SECTION 377 [The Laws Pertaining to] Two Lofts that Face Each Other and Open to a [Common] Courtyard (1)

סימן שעז דִּין ב' עֲלִיּוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ הַפְּתוּחוֹת לֶחָצֵר וּבוֹ סְעִיף אֶחָד:

1 [The following laws apply when there are] two rows of lofts that face each other and [both rows] open to a small courtyard that [measures] less than four cubits by four cubits:1 [In this instance,] water should not be poured into [the courtyard] on Shabbos,unless a cavity is made whose hollow can contain two seah, as explained in sec. 357[:1. When the residents of] the lofts in [one of] the rows made [such] a cavity in the courtyard next to their balcony, but [the residents of] the loft facing them did not, [the following option is available]: If [the residents of] the two rows [of lofts] established an eruv with the residents of the courtyard,2 all [the residents of both the courtyard and the lofts] are permitted to pour [water] into the courtyard due to the cavity made by [the residents of] the one row [of lofts. The rationale is that] one cavity enables even 1000 residents of a courtyard [to pour water into the courtyard],3 based on the reason explained in sec. 357[:2].

[Different rules apply] if [the residents of the rows of lofts] established an eruv among themselves, but did not join in an eruv with the residents of the courtyard, and thus, they are forbidden to bring articles that were located in the lofts at the commencement of Shabbos [out to the courtyard on Shabbos], as explained in sec. 375[:1]. Even so, [the residents of] the row [of lofts] who made the cavity in the courtyard next to their balcony are permitted to pour water onto their balcony, [although they are aware that] the water will descend from the balcony to the cavity next to it. [The rationale for the leniency is that the Sages] did not impose a [restrictive] decree [against the effects of] one’s power4 in a courtyard where an eruv was not established, as explained in sec. 357[:7].

By contrast, [the residents of] the row [of lofts] who did not make a cavity next to their balcony are forbidden to pour water even onto their balcony [with the intent that] the water will [flow] down from [their balcony] into the courtyard, and [from the courtyard] into the cavity. [The rationale is that] since the cavity is not next to their balcony and the water has to [first] flow through the courtyard until it reaches the cavity, there is concern that [the residents of this row of lofts] will worry about [the water] ruining the courtyard. They will [therefore] manually carry the water to the courtyard and the cavity, [using] containers that were located in the lofts at the commencement of the Shabbos.5

[The following rules apply] if [the residents of] the second row [of lofts]6 did not establish an eruv together, and thus they are forbidden [to take out to] their balconies any articles that were located in their lofts at the commencement of Shabbos. [By failing to establish an eruv together, the residents of this row of lofts] cause each other to be forbidden [to use any jointly owned property]. Accordingly, they are considered as “the foot of [a person who] is forbidden [to carry] in its own place, which causes [carrying] to [also] be forbidden outside its place,” i.e., in the courtyard, as explained in sec. 375[:1].7 Therefore, [the residents of] the row [of lofts] who made the cavity are not permitted to bring articles that were located in [their] lofts at the commencement of the Shabbos into the courtyard,even though they established an eruv with [the residents of] the courtyard. Nevertheless, they are permitted to pour [water] from the lofts onto their balcony, and that water will [then] descend [of its own accord] into the adjoining cavity.

There are authorities who maintain that [the residents of] the second row [of lofts] who did not establish an eruv for themselves are forbidden to pour [out water] even in the lofts [themselves].8 This [restrictive] decree [was instituted] lest [the residents of these lofts] be concerned about the possibility of ruining their lofts and [instead of pouring out the water in their lofts, they will then] pour the water onto the balconies, which they are forbidden [to do, since they are prohibited] to take out articles [to their balconies] from their lofts.

א שְׁתֵּי דְיוּטָאוֹתא שֶׁל עֲלִיּוֹת זוֹ כְּנֶגֶד זוֹ הַפְּתוּחִים לְחָצֵר קְטַנָּה שֶׁאֵין בָּהּ ד' אַמּוֹת עַל ד' אַמּוֹת,ב,1 שֶׁאֵין שׁוֹפְכִין לָהּ מַיִם בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עָשׂוּ בָהּ גּוּמָא מַחֲזֶקֶת סָאתַיִם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ז,ג וְהָעֲלִיּוֹת שֶׁבִּדְיוּטָא זוֹ עָשׂוּ גוּמָא בֶּחָצֵר סָמוּךְ לְמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהֶן,ד וְהַדְּיוּטָא שֶׁכְּנֶגְדָּהּ לֹא עָשׂוּ – אִם עֵרְבוּ ב' הַדְּיוּטָאוֹת עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר,2 כֻּלָּן מֻתָּרִיםה לִשְׁפּוֹךְ בֶּחָצֵר עַל סְמַךְ גּוּמָא שֶׁעָשְׂתָה דְּיוּטָא הָאַחַת, לְפִי שֶׁגּוּמָא אַחַת מַתֶּרֶת אֲפִלּוּ לְאֶלֶף דִּיּוּרִין שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר3 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ז.ו

וְאִם עֵרְבוּ לְעַצְמָן וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר, שֶׁהֵם אֲסוּרִים לְהוֹצִיא לֶחָצֵר כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"הז – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אוֹתָהּ דְּיוּטָא שֶׁעָשְׂתָה גוּמָא בֶּחָצֵר סָמוּךְ לְמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהּ מֻתֶּרֶת לִשְׁפּוֹךְ מֵימֶיהָ בְּמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהּ,ח וְהַמַּיִם יוֹרְדִים מִמִּרְפֶּסֶת לַגּוּמָא הַסְּמוּכָה לָהּ, לְפִי שֶׁלֹּא גָזְרוּ עַל כֹּחוֹ בְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת,ט,4 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ז.י אֲבָל אוֹתָהּ דְּיוּטָא שֶׁלֹּא עָשְׂתָה גוּמָא סָמוּךְ לְמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהּ אֲסוּרָה לִשְׁפּוֹךְ אֲפִלּוּ בְּמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהּ, שֶׁיֵּרְדוּ הַמַּיִם מִמֶּנָּה לֶחָצֵר וְלַגּוּמָא, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַגּוּמָא אֵינָהּ סְמוּכָה לְמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהּ, וּצְרִיכִים הַמַּיִם לֵילֵךְ בֶּחָצֵר עַד שֶׁיַּגִּיעוּ לַגּוּמָא – יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ שֶׁמָּא יָחוּסוּ עַל קִלְקוּל הֶחָצֵר, וְיוֹלִיכוּ הַמַּיִם בְּיָדָם לֶחָצֵר וְלַגּוּמָא בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת.יא,5

וְכֵן אִם דְּיוּטָא הַב'6 לֹא עֵרְבוּ הָעֲלִיּוֹת שֶׁבָּהּ בְּיַחַד, שֶׁהֵם אֲסוּרִים בְּמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם בְּכָל כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה, וַהֲרֵי זוֹ רֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ וְאוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִמְקוֹמָה, דְּהַיְנוּ בֶּחָצֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ה,יב,7 וְלָכֵן אוֹתָהּ דְּיוּטָא שֶׁעָשְׂתָה גוּמָא, אֲפִלּוּ אִם עֵרְבָה עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר, אֵינָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת לְהוֹצִיא לֶחָצֵר כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת.יג וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתֶּרֶת לִשְׁפּוֹךְ מֵהָעֲלִיּוֹת עַל מִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהּ וְהַמַּיִם יוֹרְדִים לַגּוּמָא הַסְּמוּכָה לָהּ. אֲבָל דְּיוּטָא הַב' שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה לְעַצְמָהּ – יֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםיד שֶׁאֲסוּרָה לִשְׁפּוֹךְ אֲפִלּוּ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת,טו,8 מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יָחוּסוּ עַל קִלְקוּל הָעֲלִיּוֹת וְיִשְׁפְּכוּ בְּמִרְפֶּסֶת הָאֲסוּרָה לָהֶם לְהוֹצִיא לָהֶם מֵעֲלִיּוֹתֵיהֶם: