SECTION 387 The Requirement that the Participants in a Shituf for a Lane Establish Eruvin in Their [Respective] Courtyards (1-2)

סימן שפז שֻׁתָּפִין בְּמָבוֹי צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב בַּחֲצֵרוֹת וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 [When the residents of multiple courtyards] participate in a [common] shituf1 for a lane [they share], an eruv must be established in each courtyard that contains [at least] two houses.2 Even though [the residents of the courtyards] are already joined together and partnered [through the shituf], they should not rely on this shituf in a courtyard where an eruv was not established. [This stringency was required] so that the children in this courtyard will not forget the laws of an eruv.3 [This is necessary] because the children are unaware of what is occurring in the lane4 and they will say, “Our parents did not establish an eruv.”

However, [the residents of] courtyards that open up to each other need not join in a common eruv [in order to carry objects from a home in one courtyard to the other courtyard]; the shituf joins [the residents of the courtyards] together.5 [Articles] may be carried from one [courtyard] to the other via the lane or via the entrances [between the courtyards].

If the shituf for a lane was established with bread, it may be relied on for the courtyards and there is no need for each courtyard to establish an individual eruv. [The rationale is that] the children will be aware of the bread used for the shituf for the lane. Since bread is [the mainstay of] man’s vitality, [the children’s] eyes focus on it [and thus they will be aware that it is being used for the shituf].

This is why it is presently not customary to establish eruvei chatzeiros in courtyards that have many houses, for [the residents] rely on the shituf that is [held] in the synagogue that is made with bread,6 for it is also effective for the courtyards when [the residents of the courtyards] are permitted to carry from [the courtyards] to the synagogue.7 It has therefore become customary to hang [the bread used for the shituf] in the synagogue, so that [the establishment of the shituf] will be publicized to the children.

א הַמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִים בְּמָבוֹי צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב בַּחֲצֵרוֹתא,1 בְּכָל חָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ ב' בָּתִּים.ב,2 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵם מְעֹרָבִים וּמְשֻׁתָּפִים כְּבָר, אֵין סוֹמְכִין עַל שִׁתּוּף זֶה בְּחָצֵר שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ בָּהּ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִשְׁכְּחוּ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת שֶׁבְּחָצֵר זוֹ תּוֹרַת עֵרוּב,ג,3 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין הַתִּינוֹקוֹת מַכִּירִים מַה נַּעֲשֶׂה בְּמָבוֹי,ד,4 וְיֹאמְרוּ "אֲבוֹתֵינוּ לֹא עֵרְבוּ".ה,3

אֲבָל חֲצֵרוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹ אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב זוֹ עִם זוֹ, שֶׁשִּׁתּוּף הַמָּבוֹי מְחַבְּרָן.5 וּמְטַלְטְלִין מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ בֵּין דֶּרֶךְ הַמָּבוֹי בֵּין דֶּרֶךְ פִּתְחֵיהֶם.ו

וְאִם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בְּמָבוֹי בְּפַת – סוֹמְכִים עָלָיו בַּחֲצֵרוֹת, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב כָּל חָצֵר לְעַצְמָהּ,ז לְפִי שֶׁהַתִּינוֹקוֹת מַכִּירִים בְּפַתח שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בָּהּ בְּמָבוֹי, שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהַפַּת הִיא חַיֵּי הָאָדָם, עֵינֵיהֶם תְּלוּיוֹת בָּהּ.ט

וְלָכֵן אֵין נוֹהֲגִין עַכְשָׁו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת בְּשׁוּם חָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ בָּתִּים הַרְבֵּה, לְפִי שֶׁסּוֹמְכִין עַל הַשִּׁתּוּף שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת הַנַּעֲשֶׂה מִפַּת,6 שֶׁמּוֹעִיל גַּם לַחֲצֵרוֹתי אִם מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מֵהֶן לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.יא,7 וְלָכֵן נוֹהֲגִין לִתְלוֹתוֹ בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,יב כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא מְפֻרְסָם לַתִּינוֹקוֹת:יג

2 [The following leniency is granted when the residents of] all of the courtyards in a lane established individual eruvin, and then all joined in a shituf for the lane with wine or another type of food, but not with bread. If one of the residents of [one of the] courtyards forgot and did not join in the eruv in his courtyard, he does not forfeit any right8 because all [the residents] joined together in a shituf for the lane, and they rely on the shituf. It was only necessary to establish an eruv for the courtyard together with the shituf [for the lane] so that the children will not forget [the laws of eruvin. In this instance,] an eruv was established (in the courtyards. Even in this courtyard, an eruv was established) (by the majority of the residents of the courtyard. [The fact that] a small number [of the residents] did not join in the eruv [will not cause the children] to forget the laws of eruvin.)

If all [the residents] forgot to establish eruvin in the courtyards, [leniency may be granted] if [the residents] are not particular about [eating only] the food they each possess at home,9 i.e., if they will [feel comfortable about] eating (the required amount for an eruv, the food for two meals) from another [resident’s food], they are considered as joined together.10 [However, the residents of the courtyards] may rely on the shituf for the lane solely on the first Shabbos. This leniency is granted only because of the pressing nature of the situation.11

ב מָבוֹי שֶׁעֵרְבוּ כָּל חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁבּוֹ כָּל חָצֵר לְעַצְמָהּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ כֻלָּן בַּמָּבוֹי בְּיַיִן אוֹ מִין אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ פַּת, וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר וְלֹא עֵרֵב עִם בְּנֵי חֲצֵרוֹ – לֹא הִפְסִיד כְּלוּם,יד,8 שֶׁהֲרֵי כֻּלָּם נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בַּמָּבוֹי, וְעַל הַשִּׁתּוּף סוֹמְכִין. וְלֹא הִצְרִיכוּ לְעָרֵב בֶּחָצֵר עִם הַשִּׁתּוּף אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לְשַׁכֵּחַ הַתִּינוֹקוֹת, וַהֲרֵי עֵרְבוּטו (בַּחֲצֵרוֹת,טז וְגַם בְּחָצֵר זוֹ עֵרְבוּ) (רֹב בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר,יז וּמִפְּנֵי הַמִּעוּט שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ לֹא תִשְׁתַּכַּח תּוֹרַת עֵרוּב).

וְאִם שָׁכְחוּ כֻלָּם מִלְּעָרֵב בַּחֲצֵרוֹת, אִם אֵין מַקְפִּידִין עַל פְּרוּסָתָןיח שֶׁבְּבָתֵּיהֶםיט אִם זֶה יֹאכַל מִשֶּׁל זֶה9 (כְּשִׁעוּר ב' סְעֻדּוֹת שֶׁל עֵרוּב) – הֲרֵי הֵן כִּמְעֹרָבִין,10 וְסוֹמְכִין עַל הַשִּׁתּוּף שֶׁבַּמָּבוֹי בְּשַׁבָּת רִאשׁוֹנָה בִּלְבָד. וְאֵין מַתִּירִין לָהֶם דָּבָר זֶה אֶלָּא מִדֹּחַק:11