SECTION 391 The Laws [Pertaining to] the Nullification of One’s Rights in Favor of those Who Forgot to Join in an Eruv (1-3)

סימן שצא דִּין בִּטּוּל רְשׁוּת לְאוֹתָן שֶׁשָּׁכְחוּ לְעָרֵב וּבוֹ ג' סְעִיפִים:

1 All the principles governing the nullification [of rights] when a person forgot and did not join in an eruv in a courtyard apply equally with regard to a lane. Thus, if [the residents of] one courtyard forgot and did not join in the shituf [for their lane],1 they may nullify their rights in favor of the other residents of the lane, or the others [may nullify their rights] in favor of [the residents of the courtyard that forgot to join in the shituf]. When [the residents of the courtyard] nullify [their rights] in favor [of the residents of the lane], they are considered as guests [of the residents of the lane], even though there are many dwellings. [True, generally, we follow the principle that] many people are not considered as guests.2 Nevertheless, with regard to carrying in a lane, all of the dwellings of a courtyard are considered as one dwelling, since all [the residents] go out to the lane through one entrance, i.e., the entrance [from] the courtyard [to the lane], and it is this [shared] entrance that causes [the residents of the courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry] in the lane.3 Therefore, the courtyard is considered as one house in which many people live with regard to the prohibition against [carrying] in the lane.

For this reason, all of the principles that govern the relationship between a Jew and a non-Jew in a courtyard apply [vis-à-vis Jews and non-Jews] in a lane or in a town that is surrounded by a wall. Carrying in a lane or in a town inhabited by non-Jews is only forbidden when there are [at least] two courtyards belonging to Jews that open to [the lane or the public domain of the town], thereby causing each other’s [residents] to be forbidden [to carry].4 In such circumstances, it is necessary to rent [the rights] of the non-Jews.5 When, by contrast, there is only one courtyard belonging to Jews, even though [that courtyard] contains many houses, it is considered a single entity with regard to carrying in the town, and it is not necessary to rent [the rights] of the non-Jews.6

[The above applies] provide the town was enclosed for the purpose of habitation, as explained in sec. 363[:43. As a rule,] it can be assumed that towns were enclosed for the purpose of habitation,7 since [it is common practice] to first build the houses [of a town] and then to enclose them. In contrast, it can be assumed that a chateau (called a shlos)8 was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation.9

א כְּכָל מִשְׁפְּטֵי בִטּוּל לְמִי שֶׁשָּׁכַח וְלֹא עֵרֵב בַּחֲצֵרוֹ – כֵּן הוּא בַּמָּבוֹי. שֶׁאִם שָׁכְחָה חָצֵר אַחַת וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּתְּפָה,1 מְבַטֶּלֶת רְשׁוּתָהּ לִשְׁאָר בְּנֵי הַמָּבוֹי אוֹ הֵם לָהּ,א וּכְשֶׁהִיא מְבַטֶּלֶת לָהֶם הִיא נַעֲשֵׂית כְּאוֹרֵחַ אֶצְלָם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ דִּיּוּרִים הַרְבֵּה ב וְאֵין הָרַבִּים נַעֲשִׂים אוֹרְחִים ג,2 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם לְעִנְיַן טִלְטוּל בַּמָּבוֹי כָּל הַדִּיּוּרִים שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר נֶחְשָׁבִים כְּדִירָה אַחַת,ד כֵּיוָן שֶׁכֻּלָּם יוֹצְאִים לַמָּבוֹי בְּפֶתַח אֶחָד, דְּהַיְנוּ בְּפֶתַח הֶחָצֵר, וּבְפֶתַח זֶה הוּא שֶׁאוֹסְרִים בַּמָּבוֹי. ה,3 וְלָכֵן נַעֲשֵׂית הֶחָצֵר לְעִנְיַן לֶאֱסוֹר בַּמָּבוֹי כְּאִלּוּ הוּא בַּיִת אֶחָד שֶׁדָּרִים בּוֹ רַבִּים. ו

לְפִיכָךְ כְּכָל מִשְׁפְּטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עִם הַנָּכְרִי בֶּחָצֵר – כֵּן הוּא בַּמָּבוֹי אוֹ בְּעִיר הַמֻּקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר לְטַלְטֵל בְּמָבוֹי אוֹ בְּעִיר שֶׁל נָכְרִים עַד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל פְּתוּחוֹת לְתוֹכָן וְהֵן אוֹסְרוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ, ז,4 אֲזַי צָרִיךְ לִשְׂכּוֹר מִן הַנָּכְרִים.5 אֲבָל בְּחָצֵר אַחַת שֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל,1 אֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ בָּהּ הַרְבֵּה בָתִּים – הֵם חֲשׁוּבִים כְּיָחִיד לְעִנְיַן טִלְטוּל בָּעִיר, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׂכּוֹר מִן הַנָּכְרִים.6

וְהוּא שֶׁתְּהֵא הָעִיר מֻקֶּפֶת לְדִירָה, ח כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ג. ט וּסְתָם עֲיָרוֹת מֻקָּפוֹת לְדִירָה, י, 7 שֶׁבּוֹנִין בָּתִּים תְּחִלָּה וְאַחַר כָּךְ מַקִּיפִים אוֹתָם. אֲבָל סְתָם מִבְצָרִים יא (שֶׁקּוֹרִין שְׁלָא"ס יב)8 אֵינָן מֻקָּפִים לְדִירָה:9

2 When there are two courtyards belonging to Jews in a town, it is necessary to rent [the rights] of [the residents of] every courtyard belonging to non-Jews individually. It is not sufficient to rent the [the rights] from the ruler of the town.

When does the above apply? When the ruler does not own the houses, [but rather, the houses are owned by the individual residents,] and moreover, [the ruler] does not have the authority to make any use of the houses of the residents of the town. Even during wartime, when it is necessary to house soldiers and their weaponry in the houses of the residents of the town, this is not done [arbitrarily] by the dictate of the [town’s] ruler, but through the advice and directives of the advisors of the region. [This] is the practice in some towns, where the [local] king or ruler does not have [any] authority and power other than to collect the taxes that are [public] knowledge and to judge the [the townspeople’s] disputes. The other needs of the town are controlled solely by the region’s advisors and its leaders.

[In contrast,] in those towns whose needs are controlled and administered solely by the dictates of the king or the ruler or by the officials they appoint,10 renting [the rights to the non-Jews’ domains] from the ruler, the official he appointed, or even by his hired workers or harvest help ([who dwell] in his home) is certainly effective, since [the ruler] has the authority to house soldiers and their weaponry in the houses of the residents of the town during wartime without their consent. [Hence, the ruler’s actions are effective, for] anyone who has the right to place his articles in the house of a non-Jew or in [the non-Jew’s] courtyard, is [at least] considered as [equivalent to the non-Jew’s] hired worker or harvest help, and may [therefore] rent out [the non-Jew’s] rights without his knowledge. [Moreover,] even the hired worker or harvest help of the person who became considered as [the non-Jew’s] hired worker or harvest help, may rent out [the non-Jew’s] rights, as explained in sec. 382[:14].11

ב כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּעִיר ב' חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁל בָּתֵּי יִשְׂרָאֵל – צְרִיכִים לִשְׂכּוֹר מִכָּל חָצֵר וְחָצֵר שֶׁל נָכְרִי, וְאֵין מוֹעִיל מַה שֶּׁיִּשְׂכְּרוּ מִשַּׂר הָעִיר.יג

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּשַׂר שֶׁאֵין הַבָּתִּים שֶׁלּוֹ, וְגַם אֵין לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּבָתֵּי בְּנֵי הָעִיר כְּלָל, וַאֲפִלּוּ בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה,יד שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹשִׁיב אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה וּכְלֵי מִלְחַמְתָּם בְּבָתֵּי בְּנֵי הָעִיר, אֵינוֹ נַעֲשֶׂה עַל פִּי הַשָּׂר אֶלָּא עַל פִּי עֵצָה וְהַנְהָגַת יוֹעֲצֵי הַמְּדִינָה,טו כְּמִנְהַג קְצָת עֲיָרוֹת שֶׁאֵין לַמֶּלֶךְ וְלַשָּׂר עֲלֵיהֶם שְׂרָרָה וְשֻׁלְטָנוּת כִּי אִם לִגְבּוֹת מִסִּים יְדוּעִים וְלִשְׁפּוֹט מִשְׁפְּטֵיהֶם, אֲבָל שְׁאָר צָרְכֵי הָעִיר אֵינָם נַעֲשִׂים רַק עַל פִּי יוֹעֲצֵי הַמְּדִינָה וּמַנְהִיגֶיהָ.טז אֲבָל עֲיָרוֹת שֶׁצָּרְכֵיהֶן אֵינָם נַעֲשִׂים אֶלָּא עַל פִּי הַמֶּלֶךְ אוֹ הַשָּׂר וְהַנְהָגָתָם, אוֹ עַל פִּי הַמְּמֻנִּים שֶׁלָּהֶם,10 וַדַּאי שֶׁשְּׂכִירוּת מֵהַשָּׂר הַהוּאיז אוֹ מֵהַמְּמֻנֶּה אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ מִשְּׂכִירוֹ וּלְקִיטוֹיח (שֶׁבְּבֵיתוֹיט) מוֹעִיל, שֶׁהֲרֵי יֵשׁ לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהוֹשִׁיב אֲנָשָׁיו וּכְלֵי מִלְחַמְתָּם בְּבָתֵּי בְּנֵי הָעִיר בִּשְׁעַת מִלְחָמָה שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתָּם, כ וְכָל מִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהַנִּיחַ חֲפָצָיו בְּבֵית הַנָּכְרִי אוֹ בַּחֲצֵרוֹ – נַעֲשֶׂה כִּשְׂכִירוֹ וּלְקִיטוֹ, וְיָכוֹל לְהַשְׂכִּיר רְשׁוּתוֹ שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ שְׂכִירוֹ וּלְקִיטוֹ שֶׁל זֶה הַנַּעֲשֶׂה כִּשְׂכִירוֹ וּלְקִיטוֹ יָכוֹל לְהַשְׂכִּיר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ב:כא,11

3 When Jews dwell in one courtyard in a walled city inhabited by non-Jews,12 and other Jews pass through there and stay in another courtyard belonging to a non-Jew, [the presence of these visitors] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden in the city until after 30 days [of their residency], as explained in sec. 370[:9] regarding a guest who abides in a courtyard.

There are authorities who maintain that the visiting [Jews] are forbidden to carry from their courtyard13 to [an adjoining] lane, because the Jew[s] living in the city cause them to be forbidden [to carry] in all the lanes of the city, based on the reason explained in that source.14

When, by contrast, one Jew dwells in a courtyard where non-Jews dwell,15 another Jew who does not dwell in this courtyard is permitted to bring [articles] in and out of the courtyard to and from the houses of the non-Jews or the house of the Jew [living there.16 The presence of] the Jew who lives [in the courtyard] does not cause [the visiting Jew] to be forbidden [to carry,] since [that visiting Jew] is not dwellingin this courtyard at all on Shabbos. [Instead,] he is the other’s guest in a complete sense.

ג יִשְׂרְאֵלִים הַדָּרִים בְּחָצֵר אַחַת בְּעִיר שֶׁל נָכְרִים הַמֻּקֶּפֶת חוֹמָה,12 וְעָבְרוּ יִשְׂרְאֵלִים אֲחֵרִים דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם וְנִתְאַכְסְנוּ בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁל נָכְרִי – אֵינָם אוֹסְרִים בָּעִיר עַד לְאַחַר ל' יוֹם,כב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"עכג בְּאוֹרֵחַ שֶׁנִּתְאָרַח בֶּחָצֵר. אֶלָּא שֶׁהָאוֹרְחִים – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםכד שֶׁהֵם אֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטֵל מֵחֲצֵרָן לַמָּבוֹי,13 שֶׁיִּשְׂרָאֵל הַדָּר בְּעִיר אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶם כָּל מְבוֹאוֹת הָעִיר מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם.14

אֲבָל יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶחָד הַדָּר בְּחָצֵר שֶׁדָּרִים בָּהּ נָכְרִים15 – מֻתָּר לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִתְאַכְסֵן בְּחָצֵר זוֹ לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִבָּתֵּי הַנָּכְרִי אוֹ מִבֵּית הַיִּשְׂרָאֵל לֶחָצֵר,כה,16 וְאֵין יִשְׂרָאֵל הַדָּר שָׁם אוֹסֵר עָלָיו, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא אֵינוֹ שׁוֹבֵת כְּלָל בְּחָצֵר זוֹ וְאוֹרֵחַ גָּמוּר הוּא אֵצֶל זֶה:כו