SECTION 379 The Laws [that Apply When] There are Houses Between Courtyards (1-2)

סימן שעט דִּין חֲצֵרוֹת וּבָתִּים בֵּינֵיהֶם וּבוֹ ב' סְעִיפִים:

1 [When there are] three houses [located] between two courtyards1 and [the houses and the courtyards all] open up to each other, should [the residents of] all [the houses and courtyards] desire to establish an eruv together, [the eruv should be established in the following manner]:2 A resident of one of the courtyards should come through the house that is open to his courtyard and place [the bread for] his eruv in the middle house. [Doing so] makes3 the house that is open to his courtyard a gatehouse for his courtyard, through which [the residents of the courtyard] pass to the middle house. Similarly, a resident of the other courtyard should come through the house that is open to [his courtyard] and place [the bread for] his eruv in the middle house. [Doing so] makes the house that is open to his courtyard a gatehouse for his courtyard [through which the residents of that courtyard pass to the middle house. See fig. 102.]

[Accordingly,] none [of the residents] of the three houses are required to contribute bread for the eruv. [The rationale is that] the two houses adjacent to the courtyards are like gatehouses and [the residents of] a gatehouse do not cause [carrying] to be forbidden [in the adjoining areas],4 and the middle house is the house in which [the bread for] the eruv is being placed, whose [residents] do not have to contribute bread [to the eruv].5

There are authorities who maintain that even if [the residents of the courtyards] placed the eruv [not in the middle house, but] in one of the houses adjacent to the courtyards, or even [if they placed the bread for the eruv] in a house in one of the courtyards, none [of the residents] of these three houses are required to contribute bread [for the eruv.The rationale is that these houses] are considered as gatehouses for [the residents of] the courtyard who bring [the bread for] the eruv through them to the other courtyard.

א ב' חֲצֵרוֹת וְג' בָּתִּים בֵּינֵיהֶןא,1 פְּתוּחִים זוֹ לְזוֹ, וְרוֹצִין כֻּלָּן לְעָרֵב יַחַד2 – הֲרֵי בֶּן חָצֵר זוֹ בָּא דֶּרֶךְ בַּיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לַחֲצֵרוֹ וְנוֹתֵן עֵרוּבוֹ בַּבַּיִת הָאֶמְצָעִי וְעוֹשֶׂה3 אֶת בַּיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לַחֲצֵרוֹ כְּבֵית שַׁעַר לַחֲצֵרוֹ לַעֲבוֹר דֶּרֶךְ עָלָיו לְהָאֶמְצָעִי, וְכֵן בֶּן חָצֵר הָאַחֶרֶת בָּא דֶּרֶךְ בַּיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לָהּ וְנוֹתֵן עֵרוּב בְּהָאֶמְצָעִי וְעוֹשֶׂה אֶת בַּיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לַחֲצֵרוֹ כְּבֵית שַׁעַר לַחֲצֵרוֹ, וְאֵין אֶחָד מִג' בָּתִּים אֵלּוּ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן פַּת לָעֵרוּב, כִּי שְׁנַיִם הַסְּמוּכִים לַחֲצֵרוֹת הֵם כְּבֵית שַׁעַר, וּבֵית שַׁעַר אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר,ב,4 וְהָאֶמְצָעִי הוּא בַּיִת שֶׁמַּנִּיחִים בּוֹ אֶת הָעֵרוּב וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן אֶת הַפַּת.ג,5 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםד שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ נָתְנוּ עֵרוּב בְּאֶחָד מִבָּתִּים הַסְּמוּכִים לַחֲצֵרוֹת, אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ בְּאֶחָד מִבָּתֵּי הַחֲצֵרוֹת עַצְמָן – אֵין ג' בָּתִּים אֵלּוּ צְרִיכִים לִתֵּן פַּת, לְפִי שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ כֻלָּם כְּבֵית שַׁעַר לְאוֹתָהּ חָצֵר הַמּוֹלֶכֶת עֵרוּבָהּ דֶּרֶךְ עֲלֵיהֶם לְחָצֵר הָאַחֶרֶת:


Fig. 102: Establishing an eruv when three houses link two courtyards. a) House and courtyard A; b) House B; c) House C; d) House D; e) House and courtyard E; A resident of courtyard A should take bread and place it in House C. A resident of courtyard E should do the same.
Fig. 102: Establishing an eruv when three houses link two courtyards. a) House and courtyard A; b) House B; c) House C; d) House D; e) House and courtyard E; A resident of courtyard A should take bread and place it in House C. A resident of courtyard E should do the same.

2 [Stringency is required in the following situation:] There were two houses [located] between two courtyards. [The residents of the courtyards] did not establish an eruv together. Instead, [the residents of] each [courtyard] established an individual [eruv.6 The residents of] each courtyard did not place [the bread for] their eruv in the house that opens to [their courtyard], but only used [that house] as a gatehouse. [The representative of one courtyard] came through the house adjoining his courtyard and placed [the bread for] the eruv in the house next to the other courtyard. The representative of the other courtyard did the same, placing [the bread for] the eruv in the house next to the other courtyard. [See fig. 103. In such an instance,] none [of the residents of these courtyards] established a [valid] eruv, because each one of them placed [the bread for] the eruv in [a house that serves as] the gatehouse of the other courtyard. [Hence,]7 it is not a valid eruv, as explained in sec. 366[:5].

ב ב' חֲצֵרוֹת וּב' בָּתִּים בֵּינֵיהֶם,ה,1 וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד אֶלָּא כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ,6 וְכָל חָצֵר לֹא נָתְנָה עֵרוּבָהּ בַּבַּיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לָהּ אֶלָּא עֲשָׂאַתּוּ בֵּית שַׁעַר וּבָא דֶּרֶךְ בַּיִת שֶׁאֶצְלוֹ וְנָתַן עֵרוּבָה בַּבַּיִת הַסָּמוּךְ לְחָצֵר הָאַחֶרֶת,ו וְכֵן עָשָׂה בֶּן חָצֵר הַשְּׁנִיָּה, שֶׁגַּם הוּא הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בַּבַּיִת הַסָּמוּךְ לְחָצֵר הָאַחֶרֶת – לֹא קָנוּ עֵרוּב, שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד הִנִּיחַ עֵרוּבוֹ בְּבֵית שַׁעַר שֶׁל חָצֵר אַחֶרֶת, וְאֵינוֹ עֵרוּב,7 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ו:ז


Fig. 103: The eruvin are not valid, because the residents of courtyard A place their eruv in house C and the residents of courtyard D place their eruv in house B. a) House and courtyard A; b) House B; c) House C; d) House and courtyayrd D
Fig. 103: The eruvin are not valid, because the residents of courtyard A place their eruv in house C and the residents of courtyard D place their eruv in house B. a) House and courtyard A; b) House B; c) House C; d) House and courtyayrd D