SECTION 378 The Laws [that Apply When] Courtyards Open to Each Other (1-5)

סימן שעח דִּין הַחֲצֵרוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹ וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply when there are] three courtyards [one behind the other and all] open to each other, and they all also open to a lane or to the public domain.1 [See fig. 101. The residents of] each of the outer [courtyards] established an eruv with [the residents of] the middle [courtyard], but [the residents of one of] the outer [courtyards] did not establish an eruv with [those of] the other [outer courtyard]. [The residents of] the outer [courtyards] cause each other to be forbidden to bring out articles that were located in their homes at the commencement of the Shabbos from one [outer courtyard] to the other [outer courtyard,] via the middle [courtyard.2 The residents of] the middle [courtyard, by contrast,] are permitted [to carry articles from their homes] to both of [the outer courtyards], and [the residents of these outer courtyards] are permitted [to carry articles from their homes to the homes of the residents of the middle courtyard].

When does the above apply? When [the residents of] the middle [courtyard] placed [the bread for] their eruvin in each of the outer courtyards.3 [The rationale is] that [in such an instance], the residents of the middle [courtyard are considered as also] dwelling in the outer [courtyards], for an eruv is considered as [one’s] dwelling.4 The residents of the outer [courtyards, however,] are not [considered as] dwelling in the middle [courtyard], because [the bread for] their eruvin was not [placed] in it. [Moreover, the same law applies] even if [the residents of] the outer [courtyards] placed [the bread for] their eruvin in the middle [courtyard] to establish an eruv with [its residents], but [the residents of each of the outer courtyards] did not place [the bread for] their eruvin in the same house in the middle [courtyard].5 Instead, [the residents of] one [of the outer courtyards] placed [the bread for their eruv] in [one] home [in the middle courtyard] and [the residents of] the other [outer courtyard] placed [the bread for their eruv] in another home in [the middle] courtyard. In these instances as well, the residents of [both of] the outer courtyards do not become joined with each other, for the residents of one [of the outer courtyards] are [considered as dwelling] in one home [in the middle courtyard] and the residents of the other [outer courtyard] are [considered as dwelling] in another [home in the middle courtyard]. Therefore, [the presence of the residents of] each of [the outer courtyards] causes the [residents of the] other [outer courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry articles that were located in their homes at the commencement of Shabbos in the other outer courtyard via the middle courtyard].6

If, [however, the residents of both of the outer courtyards] place [the bread for their eruvin]in the same house in the middle [courtyard], the residents of all three [domains] are joined together in this house. [Hence,] they are all joined in an eruv and [the residents of] each of [the courtyards] are permitted [to carry] in the other’s domain.7

א ג' חֲצֵרוֹת הַפְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹ,א וּפְתוּחוֹת כֻּלָּן גַּם כֵּן לְמָבוֹיב אוֹ לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים,ג,1 וְעֵרְבָה כָּל אַחַת מֵהַחִיצוֹנוֹת עִם הָאֶמְצָעִית, וְהַחִיצוֹנוֹת לֹא עֵרְבוּ זוֹ עִם זוֹ – הֲרֵי הַחִיצוֹנוֹת אֲסוּרוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ, לְהוֹצִיא כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבָּתִּים מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ דֶּרֶךְ הָאֶמְצָעִית,2 וְהָאֶמְצָעִית מֻתֶּרֶת עִם כָּל אַחַת מֵהֶן וְהֵן מֻתָּרוֹת עִמָּהּ.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁאֶמְצָעִית נָתְנָה עֵרוּבָה בְּזוֹ וְעֵרוּבָה בְּזוֹ,ד,3 שֶׁאָז דִּיּוּרֵי הָאֶמְצָעִית בַּחִיצוֹנוֹת,ה שֶׁהָעֵרוּב הוּא מִשּׁוּם דִּירָה,ו,4 וְאֵין דִּיּוּרֵי הַחִיצוֹנִים בָּאֶמְצָעִית, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין עֵרוּבָן בָּהּ. אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ נָתְנוּ הַחִיצוֹנוֹת עֵרוּבָן בָּאֶמְצָעִית לְעָרֵב עִמָּהּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁלֹּא נְתָנוּהוּ שְׁתֵּיהֶן בְּבַיִת אֶחָד שֶׁבָּאֶמְצָעִי,5 אֶלָּא זוֹ נָתְנָה בְּבַיִת זֶה וְזוֹ נָתְנָה בְּבַיִת אַחֵר שֶׁבָּאֶמְצָעִית,ז שֶׁאָז גַּם כֵּן לֹא נִתְחַבְּרוּ דִּיּוּרֵי הַחִיצוֹנוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ,ח שֶׁדִּיּוּרֵי זוֹ הֵם בְּבַיִת זֶה וְדִיּוּרֵי זוֹ בְּזֶה, וְלָכֵן הֵן אֲסוּרוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ.6 אֲבָל אִם נְתָנוּהוּ בְּבַיִת אֶחָד בָּאֶמְצָעִית – הֲרֵי נִתְחַבְּרוּ דִּיּוּרֵי שְׁלָשְׁתָּן בְּבַיִת זֶה, וּמְעֹרָבוֹת הֵן, וְכֻלָּן מֻתָּרוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹ:7


Fig. 101: Three courtyards, positioned one behind the other, each possessing an entrance to the public domain. a) A courtyard; b) A public domain; c) An entrance from the courtyard to the public domain; d) An entrance from one courtyard to another
Fig. 101: Three courtyards, positioned one behind the other, each possessing an entrance to the public domain. a) A courtyard; b) A public domain; c) An entrance from the courtyard to the public domain; d) An entrance from one courtyard to another

2 [The following laws apply when] two courtyards are [located] one behind the other, and the outer [courtyard] opens to a lane, but the inner [courtyard only opens] to the outer one, but not to the lane.8 Accordingly, [the residents of the inner courtyard] have the right to pass through the outer courtyard, because the only way for them to go out to the lane is through the outer [courtyard. If the residents of] the inner [courtyard] established an eruv among themselves, but [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] did not, [the residents of] the inner [courtyard] are permitted to take articles that were located in their homes at the commencement of the Shabbos out to their courtyard. [The presence of the residents of] the outer courtyard does not [cause carrying] to be forbidden for [the residents of the inner courtyard], since there is a wall between [the two courtyards] and [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] do not have the right to pass through [the inner courtyard.9 These laws also apply if the residents of the outer courtyard attempted to] establish an eruv, but their eruv was not effective, e.g., one [of the residents] of the [outer] courtyard forgot and did not join in the eruv with the [other] residents of the courtyard, [in which instance,] he causes [the other residents of the courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry in] the courtyard until he nullifies his domain [to them], as will be explained in sec. 380[:1].

When [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] established an eruv among themselves, but [the residents of] the inner [courtyard] did not establish [an eruv] at all, or [they did establish an eruv among themselves, but] one [of the residents] of the inner [courtyard] forgot and did not join in the eruv, [the residents] of both courtyards are forbidden [to carry [in either courtyard. The rationale is that] since [the residents of] the inner [courtyard] are forbidden [to carry] in their courtyard and they have the right to pass through the outer [courtyard], they cause [carrying] to be forbidden [in the outer courtyard as well. The rationale is that] “the feet of [the people who] are forbidden [to carry] in their own place cause [carrying] to be forbidden outside their place”10 when they have the right to pass through that place.

When [the residents of] each [of the courtyards] established independent eruvin, they are all permitted [to carry] in their [respective] courtyards. [The residents of] the inner [courtyard] do not cause [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry] even though they [pass through the outer courtyard and] did not establish an eruv with [the residents of the outer courtyard. The rationale is that] since [the residents of the inner courtyard] are permitted to carry in their [own] courtyard, they are considered, “the feet of [people who] are permitted [to carry] in [their] own place, [which] do not cause [carrying] to be forbidden outside their place.”11

ב ב' חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ,ט וְחִיצוֹנָה פְּתוּחָה לְמָבוֹי, וּפְנִימִית לְחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא לְמָבוֹי,8 וְעַל יְדֵי כָךְ יֵשׁ לָהּ דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה,י שֶׁאֵין לָהּ דֶּרֶךְ לָצֵאת לְמָבוֹי אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ הַחִיצוֹנָה:יא עֵרְבָה פְּנִימִית לְעַצְמָהּ וְהַחִיצוֹנָה לֹא עֵרְבָה כְּלָל, אוֹ שֶׁעֵרְבָה וְאֵין עֵרוּבָהּ מוֹעִיל, כְּגוֹן שֶׁשָּׁכַח אֶחָד מֵאַנְשֵׁי הֶחָצֵר וְלֹא עֵרֵב עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר,יב,8 שֶׁהוּא אוֹסֵר עֲלֵיהֶם הֶחָצֵר עַד שֶׁיְּבַטֵּל רְשׁוּתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"פיג – הֲרֵי הַפְּנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת לְהוֹצִיא לַחֲצֵרָהּ כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבָּתִּים, וְאֵין הַחִיצוֹנָה אוֹסֶרֶת עָלֶיהָ, הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ מְחִצָּה בֵּינֵיהֶן וְאֵין לַחִיצוֹנָה דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל עָלֶיהָ.9

עֵרְבָה חִיצוֹנָה לְעַצְמָהּ וְלֹא עֵרְבָה הַפְּנִימִית כְּלָל, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁכַח אֶחָד מִן הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרֵב – שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת,יד,8 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁפְּנִימִית אֲסוּרָה בַּחֲצֵרָהּ וְיֵשׁ לָהּ דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה, אוֹסֶרֶת אוֹתָהּ, שֶׁרֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִמְקוֹמָהּטו,10 כְּשֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ שָׁם דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל.

עֵרְבָה כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ – כָּל אַחַת מֻתֶּרֶת בַּחֲצֵרָהּ,טז וְאֵין הַפְּנִימִית אוֹסֶרֶת עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה,8 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה עִמָּהּ, הוֹאִיל וְהִיא מֻתֶּרֶת בַּחֲצֵרָהּ, וְרֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִמְקוֹמָהּ:יז,11

3 When [the residents of] the inner [courtyard] and [those of] the outer [courtyard] established an eruv together, and they placed [the bread for] the eruv in the inner [courtyard, but] one [of the residents] of the inner [courtyard] forgot and did not join in the eruv, [the residents of] both [the inner and outer courtyards] are forbidden [to carry in either of the courtyards.12 The rationale is that] since [the residents of] the inner [courtyard] are forbidden [to carry] in their courtyard, they cause [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry] as well, since [the residents of the inner courtyard] have the right to pass through [that courtyard].13

If, however, one of [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] forgot and did not join in the eruv, [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] are forbidden [to carry], but [the residents of] the inner [courtyard] are permitted [to carry in their courtyard. The rationale is that the bread for] the eruv is located in [the inner courtyard, and the residents of] the outer [courtyard] only have the right to enter [the inner courtyard] because of their eruv, which enables them to [make use of the inner courtyard. Hence, since the eruv is invalid, the residents of the outer courtyard are considered to have] removed [their connection to the inner courtyard. Thus, the residents of the inner courtyard] remain alone with an eruv that is located in their [courtyard. The residents of the inner courtyard] are [therefore] permitted [to carry].

If, by contrast, [the bread for] the eruv was placed in the outer [courtyard], even if one of [the residents of] the outer [courtyard] forgot and did not join in the eruv, [the residents of] both [courtyards, i.e., even the residents of the inner courtyard,] are forbidden [to carry. The rationale is that] even if [the residents of] the inner [courtyard would] remove [their connection to the residents of] the outer [courtyard, the bread for] the eruv [in which they joined] is not located [in the inner courtyard]. How, then, will their dwellings be joined?

ג עֵרְבוּ הַפְּנִימִית וְהַחִיצוֹנָה בְּיַחַדיח וְנָתְנוּ עֵרוּבָן בַּפְּנִימִית, וְשָׁכַח אֶחָד מִן הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרֵב – שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת,יט,12 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַפְּנִימִית אֲסוּרָה בַּחֲצֵרָה, אוֹסֶרֶת גַּם הַחִיצוֹנָה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהּ עָלֶיהָ דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל.כ,13

אֲבָל אִם שָׁכַח אֶחָד מִן הַחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא עֵרֵב – חִיצוֹנָה אֲסוּרָה וּפְנִימִית מֻתֶּרֶת,כא דְּכֵיוָן שֶׁעֵרוּבָהּ אֶצְלָהּ, וְאֵין לַחִיצוֹנָה דְּרִיסַת הָרֶגֶל עָלֶיהָ אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל עֵרוּבָהּ שֶׁמַּרְגִּילָהּ לְתוֹכָהּ, תְּסַלְּקֶנָּה מֵעָלֶיהָ וְתִשָּׁאֵר לְבַדָּהּ בְּעֵרוּבָהּ שֶׁאֶצְלָהּ, וְתִהְיֶה מֻתֶּרֶת.כב,12

אֲבָל אִם נָתְנוּ עֵרוּבָן בַּחִיצוֹנָה, אֲפִלּוּ שָׁכַח אֶחָד מִן הַחִיצוֹנָה וְלֹא עֵרֵב – שְׁתֵּיהֶן אֲסוּרוֹת,כג,12 שֶׁאַף אִם הַפְּנִימִית תְּסַלֵּק אֶת הַחִיצוֹנָה מֵעָלֶיהָ, הֲרֵי אֵין עֵרוּבָהּ אֶצְלָהּ, וּבַמֶּה יִתְעָרְבוּ דִּיּוּרֶיהָ:כד

4 If only one person dwells in the inner [courtyard] and one person [dwells] in the outer [courtyard] – or even if two [people] dwell in the outer [courtyard] but they established an eruv together – the one [resident] of the inner [courtyard] does not cause [the resident(s) of] the outer [courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry] even though they did not establish an eruv together. [The rationale is that his are] “the feet of [one who] is permitted [to carry] in his own place” since there are no other [residents in his courtyard] who cause him to be forbidden [to carry].

This law [also applies] if there are many [people dwelling in the inner courtyard, but they are considered] as one individual, [i.e.,] they do not cause each other to be forbidden [to carry] and they are not required to establish an eruv with each other, for example, a father and his sons who [live in separate dwellings, but the sons] receive their sustenance from [their father],14 or other similar instances, as described in sec. 370[:7].

ד אִם יָחִיד דָּר בַּפְּנִימִית וְיָחִיד בַּחִיצוֹנָה,כה אוֹ אֲפִלּוּ שְׁנַיִם דָּרִים בַּחִיצוֹנָה וְעֵרְבוּ בֵּינֵיהֶםכו – אֵין הַיָּחִיד שֶׁבַּפְּנִימִית אוֹסֵר עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד,12 הוֹאִיל וְהִיא רֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ, שֶׁאֵין שָׁם מִי שֶׁיֶּאֱסֹר עָלָיו.כז

וְהוּא הַדִּין רַבִּים שֶׁהֵם כְּיָחִיד, שֶׁאֵינָן אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה וְאֵינָן צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב בֵּינֵיהֶן,כח כְּגוֹן הָאָב עִם בָּנָיוכט שֶׁמְּקַבְּלִים מִמֶּנּוּ פְּרָס,ל,14 וְכָל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם מִמַּה שֶּׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ע:לא

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 The same [laws apply] when three courtyards are located one behind the other, with one person dwelling in each [of the courtyards, and the residents of the inner courtyards must pass through the outer courtyard to enter and depart their dwellings to and from the adjoining lane or public domain]. Although [the three did not establish an eruv and the residents of] the two inner [courtyards] pass through the outer [courtyard], they do not cause [its resident] to be forbidden [to carry], because theirs are “the feet of [people who] are permitted [to carry] in their own place.”

If there are two people dwelling in the third, innermost [courtyard], and they did not establish an eruv together, they cause the individuals [dwelling] in the middle and outermost [courtyards] to be forbidden [to carry. The rationale is that] theirs are “the feet of [people who] are forbidden [to carry] in their own place.”15

ה וְכֵן ג' חֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ לִפְנִים מִזּוֹ וְיָחִיד בְּכָל אַחַת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְּׁנַיִם הַפְּנִימִים עוֹבְרִים עַל הַחִיצוֹנָה – אֵינָן אוֹסְרִים עָלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא רֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ. וְאִם הָיוּ שְׁנַיִם בַּשְּׁלִישִׁית הַפְּנִימִית וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם – אוֹסְרִים עַל הַיְחִידִים שֶׁבָּאֶמְצָעִית וְשֶׁבַּחִיצוֹנָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא רֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ:לב,15