SECTION 374 [The Laws That Apply When] the Entrance or Window on which an Eruv Depends Becomes Sealed on Shabbos (1-4)

סימן שעד נִסְתַּם בְּשַׁבָּת פֶּתַח אוֹ חַלּוֹן בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁעֵרֵב בּוֹ וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 When [the residents of] two houses or two courtyards established an eruv together because of a window or an entrance that connected them,1 but that [window or entrance] became sealed on Shabbos, [the residents of the two domains] are permitted to [pass objects] from one [domain] to the other2 over the top of the wall [between them] or through holes [in that wall. The rationale is]: Since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains.3

If, however, [the window or entrance] became sealed while it was still day [on Friday], even if it was opened again on Shabbos, [the residents] are forbidden [to carry from one house or courtyard to the other. The rationale is that] they never acquired [rights to] the eruv, for rights to an eruv may be acquired [only] bein hashmashos4and in this situation, the eruv was not [valid] during bein hashmashos since the entrance was sealed. [Even though it was reopened] after nightfall, [the residents of the two domains] did not acquire [rights to] the eruv, for an eruv cannot be established after nightfall.

Even when [the residents of the two domains] had already established an eruv before the previous Shabbos and [the bread used] for that eruv was still present, they may not rely on it on this Shabbos after the entrance was reopened. [The rationale is that the eruv] was already nullified before Shabbos, and it does not [automatically] become valid again5 after nightfall [on Shabbos]. If, however, the eruv was originally established for many Shabbasos – even if an eruv was established for a year or longer 6 – and [rights to] the eruv were acquired bein hashmashos of the first Shabbos while the entrance was open, and then the entrance was sealed, were it to be opened afterwards on another Shabbos, even at the end of the year, the eruv becomes valid again. [This ruling applies] even if [the entrance] was sealed intentionally.

There is an authority who rules stringently when [the entrance] was sealed intentionally. [That authority is concerned that] by [intentionally] sealing [the entrance], the person indicates that he does not desire the eruv. [Hence, the eruv] does not [automatically] become valid again when [the entrance] is opened. With regard to the actual halachah, the lenient opinion may be followed, [since the matter concerns] a point of Rabbinic Law.

א ב' בָּתִּיםא אוֹ ב' חֲצֵרוֹתב שֶׁעֵרְבוּ יַחַד עַל יְדֵי שֶׁהָיָה בֵּינֵיהֶם חַלּוֹן אוֹ פֶּתַח,1 וְנִסְתַּם בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּרִיםג לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ מִזֶּה לְזֶה2 דֶּרֶךְ גֹּבַהּ כֹּתֶל וְחוֹרָיו,ד שֶׁשַּׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה – הֻתְּרָה.ה,3

אֲבָל אִם נִסְתַּם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֲפִלּוּ חָזַר וְנִפְתַּח בְּשַׁבָּת – אֲסוּרִים, לְפִי שֶׁעֲדַיִן לֹא קָנוּ עֵרוּב מֵעוֹלָם, שֶׁקְּנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב הוּא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת,ו,4 וְכַאן לֹא הָיָה עֵרוּב בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַפֶּתַח סָתוּם, וּמִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה לֹא קָנוּ עֵרוּב, שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ.

וַאֲפִלּוּ עֵרְבוּ כְּבָר לִפְנֵי שַׁבָּת שֶׁעָבְרָה, וְאוֹתוֹ עֵרוּב נִשְׁאָר עֲדַיִן קַיָּם – אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לִסְמוֹךְ עָלָיו בְּשַׁבָּת זוֹ אַחַר שֶׁנִּפְתַּח הַפֶּתַח, הוֹאִיל וּכְבָר נִתְבַּטֵּל מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְאֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוֹר5 מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשַׁךְ. אֲבָל אִם מִתְּחִלָּה עֵרְבוּ לְשַׁבָּתוֹת הַרְבֵּה, אֲפִלּוּ עֵרְבוּ לְשָׁנָה אוֹ יוֹתֵר,6 וְקָנוּ עֵרוּב בְּבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁל שַׁבָּת רִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהָיָה הַפֶּתַח פָּתוּחַ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִסְתַּם הַפֶּתַח וְנִפְתַּח בְּשַׁבָּת אַחֶרֶת, אֲפִלּוּ בְּסוֹף הַשָּׁנָה – חוֹזֵר הָעֵרוּב וְנֵעוֹר,ז,5 וַאֲפִלּוּ סְתָמוֹ בְּמֵזִיד.ח וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁחוֹשֵׁשׁ לְהַחֲמִירט אִם סְתָמוֹ בְּמֵזִיד, הוֹאִיל וְגִלָּה דַעְתּוֹ בִּסְתִימָה זוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ חָפֵץ בָּעֵרוּב – אֵינוֹ חוֹזֵר וְנֵעוּר כְּשֶׁנִּפְתַּח. וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל:

2 When there was a wall between two courtyards and [the residents of] each [courtyard] established individual eruvin, and then the wall was breached on Shabbos, [the residents of each courtyard] are permitted to carry in their courtyard7 until the place of the wall.8 Even articles that were located in a home at the onset of Shabbos [may be brought to the courtyard.9 The rationale is that] since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains.

When, however, [the wall of] a courtyard is breached to a public domain or a karmelis on Shabbos [in a manner] that causes [carrying] to be forbidden,10 we do not apply the principle, “Since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains,” as stated in sec. 362[:7].

ב הָיָה כֹּתֶל בֵּין [שְׁתֵּי] חֲצֵרוֹת, וְעֵרְבָה כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ, וְנִפְרַץ הַכֹּתֶל בְּשַׁבָּת – מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל כָּל אֶחָד בַּחֲצֵרוֹ 7 עַד מְקוֹם הַכֹּתֶלי,8 אֲפִלּוּ כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת,9 שֶׁשַּׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה – הֻתְּרָה.יא

אֲבָל חָצֵר שֶׁנִּפְרְצָה בְּשַׁבָּת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים אוֹ לְכַרְמְלִית פִּרְצָה הָאוֹסַרְתָּהּ10 – אֵין אוֹמְרִים "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה",יב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ב:יג

3 [The following laws apply when the wall of] a narrow courtyard was breached to a large [courtyard along] the entire [width11 of the narrower courtyard] while it was still day [on Friday],12 but the breach was not larger than ten cubits:13 [The residents of] the larger [courtyard] are permitted to take articles that were located in their homes at the onset of Shabbos into their courtyard if they established an independent eruv. Even though [the residents of the larger courtyard] did not establish an eruv with [the residents of] the narrower [courtyard, the fact that] the narrower [courtyard is open to the larger courtyard] does not cause carrying [in the larger courtyard] to be forbidden. [The rationale is that] this breach is considered like an entrance for the larger courtyard,14 since it did not extend across the entire width [of the larger courtyard], but rather projections [from the wall] remained at the side of the breach to the narrower [courtyard] on either side. [In contrast to this, the residents of] the narrower [courtyard] are forbidden to take articles that were located in their homes at the onset of Shabbos into their courtyard unless they established an eruv with [the residents of] the larger [courtyard, since the breach to the large [courtyard] extends over the entire width [of the narrower courtyard].15

When does the above apply? When the walls along the length of the narrow [courtyard] extend into the larger [courtyard], and [these walls] are three handbreadths [or more removed] from the walls along the length of the larger [courtyard. See fig. 91.].16 If that is not so, [carrying] is permitted even in the narrower [courtyard] because the projections of [the wall of] the larger [courtyard] are visible from the outside, [although] they are even with [the narrower courtyard’s] inner [walls], as explained in sec. 360[:7].

ג חָצֵר קְטַנָּה שֶׁנִּפְרְצָהיד מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםטו,12 בְּמִלּוּאָהּ11 לִגְדוֹלָה, וְאֵין בַּפִּרְצָה יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת13 – גְּדוֹלָהטז מֻתֶּרֶת לְהוֹצִיא כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת לַחֲצֵרָהּ אִם עֵרְבָה לְעַצְמָהּ, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה עִם הַקְּטַנָּה, אֵין הַקְּטַנָּה אוֹסֶרֶת עָלֶיהָ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁפִּרְצָה זוֹ הִיא לַגְּדוֹלָה כְּפֶתַח14 שֶׁאֵין לָהּיז בְּמִלּוּאָהּ, אֶלָּא נִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ בָּהּ גִּפּוּפִים עוֹדְפִים עַל פִּרְצַת הַקְּטַנָּה מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן. וְהַקְּטַנָּה אֲסוּרָה לְהוֹצִיא כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת לַחֲצֵרָהּ, הוֹאִיל וְנִפְרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ לְהַגְּדוֹלָה,יח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עֵרְבָה עִם הַגְּדוֹלָה.15

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁנִּכְנָסִין כָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הַקְּטַנָּה לְתוֹךְ הַגְּדוֹלָהיט וּמֻפְלָגִין שָׁם ג' טְפָחִים מִכָּתְלֵי אֹרֶךְ הַגְּדוֹלָה,כ,16 שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן אַף הַקְּטַנָּה נִתֶּרֶת עַל יְדֵי גִפּוּפֵי הַגְּדוֹלָה, מִשּׁוּם נִרְאֶה מִבְּחוּץ וְשָׁוֶה מִבִּפְנִים, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ס:כא


Fig. 91: A narrow courtyard that extends into a wider courtyard and whose wall is breached. a) A narrow courtyard; b) A wider courtyard; c) The portion of the wall of the narrow courtyard that extends into the wider courtyard; d) The portion of the wall of the wider courtyard that extends beyond the narrow courtyard
Fig. 91: A narrow courtyard that extends into a wider courtyard and whose wall is breached. a) A narrow courtyard; b) A wider courtyard; c) The portion of the wall of the narrow courtyard that extends into the wider courtyard; d) The portion of the wall of the wider courtyard that extends beyond the narrow courtyard

4 Similar [laws apply] when a small, [narrow] roof is surrounded by a guardrail ten [handbreadths] high but [that guardrail was] breached17 along its entire [width, and as a result the narrow roof opens] to a larger roof which is surrounded by a similar [guardrail].18 [If the residents of] the homes did not join together in an eruv, [the residents of the house with] the narrower [roof] are forbidden to bring articles that were located in the house at the beginning of the Shabbos up [to the roof] if its guardrail [extends] into the larger [roof.19 The rationale is that] there is no partition dividing between [the narrow roof] and the large [roof], and an eruv was not established between [the two houses. The residents of] the larger [house, however,] are permitted [to take articles that were located in their home at the onset of Shabbos to the roof], because [its guardrail] has projections that protrude beyond the breach of the narrower [roof].20 [See fig. 92.]

[These laws] also [apply] even when [the roofs] are not surrounded by a guardrail at all, but the walls of the house around the roof are visible and apparent to one who stands on the edge of the roof when he looks [down] below his legs. [In such an instance,] we apply the principle of gud asik, and it is as if [the walls of the house are extended upward] and are standing on the edge of the roof, as explained in sec. 345[:1].

In contrast, the principle of gud asik is not applied with regard to the walls of the house that are between the narrow [roof] and the large [roof],21 since [those walls] are not visible to someone standing there above [on the roof], for the roofs are joined together. [The roofs] cover the breach [between] the narrower [house and the wider house], and [the walls of the narrower home] are not visible there. [Instead, it appears to one standing on the narrower roof that] the place of these walls is breached over the entire width from the narrower [roof] to the larger one.

[By contrast, it is not considered that the breach extends over] the entire [width] of the larger [roof], for the walls of the larger house project beyond [those of the smaller house] on both sides and are visible to someone standing on the edge of the [larger] roof. Therefore, [the residents of] the larger [house] are permitted [to bring articles that were in their home at the onset of Shabbos to their roof], and [the residents of] the smaller [house] are forbidden [to bring articles that were in their home at the onset of Shabbos to their roof] if the walls of [the smaller] home [extend into the walls of] the larger [home].

If, however, the walls of the house are not visible to a person standing on the edge of the roof, e.g., the roof protrudes over them,22 [the roof is deemed] a karmelis, as explained in sec. 345[:23. An exception is made,] however, if there is [an aperture measuring] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] that opens from the house to [the roof]. (In that instance, [the roof is deemed] a private domain, as explained in that source.) Nevertheless, in that instance, even [the residents of] the large [home] are forbidden [to carry] articles that were located in the home at the onset of Shabbos [onto the roof. The rationale is that] the roof does not have protrusions projecting outward on either side, because the principle of gud asik is not applied to the walls of the house since they are not visible to someone standing [on the roof] above.23 [This rule applies] when [the residents of the two homes] did not join together in an eruv.

ד וְכֵן גַּג קָטָןכב הַמֻּקָּף מַעֲקֶה סְבִיבוֹכג גְּבוֹהָה עָלָיו עֲשָׂרָהכד שֶׁנִּפְרַץ17 שָׁם בְּמִלּוּאוֹ8 לְגַג גָּדוֹלכה הַמֻּקָּף גַּם כֵּן כָּמֹהוּ,18 וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ הַבָּתִּים יַחַד – קָטָן אָסוּר לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִתכו אִם מְחִצּוֹתָיו נִכְנָסוֹת לְתוֹךְ הַגָּדוֹל,כז,19 הוֹאִיל וְאֵין לוֹ מְחִצָּה לְהַפְסִיק בֵּינוֹ לַגָּדוֹל שֶׁלֹּא עֵרֵב עִמּוֹ, וְגָדוֹל מֻתָּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ גִּפּוּפִים עוֹדְפִים עַל פִּרְצַת הַקָּטָן.20

וְכֵן אֲפִלּוּ אִם אֵינָן מֻקָּפִים מַעֲקֶה כְּלָל, אֶלָּא שֶׁמְּחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת סָבִיב נִכָּרוֹת וְנִרְאוֹתכח לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל שְׂפַת הַגַּג כְּשֶׁמִּסְתַּכֵּל תַּחַת רַגְלָיו,כט שֶׁאָז אוֹמְרִים בָּהֶן "גּוּד אַסֵּק" וּכְאִלּוּ הֵן עוֹמְדוֹת לְמַעְלָה עַל שְׂפַת הַגַּג, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה.ל אֲבָל מְחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת שֶׁבֵּין קָטָן לַגָּדוֹל אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהּ "גּוּד אַסֵּק",לא,21 הוֹאִיל וְאֵינָהּ נִרְאֵית לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד שָׁם מִלְמַעְלָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַגַּגִּין מְחֻבָּרִין זֶה לְזֶה וּמְכַסִּים עַל פִּרְצַת הַקְּטַנָּהלב וְאֵין רוֹאִים אוֹתָהּ, וּמְקוֹם מְחִצָּה זוֹ לְמַעְלָה הִיא כְּפִרְצָה בְּמִלּוּאָהּ מֵהַקָּטָן לְהַגָּדוֹל, וּלְהַגָּדוֹל אֵינָהּ בְּמִלּוּאוֹ, שֶׁהֲרֵי כֹּתֶל בַּיִת הַגָּדוֹל עוֹדֵף מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן וְנִרְאֶה לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל שְׂפַת הַגַּג. וּלְפִיכָךְ גָּדוֹל מֻתָּר וְקָטָן אָסוּר אִם נִכְנָסִים כָּתְלֵי בֵּיתוֹ לְתוֹךְ הַגָּדוֹל.לג

אֲבָל אִם גַּם מְחִצּוֹת הַבַּיִת סָבִיב אֵינָן נִכָּרוֹת וְנִרְאוֹת לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד עַל שְׂפַת הַגַּג, כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַגַּג בּוֹלֵט עֲלֵיהֶן22 – כַּרְמְלִית הוּא,לד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ה,לה אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חַלּוֹן ד' עַל ד' פָּתוּחַ לוֹ מֵהַבַּיִתלו (וְאָז הוּא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם). אֲבָל מִכָּל מָקוֹם אִם לֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד אַף הַגָּדוֹל אָסוּר בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת, לְפִי שֶׁאֵין לוֹ גִּפּוּפִים עוֹדְפִים מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן, שֶׁהֲרֵי כֹּתֶל הַבַּיִת אֵין אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "גּוּד אַסֵּק", הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ נִכָּר לְמִי שֶׁעוֹמֵד לְמַעְלָה:לז,23


Fig. 92: A narrow roof whose guardrail extends into a wider roof. a) A narrow roof; b) A wider roof; c) The place where the narrow roof was breached; d) Portions of the guardrail of the narrow roof that extend into the wider roof; e) The projections of the guardrail of the wider roof
Fig. 92: A narrow roof whose guardrail extends into a wider roof. a) A narrow roof; b) A wider roof; c) The place where the narrow roof was breached; d) Portions of the guardrail of the narrow roof that extend into the wider roof; e) The projections of the guardrail of the wider roof