SECTION 375 The Entities that Do Not Cause [Carrying] to be Forbidden When They are Located in a Courtyard (1-5)

סימן שעה מַה הֵם הַדְּבָרִים הַשְּׁרוּיִים בֶּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָם אוֹסְרִים וּבוֹ ה' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following laws apply to a building] in a courtyard with a long porch situated in front of [several] lofts. [People] ascend to [the porch] via a ladder, while the residents of the lofts [go out to] the porch [from their lofts] via the openings to it from their lofts, and descend from [the porch] into the courtyard via the ladder. [The residents of the lofts] then pass through [the courtyard] to the public domain.1 [See fig. 93. The relationship between the residents of] the porch and the lofts [parallels one that exists] between homes and a courtyard.2 If [the residents of] the lofts did not establish an eruv together, they are forbidden to take articles that were located in the lofts at the commencement of the Shabbos out to [the porch], for [the residents of the lofts] cause each other to be forbidden [to carry on the porch], since [the porch] is used by all of them and they all have [equal] access to it, just like [the residents of] the homes [in a courtyard, who all have equal access] to the courtyard.

It is not, however, necessary for [the residents of the lofts] to establish an eruv with the residents of the courtyard.3 Even though [the residents of the lofts] pass through4 the courtyard to reach the public domain, they do not cause [the residents of the courtyard] to be forbidden [to carry in the courtyard], because their residences are not open to [the courtyard], but rather to the porch. In general, porches are [at least] ten [handbreadths] high,5 and whenever [a domain] is ten [handbreadths] high, it is deemed an independent domain, separate from the domain next to it.6

Nevertheless, should [the residents of the lofts] desire to establish an eruv with the residents of the courtyard so that they too will be permitted to take articles that were located in their lofts at the commencement of Shabbos into the courtyard, they have that option, for the ladder that leads from the courtyard to the porch is considered as an entrance, as explained in sec. 372[:11]. Thus [the situation] resembles two courtyards with an entrance [from one to the other], in which instance [the residents of the courtyards] have the option of establishing a common eruv or [the residents of] each [courtyard] may establish an individual eruv.7True, the ladder is considered an entrance.8 Nevertheless, the lofts are not considered [as being] open to the courtyard. [The rationale is that] the ladder is considered as an entrance only in a lenient context, i.e., to enable [the residents of both domains] to establish a common eruv because of the ladder between them, [just] as it is possible [for the residents of two courtyards to establish a common eruv] when there is an entrance [between the two courtyards. The ladder] is not, however, [considered an entrance] in a stringent context.9

When does the above – that the residents of the porch, i.e., the residents of the lofts, do not cause carrying to be forbidden in the courtyard – apply? When [the residents of the lofts] made an eruv together so that they are permitted [to carry] on their [commonly owned] porch. [In that instance, the residents of the lofts] are considered, “the feet [of people] permitted [to carry] in their place,” who do not cause [carrying] to be forbidden in another [neighboring domain], as will be explained in sec. 378[:2]. If, however, [the residents of the lofts] did not establish an eruv together, since they are forbidden to carry on their porch, they are considered, “the feet [of people] forbidden [to carry] in their place,” who cause [carrying] to be forbidden in another [neighboring domain], as will be explained in that source.

א מִרְפֶּסֶת אֲרֻכָּה שֶׁלִּפְנֵי הָעֲלִיּוֹת וְעוֹמֶדֶת בֶּחָצֵר וְעוֹלִין לָהּ בְּסֻלָּם, וּבְנֵי הָעֲלִיּוֹת יוֹצְאִין לָהּ דֶּרֶךְ פִּתְחֵיהֶם הַפְּתוּחִים לָהּ וְיוֹרְדִין מִמֶּנָּה בְּסֻלָּם לֶחָצֵר, וְעוֹבְרִים לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּיםא,1 – הֲרֵי מִרְפֶּסֶת זוֹ לָעֲלִיּוֹת כְּחָצֵר לְבָתִּים,ב,2 וְאִם לֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד אֲסוּרִים לְהוֹצִיא לָהּ כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת,ג שֶׁבְּנֵי הָעֲלִיּוֹת אוֹסְרִים אוֹתָהּ זֶה עַל זֶה, הוֹאִיל וְהִיא מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת לְכֻלָּם, וְכֻלָּם פְּתוּחִים לָהּ כְּמוֹ הַבָּתִּים לֶחָצֵר.

אֲבָל אֵין צָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר,ד,3 שֶׁאַף שֶׁהֵם עוֹבְרִיםה,4 לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים דֶּרֶךְ הֶחָצֵרו אֵינָם אוֹסְרִים אוֹתָהּ עֲלֵיהֶם,ז הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָן פְּתוּחִים לָהּ אֶלָּא לְמִרְפֶּסֶת, וּסְתָם מִרְפֶּסֶת גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה,ח,5 וְכָל גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה רְשׁוּת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ הוּא וּמֻחְלֶקֶת מֵרְשׁוּת שֶׁאֶצְלָהּ.ט,6

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם רָצוּ לְעָרֵב עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁגַּם הֵם יִהְיוּ מֻתָּרִים לְהוֹצִיא לֶחָצֵר כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּעֲלִיּוֹתֵיהֶםי – יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב עַל יְדֵי הַסֻּלָּם שֶׁמֵּחָצֵר לְמִרְפֶּסֶת, שֶׁהוּא נִדּוֹן כְּפֶתַח, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ב,יא וַהֲרֵי הֵן כְּב' חֲצֵרוֹת וּפֶתַח בֵּינֵיהֶן, שֶׁאִם רָצוּ מְעָרְבִים יַחַד וְאִם רָצוּ מְעָרֶבֶת כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ.יב,7 וְאַף שֶׁהַסֻּלָּם תּוֹרַת פֶּתַח עָלָיו,8 אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין הָעֲלִיּוֹת חֲשׁוּבוֹת כִּפְתוּחוֹת לֶחָצֵר,יג לְפִי שֶׁהַסֻּלָּם אֵין תּוֹרַת פֶּתַח עָלָיו אֶלָּא לְהָקֵל, שֶׁיְּכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד עַל יְדֵי סֻלָּם שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן כְּמוֹ עַל יְדֵי פֶּתַח, אֲבָל לֹא לְהַחֲמִיר.יד,9

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים שֶׁבְּנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת דְּהַיְנוּ בְּנֵי הָעֲלִיּוֹת אֵינָם אוֹסְרִים בֶּחָצֵר? כְּשֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ הֵם יַחַד, שֶׁהֵם מֻתָּרִים בְּמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם,טו וַהֲרֵי זוֹ רֶגֶל הַמֻּתֶּרֶת בִּמְקוֹמָהּ שֶׁאֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִמְקוֹמָהּ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ח.טז אֲבָל אִם לֹא עֵרְבוּ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם אֲסוּרִים בְּמִרְפֶּסֶת שֶׁלָּהֶם – הֲרֵי זֶה רֶגֶל הָאֲסוּרָה בִּמְקוֹמָהּ וְאוֹסֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא בִמְקוֹמָהּ עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ שָׁם,יז כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם:


Fig. 93: A two-storied building in a courtyard. a) An entrance to the public domain; b) The courtyard; c) An entrance to a dwelling in the courtyard; d) A ladder leading to the porch; e) The porch; f) An entrance to a dwelling on the loft
Fig. 93: A two-storied building in a courtyard. a) An entrance to the public domain; b) The courtyard; c) An entrance to a dwelling in the courtyard; d) A ladder leading to the porch; e) The porch; f) An entrance to a dwelling on the loft

2 [The following laws apply] if the residents of the porch established an eruv among themselves but did not establish an eruv with the residents of the courtyard,10 and there is a mound or a pillar in the courtyard that is owned jointly by the residents of the courtyard and the residents of the porch, and [that is] used by both of them during the week.11 If [the mound or pillar] is ten [handbreadths] higher than the ground of the courtyard and it is less than ten [handbreadths] below the porch,12 it is granted to the residents of the lofts, i.e., they are permitted to use it on Shabbos for articles that were located in the lofts at the commencement of the Shabbos. [See fig. 94. By contrast,] the residents of the courtyard may not [use the mound or pillar] for articles located in their homes at the onset of Shabbos.13 [The rationale is that] it is easy for [the residents of the lofts] to use [the mound or pillar] since it is within ten [handbreadths] of their [porch]. By contrast, it is difficult for the residents of the courtyard to make use of [the mound or pillar], for [the residents of] the courtyard would use it [primarily] to [help them when] lift[ing] a heavy burden, [using the mound or pillar as support to assist them in] placing [the object] onto their backs. Since [the mound or pillar] is ten [handbreadths] high, it [can be used to enable] a heavy burden to be lifted only with difficulty.14 [Hence, we follow the principle:] Whenever an entity can be used easily by [the residents of] one [domain] and only with difficulty by [the residents of] another [domain, its use] is granted to those who can use it with ease.15

When does the above apply? When [the mound or pillar] is close to the porch. [A different rule applies,] however, if [the mound or pillar] is four handbreadths [or more] distant from [the porch]. Since [the residents of the lofts] can only use [the mound or pillar] by throwing [an object] for a distance of four handbreadths, it is difficult for them to use [the mound or pillar] as well. Hence, unless [the residents of both domains] establish a common eruv, they cause each other to be forbidden [to use the mound or pillar] for articles that were located in the homes [or the lofts] at the commencement of the Shabbos.16

[The following rules apply] when [the level of the mound or pillar] is [either] within ten [handbreadths] of [the level of] both [the courtyard and the porch] or more than ten [handbreadths] from [the level of] both of them: If [the mound or the pillar] is [at least] four [handbreadths] distant from the porch, its [use] is given to [the residents of] the courtyard, because it is easier for them to make use of [the mound or pillar] than for [the residents of] the porch [to do so]. If [the mound or pillar] is less than four [handbreadths] distant from [the porch, the residents of the lofts and of the courtyard] are both forbidden to make use of it.

If [the mound or pillar] is within ten [handbreadths of the ground] of the courtyard and more than ten [handbreadths distant from the level] of the porch, [permission to use the mound or pillar] is given to [the residents of] the courtyard in all instances, even if it is not four [handbreadths] distant from the porch.17

ב אִם עֵרְבוּ בְּנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת לְעַצְמָןיח וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר,יט,10 וְיֵשׁ בֶּחָצֵר תֵּל אוֹ עַמּוּדכ שֶׁהוּא שֶׁל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר וְשֶׁל בְּנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת,כא וּשְׁנֵיהֶם מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ בְּחֹלכב,11 – אִם הוּא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה מִקַּרְקָעִית הֶחָצֵרכג,11 וְאֵינוֹ נָמוּךְ עֲשָׂרָה מִמִּרְפֶּסֶת,כד,12 נוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לִבְנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת, שֶׁהֵם מֻתָּרִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת,כה וְלֹא בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת,כו,13 לְפִי שֶׁלָּהֶם הוּא תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּנַחַת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא תּוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה לָהֶם, וְלִבְנֵי הֶחָצֵר תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּקָשֶׁה, שֶׁאֵין דֶּרֶךְ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּחָצֵר אֶלָּא לְכַתֵּף עָלָיו מַשּׂוֹי כָּבֵד, וְכֵיוָן שֶׁגָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה – אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְכִתּוּף מַשּׂוֹי אֶלָּא בְּקֹשִׁי.כז,14 וְכֹל שֶׁלְּזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּנַחַת וּלְזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּקָשֶׁה – נוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לְזֶה שֶׁבְּנַחַת.כח,15

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת. אֲבָל אִם הוּא מֻפְלָג מִכְּנֶגְדָּהּ ד' טְפָחִים,כט,11 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֶלָּא עַל יְדֵי זְרִיקָה בָּאֲוִיר בְּרֹחַב ד' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי זֶה גַם כֵּן תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּקָשֶׁה.ל וְלָכֵן אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה,לא וּשְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִים בּוֹ בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ.16

וְאִם הוּא תּוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה לִשְׁנֵיהֶם,לב אוֹ יוֹתֵר מֵעֲשָׂרָה לִשְׁנֵיהֶםלג – אִם הוּא מֻפְלָג מִכְּנֶגֶד הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת ד', נוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לֶחָצֵר, שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ לָהּ בְּנַחַת יוֹתֵר מִלַּמִּרְפֶּסֶת. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מֻפְלָג ד', שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִים.

וְאִם הוּא תּוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה לֶחָצֵר, וְיוֹתֵר מֵעֲשָׂרָה לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת – נוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לֶחָצֵר בְּכָל עִנְיָן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מֻפְלָג ד' מִכְּנֶגֶד הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת:לד,17


Fig. 94: A pillar in a courtyard shared by the residents of a two-storied building. a) An entrance to the public domain; b) The courtyard; c) An entrance to a dwelling in the courtyard; d) The porch; e) An entrance to a dwelling on the loft; f) A pillar, 10 handbreadths high but less than 10 handbreadths below the porch
Fig. 94: A pillar in a courtyard shared by the residents of a two-storied building. a) An entrance to the public domain; b) The courtyard; c) An entrance to a dwelling in the courtyard; d) The porch; e) An entrance to a dwelling on the loft; f) A pillar, 10 handbreadths high but less than 10 handbreadths below the porch

3 [The following rules apply when there is] a cistern18 in a courtyard that is surrounded by a wall ten [handbreadths] high, [that is] jointly [owned] by the residents of the courtyard and the porch, and [which] is close to the porch, [see fig. 95.] The residents of the courtyard [can only] make use of [the cistern with a certain degree of difficulty]. They must lower [a bucket] and throw it, i.e., they throw the bucket over the wall [surrounding the cistern] and then lower it into the cistern. [It is easier for] the residents of the porch [to] use the cistern; they [need] only [to] lower [their buckets into the cistern]. Nevertheless, [the residents of these places] cause each other to be forbidden to draw [water from the cistern, both] with a bucket that was located in [one of the] homes or [one of the] lofts at the commencement of the Shabbos19or to bring the water [from the cistern into the homes or the lofts] in lighter containers to store it there.

The [usage of the] cistern is not given to the residents of the loft,20 because even their use of the cistern [also] involves [some degree of] difficulty, for they must lower [the bucket] ten handbreadths.21 [Moreover,] even if the cistern is filled with water up to the top of its wall [that reaches] close to the porch,22 it is forbidden23 [for the residents of the lofts to draw water from the cistern on Shabbos. This is] a decree [instituted as a safeguard] lest [the height] of the water be reduced on Shabbos24and [the residents of the lofts] continue using [the cistern] as they did before.25

If, however, the cistern was filled with a substance that is forbidden to be moved on Shabbos,26it is considered like a pillar or a mound that is ten [handbreadths] higher than the courtyard but within ten [handbreadths] of the [height of the] porch, which is given to [the residents of] the porch when [the pillar or mound] is less than four [handbreadths] removed from [the porch].27

ג בּוֹר18 שֶׁבֶּחָצֵרלה שֶׁל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר וְהַמִּרְפֶּסֶת בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת,לו וּמַקִּיפָתוֹ חֻלְיָא גָּבוֹהַּ י' וּסְמוּכָה לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ בְּשִׁלְשׁוּל וּבִזְרִיקָה, שֶׁזּוֹרְקִין דְּלִי לְמַעְלָה מִן הַחֻלְיָא וּמְשַׁלְשְׁלִין אוֹתוֹ לַבּוֹר, וּבְנֵי מִרְפֶּסֶת מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בְּשִׁלְשׁוּל בִּלְבָדלז – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה לְמַלֹּאת בִּדְלִי שֶׁשָּׁבַת בְּבֵיתוֹ אוֹ בָּעֲלִיּוֹת,19 אוֹ לְהָבִיא הַמַּיִם בְּכֵלִים קַלִּים לְהַצְנִיעָם שָׁמָּה,לח וְאֵין נוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לִבְנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת,20 הוֹאִיל וְגַם לָהֶם תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּקָשֶׁה עַל יְדֵי שִׁלְשׁוּל י' טְפָחִים.21 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַבּוֹר מָלֵא מַיִם עַד גֹּבַהּ הַחֻלְיָא סָמוּךְ לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת22 – אָסוּר,לט,23 מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יַחְסְרוּ הַמַּיִם בְּשַׁבָּת24 וְיִשְׁתַּמְּשׁוּ בּוֹ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה.25 אֲבָל אִם הָיָה הַבּוֹר מָלֵא בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִטָּל בְּשַׁבָּתמ,26 – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּעַמּוּד אוֹ תֵּלמא גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה מֵחָצֵר וְתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת, שֶׁנּוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לַמִּרְפֶּסֶת אִם אֵינוֹ מֻפְלָג מִכְּנֶגְדָּהּ ד':27


Fig. 95: A cistern in a courtyard shared by residents of a two-storied building. a) An entrance to the public domain; b) The courtyard; c) An entrance to a dwelling in the courtyard; d) The porch; e) An entrance to a dwelling on the loft; f) A cistern surrounded by a wall ten handbreadths high
Fig. 95: A cistern in a courtyard shared by residents of a two-storied building. a) An entrance to the public domain; b) The courtyard; c) An entrance to a dwelling in the courtyard; d) The porch; e) An entrance to a dwelling on the loft; f) A cistern surrounded by a wall ten handbreadths high

4 When there is a barrier four handbreadths high in front of the porch, [the presence of the residents of] the porch do not cause [the residents of] the courtyard to be forbidden [to carry in the courtyard].28 Moreover, [the residents of the courtyard may] even [use] a mound or a pillar that is next to [the porch.29 The rationale is since the residents of the porch] erected an intervening [barrier] in front of the porch, they revealed their intent – to separate themselves from the courtyard.30

ד הָיְתָה מַצֵּבָהמב גָּבוֹהַּ ד' טְפָחִיםמג לִפְנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת – אֵין הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת אוֹסֶרֶת עַל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר28 אֲפִלּוּ תֵּל וְעַמּוּד הַסְּמוּכָה לָהּ,מד,29 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁעָשׂוּ הֶפְסֵק לִפְנֵי הַמִּרְפֶּסֶת, גִּלּוּ דַעְתָּם שֶׁסִּלְּקוּ עַצְמָן מֵהֶחָצֵר:מה,30

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 [The following laws apply to] projections that jut forth from walls that are jointly owned by the residents of the courtyard and the residents of the lofts:31 All [the projections] that are less than ten [handbreadths high] are considered as [part of] the courtyard32 and the residents of the courtyard are [permitted to] use them. All [of the projections] that are within the uppermost ten handbreadths close to the lofts may be used by the residents of the lofts.33 Both [the residents of the courtyard and the residents of the lofts] are forbidden to use the remainder of the projections that are above the lower ten [handbreadths] and below the upper ten [handbreadths] for articles that were located in their homes at the commencement of the Shabbos,34unless they [all] joined together in a common eruv. [See fig. 96.]

ה זִיזִין הַיּוֹצְאִין מִן הַכְּתָלִיםמו וְהֵם מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר וְהָעֲלִיּוֹת בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת,מז,31 כֹּל שֶׁהוּא לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה – הֲרֵי זֶה נֶחְשָׁב מֵהֶחָצֵר32 וּבְנֵי הֶחָצֵר מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ, וְכֹל שֶׁהוּא בְּתוֹךְ י' טְפָחִים הָעֶלְיוֹנִים הַסְּמוּכִים לָעֲלִיָּה – אַנְשֵׁי עֲלִיָּה מִשְׁתַּמְּשִׁים בּוֹ.33 וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בֵּין עֲשָׂרָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים עַד תְּחִלַּת עֲשָׂרָה הָעֶלְיוֹנִים מִן הַזִּיזִים הַיּוֹצְאִים – שְׁנֵיהֶם אֲסוּרִים לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶם בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבָּתִּים34 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עֵרְבוּ יַחַד בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר עִם בְּנֵי הָעֲלִיּוֹת:


Fig. 96: Projections that jut forth from walls that are jointly owned by the residents of the courtyard and the residents of the lofts. a) Projections that are less than 10 handbreadths high; b) Projections that are above the lower 10 handbreadths, but below the 10 handbreadths closest to the loft; c) Projections that are within 10 handbreadths of the lofts
Fig. 96: Projections that jut forth from walls that are jointly owned by the residents of the courtyard and the residents of the lofts. a) Projections that are less than 10 handbreadths high; b) Projections that are above the lower 10 handbreadths, but below the 10 handbreadths closest to the loft; c) Projections that are within 10 handbreadths of the lofts