SECTION 385 The Laws Applying to a Sadducee and an Apostate Regarding an Eruv (1-4)

סימן שפה דִּין צְדוֹקִי וּמוּמָר בְּעֵרוּב וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 Sadducees1 are considered as Jews, and they may nullify their rights [to their] domains.2 [The Sages] did not require [Jews living in a shared courtyard with Sadducees] to rent [their] rights [in an effort to encourage Jews] to distance their dwellings from [those of Sadducees], since [Sadducees] observe the Shabbos3and do not worship false deities. [Their participation in] an eruv, however, is not effective, since they do not recognize [the practice of] eruvin.4

א הַצְּדוֹקִים1 הֵם כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל וּמְבַטְּלִים רְשׁוּת,א,2 וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לִשְׂכּוֹר מֵהֶם כְּדֵי לְהַרְחִיק דִּירָתוֹ מֵהֶם, הוֹאִיל וְהֵם שׁוֹמְרֵי שַׁבָּתב,3 וְאֵינָם עוֹבְדִים אֱלִילִים. אֲבָל עֵרוּב שֶׁלָּהֶם אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָם מוֹדִים בְּעֵרוּב:ג,4

2 A Samaritan5 is considered like other non-Jews, and there is no alternative [to permit carrying in a joint courtyard on Shabbos] other than by renting [his rights].6

ב כּוּתִי5 הֲרֵי הוּא כִּשְׁאָר נָכְרִים, וְאֵין לוֹ תַּקָּנָה אֶלָּא בִּשְׂכִירוּת:ד,6

3 A Jew who is an apostate to false deities7 or who desecrates the Shabbos publicly8 – even if he only violates [Shabbos] prohibitions of Rabbinic origin – is considered as a non-Jew with regard to all matters,9 and it is necessary to rent his [rights. The laws applying to such a Jew] do not resemble [those that apply to] the Sadducees who also violate [Shabbos] prohibitions of Rabbinic origin publicly. [The distinction between them is that it is as if] the Sadducees are forced [to transgress the Rabbinic prohibitions] because they are following the tradition of their ancestors.10

If [a Jew] only desecrates the Shabbos in private – even if he violates Scriptural prohibitions – he is considered as a Jew with regard to all matters.11 [Thus, such a Jew] may nullify his rights (or participate in an eruv).

One is deemed “an apostate who desecrates the Shabbos in public” only when he does so on an ongoing basis and is not careful in the observance [of Shabbos]at all, but not when he desecrated [the Shabbos] only on occasion, when he was pressed at a [given] moment.

ג יִשְׂרָאֵל מוּמָר לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָהה,7 אוֹ לְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּתוֹת בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא,ו,8 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ מְחַלְּלוֹ אֶלָּא בְּאִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםז – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּנָכְרִי לְכָל דְּבָרָיוח,9 וְצָרִיךְ לִשְׂכּוֹר מִמֶּנּוּ. וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִצְדוֹקִי, שֶׁהֵם מְחַלְּלִים גַּם כֵּן בְּאִסּוּרֵי דִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא, לְפִי שֶׁהַצְּדוֹקִים אֲנוּסִים הֵם, שֶׁמַּעֲשֵׂה אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם בִּידֵיהֶם.ט,10 וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְחַלְּלוֹ אֶלָּא בְּצִנְעָא,י אֲפִלּוּ מְחַלְּלוֹ בְּאִסּוּרֵי תוֹרָה – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְכָל דְּבָרָיו,11 וּמְבַטֵּל רְשׁוּתיא (אוֹ מְעָרֵב).

וְאֵינוֹ נִקְרָא "מוּמָר לְחַלֵּל שַׁבָּתוֹת בְּפַרְהֶסְיָא" אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁרָגִיל בְּכָךְ וְאֵינוֹ נִזְהָר כְּלָל, אֲבָל לֹא כְּשֶׁחִלְּלוֹ פַּעַם בְּאַקְרַאי בְּעָלְמָא, כְּשֶׁהָיָה דָחוּק לְפִי שָׁעָה:יב

4 [The following laws apply when] a Jew [who] apostatized [to a false deity] owns a house in a Jewish neighborhood where an eruv was established for the entire year and he also participated in the eruv:12 If [this person] has no other entrance [to his house] other than via this neighborhood, his [presence] causes [carrying] to be forbidden on every Shabbos after he apostatized until [his rights] are rented. [The rationale is that this person’s participation in] the eruv was nullified when he apostatized to the false deity.

If, however, [this person] has another entrance [from his home] to a non-Jewish neighborhood – even if it is a small and narrow entrance (which he never [uses] on a frequent basis, and even if it is not a proper entrance, but [merely] a window [measuring] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths])13 – his [presence] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden. ([The rationale is that] since [the person] apostatized [and adopted] the faith [of the non-Jews], he desires the entrance or the window to the non-Jewish neighborhood more than the larger entrance to the Jewish neighborhood.14 Thus, [the larger] entrance [that opens to the Jewish neighborhood] is considered as one that he is not accustomed to using. [Hence, this person’s presence] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden even though he brings in and takes out camels and carriages through [the Jewish neighborhood] the entire day, as will be explained in sec. 389[:1].)

ד יִשְׂרָאֵל שֶׁהֵמִיר, וְיֵשׁ לוֹ בַּיִת בִּשְׁכוּנַת הַיְּהוּדִים שֶׁעֵרְבוּ לְכָל הַשָּׁנָה, וְגַם הוּא עֵרֵב עִמָּהֶם12 – אִם אֵין לוֹ פֶּתַח אַחֶרֶת כְּלָל אֶלָּא לִשְׁכוּנָה זוֹ, הֲרֵי הוּא אוֹסֵר בְּכָל שַׁבָּת שֶׁחָל לְאַחַר שֶׁהֵמִיר עַד שֶׁיַּשְׂכִּיר, שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל עֵרוּבוֹ כְּשֶׁהֵמִיר לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה.יג אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ לוֹ פֶּתַח אַחֵר לִשְׁכוּנַת הַנָּכְרִים, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא פֶּתַח קָטָן וְצָר (שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָגִיל בּוֹ לְעוֹלָם, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ פֶּתַח גָּמוּר אֶלָּא חַלּוֹן ד' עַל ד'יד)13 – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶםטו (לְפִי שֶׁבְּאוֹתוֹ פֶּתַח אוֹ חַלּוֹן הַפְּתוּחִים לִשְׁכוּנַת הַנָּכְרִים הוּא חָפֵץ בָּהֶם יוֹתֵר מִבְּפֶתַח הַגָּדוֹל שֶׁלִּשְׁכוּנַת הַיְּהוּדִים, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵמִיר לְדָתָם,14 וְנַעֲשָׂה פֶּתַח זֶה כְּאִלּוּ אֵינוֹ רָגִיל לֵילֵךְ בּוֹ כְּלָל לִשְׁכוּנַת הַיְּהוּדִים, וְאֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּכְנִיס וּמוֹצִיא דֶּרֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם גְּמַלִּים וּקְרוֹנוֹת כָּל הַיּוֹם כֻּלּוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ט):