or partitions,50 [the residents of] the inner [portion] do not cause [the residents of] the outer [portion] to be forbidden [to carry], as explained in sec. 363[38:38; see fig. 73. The rationale is that this situation] resembles [that of] two courtyards, one behind the other, in which instance, the outer [courtyard] is not used by the two [groups] in an equal manner.

By contrast, when a lane is divided across its length, the middle of the lane is used equally by the residents of both [of its] sides.51 Therefore, each group causes the other to be forbidden [to carry,] even when they only pass through [the other half of the lane, despite [each group] having withdrawn from using [the other half of the lane] by not joining in a [common] eruv. [This restriction prevails] unless [the residents] perform an act [confirming] their withdrawal, i.e., [building] a ledge in front of the entrance to every courtyard, as explained in sec. 386[:9. See fig. 106.])52

Similarly, when a portion of a city belonging to many people is excluded [from the shituf], if the excluded [portion] is not an entire lane53 – only a portion of it, in which [the residents] establish their own eruv – the domains have to be separated by a tzuras hapesach or by partitions, if [the lane] is not wider than ten [cubits].54

Even in a town belonging to one person, partitions and a tzuras hapesach are effective in dividing domains [from each other] so that [the residents of the different domains] may establish separate eruvin.[This rule applies] despite [the fact that the residents of the town] have become accustomed to joining together in one common shituf.55

By contrast, in a town belonging to one person, [although] a lechi or a beam at the entrance to a lane is effective in enabling [carrying to be permitted] in the lane [itself,]56 [a lechi or a beam] is not effective in dividing [a lane] and causing [the residents on either side] to be separate from each other with regard to an eruv, [i.e.,] that [the residents of] each [side of the lane] establish an individual eruv.57[Moreover,] even in a city belonging to many [people, a lechi or a beam is not effective in making a distinction]58 so that if [the residents of] one lane did not join in a shituf, not even among themselves,59 they would not cause all [the residents of the city] to be forbidden [to carry, even] if they did not [erect] a ledge [in front of the entrance].60

ה וַאֲפִלּוּ עִיר שֶׁהָיְתָה שֶׁל רַבִּים מֵעוֹלָם,מט אִם הִיא מֻקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים וְיֵשׁ לָהּ דְּלָתוֹת לְהַתִּיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּנ,32 – אֵין מְעָרְבִין אוֹתָהּ לַחֲצָאִיןנא,33 לְאָרְכָּהּ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁמְּבוֹאוֹת שֶׁבְּצַד זֶה שֶׁל רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים34 יְעָרְבוּ עֵרוּב אֶחָד וְהַמְּבוֹאוֹת שֶׁבְּצַד הַב' יְעָרְבוּ עֵרוּב אֶחָד.נב וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּנֵי צַד הָאֶחָד רוֹצִים לִתֵּן כָּל רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים לְצַד הַב', שֶׁהֵם יִשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִבָּתֵּיהֶם35 וְלֹא הֵם – אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי גַּם הֵם צְרִיכִים לַעֲבוֹר בִּרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאוֹסְרִים אוֹתָהּ עַל בְּנֵי צַד הַב' בִּדְרִיסַת רַגְלָם.נג וְהוּא הַדִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּנֵי מָבוֹי אֶחָד אֵין יְכוֹלִים לַחֲלוֹק הַמָּבוֹי לְאָרְכּוֹ, שֶׁבְּנֵי צַד זֶה יְעָרְבוּ לְעַצְמָן וּבְנֵי צַד זֶה לְעַצְמָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם עוֹבְרִים בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה בִּדְרִיסַת רַגְלָםנד כֹּל שֶׁלֹּא סִלְּקוּ עַצְמָן מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁיִּבְנֶה כָּל אֶחָד אִצְטְבָא עַל פֶּתַח חֲצֵרוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ו.נה,36

אֲבָל יְכוֹלִים לַחֲלוֹק הָעִיר לְרֹחַב,נו,37 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁב' הַצְּדָדִים שֶׁל רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים שֶׁאֵצֶל פֶּתַח זֶה מְעָרְבִין לְעַצְמָן, וּב' הַצְּדָדִים שֶׁאֵצֶל פֶּתַח הַשֵּׁנִי מְעָרְבִין לְעַצְמָן.נז,38

וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ צוּרַת פֶּתַח בְּאֶמְצַע רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ בְּאֶמְצַע הַמָּבוֹי, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְחַלְּקִים בְּעֵרוּבָן, כְּדֵי לַחֲלוֹק רְשׁוּת זוֹ מִזּוֹ,נח שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא כָּל אַחַת פְּרוּצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ לְמָקוֹם הָאָסוּר לָהּ,נט שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ מִבָּתֵּיהֶם לְכַאן וְאֵלּוּ אֲסוּרִים לְכַאן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד.ס,39 וְאִם אֶמְצַע הַמָּבוֹי אוֹ אֶמְצַע רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁמִּתְחַלְּקִים שָׁם אֵינוֹ רָחָב יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת – דַּי בְּפַס רָחָב ד' טְפָחִים אוֹ ב' פַּסִּין שֶׁל ב' מַשֶּׁהוּיִין,סא שֶׁהֵם מוֹעִילִים לְחַלֵּק רְשֻׁיּוֹת,סב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג.סג,40 אֲבָל אִצְטְבָא אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת בִּמְקוֹם דְּרִיסַת הָרַבִּים.סד,41

(וּכְשֶׁעָשׂוּ צוּרַת פֶּתַח אוֹ ב' פַּסִּין מַשֶּׁהוּיִין אוֹ פַּס ד', וְנֶחְלְקוּ רְשׁוּת זוֹ מִזּוֹ, אֲזַי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹבְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם,סה,42 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁזֶּה דוֹמֶה לְב' חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ,סו,43 שֶׁפְּנִימִית שֶׁהִיא רֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ27 אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה בִּדְרִיסַת רַגְלָהּ בִּלְבָד בְּלֹא תַשְׁמִישׁ,סז הוֹאִיל וְעִקַּר תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַחִיצוֹנָה הוּא לִבְנֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה,סח,44 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַפְּנִימִית יֵשׁ לָהּ גַּם כֵּן רְשׁוּת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּה בְּחֹל,45 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁעַכְשָׁו בְּשַׁבָּת מִסְתַּלֶּקֶת הִיא מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּחִיצוֹנָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה עִמָּהּ – הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹעִיל לְשֶׁלֹּא תֶאֱסֹר עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה בְּהַעֲבָרָה בְּרֶגֶל בִּלְבָד, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַחִיצוֹנָה שָׁוֶה לִשְׁנֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא הוּא לִבְנֵי הַחִיצוֹנָה יוֹתֵר מִלִּבְנֵי הַפְּנִימִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ו.סט,46 אַף כַּאן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁנֶּחְלְקוּ רְשֻׁיּוֹת,47 וּבְנֵי רְשׁוּת זוֹ סִלְּקוּ עַצְמָן לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בִּרְשׁוּת זוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת48 – הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹעִיל, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן שָׁווֹת לִשְׁנֵיהֶם, שֶׁכָּל אַחַת הִיא צְרִיכָה לְאוֹתָם הַדָּרִים שָׁם וְאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה כָּל כָּךְ לְהַדָּרִים אֵצֶל רְשׁוּת הַשְּׁנִיָּה, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לָהֶם רְשׁוּת שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהּ כָּל חֶפְצָם, וְיֵשׁ לָהֶם גַּם כֵּן פֶּתַח 49 לָצֵאת בּוֹ אִם יִרְצוּ. לְפִיכָךְ אֵין אוֹתָם שֶׁאֵין דָּרִים שָׁם אוֹסְרִים עַל הַדָּרִים שָׁם בִּדְרִיסַת רַגְלָם בִּלְבָד.

וַאֲפִלּוּ מָבוֹי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ אֶלָּא פֶּתַח אֶחָד, וַחֲלָקוּהוּ לְרָחְבּוֹ בְּצוּרַת פֶּתַח אוֹ בְּפַסִּין50 – אֵין הַפְּנִימִים אוֹסְרִים עַל הַחִיצוֹנִים,ע כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג,עא מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדּוֹמֶה לְב' חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ, שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַחִיצוֹנָה אֵינוֹ שָׁוֶה לִשְׁנֵיהֶם.

מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן כְּשֶׁחֲלָקוּהוּ לְאָרְכּוֹ, שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמָּבוֹי שֶׁבָּאֶמְצַע הוּא שָׁוֶה לִבְנֵי ב' הַצְּדָדִיםעב,51 – לָכֵן הֵם אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה אֲפִלּוּ בִּדְרִיסַת רֶגֶל בִּלְבָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסִּלְּקוּ עַצְמָן מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ מֵחֲמַת שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשׂוּ סִלּוּק בְּמַעֲשֶׂה, דְּהַיְנוּ אִצְטְבָא עַל פֶּתַח כָּל חָצֵר וְחָצֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ועג,52).

וְכֵן כְּשֶׁעוֹשִׂין שִׁיּוּר לְעִיר שֶׁל רַבִּים, אִם הַשִּׁיּוּר אֵינוֹ מָבוֹי שָׁלֵם53 אֶלָּא מְשַׁיְּרִים מִקְצָתוֹ בִּלְבָד, שֶׁמְּעָרֵב לְעַצְמוֹ – צְרִיכִים לַחֲלוֹק שָׁם רְשֻׁיּוֹת בְּצוּרַת פֶּתַח אוֹ בְּפַסִּין50 אִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר.עד,54

וַאֲפִלּוּ בְּעִיר שֶׁל יָחִיד מוֹעִילִים פַּסִּין וְצוּרַת פֶּתַח לַחֲלוֹק רְשֻׁיּוֹת, שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ אֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן וְאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֻרְגְּלוּ כְּבָר לְעָרֵב יַחַד שִׁתּוּף אֶחָד.עה,55

אֲבָל לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה שֶׁבְּפִתְחֵי הַמְּבוֹאוֹת,עו אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מוֹעִילִים לְהַכְשִׁיר הַמְּבוֹאוֹתעז,56 – אֵינָן מוֹעִילִים לְחַלְּקָם וּלְסַלְּקָם זֶה מִזֶּה לְעִנְיַן עֵרוּב, שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ אֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן וְאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָןעח,57 בְּעִיר שֶׁל יָחִיד,עט אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּעִיר שֶׁל רַבִּים58 לְעִנְיָן שֶׁאִם מָבוֹי אֶחָד לֹא שִׁתֵּף אֲפִלּוּ לְעַצְמוֹ59 שֶׁלֹּא יֶאֱסוֹר עַל כֻּלָּם פ בְּלֹא אִצְטְבָא:פא,60

Fig. 105: A city divided across its width
Fig. 105: A city divided across its width

A city divided across its length
A city divided across its length

Fig. 106: The withdrawal of residents from the use of a lane through building a ledge at the entrance to their courtyards. a) The courtyards whose residents may join in the eruv; b) The lane; c) A ledge at the entrance to a courtyard; d) The courtyards whose residents withdrew from the use of the lane; e) The public domain
Fig. 106: The withdrawal of residents from the use of a lane through building a ledge at the entrance to their courtyards. a) The courtyards whose residents may join in the eruv; b) The lane; c) A ledge at the entrance to a courtyard; d) The courtyards whose residents withdrew from the use of the lane; e) The public domain

6 When does the above61 apply? When modifications [were made] so that all the lanes [in the city] have [valid] partitions as mandated by law, whether [the lanes] were validated by a lechi or a beam, or [whether] the situation was such that no modification was necessary, e.g., [the lanes are within] a city surrounded by walls that has gates [at its entrances. In such a situation, the] lanes [of the city] do not require any modification. When, by contrast, the lanes of a city require modification, modifications may be made for some of the lanes of the city and other [lanes in the city may be] left without modification. [See fig. 107. The presence of the residents of] the lanes for which modifications were not made does not cause [the residents of the lanes which were] modified to be forbidden [to carry. This ruling applies] even when [the lanes were not modified] with a tzuras hapesach or a partition, but rather, with a lechi or a beam. [Moreover, this is so] even when the town is the property of one person and [its residents] initially became accustomed to establishing one eruv [for the entire town,] for the modifications were [initially] made [in a manner that it was valid] for all of its lanes, and [only] afterwards were [the modifications] breached. [The residents of] one lane may even divide [their lane] across its width by [erecting] a lechi in the middle [of the lane’s length], as explained in sec. 363[:38]. The other residents of the lane who are outside the lechi62 do not cause [the residents of] the inner portion to be forbidden [to carry] because they did not join in an eruv with [the residents of the inner portion of the lane. The rationale is that the residents of] the outer portion [of the lane] are forbidden to carry in the lane and it is utterly impossible for them to establish an eruv.63

(For this reason – [i.e.,] because [the residents of these lanes] cannot establish an eruv with each other – even if [the residents of] the lanes that are not modified have the right to pass through [the lanes] that are modified, they do not cause [their residents] to be forbidden [to carry].64 The same law applies if all [the lanes] are modified, however, an area where it is forbidden to carry because it was not encompassed by walls as required by law intervenes between them. [In such an instance,] even if [the residents of] some of [the lanes] did not establish an eruv [in their lanes], they do not cause [the residents of the other lanes] to be forbidden [to carry, since it was impossible for a common eruv to be established. Our Sages’] statement65 that “the feet of [people who] are forbidden [to carry] in their own place cause others to be forbidden [to carry when they pass through the areas] outside their place,” applies only in [instances similar to] two courtyards, [where] one [is located] behind the other, where a common eruv could have been established).

[The following rule applies] if a city is surrounded by a wall and it has gates that close, [but it has] one entrance without a gate – indeed, [that entrance] does not even have a lintel to be considered a tzuras hapesach;66 all [that entrance] has are doorposts. [In this instance, it is nevertheless possible for the city to be considered as enclosed. The rationale is that] these doorposts are no less effective than a lechi, which is valid [as a partition] for lanes that are open to a public domain. This being so, if the city does not have [a major marketplace or a road that is deemed] a public domain, [then] even when [the city’s] lanes open up to a thoroughfare that runs from town to town, which is [considered] a public domain,67 [carrying] is permitted inside [the city], because of the lechi68 [positioned] at one end and the gates on the other end. Accordingly, [in this instance,] the other lanes [of the city]69 do not require [further] modification. [The residents of the other lanes] may only divide [their lanes] into [separate] eruvin in the manner described [in the previous subsection]. If there is a breach [in the wall of the city] that causes [carrying] to be forbidden, the viability [of establishing an eruv for the entire city] is nullified. [In such an instance,] an eruv may be established for [some of the lanes of the city], and the remainder [of the lanes] may be left without being modified.

ו בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים?61 כְּשֶׁכָּל הַמְּבוֹאוֹת הֵם מֻכְשָׁרִים בִּמְחִצּוֹת כְּהִלְכָתָן,פב בֵּין שֶׁהִכְשִׁירָם עַל יְדֵי לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה, בֵּין שֶׁהֵם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְתִקּוּן כְּלָל,פג כְּגוֹן עִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה וְיֵשׁ לָהּ דְּלָתוֹת, שֶׁאֵין מְבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ צְרִיכִים תִּקּוּן. אֲבָל עִיר שֶׁמְּבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ צְרִיכִים תִּקּוּן – יְכוֹלִים לְהַכְשִׁיר מִקְצָת מְבוֹאוֹת הָעִיר וּלְהַנִּיחַ הַשְּׁאָר בְּלֹא תִקּוּן, וְאֵין הַמְּבוֹאוֹת שֶׁאֵינָם מְתֻקָּנִים אוֹסְרִים עַל הַמְּתֻקָּנִים, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם צוּרַת פֶּתַח אוֹ פַּסִּין אֶלָּא לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה.פד וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא עִיר שֶׁל יָחִיד וּמִתְּחִלָּה הֻרְגְּלוּ לְעָרֵב עֵרוּב אֶחָד, שֶׁהָיוּ כָּל הַמְּבוֹאוֹת מְתֻקָּנִים וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִפְרְצוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ מָבוֹי אֶחָד יְכוֹלִים לְחַלֵּק לְרָחְבּוֹ עַל יְדֵי לֶחִי שֶׁיַּעֲמִידוּ בְּאֶמְצָעִיתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג,פה וְאֵין שְׁאָר בְּנֵי הַמָּבוֹי שֶׁחוּץ לַלֶּחִי62 אוֹסְרִים עַל הַפְּנִימִית מֵחֲמַת שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ עִמָּהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַחִיצוֹנִים אֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בַּמָּבוֹי וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לְעָרֵב כְּלָל.פו,63

(וּמִטַּעַם זֶה אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמְּבוֹאוֹת שֶׁאֵינָם מְתֻקָּנִים יֵשׁ לָהֶם דְּרִיסַת רֶגֶל עַל הַמְּתֻקָּנִים אֵינָם אוֹסְרִים עֲלֵיהֶם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב עִמָּהֶם.פז,64 וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם כֻּלָּם מְתֻקָּנִים אֶלָּא שֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם מָקוֹם הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּל מֵחֲמַת שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻקָּף מְחִצּוֹת כְּהִלְכָתָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּקְצָתָם לֹא עֵרְבוּ – אֵין אוֹסְרִים. וְלֹא אָמְרוּ65 שֶׁרֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִמְקוֹמָהּ אֶלָּא בב' חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ, שֶׁיְּכוֹלוֹת לְעָרֵב יַחַדפח).43

וְעִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה וְיֵשׁ לָהּ דְּלָתוֹת נִנְעָלִים, רַק שֶׁבְּפֶתַח אֶחָד אֵין לָהּ דֶּלֶת, וְגַם אֵין שָׁם מַשְׁקוֹף, שֶׁיְּהֵא נִדּוֹן מִשּׁוּם צוּרַת פֶּתַח,66 אֶלָּא מְזוּזוֹת בִּלְבָד – הֲרֵי מְזוּזוֹת אֵלּוּ אֵינָן גְּרוּעִים מִלֶּחִי שֶׁמּוֹעִיל לִמְבוֹאוֹת הַמְּפֻלָּשִׁים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. וְאִם כֵּן אִם אֵין בָּעִיר רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ מְפֻלָּשִׁים לִסְרַטְיָא שֶׁהִיא רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים67 – הֲרֵי הִיא נִתֶּרֶת בְּלֶחִי68 שֶׁמִּכַּאן וּדְלָתוֹת שֶׁמִּכַּאן, וְשׁוּב אֵין שְׁאָר מְבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ69 צְרִיכִים תִּקּוּן. וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לֵחָלֵק בְּעֵרוּבָם אֶלָּא עַל דֶּרֶךְ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר. וְאִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ פִּרְצָה הָאוֹסֶרֶת – בָּטֵל הֶכְשֵׁרָהּ, וִיכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב חֶצְיָהּ וּלְהַנִּיחַ חֶצְיָהּ בְּלִי הֶכְשֵׁר:פט

Fig. 107: A city in which some of the lanes have been modified and others have been left without modification. a) A lane that has been modified; b) A lane that has not been modified; c) The public domain
Fig. 107: A city in which some of the lanes have been modified and others have been left without modification. a) A lane that has been modified; b) A lane that has not been modified; c) The public domain

7 (All the above applies when the residents of the different lanes pass through each other’s lanes on Shabbos. [The following guidelines apply] if, however, there are two lanes that open to each other [on one end,] and [that] are also [both] open to the public domain, and [the residents of these lanes] desire to separate from each other, and [do] not [wish] to pass through the other’s lane on Shabbos, but rather [the residents of] each [lane] would access the public domain from the entrance [of their own lane]. There are authorities who maintain that [the residents of] each of the lanes are permitted to make individual eruvin even though there is not a tzuras hapesach or partitions70 between [the two lanes, but] only a lechi or a beam. [See fig. 108. This is permitted,] provided [that the junction] where the lanes meet is less than ten [cubits] wide.71 [The rationale is that] since [the residents of the respective lanes] do not pass through each other’s space, they do not cause each other to be forbidden [to carry. To cite a similar situation:] When a courtyard is open to a lane, but [its residents] do not pass through [that lane] on Shabbos, they do not cause [carrying] to be forbidden [in the lane] if [the residents of the courtyard] have an entrance to another lane, as explained in sec. 386[:9].

According to this [logic], if [the residents of] one of the lanes [in the above situation] made an individual eruv and [those of] the other [lane] did not join together in an eruv, [the residents of the lane who did not join together in an eruv] are compelled [not] to follow “the attributes of Sodom,”72 and not to pass, on Shabbos, through [the lane whose residents] established an eruv, so that [the residents who did not establish an eruv in their lane] will not cause [carrying] to be forbidden in [the lane whose residents established an eruv. We are able to compel the residents of the lane without the eruv to act in this manner since] they have another entrance through which they can access the public domain. [To cite a parallel: The residents of] a courtyard who did not establish an eruv with [the other residents in] a lane are compelled not to pass through the lane on Shabbos,if their courtyard [also] has an entrance to another lane via which they can access the public domain, as explained in the above source.

Needless to say, if [the residents of] both lanes established independent eruvin,and on Shabbos [a resident of] one [lane] desires to pass through the other [lane, the residents of that lane] may prevent him from doing so, since he revealed his intent – that of giving up his right to pass through the other [lane] – by establishing an independent eruv.

Where does the above apply? In a city whose lanes require modification, and the modification necessary for the lanes is a tzuras hapesach at the end [of the lane leading to] the public domain and a lechi or a beam between [the lanes], as is the law regarding a lane with a corner [that is shaped like the Hebrew letter dalet (ד)] , as explained in sec. 364[:5. More stringent rules apply,] by contrast, when a city is surrounded by a wall in a manner that modifications are not required [for carrying to be permitted in] its lanes, because the entire [area encompassed by the city’s wall] is considered as one courtyard [populated by] many people, as has been explained.73 [In such an instance, the residents of the city] may not divide its lanes, allowing them to establish individual eruvin,unless [they erect] a tzuras hapesach or partitions, as [is necessary] when one desires to divide a courtyard into two. A lechi or a beam is not sufficient, even if [the residents of the different lanes] will not pass through other [lanes] on Shabbos [True, the residents of the different lanes] do not cause [each other] to be forbidden [to carry] by passing through [the others’ domains. Nevertheless, the very fact that] each of the lanes is entirely open to an area in which [the residents of the lane] are forbidden [to carry] brings about a prohibition, since [the residents of one lane] are forbidden to carry [articles] from the houses of this lane to another lane [whose residents] did not establish an eruv with them. [Hence,] a tzuras hapesach or partitions is necessary, [just as such modifications are necessary] to adjust a breach in a courtyard, as explained in sec. 363[:38].

By contrast, in a city whose lanes require modification, whenever a lane is modified at its entrance with a lechi or a beam, [the lechi or beam] is deemed an entrance74 and [thus, the lane] is not [considered as] open. Therefore, [the willingness of the residents of the other lanes to] refrain from passing through [the modified lanes] is effective, just as it is effective in a courtyard open [to two lanes], as explained.75)

ז (וְכָל זֶה כְּשֶׁבְּנֵי הַמְּבוֹאוֹת עוֹבְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת. אֲבָל ב' מְבוֹאוֹת הַפְּתוּחִים זֶה לְזֶה וּפְתוּחִים גַּם כֵּן לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, שֶׁרוֹצִים לְהִסְתַּלֵּק זֶה מִזֶּה שֶׁלֹּא לַעֲבוֹר זֶה עַל זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא כָּל אֶחָד יֵלֵךְ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים דֶּרֶךְ פִּתְחוֹ – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִים צ שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶם צוּרַת פֶּתַח אוֹ פַּסִּין70 אֶלָּא לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה,צא אִם אֵין שָׁם רֹחַב יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר,71 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָן עוֹבְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה – אֵינָן אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה,צב כְּמוֹ שֶׁהֶחָצֵר הַפְּתוּחָה לַמָּבוֹי וְאֵינָהּ עוֹבֶרֶת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ פֶּתַח אַחֵר לְמָבוֹי אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ו.צג

וּלְפִי זֶה, אִם מָבוֹי אֶחָד עֵרֵב לְעַצְמוֹ וְהַשֵּׁנִי לֹא עֵרֵב כְּלָל – כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ עַל מִדַּת סְדוֹםצד,72 שֶׁלֹּא יַעֲבוֹר בְּשַׁבָּת עַל זֶה שֶׁעֵרֵב כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֶאֱסֹר עָלָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פֶּתַח אַחֵר לָצֵאת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁכּוֹפִין אֶת הֶחָצֵר שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה בַּמָּבוֹי שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲבוֹר בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אִם יֵשׁ לָהּ פֶּתַח לְמָבוֹי אַחֵר לַעֲבוֹר דֶּרֶךְ עָלָיו לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם עֵרְבוּ ב' הַמְּבוֹאוֹת זֶה לְעַצְמוֹ וְזֶה לְעַצְמוֹ, וּבְשַׁבָּת בָּא אֶחָד לַעֲבוֹר עַל חֲבֵרוֹ, שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְעַכֵּב עָלָיו, כֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר גִּלָּה דַעְתּוֹ שֶׁסִּלֵּק דְּרִיסַת רַגְלוֹ מֵעַל חֲבֵרוֹ בְּמַה שֶּׁעֵרֵב לְעַצְמוֹ.צה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּעִיר שֶׁמְּבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ צְרִיכִים תִּקּוּן, וְתִקּוּנֵי מְבוֹאוֹת אֵלּוּ בְּצוּרַת פֶּתַח לְצַד רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים וְלֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה בֵּינֵיהֶם כְּדִין מָבוֹי עָקֹם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ד.צו אֲבָל עִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵין מְבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ צְרִיכִים תִּקּוּן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁנַּעֲשֵׂית כֻּלָּהּ כְּחָצֵר אַחַת שֶׁל רַבִּים כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר73 – אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לַחֲלוֹק מְבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ, לְעָרֵב אֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן וְאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן, אֶלָּא בְּצוּרַת פֶּתַח אוֹ בְּפַסִּין70, כְּמִי שֶׁרוֹצֶה לַחֲלוֹק חָצֵר אַחַת לִשְׁתַּיִם. אֲבָל לֶחִי וְקוֹרָה אֵינָן מוֹעִילוֹתצז אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא יַעַבְרוּ זֶה עַל זֶה בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֵינָן אוֹסְרִים בִּדְרִיסַת רַגְלָם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם אוֹסְרִים זֶה אֶת זֶה בְּמַה שֶּׁכָּל אֶחָד פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ לְמָקוֹם הָאָסוּר לוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל מִבָּתֵּי מָבוֹי זֶה לְמָבוֹי אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא עֵרֵב עִמּוֹ. וּלְתַקֵּן פִּרְצַת חָצֵר צָרִיךְ צוּרַת פֶּתַח אוֹ פַּסִּין,70 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג.צח מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן עִיר שֶׁמְּבוֹאוֹתֶיהָ צְרִיכוֹת תִּקּוּן – אֲזַי כָּל מָבוֹי הַמְּתֻקָּן בְּפִתְחוֹ בְּלֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה יֵשׁ תּוֹרַת פֶּתַח עָלָיו,74 וְלֹא שֵׁם פִּרְצָה, לְפִיכָךְ מוֹעִיל בּוֹ סִלּוּק דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל, כְּמוֹ שֶׁמּוֹעִיל בְּחָצֵר הַפְּתוּחָהצט כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר75):

Fig. 108: The division of a dalet-shaped lane so that separate eruvin could be established. a) A tzuras hapesach at the entrance to a lane from a public domain; b) A lechi at the intersection of the lanes
Fig. 108: The division of a dalet-shaped lane so that separate eruvin could be established. a) A tzuras hapesach at the entrance to a lane from a public domain; b) A lechi at the intersection of the lanes

8 When [the population of] a town that belonged to many people dwindled and only 50 residents remained, the entire [town] may be included in the eruv. It is not necessary to exclude a portion of the town.76

ח עִיר שֶׁל רַבִּים שֶׁנִּתְמַעֲטָה וְעָמְדָה עַל חֲמִשִּׁים דִּיּוּרִין – מְעָרְבִין כֻּלָּהּ וְאֵין צָרִיךְ שִׁיּוּר:ק,76

9 When a person gives all of the inhabitants of a city a share in a shituf, if he included all of [the residents of the town] in one shituf,77 he is not obligated to notify them78 [that he granted them a share], for doing so is to their benefit.79

The laws that apply to one who forgot and did not join in a shituf with the [other] residents of the city80 and to someone who went to spend Shabbos in another city,81 and [the course of action to follow] when a non-Jew dwells together with [Jews] in the city82 resemble [the laws] that apply [to parallel situations in] a courtyard or a lane.

ט הַמְזַכֶּה בְּשִׁתּוּף לְכָל בְּנֵי הָעִיר,קא אִם מְעָרֵב עֵרוּב אֶחָד לְכֻלָּםקב,77 – אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לָהֶם,78 שֶׁזְּכוּת הוּא לָהֶם.79

וְדִין מִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף עִם בְּנֵי הָעִיר,קג,80 אוֹ מִי שֶׁהָלַךְ לִשְׁבּוֹת בְּעִיר אַחֶרֶת,קד,81 אוֹ נָכְרִי שֶׁדָּר עִמָּהֶם בָּעִירקה,82 – דִּין הַכֹּל כְּדִינָם בְּחָצֵר וּבְמָבוֹי:קו