SECTION 389 [The Laws that Apply When] a Non-Jew Has a Window that Opens to a Lane (1)

סימן שפט נָכְרִי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ חַלּוֹן פָּתוּחַ לְמָבוֹי וּבוֹ סְעִיף אֶחָד:

1 When a non-Jew living in a lane has a window1 in the back of his house that opens2 to agroup of fields3 or to a karpeif4 – even if the window only [measures] four handbreadths by four handbreadths5 – [his presence] does not cause the residents of the lane to be forbidden [to carry],6 even if he brings in and takes out camels and carriages through the lane the entire day. [The rationale is that the non-Jew] prefers the opening that is exclusively his at the back [of his house] because he has much open space there. [Hence,] it is [considered] as if [the non-Jew] does not frequently use his entrance to the lane, in which instance, his [presence] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden. The above applies when the group of fields or the karpeif is larger than beis sasayim,7 for then [it comprises a large area, providing much] more open space. If however, [the karpeif] is beis sasayim [or less], it is small and [its use] is not more comfortable for him than the lane.

[The following rules apply when] a Jew who [lives in a house that] has an entrance to a lane and an entrance to a karpeif from its back forgot and did not join in the eruv:8 If the karpeif is larger than beis sasayim,9[this person’s presence] causes the residents of the lane to be forbidden [to carry], because it is not fitting for him to use the karpeif on Shabbos, since one may only carry [an article a distance of] four cubits in it.10 If [the karpeif] was enclosed for the sake of habitation, [the person’s presence] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden even if [the karpeif] is larger than beis sasayim. {If the karpeif is beis sasayim [or less, the Jew’s presence] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden [in the lane] even if [the karpeif] was not enclosed for the sake of habitation.} [The rationale for both these leniencies is that] it is fitting for [the person] to use such a karpeif for articles that were located inside of it at the commencement of the Shabbos.11Nevertheless, articles that were located in a house at the commencement of the Shabbos are forbidden to be taken out to such enclosures, as explained in sec. 358[:4] and sec. 372[:1].

א נָכְרִי הַדָּר בְּמָבוֹי, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ חַלּוֹן1 אֲחוֹרֵי בֵיתוֹ פָּתוּחַ2 לְבִקְעָהא,3 אוֹ לְקַרְפֵּף,ב,4 אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בַּחַלּוֹן אֶלָּא ד' טְפָחִים עַל ד' טְפָחִים5 – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עַל בְּנֵי מָבוֹי,6 אֲפִלּוּ מַכְנִיס וּמוֹצִיא גְּמַלִּים וּקְרוֹנוֹת דֶּרֶךְ הַמָּבוֹי כָּל הַיּוֹם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁחָפֵץ יוֹתֵר בְּאוֹתוֹ שֶׁפָּתוּחַ לוֹ מֵאֲחוֹרָיו לְבַדּוֹ, שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אֲוִיר הַרְבֵּה שָׁם,ג וְנַעֲשֶׂה פִּתְחוֹ לְמָבוֹי כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רָגִיל בּוֹ, שֶׁאֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר.ד וְהוּא שֶׁיֵּשׁ בַּבִּקְעָה אוֹ בַּקַּרְפֵּף יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם,ה,7 שֶׁאֲוִירוֹ רַב. אֲבָל בֵּית סָאתַיִם – קָטָן הוּא, וְאֵינוֹ נוֹחַ לוֹ יוֹתֵר מֵהַמָּבוֹי.ו

וְיִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ פֶּתַח לַמָּבוֹי וּפֶתַח מֵאַחֲרָיו לַקַּרְפֵּף, וְשָׁכַח וְלֹא עֵרֵב8 – אִם הַקַּרְפֵּף יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם9 אוֹסֵר עַל בְּנֵי מָבוֹי,ז לְפִי שֶׁאֵין הַקַּרְפֵּף רָאוּי לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֵין מְטַלְטְלִין בּוֹ אֶלָּא בְּד' אַמּוֹת.10 וְאִם הֻקַּף לְדִירָה, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵרח [וְאִם הוּא בֵּית סָאתַיִם, אַף שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵרט], כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַקַּרְפֵּף רָאוּי לוֹ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּתוֹכוֹ.י,11 אֲבָל כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת – אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיאָם לְתוֹכוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"חיא וְשע"ב:יב