SECTION 386 The Laws [Pertaining to the Establishment of] a Shared Eruv [for the Residents of a Lane] (1-9)

סימן שפו דִּינֵי שִׁתּוּף בְּעֵרוּב וּבוֹ ט' סְעִיפִים:

1 A lane that was modified with a lechi – and needless to say, with a tzuras hapesach – is a private domain in a complete sense according to Scriptural Law.1 [Moreover,] even when [the lane] was modified [only] with a beam, which is not considered a partition, and only serves as a distinguishing factor,2 [it is still considered a private domain]. Thus, when the lane opens up to the public domain, it is not a private domain according to Scriptural Law,3 as stated in sec. 345[:6]. Nevertheless, according to Scriptural Law, [the lane] is a makom p’tur. [Thus, according to Scriptural Law,] it is permitted to take out [articles] from [such a lane] into courtyards and [to bring articles] from courtyards into [such a lane], even though [the courtyards] are private domains in a complete sense. It is only that the Sages forbade taking out [articles] from a lane into [a courtyard] and [bringing articles] from courtyards into [a lane], because courtyards are the exclusive property of their owners, while lanes are the common property [of many people], and thus resemble a public domain to a certain degree.4 [Our Sages feared that] if [people would be allowed] to take [articles] out from their courtyards to a lane, they would say that it is [also] permitted to take out [articles] from a private domain to a public domain.5

Nevertheless, [our Sages] permitted [the transfer of articles between a courtyard and a lane] via a shituf,6i.e., bread or another type of food or drink7 is collected from [the residents of] each of the courtyards and is placed in one of the courtyards. [As a result,] it is considered as if the entire lane is open to that courtyard alone, for all the courtyards [that open to] the lane are joined as one8 because of this shituf.

[In one aspect,] this shituf does not resemble in an eruv, for [an eruv] may only [be established] with bread,9 [the rationale being] that an eruv for a courtyard [highlights the dimension of] a dwelling,10 that the dwellings [of all the participants] are joined together as one. A person’s dwelling is solely defined [in terms of] the place where his bread is [found].11 In contrast, a shituf for a lane is intended to join the courtyards together and not the houses, and a courtyard is not a home where one dwells.12

For this [same] reason, it is not necessary to place [the food used for the] shituf in a house fit to serve as a dwelling,13 as is necessary for an eruv for courtyards.14 Instead, one may even place [the shituf] in a structure that is less than four cubits by four cubits [in area],15 a gatehouse,16 an exedra,17 a porch, or even in a protected area in the open space of the courtyard,18 for its purpose is merely to join together the courtyards. [The shituf] may not, however, be placed in the open space of the lane, because that is not a protected place. The same laws apply to any other unprotected place.

א מָבוֹי הַמְּתֻקָּן בְּלֶחִי, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר בְּצוּרַת פֶּתַח – רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה הִיא מִן הַתּוֹרָה,א,1 וַאֲפִלּוּ הַמְּתֻקָּן בְּקוֹרָה, שֶׁאֵינָהּ כִּמְחִצָּה אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם הֶכֵּר בְּעָלְמָא.ב,2 וּכְשֶׁהַמָּבוֹי פָּתוּחַ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד מִן הַתּוֹרָה,ג,3 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה,ד,2 מִכָּל מָקוֹם מִן הַתּוֹרָה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מְקוֹם פְּטוּר,ה וּמֻתָּר לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִמֶּנּוּ לַחֲצֵרוֹת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֵן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה.ו אֶלָּא שֶׁחֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְהוֹצִיא וּלְהַכְנִיס מִמֶּנּוּ לַחֲצֵרוֹת,ז מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַחֲצֵרוֹת הֵן מְיֻחָדוֹת כָּל אַחַת לִבְעָלֶיהָ וְהַמָּבוֹי מְשֻׁתָּף לְכֻלָּם, וְדוֹמֶה קְצָת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,ח,4 וְאִם יוֹצִיאוּ מֵחֲצֵרוֹת לְמָבוֹי – יֹאמְרוּ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.ט,5 אֲבָל הִתִּירוּ עַל יְדֵי שִׁתּוּף,6 שֶׁגּוֹבִין פַּתי אוֹ דָּבָר אַחֵר מִמִּינֵי מַאֲכָל אוֹ מַשְׁקֶהיא,7 מִכָּל חָצֵר וְחָצֵר, וְנוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ בְּאַחַת מֵהַחֲצֵרוֹת, וְאָנוּ רוֹאִים כְּאִלּוּ פָּתוּחַ כָּל הַמָּבוֹי לְאוֹתָהּ חָצֵר בִּלְבַדָּהּ,יב שֶׁכָּל הַחֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁבַּמָּבוֹי נַעֲשׂוּ כְּאַחַת8 עַל יְדֵי שִׁתּוּף זֶה.יג

וְאֵין שִׁתּוּף זֶה דּוֹמֶה לְעֵרוּב שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא בְּפַת בִּלְבָד,יד,9 לְפִי שֶׁעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת הוּא מִשּׁוּם דִּירָה,10 לְעָרֵב דִּירָתָם לַעֲשׂוֹתָן כְּאַחַת,טו וְדִירָתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם אֵינָהּ נִמְשֶׁכֶת אֶלָּא אַחַר מְקוֹם פִּתּוֹ.טז,11 אֲבָל שִׁתּוּף שֶׁבַּמָּבוֹי אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְשַׁתֵּף הַחֲצֵרוֹת וְלֹא הַבָּתִּים, וְחָצֵר לָאו בֵּית דִּירָה הִיא.יז,12 לְפִיכָךְ אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחַ הַשִּׁתּוּף בְּבַיִת הָרָאוּי לְדִירָהיח,13 כְּמוֹ עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת,יט,14 אֶלָּא יְכוֹלִים לְהַנִּיחוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּבַיִת שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת עַל ד' אַמּוֹת,כ,15 אוֹ בְּבֵית שַׁעַר16 אַכְסַדְרָה17 וּמִרְפֶּסֶת,כא,13 אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בַּאֲוִיר הֶחָצֵרכב בְּמָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר,18 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא לְשִׁתּוּף הַחֲצֵרוֹת. אֲבָל אֵין מַנִּיחִים אוֹתוֹ בַּאֲוִיר מָבוֹי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר,כג,13 וְהוּא הַדִּין בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּמֵּר:

2 [The food for] the shituf must be placed in a courtyard [that opens to] the lane [which the shituf serves] but not in [a courtyard that opens to] another lane [whose residents] did not join in this [shituf].19 For this reason, when there are Jews living in two or three distinct places that are distant from each other – and a place where it is forbidden to carry, either because it was not modified with a lechi, a beam, or a tzuras hapesach, or because non-Jews live [in that area] and their rights were not rented from them,20 intervenes between [these areas – even though] the synagogue attendant collected flour from [the residents of] all [those places], made [bread to serve as] an eruv,21 and deposited [the loaf] in one of these places, [the eruv] is not effective. Instead, it is necessary to establish an eruv for each place individually. ([The rule that applies] when [the residents of] one of these areas established an eruv and [the residents of] another [one of these areas] did not [establish an eruv]will be explained in sec. 392[:5].) [Separate eruvin are required because] it is impossible for [the residents of these lanes] to establish a shituf together, since they are forbidden to carry from one [area] to another. As such, it is impossible for [the residents of one] location [to join] in a shituf when [the food for] the shituf is deposited in another place that is not [included in the shituf] with them.22

ב הַשִּׁתּוּף צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת מֻנָּח בְּחָצֵר שֶׁבְּמָבוֹי זֶה, אֲבָל לֹא שֶׁבְּמָבוֹי אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף עִם זֶה.כד,19 לְפִיכָךְ יִשְׂרְאֵלִים שֶׁדָּרִים בְּב' וְג' מְקוֹמוֹת חֲלוּקִים וּרְחוֹקִים זֶה מִזֶּה,כה שֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶם מָקוֹם הָאָסוּר בְּטִלְטוּלכו מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְתֻקָּן בְּלֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה אוֹ צוּרַת פֶּתַח, אוֹ מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדָּרִים שָׁם נָכְרִים וְלֹא שָׂכְרוּ מֵהֶם רְשׁוּתָם,כז,20 וְהַשַּׁמָּשׁ גּוֹבֶה קֶמַח מִכֻּלָּם וְעוֹשֶׂה מִמֶּנּוּ עֵרוּב אֶחָד,21 וְנוֹתְנוֹ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד מֵהֶם – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לָהֶם, אֶלָּא צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב בְּכָל מָקוֹם וּמָקוֹם בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹכח (וְאִם עֵרְבוּ בְּמָקוֹם אֶחָד, וּבְמָקוֹם אֶחָד לֹא עֵרְבוּ – יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"בכט), שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף יַחַד, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטֵל מִזֶּה לְזֶה,ל וְאִם כֵּן אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשַׁתֵּף מָקוֹם זֶה וְשֶׁיְּהֵא הַשִּׁתּוּף מֻנָּח בְּמָקוֹם אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְשֻׁתָּף עִמּוֹ:22

3 All of the laws that apply with regard to eruvin for courtyards also apply to a shituf:23[This includes:] the amount [of food] required,24 that a person’s wife may join in the eruv on his behalf,25 that a person’s participation in an eruv may be secured without his consent if his house only opens to one courtyard, that a minor may collect [the food for] the eruv,26 that one [of the residents] may acquire [a share in the eruv] on behalf of all [the participants],27 and that if [the residents of the lane] jointly own bread [as part of a business partnership], it is not necessary for them to establish an eruv.28

Even if [a person] was involved in a partnership agreement together with his neighbors regarding [food] that is designated to be sold – this one owns wine29 and this one, oil – it is not necessary for them to establish a shituf.30[This applies] provided the oil and the wine are stored in one container, like [the bread for] an eruv for a courtyard that must be [stored] in one container.31

ג כְּכָל מִשְׁפְּטֵי עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וְשִׁעוּרוֹ,לא,24 וְשֶׁאִשְׁתּוֹ מְעָרֶבֶת בִּשְׁבִילוֹ,לב,25 וְשֶׁמְּעָרְבִין שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת אִם אֵין הַבַּיִת פָּתוּחַ אֶלָּא לְחָצֵר א',לג,25 וְשֶׁקָּטָן יָכוֹל לִגְבּוֹת אֶת הָעֵרוּב,לד,26 וְשֶׁיָּכוֹל אֶחָד לִזְכּוֹת לְכֻלָּם,לה,27 וְשֶׁאִם הָיוּ שֻׁתָּפִים בַּפַּת אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵבלו,28 – כָּךְ דִּינֵי שִׁתּוּף.לז

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הָיָה מְשֻׁתָּף עִם שְׁכֵנָיו בִּסְחוֹרָה, לְזֶה בְּיַיִן29 וּלְזֶה בְּשֶׁמֶן – אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְהִשְׁתַּתֵּף,לח,30 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ הַשֶּׁמֶן וְהַיַּיִן בִּכְלִי אֶחָד,לט,30 כְּמוֹ שֶׁעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בִּכְלִי אֶחָד:מ,31

4 All types of food may be used for a shituf.32 Even four or five types of food may be combined to reach the amount of the food necessary for two meals,33 which is the amount [of food] initially required for a shituf – even for [a shituf that is joining] a thousand people – as explained with regard to an eruv for a courtyard.

One may establish an eruv34 with any type of food with the exception of: clover35 which is equated with seeds, spices,36 dried beans,37 onion leaves that have not grown to the length of a zeres,38 mushrooms and truffles,39 unripened dates,40 fresh lentils, fresh wheat and barley, and [also] not with inadequately cooked vegetables. [The rationale is that none] of these [substances] are fit to be eaten. Raw vegetables may, however, be used for a shituf, as will be explained.41 This ruling also applies to the heads of our turnips that are also eaten raw. They are no worse than raw meat which may be used for a shituf, as will be explained.42

ד מִשְׁתַּתְּפִים בְּכָל מִינֵי מַאֲכָל,מא,32 וַאֲפִלּוּ ד' וְה' מִינֵי מַאֲכָל מִצְטָרְפִיןמב לִמְזוֹן ב' סְעֻדּוֹת,33 שֶׁהוּא שִׁעוּר הַשִּׁתּוּף בִּתְחִלָּתוֹ אֲפִלּוּ לְאֶלֶף בְּנֵי אָדָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת.מג,24

בְּכָל מִינֵי מַאֲכָל מְעָרְבִין,34 חוּץ מִגֻּדְגְּדָנִיּוֹת35 שֶׁהֻקְשׁוּ לְזֶרַעמד וּתְבָלִיןמה,36 וּפוֹלִין יְבֵשִׁים,מו,37 וְלֹא בַּעֲלֵי הַבְּצָלִים שֶׁלֹּא גָדְלוּ אֹרֶךְ הַזֶּרֶת,מז,38 וְלֹא בִּכְמֵהִין וּפִטְרִיּוֹתמח,39 וְלֹא בְּכַפְנִיּוֹתמט,40 וְלֹא בַּעֲדָשִׁיםנ חַיִּיןנא וְלֹא בְּחִטִּים וּשְׂעוֹרִים חַיִּיןנב,36 וְלֹא בְּיָרָקנג שֶׁהוּא בָּשִׁיל וְלֹא בָשִׁיל,נד,36 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל אֵלּוּ אֵינָן רְאוּיִים לַאֲכִילָה.נה אֲבָל בְּיָרָק חַי מִשְׁתַּתְּפִיםנו,36 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,נז,41 וְהוּא הַדִּין לְפָתוֹת שֶׁלָּנוּ שֶׁנֶּאֱכָלִין גַּם כֵּן חַיִּין, וְאֵינָם גְּרוּעִים מִבָּשָׂר חַי שֶׁמִּשְׁתַּתְּפִים בּוֹנח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:נט,42

5 All types of beverages may be used for a shituf,43with the exception of water [that is drunk] alone44 and salt [served] alone,45 because they do not nourish the body at all.46 If, however, one mixed water and salt together it is considered a type of food, i.e., [it serves as] a dip for bread. Thus, it may be used for a shituf.

ה בְּכָל מִינֵי מַשְׁקִים מִשְׁתַּתְּפִים,ס,43 חוּץ מִן הַמַּיִם לְבַדָּם44 וְכֵן מֶלַח לְבַדּוֹ,סא,45 לְפִי שֶׁאֵינָן זָנִין הַגּוּף כְּלָל,סב,46 אֲבָל אִם עֵרֵב מַיִם וּמֶלַח בְּיַחַד – מָזוֹן הוּאסג,39 לְטַבֵּ(ו)ל בּוֹסד פִּתּוֹ, וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִים בָּהֶם:

6 The required measure for any food that is usually [eaten] as an accompaniment for bread is the amount sufficient to accompany the amount of bread that would be eaten in two meals,47 i.e., six egg-sized portions [of bread],48 as explained in sec. 368[:3]. The required measure for any food that is not eaten as accompaniment to bread is enough to eat two meals of that food itself.

Raw meat is not fit to serve as an accompaniment for bread, and it is necessary for there to be enough [raw meat] to eat two meals of it [when using it to make a shituf. Raw meat is acceptable to be used to make a shituf] only when it has been salted.49 The same law applies with regard to salted fish.50 In contrast, roasted meat51 is considered as an accompaniment [for bread. Thus,] the required measure [of these foods] is an amount sufficient to accompany [the bread eaten at] two meals.52 Even if there are some people who eat [roasted meat] without bread, their feelings are of no consequence in relation to those of people at large, [who only eat roasted meat as an accompaniment to bread].

The required measure for vinegar is [enough] to flavor [a serving of] vegetables [which serves as] food for two meals, if [the person] would eat [the] vegetable without bread.

Boiled wine is used as dessert (and not as a dip [for bread]). Therefore, its required measure is the amount served as dessert for two meals. Similar principles apply in all analogous situations.

The required measure for undiluted wine is two reviyos,53 to drink a reviis at each meal.54 The same [rule] applies to all other beverages.

ו כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁרְגִילִים לְלַפֵּת בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת, שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְלַפֵּת בּוֹ פַּתסה הַנֶּאֱכָל לְב' סְעֻדּוֹת,סו,47 שֶׁהֵן כְּשִׁשָּׁה בֵיצִים,48 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ח.סז וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין מְלַפְּתִין בּוֹ אֶת הַפַּת, שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּעַצְמוֹ ב' סְעֻדּוֹת.

וּבָשָׂר חַי אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְלִפְתָּן, וְצָרִיךְ כְּדֵי לֶאֱכוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ ב' סְעֻדּוֹת.סח וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא מָלִיחַ,49 וְהוּא הַדִּין לְדָג מָלִיחַ.סט,50 אֲבָל בָּשָׂר צָלִי51 – לִפְתָּן הוּא, וְשִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְלַפֵּת בּוֹ ב' סְעֻדּוֹת.ע,52 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ כַּמָּה בְּנֵי אָדָם שֶׁאוֹכְלִים בְּלֹא פַת – בָּטְלָה דַעְתָּם אֵצֶל כָּל אָדָם.עא

וְחֹמֶץ – שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי לְטַבֵּל בּוֹ יָרָקעב,36 מְזוֹן ב' סְעֻדּוֹת, אִם הָיָה אוֹכֵל הַיָּרָק לְבַדּוֹ בְּלֹא פַת.עג

וְיַיִן מְבֻשָּׁל – לְקִנּוּחַ סְעֻדָּה הוּא בָאעד,36 (וְלֹא לְטַבֵּלעה), לְפִיכָךְ שִׁעוּרוֹ כְּדֵי שֶׁמְּבִיאִים מִמֶּנּוּ לְקִנּוּחַ ב' סְעֻדּוֹת. וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.עו,52

וְיַיִן חַי – שִׁעוּרוֹ ב' רְבִיעִיּוֹת,עז,53 לִשְׁתּוֹת רְבִיעִית בְּכָל סְעֻדָּה,עח,54 וְכֵן שִׁעוּר שְׁאָר כָּל הַמַּשְׁקִים:עט,52

7 Two eggs – even when raw – may be used as a shituf. [This also applies to] two pomegranates, five peaches, (ten nuts, one esrog,) a litra55 of vegetables, whether they are fresh or cooked,56 a full handful of fresh57 beans, and a full kab58of wild apples59(this measure also applies with regard to apples grown in orchards), and similarly, a full kab of dates or dried figs.60 [For] fresh figs, the weight of a maneh61 (which is equivalent to a litra) [is also acceptable].

ז מִשְׁתַּתְּפִים בִּשְׁנֵי בֵיצִים,פ אֲפִלּוּ חַיִּין,פא,46 בִּשְׁנֵי רִמּוֹנִים, בַּחֲמִשָּׁה אֲפַרְסְקִיןפב,36 (בַּעֲשָׂרָה אֱגוֹזִים וְאֶתְרוֹג אֶחָדפג),36 בְּלִטְרָא55 יָרָקפד,36 בֵּין חַי בֵּין מְבֻשָּׁל,פה,56 בְּפוֹלִין40 לַחִיםפו,57 מְלֹא הַיָּד,פז בְּתַפּוּחֵי יַעַרפח,59 מְלֹא הַקַּבפט,58 (וְהוּא הַדִּין לְתַפּוּחֵי פַרְדֵּסצ), וְכֵן תְּמָרִיםצא,52 אוֹ גְרוֹגָרוֹתצב מְלֹא הַקַּב וּדְבֵלָה מִשְׁקַל מָנֶהצג,61 (וְהוּא לִטְרָאצד):52

8 Even food that is not fit for [the individual who sets it aside] may be used for a shituf, if it is fit for another Jewish person. For example, a nazirite62 [may set aside] wine, and in the era when [terumah]was eaten by kohanim, an Israelite63 [could have set aside] terumah.64In the present era, however, [ritually] pure terumah is not fit for any person [to eat], for we are all ritually impure65 due to contact with a human corpse66 and we do not have the ashes of the [red] heifer [with which to purify ourselves].67

Similarly, a person who takes a vow or an oath not to partake of a [particular] food may use [that food] for a shituf, since it is fit for another Jew. Even if [the person] took a [more inclusive] vow or oath, not to [derive any ordinary] benefit from [the food], the benefit he derives from using it for a shituf is not forbidden to him,68 because [in his oath, the person] intended only that he would not benefit from [the food] in the ordinary manner in which benefit is derived.

There are authorities69 who maintain that [one] who takes a vow [forbidding] food – even if he only vows not to eat it, but [does not vow] not to derive benefit from [the food] – may not use [that food] for a shituf. [The rationale is that a person] who takes such a vow causes the entity to be forbidden to him by saying “this type of food is considered as konam upon me.” It is as if [the person is saying that] the food should be forbidden to him [the same way] a sacrifice [is forbidden to him].70 Therefore, [food forbidden by such a vow] could be mistaken for [food that is] consecrated, since a consecrated article is also forbidden to a person. [Accordingly, there are grounds to rule that food forbidden by a vow may not be used for a shituf, for] all authorities agree that [food that is] consecrated may not be used for a shituf since it is not fit for anyone [to partake of]. One should be stringent [and follow] the words of these [authorities].

If [on Friday] one says, “Today this loaf is ordinary [bread], but tomorrow it is consecrated” or, “…is konam [for me],” it may be used for a shituf.71[The rationale is] that [during] bein hashmashos, [the bread] does not unquestionably become consecrated,72 [because there is a doubt regarding the status of that time period. Therefore,] with regard to the provisions of eruv and shituf, it is considered as if the consecration has yet to take effect. True, it is forbidden to partake of the bread bein hashmashos,73 which is the time an eruv or a shituf takes effect.74 Nevertheless, since the food was fit to be eaten while it was still day, and even [during] bein hashmashos it has not yet indisputably become consecrated, [the food] may be used for an eruv.

If, however, [on Friday] one says, “Today [this loaf] is consecrated, but tomorrow it shall be ordinary, for its holiness will be transferred to the coins I possess,” [the loaf] may not be used for an eruv or a shituf. [The rationale is that] because of the doubt [regarding the status of the time], the holiness [of the food] is not considered to have departed [from it] and hence, it is not fit [to be eaten] until nightfall.75

ח מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֹכֶל שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לוֹ, אִם רָאוּי לְשׁוּם אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל, כְּגוֹן לְנָזִיר62 בְּיַיִן וּלְיִשְׂרָאֵל בִּתְרוּמָהצה,64 בִּזְמַן שֶׁהָיְתָה נֶאֱכֶלֶת לַכֹּהֲנִים.63 אֲבָל עַכְשָׁו אֵין תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה רְאוּיָה לְשׁוּם אָדָם, שֶׁכֻּלָּנוּ טְמֵאֵי65 מֵתִים,צו,66 שֶׁאֵין לָנוּ אֵפֶר פָּרָה.צז,67

וְכֵן הַנּוֹדֵר מֵאֹכֶל אוֹ נִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֹאכְלֶנּוּ מִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁרָאוּי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר. וַאֲפִלּוּ נָדַר וְנִשְׁבַּע שֶׁלֹּא יֵהָנֶה מִמֶּנּוּ לֹא נֶאֱסַר בּוֹ בַּהֲנָאָה זוֹ מַה שֶּׁמִּשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ,צח,68 לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא נִתְכַּוֵּן אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא לֵהָנוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ בְּדֶרֶךְ הֲנָאָתוֹ.צט וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםק,69 שֶׁהַנּוֹדֵר מֵאֹכֶל, אֲפִלּוּ לֹא נָדַר אֶלָּא מֵאֲכִילָתוֹ וְלֹא מֵהֲנָאָתוֹ – אֵינוֹ מִשְׁתַּתֵּף בּוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁהַנּוֹדֵר הוּא שֶׁאוֹסֵר אֶת הַחֵפֶץ עָלָיו, שֶׁאוֹמֵר "קוֹנָם אֹכֶל פְּלוֹנִי עָלַי", דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁאוֹתוֹ אֹכֶל יְהֵא נֶאֱסָר עָלָיו כְּקָרְבָּן,70 וּמִתְחַלֵּף הוּא בְּהֶקְדֵּשׁ, שֶׁהַהֶקְדֵּשׁ הוּא גַם כֵּן שֶׁהַחֵפֶץ מִתְקַדֵּשׁ וְנֶאֱסָר עַל הָאָדָם; וּבְהֶקְדֵּשׁ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל אֵין מִשְׁתַּתְּפִים,קא,68 לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְשׁוּם אָדָם.קב וְיֵשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר כְּדִבְרֵיהֶם.קג

אָמַר "כִּכָּר זוֹ הַיּוֹם חֹל, וּלְמָחָר תְּהֵא קֹדֶשׁ" אוֹ "קוֹנָם" – מִשְׁתַּתֵּף בָּהּ,קד,71 שֶׁבֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת עֲדַיִן לֹא נִתְקַדְּשָׁה וַדַּאי,72 וּמִסָּפֵק לֹא חָל עָלֶיהָ קְדֻשָּׁהקה לְעִנְיַן עֵרוּב וְשִׁתּוּף. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְאָכְלָהּ בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,קו,73 שֶׁהִיא שְׁעַת קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב וְהַשִּׁתּוּף,קז,74 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁרְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְגַם בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת לֹא חָל עָלֶיהָ קְדֻשָּׁה וַדָּאִיתקח עֲדַיִן, מְעָרְבִין לוֹ בָּהּ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר "הַיּוֹם קֹדֶשׁ וּלְמָחָר חֹל, שֶׁתְּהֵא מְחֻלֶּלֶת עַל מָעוֹת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לִי"קט – אֵין מְעָרְבִין וּמִשְׁתַּתְּפִים בָּהּ, שֶׁמִּסָּפֵק לֹא נִפְקְעָה קְדֻשָּׁה,קי וַהֲרֵי אֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה עַד שֶׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ:75

9 When a courtyard opens to two lanes and its [residents] joined in the shituf with [the residents of] both [lanes, the inhabitants of the courtyard] may carry [articles] from their homes to both [lanes],76 provided articles that were located in one of the houses of one of the lanes at the commencement of the Shabbos are not taken into the other lane77 via this courtyard. [This would be forbidden] because [the residents of] the [two] lanes did not join in a common shituf.78 If [the residents of] both lanes deposited [the food for] their shituf in one container79 in this courtyard, [the domains] are all joined in a common shituf, as stated in sec. 378[:1]. Thus, [the residents] may carry from one lane to the other [via the courtyard].80

[The following laws apply] if [the residents of the courtyard in question] did not join in a shituf with [the residents of] either of [the lanes]: If [the residents of the courtyard] are accustomed to going in and out through both of [these lanes] during the week, they cause [carrying] to be forbidden in both of [the lanes]. If [the residents of the courtyard] are accustomed to going in and out through [only] one [of the lanes during the week], but not through the other, they [only] cause [carrying] to be forbidden in the [lane] they are accustomed to [pass through], but not in the one they are not accustomed to [pass through], even though [at times] they pass through [that lane] on Shabbos.81

If [the residents of the courtyard] joined in a shituf with [the residents of] the one [lane] they are not accustomed to [pass through, the residents of] the [lane that the residents of the courtyard] are accustomed to [pass through] are permitted [to carry in their lane] if they established a shituf among themselves. [The rationale is that] since [the residents of] this courtyard established a shituf with the [residents of] the other lane, they removed their [connection] with [the lane] that they are accustomed to [pass through] and they do not [cause carrying to be forbidden in that lane].82

Needless to say, if [the residents of the courtyard] are accustomed to [passing through] both of [the lanes], and they joined in a shituf with only one of [the lanes, the residents of] the other [lane] are permitted [to carry in their lane] if they joined in a shituf together.

If [the residents of] the lane [that the residents of the courtyard] are accustomed to [pass through] established a shituf together and [the residents of the lane that the residents of the courtyard] are not accustomed to [pass through] did not establish a shituf together, and [the residents of the courtyard] did not join in a shituf with either of them, [the residents of the courtyard] are relegated to the lane which they are not accustomed to [pass through], who did not establish a shituf. [The residents of the courtyard] should distance themselves from [the lane] they are accustomed [to pass through], whose [residents] established a shituf, and not pass through it on Shabbos, so that [the residents of that lane] would be permitted [to carry] in [their lane. The residents of the courtyard who did not join in the shituf] do not lose anything by doing so, for they did not join in the shituf and are forbidden to use [that lane for anything but passage. By contrast,] others [– i.e., the residents of the lane who established the shituf –] will benefit, for by [avoiding the lane, the residents of the courtyard enable the residents of that lane to] be permitted to use [their] lane. [The residents of the courtyard] are compelled [to act in this manner, so as not to follow] “the attributes of Sodom,”83 and [should therefore] pass through the lane [whose residents] did not establish a shituf,even though they are not accustomed to passing through [that lane]. Needless to say, if [the residents of the courtyard] are accustomed to passing through [the other lane] as well, on Shabbos, they should not pass through [the lane whose residents] established a shituf and thus cause them to be forbidden [to carry].

[Our Sages’] statement84 that merely passing through [a domain] without making use of it does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden applies only with regard to two courtyards, one located behind the other. [In that instance,] merely by passing through [the outer courtyard, the residents of] the inner [courtyard] do not cause [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry. The rationale is that] the primary purpose of the outer [courtyard] is for the use of its own residents.85 A lane, by contrast, is used equally by [the residents of] all the courtyards who are accustomed [to pass] through it. Hence, they all cause each other to be forbidden [to carry in the lane] although they merely pass through it on Shabbos. [This principle applies] even though [the residents of a given courtyard] have withdrawn from using [the lane other than to pass through it], since they are forbidden to do so because they did not join a common eruv.86

When, by contrast, [the residents of] a courtyard withdrew from using a lane and [moreover, demonstrated their withdrawal by] performing an act that makes their withdrawal apparent, [e.g.,] they built a ledge [at least] four handbreadths high in front of the entrance [to the lane,87 the residents of the courtyard] no longer cause the residents of the lane to be forbidden [to carry], even though they pass through [the lane] on Shabbos. [This leniency applies] even if [the residents of this courtyard] do not have an entrance to another lane through which to pass to the public domain.88

ט חָצֵר הַפְּתוּחָה לְב' מְבוֹאוֹת, וְשִׁתְּפָה עִם שְׁנֵיהֶם – מֻתֶּרֶת בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם, לְטַלְטֵל מִבָּתֶּיהָ לְכָל אַחַת מֵהֶם,קיא,76 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא תְטַלְטֵל כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּאֶחָד מִבָּתֵּיקיב מָבוֹי זֶה לְמָבוֹי הַב'77 דֶּרֶךְ חֲצֵרָהּ, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַמְּבוֹאוֹת לֹא שִׁתְּפוּ יַחַד.78 וְאִם נָתְנוּ ב' הַמְּבוֹאוֹת שִׁתּוּפָם בְּחָצֵר זוֹ בִּכְלִי אֶחָדקיג,79 – הֲרֵי כֻּלָּם מְשֻׁתָּפִים יַחַד,קיד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ח,קטו וּמֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִזֶּה לְזֶה.80

וְאִם לֹא שִׁתְּפָה עִם שׁוּם אַחַת מֵהֶם, אִם הִיא רְגִילָה בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם לָצֵאת וְלָבֹא בְּחֹל דֶּרֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם – אוֹסֶרֶת עַל שְׁנֵיהֶם. וְאִם רְגִילָה בְּאַחַת וּבַשֵּׁנִי אֵינָהּ רְגִילָה, זֶה שֶׁרְגִילָה בּוֹ – אוֹסֶרֶת, וְזֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְגִילָה בּוֹ – אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹבֶרֶת עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת.קטז,81

וְאִם שִׁתְּפָה עִם זֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְגִילָה בּוֹ – הֻתַּר הָרָגִיל לְעַצְמוֹקיז,81 אִם שִׁתְּפוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁחָצֵר זוֹ שִׁתְּפָה עִם הַשֵּׁנִי, הֲרֵי סִלְּקָה עַצְמָהּ מִזֶּה שֶׁהָיְתָה רְגִילָה בּוֹקיח וְאֵינָהּ.קיט,82

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַרקכ אִם רְגִילָה בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם וְשִׁתְּפָה עִם אַחַת מֵהֶם, שֶׁהֻתַּר הַשֵּׁנִי לְעַצְמוֹ אִם שִׁתְּפוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם.קכא

וְאִם הַמָּבוֹי שֶׁרְגִילָה בּוֹ שִׁתְּפוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְאוֹתוֹ שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְגִילָה בּוֹ לֹא שִׁתְּפוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְהִיא לֹא שִׁתְּפָה לֹא עִם זֶה וְלֹא עִם זֶה – דּוֹחִין אוֹתָהּ אֵצֶל זֶה שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְגִילָה בּוֹקכב,81 שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף, וְתִסְתַּלֵּק מִזֶּה שֶׁרְגִילָה בּוֹ שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתֵּף, שֶׁלֹּא תַעֲבוֹר עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא מֻתָּר לְעַצְמוֹ. כֵּיוָן שֶׁהִיא אֵינָהּ מַפְסֶדֶת בַּדָּבָר, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא שִׁתְּפָה עִמּוֹ וַאֲסוּרָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ, וְיֵשׁ רֶוַח לַאֲחֵרִים, שֶׁעַל יְדֵי זֶה יִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּמָּבוֹיקכג – כּוֹפִין אוֹתָהּ עַל מִדַּת סְדוֹם,קכד,83 שֶׁתַּעֲבוֹר בְּשַׁבָּת דֶּרֶךְ מָבוֹי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּתֵּף, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ רְגִילָה בּוֹ. וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לוֹמַר אִם רְגִילָה גַּם בּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לַעֲבוֹר בְּשַׁבָּת עַל הַשֵּׁנִי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּתֵּף וְלֶאֱסוֹר עָלָיו.קכה

וְלֹא אָמְרוּקכו שֶׁהַעֲבָרָה בְּרֶגֶל לְבָד בְּלִי תַּשְׁמִישׁ אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת84 אֶלָּא בב' חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ, שֶׁאֵין הַפְּנִימִית אוֹסֶרֶת עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה בְּהַעֲבָרַת רַגְלֶיהָ עָלֶיהָ לְבָד,קכז הוֹאִיל וְעִקַּר חָצֵר חִיצוֹנָה הוּא לְתַשְׁמִישׁ בְּנֵי חִיצוֹנָה.קכח,85 אֲבָל הַמָּבוֹי, הוֹאִיל וְתַשְׁמִישׁוֹ שָׁוֶה לְכָל הַחֲצֵרוֹת הָרְגִילוֹת בּוֹקכט – הֲרֵי הֵן אוֹסְרוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּהַעֲבָרָה בְּרֶגֶל לְבָד בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּסַלֶּקֶת אֶת עַצְמָהּ מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד.קל,86

אֲבָל חָצֵר שֶׁסִּלְּקָה עַצְמָהּ מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּמָבוֹי, וְעָשְׂתָה מַעֲשֶׂה הַמּוֹכִיחַ עַל סִלּוּקָהּ – שֶׁבָּנְתָה אִצְטְבָאקלא גָּבוֹהַּ ד' טְפָחִיםקלב עַל פִּתְחָהּ87 – שׁוּב אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת עַל בְּנֵי הַמָּבוֹי אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעוֹבֶרֶת דֶּרֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם בְּשַׁבָּת,קלג וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין לָהּ פֶּתַח לְמָבוֹי אַחֵר לַעֲבוֹר דֶּרֶךְ עָלָיו לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים:קלד,88