SECTION 372 The Laws Applying to Shared Living Spaces [with Regard] to an Eruv (1-22)

סימן שעב דִּין שִׁתּוּפֵי הַדִּירוֹת לְעֵרוּב וּבוֹ כ"ב סְעִיפִים:

1 [Our Sages] forbade1 carrying without an eruv from a private domain belonging to one person to a private domain belonging to another person only [when carrying to and from] homes, since they are used exclusively [by their owner] and are used on a regular basis. In contrast, roofs [of] adjacent [buildings]2 without a public domain intervening between them,3 adjoining courtyards or karpeifos,4and other similar places5 which are not used exclusively [by their owner] and [are not] regularly used, are all considered as a single domain with regard to articles that were located there when Shabbos commenced. It is permitted to carry [articles] from one domain that is not regularly used6 to another domain that is not regularly used, even if [the domains] belong to many owners who did not join together in an eruv,7provided [the articles] are not brought from these domains to a house belonging to a different owner8 unless there is an eruv. [The rationale is that] a home is distinct from these [types of domains] and is not considered as a single entity with them. Similarly, [it is forbidden to carry] from a house to [one of these domains].

What is implied? One may carry from one courtyard to another courtyard even though [the residents of the two] did not join in an eruv – and even if [the residents of] each one of the courtyards did not establish an eruv [among themselves.9 Similarly, one may carry] from one courtyard to the roof of a home that is not in this courtyard [although] there is no eruv [that joins the two domains] together. [This applies] provided [the person] carries on the actual roof above [the building. The space] above the ceiling of the house beneath its upper roof,10 by contrast, is governed by the same laws as those applying to the other rooms [of the home].

[One may also carry] from a courtyard to the top of a wall [that separates] between two courtyards,11 for the top of such a wall is governed by the same laws as a roof. [Similarly, one may carry from a courtyard belonging to one person to a karpeif belonging to another person] if it was not, provided [the karpeif] is less than beis sasayim or [to a karpeif] enclosed for the purpose of habitation even if [the karpeif] is larger than beis sasayim, [provided the karpeif] was enclosed for the purpose of habitation.12 [One may also carry] from a courtyard to a lane that was modified with a lechi or a beam13 even though [the residents of the lane] did not join in a shituf14[that would permit carrying],15 for [such a lane] is governed by the same laws as a courtyard for which an eruv was not established rather than [by the laws that govern] a karmelis, as will be explained in sec. 388[:1]. Similarly, one may carry from a roof to an adjacent roof belonging to another person, even if [the adjacent roof] is much higher or lower than it, or from the roof [belonging to] one person to a courtyard belonging to another person, to a lane for which a shituf was not made, or to a karpeif belonging to another person, and so, too, from one person’s karpeif to the karpeif belonging to another person.

All the above applies to articles that were located in one of these [types of] domains at the commencement of the Shabbos. In contrast, articles that were located in a home at [the onset of Shabbos], and were taken out to one of these [types of] domains – even in a permitted manner, e.g., one took [the article from a home] to a courtyard which is included in an eruv with this house,16 or even if one brought [the object] out by wearing it as a garment – are forbidden to be taken to another courtyard,17 a roof belonging to another person, or a karpeif belonging to another personthat was encompassed for the purpose of habitation.18 ([The rationale is that] articles that were located any place within a house at the commencement of the Shabbos are governed by the laws that would apply were they [to still be in] in that house, i.e., it is forbidden to take them out to a place that was not included in [the homeowner’s] eruv.)

[Moreover,] an eruv is not effective for a karpeif that was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation, even if it is smaller than beis sasayim.Even if [the karpeif] belonged to [the owner of the adjacent house, one] is [still] forbidden to take articles into it when [these articles] were located [in his house] at the commencement of the Shabbos, as stated in sec. 358[:4].

Similarly, articles that were located in one of [the above-mentioned types of] domains at the commencement of the Shabbos are forbidden to be taken into a house which was not included in an eruv together with the domain in which the articles were located at the commencement of the Shabbos.

Even if one brought [such an article] into [such] a domain that was included in an eruv with a house – e.g., a courtyard that was included in the same eruv as the house – by wearing [the article] as a garment, it is forbidden to carry [the article]19 from there into the house, since it was located in a domain that was not included in the same eruv as the house at the commencement of the Shabbos.

(Even if [the articles originally] were located in a domain that was included in the same eruv as the house at the commencement of the Shabbos, but they were taken out from there to a domain that was not included in the same eruv as the house, it is forbidden to bring [the articles] from that domain into the house20 – or to do the opposite21 – unless one first places down [the articles] in the domain that is included in the same eruv as the house, and then brings them into the house.22 The same is true in the opposite [situation].23

Similarly, [articles] that were located in a house at the commencement of the Shabbos and [were then] brought out to a domain that was not included in its eruv [at the beginning of the Shabbos]by wearing them as garments, are forbidden to be carried [back into] the house unless they are first placed down in a domain that was included in the eruv [of the house].) The opposite is also true.24

א לֹא אָסְרוּ1 לְטַלְטֵל מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁל זֶה לִרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד שֶׁל זֶה בְּלִי עֵרוּב אֶלָּא בְּבָתִּים שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישָׁן מְיֻחָד וְתָדִיר.א אֲבָל הַגַּגּוֹתב שֶׁהֵן סְמוּכִין זֶה לְזֶהג,2 בְּלִי הֶפְסֵק רְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים בֵּינֵיהֶם,ד,3 וְכֵן הַחֲצֵרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת וְכֵן הַקַּרְפֵּיפוֹת,4 וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶםה,5 מֵהַמְּקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין תַּשְׁמִישָׁן מְיֻחָד וְתָדִיר – כֻּלָּן רְשׁוּת אַחַת הֵן לְכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּתוֹכָם, שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִמָּקוֹם זֶה שֶׁאֵין תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ תָּדִיר6 לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר שֶׁאֵין תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ תָּדִיר אֲפִלּוּ הֵם שֶׁל בְּעָלִים הַרְבֵּהו וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד,ז,7 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יְטַלְטֵל מִתּוֹכָם לַבַּיִתח בְּלִי עֵרוּב אִם הֵם שֶׁל בְּעָלִים מְחֻלָּקִים,8 לְפִי שֶׁהַבַּיִת חָלוּק מֵהֶם וְאֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת אַחַת עִמָּהֶם, וְכֵן מֵהַבַּיִת לְתוֹכָם.ט,1

כֵּיצַד? מְטַלְטֵל הוּא מֵחָצֵר זוֹ לְחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם גַּם כָּל אַחַת וְאַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּי גַּם כֵּן לֹא עֵרְבָה.9 אוֹ מֵחָצֵר זוֹ לְגַג שֶׁל בַּיִת אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּחָצֵר זוֹ וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד, וְהוּא שֶׁיְּטַלְטֵל עַל הַגַּג מַמָּשׁ מִלְמַעְלָה,יא אֲבָל עַל תִּקְרַת הַבַּיִת תַּחַת גַּג הָעֶלְיוֹן10 – דִּינוֹ כִּשְׁאָר חֲדָרִים. אוֹ מֵחָצֵר לְרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּין שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת,יב,11 שֶׁרֹאשׁ כֹּתֶל זֶה דִּינוֹ כְּגַג.יג אוֹ מֵחָצֵר שֶׁל זֶה לְקַרְפֵּף שֶׁל אַחֵר, וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם,יד אוֹ שֶׁהֻקַּף לְדִירָה אֲפִלּוּ הוּא יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם.12 אוֹ מֵחָצֵר לְמָבוֹיטו הַמְּתֻקָּן בְּלֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה,13 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ14 בּוֹ,15 שֶׁדִּינוֹ גַם כֵּן כְּחָצֵר שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת וְלֹא כְּכַרְמְלִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ח. וְכֵן מְטַלְטֵל מִגַּג זֶה לְגַג שֶׁל אַחֵר הַסָּמוּךְ לוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ גָבוֹהַּ אוֹ נָמוּךְ מִמֶּנּוּ הַרְבֵּה,טז,1 אוֹ מִגַּג שֶׁל זֶה לְחָצֵר שֶׁל אַחֵר אוֹ לְמָבוֹי שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ בּוֹ אוֹ לְקַרְפֵּף שֶׁל אַחֵר, וְכֵן מִקַּרְפֵּף שֶׁל זֶה לְקַרְפֵּף שֶׁל אַחֵר.

וְכָל זֶה בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּאֶחָד מֵרְשֻׁיּוֹת אֵלּוּ. אֲבָל כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת וְהוֹצִיאָן לְאַחַת מֵרְשֻׁיּוֹת אֵלּוּ, אֲפִלּוּ בְּהֶתֵּר, כְּגוֹן לְחָצֵר מְעֹרֶבֶת שֶׁל בַּיִת זֶה,יז,16 וַאֲפִלּוּ הוֹצִיאָם בְּדֶרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁיח,16 – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם לְחָצֵר אַחֶרֶתיט,17 אוֹ לְגַג שֶׁל אַחֵר אוֹ לְקַרְפֵּףכ הַמֻּקָּף לְדִירָה שֶׁל אַחֵרכא,18 (שֶׁהַכֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת – בְּכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁהֵם דִּינָם כְּאִלּוּ הֵם בַּבַּיִת, שֶׁאָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם מִמֶּנּוּ לְמָקוֹם אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ עִמּוֹ).

אֲבָל לְקַרְפֵּף שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא פָּחוֹת מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם – אֵין עֵרוּב מוֹעִיל, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ הוּא שֶׁלּוֹ אָסוּר לְהוֹצִיא לְתוֹכוֹ כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ,כב כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ח.כג

וְכֵן כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּאַחַת מֵרְשֻׁיּוֹת אֵלּוּ – אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיסָם לְבַיִת אַחֵר שֶׁלֹּא עֵרֵב עִם רְשׁוּת זוֹ שֶׁשָּׁבַת הַכְּלִי בְּתוֹכוֹ.כד,11

וַאֲפִלּוּ הִכְנִיסָם דֶּרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ לִרְשׁוּת שֶׁעֵרְבָה עִם הַבַּיִת, כְּגוֹן לְחָצֵר מְעֹרֶבֶת שֶׁל בַּיִת זֶה – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם19 מִשָּׁם לַבַּיִת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בִּרְשׁוּת שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת עִם הַבַּיִת.כה

(וַאֲפִלּוּ שָׁבְתוּ בִּרְשׁוּת הַמְעֹרֶבֶת עִם הַבַּיִת, וְהוֹצִיאָם מִמֶּנָּה לִרְשׁוּת אַחֶרֶת שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת עִם הַבַּיִת – אָסוּר לְהַכְנִיסָם מֵאוֹתָהּ רְשׁוּת לַבַּיִתכו,20 אוֹ לְהֵפֶךְ,21 אִם לֹא שֶׁיַּנִּיחֵם תְּחִלָּה בִּרְשׁוּת הַמְעֹרֶבֶת עִמּוֹכז וּמִשָּׁם יַכְנִיסֵם לַבַּיִת,כח,22 וְכֵן לְהֵפֶךְ.23

וְכֵן כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת, וְהוֹצִיאָם בְּדֶרֶךְ מַלְבּוּשׁ לִרְשׁוּת שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְעֹרֶבֶת עִמּוֹ – אָסוּר לְטַלְטְלָם לַבַּיִתכט אִם לֹא יַנִּיחֵם תְּחִלָּה בִּרְשׁוּת הַמְעֹרֶבֶת עִמּוֹ), וְכֵן לְהֵפֶךְ:24

2 A karpeif that is larger than beis sasayim that was not enclosed for the purpose of habitation is [deemed] a karmelis.25 It is forbidden to carry from it to another karpeif that is similar to it, bringing articles in or taking them out from one [karpeif] to the other, beyond two cubits in either karpeif, as is the law regarding two [adjoining] karmelios, as explained in sec. 346[:5].

ב קַרְפֵּף יוֹתֵר מִבֵּית סָאתַיִם שֶׁלֹּא הֻקַּף לְדִירָה – כַּרְמְלִית הוּא,25 וְאָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל מִמֶּנּוּ לְקַרְפֵּף אַחֵר כָּמֹהוּ, לְהַכְנִיס וּלְהוֹצִיא מִזֶּה לְזֶה, כִּי אִם ב' אַמּוֹת בְּזֶה וּב' אַמּוֹת בְּזֶה,ל כְּמוֹ בִּשְׁאָר ב' כַּרְמְלִית, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ו:לא

3 When [the residents of] two courtyards26 desire to establish an eruv among themselves to permit them to carry [even] articles that were located in their residences at the commencement of Shabbos from one [courtyard] to the other, it is unnecessary [for them to establish] another eruv. Instead, one of the residents of one courtyard should [act as an agent] for all [the other residents of the courtyard and take the bread that had been] set aside for an eruv for that [courtyard] and bring it to the other [courtyard], depositing it in one of their houses.27 [This is effective] provided the residents of the other courtyard [had also] established an eruv among themselves. Moreover, the residents of the second courtyard do not need additional bread to join in an eruv with [the residents of the first courtyard]. Instead, the eruv they previously made permits them [to carry in that courtyard as well].

ג שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁרוֹצוֹת לְעָרֵב יַחַד26 לְהַתִּיר לְטַלְטֵל מִזּוֹ לְזוֹ אַף כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבָּתִּים, אֵין צְרִיכִין עֵרוּב אַחֵר, אֶלָּא הָעֵרוּב שֶׁעָשׂוּ כְּבָרלב כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ יוֹלִיכֶנּוּ אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר בִּשְׁבִיל כֻּלָּם וְיִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּאֶחָד מִבָּתֵּי שְׁנִיָּה,לג,27 וְהוּא שֶׁעֵרְבוּ בְּנֵי חָצֵר הַשְּׁנִיָּה לְעַצְמָן. וּבְנֵי חָצֵר הַשְּׁנִיָּה גַּם כֵּן אֵינָן צְרִיכִין פַּת אַחֵר כְּדֵי לְעָרֵב עִם זוֹ, אֶלָּא הָעֵרוּב שֶׁעָשׂוּ כְּבָר מַתִּירָן:לד

4 If [the agent of the residents of the first courtyard] desires, he may even bring his own bread28 [and deposit it in the second courtyard]. As a result, all [the other residents of the agent’s courtyard] are permitted [to carry in the second courtyard. The rationale is that] since [the agent] already joined in an eruv with the others [in his own courtyard], he [can] acquire [a share in the new eruv] on behalf of all of them.

This law also applies if this person’s [relationship] with the other [residents of his courtyard] is such that they are not required to establish an eruv among themselves, e.g., a father and his sons whom he supports, and they are the only residents of this courtyard, or other analogous situations, as described in sec. 370[:7. Any resident of the courtyard] may bring bread – even his own bread – to the adjoining courtyard on behalf of all of [the residents of the first courtyard] to establish an eruv with [the residents of the adjoining courtyard].

ד וְאִם יִרְצֶה יוֹלִיךְ שָׁם אֲפִלּוּ פַּת מִשֶּׁלּוֹ,28 וְכֻלָּם מֻתָּרִים, הוֹאִיל וְהוּא כְּבָר עֵרֵב עִם חֲבֵרָיו – קוֹנֶה לְצֹרֶךְ כֻּלָּם.לה וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם הוּא עִם חֲבֵרָיו הֵם בְּעִנְיָן שֶׁאֵינָן צְרִיכִין לְעָרֵב כְּלָל בֵּינֵיהֶם, כְּגוֹן אָב עִם בָּנָיו הַמְקַבְּלִים פְּרָס מִמֶּנּוּ הַשְּׁרוּיִים לְבַדָּם בְּחָצֵר אַחַת, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָהֶם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"עלו – הֲרֵי אֶחָד מֵהֶם מוֹלִיךְ פַּת בִּשְׁבִיל כֻּלָּם, אֲפִלּוּ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, לְחָצֵר הַסְּמוּכָה לָהֶם לְעָרֵב עִמָּהּ:לז

5 [The residents of] two courtyards may only establish an eruv among themselves when there is an opening four handbreadths wide29 between them, or [when there is] a window that [measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths between them],30 a portion of which is found within the ten handbreadths closest to the ground.31 [In such a situation,] if [the residents of the courtyards] desire, they may establish an eruv together, and [if that is done], they may transfer objects [from one courtyard to the other], even through cracks or holes [in the wall between the two courtyards].

If they desire, [the residents of] each one may establish an eruv for their [courtyard] individually. [In that instance,] they are forbidden to carry articles that were located in the homes at the commencement of the Shabbos from one courtyard to the other through the entrances and the windows, or through the cracks or holes [in the wall]. Nor [may they transfer articles from one courtyard to the other by placing them on] the top of the wall.

If, however, [there is only a window connecting the two courtyards, and] the entire window is more than ten handbreadths above [the ground], it is not effective at all [in enabling the courtyards to be joined. The rationale is that] there is a complete partition [ten handbreadths high] beneath the window, which separates [the two] courtyards. [In this instance,] an eruv cannot be established between the courtyards.32

If [the window] is less than four handbreadths wide, even if the window is very tall,33 it is not effective. If [the window] is round, it must have a circumference of 16 4/5 handbreadths so that it could circumscribe a square [measuring] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths. To explain the calculations:] The diagonal of a square [of four [handbreadths by four handbreadths] is 5 3/5 handbreadths.34 [Thus,] the diameter of the circle [must be this size. The diameter of a circle] is one third of its circumference.35 3 times 5 3/5 handbreadths [equals] 16 4/5 [handbreadths. At least] a minimal part of the square [this round window would circumscribe] must be within [the] ten handbreadths [closest to] the ground. [See figs. 85 and 86.]

ה אֵין ב' חֲצֵרוֹת יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יִהְיֶה בֵּינֵיהֶם פֶּתַח רָחָב ד' טְפָחִים,לח,29 אוֹ חַלּוֹן שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד',לט,30 וְיִהְיֶה קְצָתוֹ בְּתוֹךְ י' טְפָחִים הַנְּמוּכִים לָאָרֶץ,מ,31 וְאָז אִם רָצוּ מְעָרְבִים יַחַד, וּמֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל אֲפִלּוּ דֶּרֶךְ חוֹרִים וּסְדָקִים.מא וְאִם רָצוּ מְעָרְבִין כָּל אֶחָד לְעַצְמוֹ, וַאֲסוּרִים לְטַלְטֵל מִזּוֹ לְזוֹמב דֶּרֶךְ פְּתָחִים וְחַלּוֹנוֹת אוֹ חוֹרִים וּסְדָקִים אוֹ עַל גַּבֵּי הַכֹּתֶלמג כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת. אֲבָל אִם כָּל הַחַלּוֹן הוּא לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ תַּחְתָּיו מְחִצָּה גְמוּרָה הַחוֹלֶקֶת בֵּין הֶחָצֵר, וְאִי אֶפְשָׁר לָהֶן לְעָרֵב יַחַד.מד,32

וְאִם אֵין בְּרָחְבּוֹ ד' טְפָחִים, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא אָרֹךְ הַרְבֵּה33 – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם.מה,32

וְאִם הוּא עָגֹל – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּהֶקֵּפוֹ י"ז טְפָחִים פָּחוֹת חֹמֶשׁ, כְּדֵי שֶׁנּוּכַל לְרַבֵּעַ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד',מו שֶׁהָאֲלַכְסוֹן שֶׁל מְרֻבָּע זֶה שֶׁהוּא ה' טְפָחִים וְג' חֳמָשִׁיןמז,34 הוּא רֹחַב שֶׁל הָעִגּוּל שֶׁהוּא שְׁלִישׁ הֶקֵּפוֹ,35 וְג' פְּעָמִים ה' טְפָחִים וְג' חֳמָשִׁין הֵם י"ז פָּחוֹת חֹמֶשׁ, כָּזֶה.מח וְצָרִיךְ שֶׁיְּהֵא מַשֶּׁהוּ מִן מְרֻבָּע זֶה תּוֹךְ י' טְפָחִים לָאָרֶץ:מט


Fig. 85: A circle that circumscribes a square 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths. a) A circle with a circumference of 16 4/5 handbreadths; b) A square measuring 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; c) The diagonal of the square, 5 3/5 handbreadths
Fig. 85: A circle that circumscribes a square 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths. a) A circle with a circumference of 16 4/5 handbreadths; b) A square measuring 4 handbreadths by 4 handbreadths; c) The diagonal of the square, 5 3/5 handbreadths

Fig. 86: A circular hole that connects two courtyards
Fig. 86: A circular hole that connects two courtyards

6 [The following law applies] when there is a window [in a common wall shared by] two houses [that open to two adjoining courtyards,36 and their owners] desire to establish an eruv with each other37 [in an instance] where [the residents of their] courtyards did not establish an eruv together: [See fig. 87. The owners] may [join together in] an eruv even if the [lowest part of the] window is more than ten handbreadths [above the ground.38 The rationale is that] since the house is roofed, it is considered as one solid mass.39 Hence, it is as if the window is less than ten handbreadths above the ground, since [the house] is considered as one solid mass.

The same law applies to an aperture between a home and a loft. Even though [the aperture] is more than ten [handbreadths high], if [the owners of the home and the loft] desire, they may join together in an eruv even if there is no ladder [with which] to ascend,40 provided the aperture [measures at least] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths].

If bars were erected in front of the window, it is removed from the category of a window.41 The spaces [between the bars] are not [considered as] combined to [reach the necessary size of] four handbreadths [by four handbreadths]. The same law applies to an aperture [in the ceiling].

ו חַלּוֹן שֶׁבֵּין ב' בָּתִּים36 שֶׁרוֹצִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד,37 כְּגוֹן שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ הַחֲצֵרוֹת זוֹ עִם זוֹנ – יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב אֲפִלּוּ הוּא גָבוֹהַּ לְמַעְלָה מִי' טְפָחִים,נא,38 לְפִי שֶׁהַבַּיִת, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְקֹרֶה,נב הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמָלֵא,39 וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ אֵין הַחַלּוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים,נג כֵּיוָן שֶׁהַבַּיִת כֻּלּוֹ מְמֻלָּא. וְהוּא הַדִּין לַאֲרֻבָּה שֶׁבֵּין בַּיִת לַעֲלִיָּה, שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהִיא לְמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה – אִם רָצוּ מְעָרְבִין יַחַד, וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין שָׁם סֻלָּם לַעֲלוֹת בּוֹ,נד,40 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּהֵא בָּאֲרֻבָּה ד' עַל ד'.נה,37

וְאִם עָשׂוּ סְרִיגָה לִפְנֵי הַחַלּוֹן – נִתְבַּטֵּל מִתּוֹרַת חַלּוֹן,נו,41 שֶׁאֵין הַנְּקָבִים מִצְטָרְפִים לְד' טְפָחִים,נז וְכֵן בַּאֲרֻבָּה:נח


Fig. 87: Houses that open to adjoining courtyards that are joined together by a window on an interior wall. a) A house that opens to a courtyard; b) A window, ten handbreadths or more above the ground, on the common wall shared by these homes
Fig. 87: Houses that open to adjoining courtyards that are joined together by a window on an interior wall. a) A house that opens to a courtyard; b) A window, ten handbreadths or more above the ground, on the common wall shared by these homes

7 When a house is situated between two courtyards with openings to both of them and [its owner] established an eruv with [the residents of] both courtyards, but [the residents of] the courtyards did not establish an eruv with each other, articles that were located in the homes [in either courtyard] at the commencement of the Shabbos may not be carried from courtyard to courtyard via this house.42

ז בַּיִת שֶׁבֵּין שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת וְהוּא פָּתוּחַ לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן, וְעֵרֵב עִם שְׁתֵּיהֶן, אֲבָל הַחֲצֵרוֹת לֹא עֵרְבוּ זוֹ עִם זוֹ – אֵין לְטַלְטֵל כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבָּתִּים מֵחָצֵר לְחָצֵר עַל יְדֵי בַּיִת זֶה:נט,42

8 An eruv may not be established between two [adjoining] courtyards [in the following instances]:

a) there was a wall ten handbreadths high extending over the entire length [of the space between the courtyards],

b) the ground of one of the courtyards was five handbreadths higher than that of the [adjoining] courtyard, and a partition five handbreadths high was built so that it reached [a height of] ten [handbreadths above the other courtyard],43

c) one [courtyard] was ten handbreadths higher than the other [courtyard, even] without a partition.

If there was a wall ten handbreadths high between [two courtyards]44 and fruit was placed on top of the wall, the residents of both courtyards are permitted to take the fruit to their courtyards.45 Similarly, [the residents of either courtyard] may place fruit that was located in one courtyard at the commencement of the Shabbos on [the top of the wall] and [that fruit] may be taken down to the other courtyard46 even though [the residents of the two courtyards] did not establish an eruv with each other. [This applies] whether or not the top of the wall is four handbreadths wide.47 [The rationale is that] the top of the wall is governed by the laws that apply to a roof and [thus,] the two courtyards are all [considered] one domain with regard to articles located in them at the commencement of the Shabbos, even though [the residents] did not establish an eruv among themselves.48

By contrast, fruit that was located in one of the houses in either one of the courtyards at the commencement of the Shabbos is forbidden to be brought to the top [of the wall] or taken down from there,49 because [the top of the wall] is a domain that [the residents of] both [courtyards share.50 Therefore the residents of both courtyards] cause each other to be forbidden to use [the top of the wall] for articles that were located in a house at the commencement of the Shabbos, unless they join together in an eruv. Even fruit that was located on [the top of the wall] or in the courtyards at the commencement of the Shabbos may not be taken down from [the wall] to be brought into a house [in either courtyard. The rationale is that the top of the wall] is not [part of] the same domain as the houses [in either courtyard] unless an eruv was established [joining the two courtyards].

When do these [restrictions] apply? When the top [of the wall] is four handbreadths wide. If, however, [the top of the wall] is less than four handbreadths wide, it is deemed a makom p’tur51 and is considered as batel to both of the courtyards.52 [The residents of both] courtyards are permitted to bring fruit that was located in their houses at the commencement of the Shabbos [to the top of the wall] or bring fruit that was located [on the top of the wall] at the commencement of the Shabbos into their houses.

[Nevertheless, even though the wall is placed in the category of a makom p’tur,] if residents from either courtyard took fruit from their homes and placed it on top [of the wall, the residents of the other courtyard] are forbidden to take [this fruit] into their courtyard. [The rationale is that] it is through both of their actions53 that the fruit that was located in a house [in one courtyard] at the commencement of the Shabbos was transferred into another courtyard [whose residents] did not establish an eruv with [the residents of the first courtyard]. Even though [the fruit] was set down in a makom p’tur in the interim, that is of no consequence for, as explained in sec. 346[:3], one should act stringently, following the opinion of the authorities who forbid this.

ח הָיָה בֵּין ב' חֲצֵרוֹת כֹּתֶל גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים עַל פְּנֵי כָּל אָרְכּוֹ,ס,37 אוֹ שֶׁהָיָה קַרְקָעָהּ שֶׁל אַחַת מֵהַחֲצֵרוֹת גָּבוֹהַּ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ ה' טְפָחִים וְעָשָׂה עָלָיו מְחִצָּה ה' טְפָחִים לְהַשְׁלִימוֹ לַעֲשָׂרָה,סא,43 וְהוּא הַדִּין כְּשֶׁגָּבוֹהַּ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עֲשָׂרָה בְּלֹא מְחִצָּהסב – אֵין יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד.

וְאִם הָיָה הַכֹּתֶל גָּבוֹהַּ לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן עֲשָׂרָה,44 וְהָיָה בְּרֹאשׁוֹ פֵּרוֹת – הֲרֵי בְּנֵי ב' הַחֲצֵרוֹת יְכוֹלִים לְהוֹרִיד הַפֵּרוֹת לַחֲצֵרוֹת,45 וְכֵן לְהַעֲלוֹת עָלָיו מִפֵּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּחָצֵר זוֹ וּלְהוֹרִידָם מִמֶּנּוּ לְחָצֵר הָאַחֶרֶת,46 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ זוֹ עִם זוֹ,סג בֵּין שֶׁרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל רָחָב ד' טְפָחִים בֵּין שֶׁאֵינוֹ רָחָב,סד,47 שֶׁהֲרֵי רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל דִּינוֹ כְּגַג,סה וּשְׁתֵּי הַחֲצֵרוֹת כֻּלָּן רְשׁוּת אַחַת הֵן לְכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּתוֹכָן אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ:סו,48

אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בְּאַחַת מִבָּתֵּי חָצֵר זוֹ אוֹ זוֹ – אָסוּר לְהַעֲלוֹתָם עָלָיו אוֹ לְהוֹרִידָם מִמֶּנּוּ,סז,49 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא רְשׁוּת שֶׁל שְׁתֵּיהֶן,סח,50 וְהֵן אוֹסְרוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ לְעִנְיַן כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ. וַאֲפִלּוּ פֵּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ עָלָיו אוֹ בַּחֲצֵרוֹת – אָסוּר לְהוֹרִידָם מִמֶּנּוּ לְהַכְנִיסָם לַבַּיִת,סט שֶׁעִם הַבַּיִת אֵינוֹ רְשׁוּת אַחַת אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן עֵרְבוּ.

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהוּא רָחָב ד' טְפָחִים בְּרֹאשׁוֹ.47 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב ד' טְפָחִיםע – מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּאעא,51 וּבָטֵל לְכַאן וּלְכַאן,עב,52 וְאֵלּוּ מַעֲלִין עָלָיו מִכַּאן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת וְאֵלּוּ מִכַּאן, וְכֵן אֵלּוּ מוֹרִידִין מִכַּאן פֵּרוֹת שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ עָלָיו וּמַכְנִיסִים לְבָתֵּיהֶם וְאֵלּוּ מוֹרִידִים מִכַּאן וּמַכְנִיסִים לְבָתֵּיהֶם.

אֲבָל פֵּרוֹת שֶׁהֶעֱלוּ אֵלּוּ מִבָּתֵּיהֶם וְהִנִּיחוּ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ – אֲסוּרִים אֵלּוּ לְהוֹרִיד לַחֲצֵרָם, לְפִי שֶׁעַל יְדֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם53 נַעֲשֵׂית כַּאן לְפֵרוֹת אֵלּוּ שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת הוֹצָאָה לְחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה עִמּוֹ.עג וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהֻנְּחוּ בִּמְקוֹם פְּטוּר בֵּינְתַיִם, אֵין זֶה מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם,עד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שמ"ועה שֶׁיֵּשׁ לְהַחֲמִיר בְּזֶה כְּדִבְרֵי הָאוֹסְרִים:

9 [Different rules apply] if the wall was ten handbreadths high for [the residents of] one of the courtyards, but less than [that height for the residents of] the other [courtyard], i.e., the ground of one [courtyard] is higher than that of the other [courtyard]. If [the residents of the courtyard for which the wall] is not ten [handbreadths high] made an eruv for themselves alone,54 they are permitted to use [the top of the wall] even for articles that were located in a house [in their courtyard] at the commencement of the Shabbos. [By contrast, the residents of] the other [courtyard] are forbidden to use [the top of the wall] even for articles that were located in the courtyard at the commencement of the Shabbos. [The underlying principle is that] since it is difficult for those for whom the wall is ten handbreadths high to use [the top of] the wall, [the opportunity to] use it is given to those who could use it easily.55 Therefore, the use of [the top of] the wall is given to those for whom it is not ten [handbreadths] high, and they [are permitted to] use it even for articles located in a house at the commencement of the Shabbos. [Conversely,] those for whom it is ten [handbreadths] high are prevented from using [the top of the wall] even for articles that were located in the courtyard at the commencement of the Shabbos, so that those for whom [the wall] is not ten [handbreadths] high will not be forbidden to use it [even] for articles located in a house at the commencement of the Shabbos. [The rationale is that for those for whom the wall is less than ten handbreadths high,] the top of this wall is not governed by the laws pertaining to a roof,56 but by those pertaining to a courtyard, since [the wall] is less than ten [handbreadths] higher than the ground of the [adjoining] courtyard. Accordingly, if [the residents of] the other [courtyard for whom the wall is ten handbreadths high] were also permitted to use [the top of the wall], the domain of [the residents of] both [courtyards] would extend over this wall, and it would be forbidden for those [dwelling in the courtyard where it is easy to make use of the wall by] taking out articles that were located in a home [in that courtyard] at the commencement of the Shabbos and [placing them at the top of] this wall, [for then the top of the wall] would have been deemed as a courtyard that [the residents of the two courtyards on either side of the wall] jointly [use].57

[The above applies] provided [the top of] the wall is four [handbreadths] wide. If, however, [the top of the wall] is not four [handbreadths] wide, it is characterized as a makom p’tur and it is permitted for [the residents of] both [courtyards] to make use of [the top of the wall], even [for articles taken] from the homes (even) if [the residents of] each courtyard joined in an eruv among themselves, although they did not join in a common eruv [linking both courtyards].

ט וְאִם הָיָה הַכֹּתֶל גָּבוֹהַּ לְאַחַת מֵהַחֲצֵרוֹת י' טְפָחִים וְלַשְּׁנִיָּה אֵינוֹ גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה,עו,51 כְּגוֹן שֶׁקַּרְקָעָהּ שֶׁל אַחַת מֵהֶן גָּבוֹהַּ מִשֶּׁל חֲבֶרְתָּהּעז – מִי שֶׁאֵינָהּ גָּבוֹהַּ לוֹ עֲשָׂרָה מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַף בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִתעח אִם עֵרְבָה חָצֵר זוֹ לְעַצְמָהּ,עט,54 וְהַשֵּׁנִי אָסוּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַף בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בֶּחָצֵר,פ לְפִי שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁ כֹּתֶל זֶה לְמִי שֶׁגָּבוֹהַּ לוֹ עֲשָׂרָה הוּא תַּשְׁמִישׁ בְּקֹשִׁי – נוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לְזֶה שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּנַחַת,פא,55 לְפִיכָךְ נוֹתְנִים כֹּתֶל זֶה לְמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָּבוֹהַּ לוֹ עֲשָׂרָה שֶׁיִּשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַף בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת, וּמוֹנְעִים אָנוּ אֶת מִי שֶׁגָּבוֹהַּ לוֹ עֲשָׂרָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַף בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בֶּחָצֵר, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יֵאָסֵר עַל זֶה שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ לוֹ עֲשָׂרָה לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת, לְפִי שֶׁכֹּתֶל זֶה אֵין דִּינוֹ כְּגַג56 אֶלָּא כְּחָצֵר, הוֹאִיל וְאֵינוֹ גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה מִקַּרְקָעִית חָצֵר שֶׁל זֶה, וְאִם כֵּן אִם גַּם הַשֵּׁנִי יִהְיֶה לוֹ רְשׁוּת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אֵיזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ – תְּהֵא רְשׁוּת שְׁנֵיהֶם שׁוֹלֶטֶתפב בְּכֹתֶל זֶה, וִיהֵא אָסוּר לְזֶה לְהוֹצִיא כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת לַחֲצַר שְׁנֵיהֶם.פג,57

וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא הַכֹּתֶל רָחָב ד'.פד,47 אֲבָל אִם אֵינוֹ רָחָב ד' – מְקוֹם פְּטוּר הוּא,פה וּמֻתָּר לִשְׁנֵיהֶם לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בּוֹ אַף מִן הַבָּתִּים (אפילו) [אִם] עֵרְבָה כָּל חָצֵר לְעַצְמָהּ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבוּ בְּיַחַד:פו

10 [The following laws apply when a portion of] the wall [separating the courtyards] was breached:58 [If the breach is] ten cubits or less, it is considered as an entrance.59 If they desire, [the residents of each courtyard] may join together in an eruv for themselves [alone.60 The above applies] provided the entire [wall] was not breached, (but there remains a strip of any width on both ends [of the wall, see fig. 88]61 or a strip four handbreadths [wide remains] on one end [of the wall]).

If the opening was more than ten [cubits wide, the two courtyards] are considered as one courtyard, [and in order for the residents of both courtyards to be permitted to carry,] they must join in a common eruv. Any place where the wall is less than ten handbreadths high is considered as breached.62

י נִפְרַץ הַכֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן58 עַד עֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת,פז וְעַד בִּכְלָלפח – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּפֶתַח,59 וְאִם רָצוּ מְעָרְבִין כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ.פט,60 וְהוּא שֶׁאֵינוֹ פָּרוּץ בְּמִלּוּאוֹצ (אֶלָּא נִשְׁתַּיְּרוּ פַּס מַשֶּׁהוּ מִכַּאן וּמַשֶּׁהוּ מִכַּאן אוֹ פַּס ד' טְפָחִים מִצַּד אֶחָדצא).61 וְאִם נִפְרַץ יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר – חֲשׁוּבוֹת שְׁתֵּיהֶם כְּחָצֵר אַחַת וּצְרִיכוֹת לְעָרֵב יַחַד.צב,58 וְכָל מָקוֹם מֵהַכֹּתֶל שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים, כְּפָרוּץ הוּא:צג,62


Fig. 88: The remnants of a wall that separated between two courtyards and was breached. a) One courtyard; b) The second courtyard; c) Strips of the wall remaining on each side, 10 handbreadths high ;d) Remnants less than 10 handbreadths high
Fig. 88: The remnants of a wall that separated between two courtyards and was breached. a) One courtyard; b) The second courtyard; c) Strips of the wall remaining on each side, 10 handbreadths high ;d) Remnants less than 10 handbreadths high

11 When there is a wall ten [handbreadths] high on both sides separating between two courtyards and [the residents of both courtyards each] placed a ladder four handbreadths63 wide next to the wall in their respective courtyards, [the two ladders] are considered as an opening in the wall [between the courtyards].64 If [the residents of] both courtyards desire, they may join together in one eruv. [This ruling applies] even if the ladders are not [exactly] aligned with each other. As long as they are within three handbreadths of each other, they are considered aligned.65 [Moreover,] even if [the two ladders] are very distant from each other, if [the top of] the wall is four handbreadths wide, [the ladders] are still considered as an entrance since one can ascend via one ladder, walk on the [top of the] wall to the second ladder, and [then] descend.

With regard to what [type of] ladder was the above statement made? With regard to a ladder with four rungs, which will not be moved on Shabbos because of its weight.66 [This ruling applies] even though [the ladder] will be removed after Shabbos.67However, if [the ladder] has less than this [amount of rungs], since it is small and easy to move, [the ladder] is considered as if it [had already been] moved, and it is not considered as an entrance unless its sides and rungs are thick and heavy.

If the wall is exactly ten [handbreadths] high, and one erected a ladder slightly more than seven [handbreadths] high and four [handbreadths] wide standing flush against the wall, it is considered as [if the ladder] reached the top [of the wall], since less than three [handbreadths] remain [between the top of the ladder and] the top of the wall.68 [The ladder] is thus effective with regards to establishing an eruv between [the two courtyards], if the [residents of] the other courtyard also erected [such a ladder. The ladder is also effective] with regards to permitting the person who erected this ladder in his courtyard to use the top of the wall for articles that were located in [his] home at the beginning of Shabbos, provided there is no ladder for this wall in the second courtyard. [In such an instance,] the [top of the] wall is considered as easily accessible to [the one who erected the ladder] and difficult to access [for those in the other courtyard. Hence, the right of usage] is granted to the one for whom it is easily accessible.69

יא כֹּתֶל שֶׁבֵּין ב' חֲצֵרוֹת גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה לִשְׁתֵּיהֶן, וְהֶעֱמִיד אֵצֶל הַכֹּתֶל סֻלָּם רָחָב ד' טְפָחִים63 וְכֵן כְּנֶגְדּוֹ בְּחָצֵר הַשֵּׁנִית, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין הַסֻּלָּמוֹת מְכֻוָּנִים זֶה כְּנֶגֶד זֶה אֶלָּא מְרֻחָקִים זֶה מִכְּנֶגֶד זֶה פָּחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי הֵם כִּמְכֻוָּנִים65 וַחֲשׁוּבִים כְּפֶתַח לַכֹּתֶל,צד,64 וְאִם רָצוּ מְעָרְבִין שְׁתֵּי הַחֲצֵרוֹת יַחַד.צה וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הֵם מְרֻחָקִים זֶה מִכְּנֶגֶד זֶה הַרְבֵּה – אִם הַכֹּתֶל רָחָב ד' טְפָחִים עֲדַיִן חֲשׁוּבִים הֵם כְּפֶתַח,צו,64 שֶׁיָּכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת בְּסֻלָּם זֶה וְלֵילֵךְ עַל הַכֹּתֶל עַד סֻלָּם הַשֵּׁנִיצז וְלֵירֵד.

בְּאֵיזֶה סֻלָּם אָמְרוּ? בְּסֻלָּם שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' שְׁלִיבוֹת,צח שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת מֵחֲמַת כָּבְדּוֹ,צט,66 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָתִיד לִטְּלוֹ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת.ק,67 אֲבָל פָּחוֹת מִכַּאן, הוֹאִיל וְקָטָן הוּא וְנוֹחַ לִטְּלוֹקא – כְּנָטוּל הוּא,קב וְאֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב פֶּתַח אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן זְרוֹעוֹתָיו וּשְׁלִיבוֹתָיו גַּסּוֹת וּכְבֵדוֹת.קג

וְאִם אֵין הַכֹּתֶל גָּבוֹהַּ אֶלָּא עֲשָׂרָה, וְהֶעֱמִיד סֻלָּם גָּבוֹהַּ שִׁבְעָה וּמַשֶּׁהוּקד וְרָחָב ד'קה אֵצֶל הַכֹּתֶל זָקוּף בְּיֹשֶׁרקו – כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא נִשְׁאַר שְׁלֹשָׁה עַד רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל,קז הֲרֵי זֶה כְּמַגִּיעַ לְרֹאשׁוֹ מַמָּשׁקח,68 וּמוֹעִיל, בֵּין לְעָרֵב יַחַד,קט אִם הֶעֱמִיד כֵּן גַּם בְּחָצֵר הַשֵּׁנִית,קי וּבֵין לְהַתִּיר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עַל הַכֹּתֶלקיא בְּכֵלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת לְזֶה שֶׁהֶעֱמִיד הַסֻּלָּם בַּחֲצֵרוֹ. וְאִם בְּחָצֵר הַשֵּׁנִית אֵין שָׁם סֻלָּם לְכֹתֶל זֶה, שֶׁאָז נַעֲשֶׂה כֹּתֶל זֶה – לְזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּנַחַת וּלְזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּקָשֶׁה, וְנוֹתְנִים אוֹתוֹ לְזֶה שֶׁתַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּנַחַת:קיב,69

12 [The following rules apply] when one removed a stretch from the top of a wall to reduce its height to less than ten [handbreadths]:70 If the reduction of height extends four [handbreadths along] the length [of the wall], (even if [the strip] is not four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area], i.e., the wall is not four [handbreadths] wide),71 it is effective both:

a) in causing [the lower part of the wall] to serve as an entrance for the wall, [thereby enabling the residents of] the courtyards to join together in an eruv,provided the entire breadth of the wall was reduced in this manner,72 and

b) to enable the entire [top of the wall] to be used for articles [from] a house73 if [the height of the wall] was not reduced over its entire breadth, but only on one side. [Hence, the top of the wall] is allotted to [the resident of the courtyard] who can use it easily, i.e., the one for whom [the wall’s height] was reduced, for he can easily ascend to the place where [the wall’s height] was reduced, and from there to [further] ascend to the top of the entire wall. [By contrast,] it is difficult for [the person on] the other [side] to use [the wall].74

If [the place where the height of the wall was reduced] is not four [handbreadths wide], it is not considered as an entrance that enables [the residents of both courtyards] to join together in an eruv. Nor is [the reduction in height] effective in enabling the person [from whose side the reduction was made] to make use of the entire [top of the] wall for articles from the house. Only the place [where the height of the wall] was reduced [is granted to him, since] the one on whose side [the height of the wall] was reduced can easily make use of that place; he can stand on the ground and easily make use of [that part of the top of the wall]. It is, however, not easy for him to ascend to the top of the wall through [the place where the reduction was made], since [the reduction in height spans an area that] is less than four [handbreadths wide].

יב עָקַר חֻלְיָא מֵרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶלקיג לְמַעֲטוֹ מִגֹּבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה,70 אִם יֵשׁ מֶשֶׁךְ ד' בְּאֹרֶךְ מַה שֶּׁנִּתְמַעֵטקיד (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' עַל ד',קטו כְּגוֹן שֶׁאֵין בְּעֹבִי הַכֹּתֶל ד')71 – מוֹעִיל בֵּין לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ פֶּתַח לְכֹתֶל זֶה לְעָרֵב הַחֲצֵרוֹת יַחַד אִם נִתְמַעֵט כֵּן כָּל עֹבִי הַכֹּתֶל,72 וּבֵין לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל הַכֹּתֶלקטז בִּכְלֵי הַבַּיִת73 אִם לֹא נִתְמַעֵט בְּכָל עָבְיוֹקיז אֶלָּא מִצַּד אֶחָד, וְנַעֲשֶׂה לְזֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּנַחַת לְמִי שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵט מִצִּדּוֹ,קיח שֶׁנּוֹחַ לוֹ לַעֲלוֹת בִּמְקוֹם הַמִּעוּט וּמִמֶּנּוּ יַעֲלֶה עַל רֹאשׁ כָּל הַכֹּתֶל,קיט וּלְהַשֵּׁנִי תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּקָשֶׁה.74

וְאִם אֵין בּוֹ ד' – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב כְּפֶתַח לְעָרֵב יַחַד, וְכֵן אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל הַכֹּתֶל בִּכְלֵי הַבַּיִת אֶלָּא בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵט בִּלְבָד,קכ,70 שֶׁשָּׁם הוּא תַּשְׁמִישׁוֹ בְּנַחַת לְזֶה שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵט מִצִּדּוֹ, שֶׁעוֹמֵד בַּקַּרְקַע וּמִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עָלָיו בְּנַחַת.קכא אֲבָל אֵינוֹ נוֹחַ לַעֲלוֹת דֶּרֶךְ עָלָיו לְרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל, הוֹאִיל וְאֵין בּוֹ ד':

13 [The following rules apply if] one built a ledge below [but] next to the wall to reduce its height from ten [handbreadths],75 so that there are less than ten handbreadths between [the ledge] and the top [of the wall], and thus it is easy for [a person] to ascend [to the ledge] where the height was reduced and from there to ascend to the top of the entire wall: If [the ledge covers an area that] is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], it is effective in enabling [the person] to make use of the entire [top of] the wall, for it is easy for him to ascend from [the ledge] to the top of the wall, since there are less than ten [handbreadths] from [the ledge to] the top [of the wall]. Nevertheless [this area of diminished height] is not considered as an entrance for the wall that would enable [the residents of the adjoining courtyards] to make an eruv together. [This stringency applies] even if a similar ledge was made [on the other side] for the other courtyard, since there are [more] than three handbreadths between the ledge and the top [of the wall].76

If [the ledge does] not [measure] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], it is not effective even to enable one to use the portion of [the top of] the wall that is directly opposite it. [The rationale is that] when [the ledge] is less than four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area], it is not comfortable to stand on it and use [the top of the wall]. Hence, this is not considered as comfortable usage.

יג בָּנָה אִצְטְבָאקכב לְמַטָּה אֵצֶל הַכֹּתֶלקכג לְמַעֲטוֹ מִגֹּבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה,75 שֶׁאֵין מִמֶּנָּה לְרֹאשׁוֹ י' טְפָחִים,70 שֶׁנּוֹחַ לוֹ לַעֲלוֹת בִּמְקוֹם הַמִּעוּט וּמִמֶּנָּה יַעֲלֶה עַל רֹאשׁ כָּל הַכֹּתֶלקכד – אִם יֵשׁ בָּהּ ד' עַל ד',קכה מוֹעֶלֶת לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל הַכֹּתֶל, שֶׁהֲרֵי נוֹחַ לַעֲלוֹת דֶּרֶךְ עָלֶיהָ עַל רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל,קכו הוֹאִיל וְאֵין מִמֶּנָּה לְרֹאשׁוֹ גֹּבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה. אֲבָל אֵינָהּ חֲשׁוּבָה כְּפֶתַח לְכֹתֶל זֶה לְעָרֵב יַחַד,קכז אֲפִלּוּ עָשָׂה כֵּן גַּם בְּחָצֵר הַשְּׁנִיָּה, הוֹאִיל וְיֵשׁ מִמֶּנָּה לְרֹאשׁוֹ ג' טְפָחִים.76

וְאִם אֵין בָּהּ ד' עַל ד' – אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת אֲפִלּוּ לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עַל הַכֹּתֶל כְּנֶגְדָּהּ מַמָּשׁ,קכח לְפִי שֶׁאֵין נוֹחַ לַעֲמוֹד עָלֶיהָ וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ כְּשֶׁאֵין בָּהּ ד' עַל ד', וְאֵין זֶה תַּשְׁמִישׁ בְּנַחַת:קכט

14 If one overturned a basin of any height that [measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], and thus reduced the height of the wall, [making it less] than ten [handbreadths high] – i.e., [presently, the distance] from [the top of the basin] to the top [of the wall] is less than ten [handbreadths, the basin] is effective in enabling one to make use of the entire [top of] the wall, just like [one who built] a ledge.77 [This ruling applies] even if [the person] will eventually remove [the overturned basin],78 provided [the overturned basin] is connected to the ground with mud in a manner that [makes] it is impossible to remove [the basin] without it being dug up with a pickaxe, [as this makes] it impossible for [the person] to move [the basin] from there on Shabbos.79

If, however, the mud is [merely] placed on the rim [of the basin] that is overturned on the ground, it is permitted to move [the basin] on Shabbos, for [the basin] does not become a base for a forbidden article.80 [The rationale is that the person] does not intend that the basin serve the mud, but that the mud serve the basin,81 connecting [the basin] to the earth. [Hence, the basin is not considered as having been placed there permanently,] because any object that can be moved on Shabbos does not reduce [the height of the wall], for it is considered as if [the object] has [already] been removed.82

[The following laws apply when a person] builds one ledge above another ledge, whether the lower [ledge measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] or not: If the upper ledge [measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths], and there are less than three handbreadths between [the ledges] – the [two ledges] are considered as one ledge that [measures] four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] on its higher level. [These ledges are] effective in enabling one to use [the top of] of the wall. However, [the ledges are] not significant [to the extent that] they are considered as an entrance, [and thus do not] enable an eruv to be established [with the adjoining courtyard].83

יד כָּפָה סֵפֶלקל שֶׁיֵּשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד'קלא וְגָבוֹהַּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, וּמִעֵט בּוֹ גֹּבַהּ הַכֹּתֶל מֵעֲשָׂרָה, שֶׁאֵין מִמֶּנּוּ לְרֹאשׁוֹ עֲשָׂרָהקלב – מוֹעִיל לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּכָל הַכֹּתֶל70 כְּמוֹ אִצְטְבָא,קלג,77 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעָתִיד לִטְּלוֹ,קלד,78 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּחַבְּרֶנּוּ בְּטִיט לָאָרֶץקלה חִבּוּר שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר לְשָׁמְטוֹ עַד שֶׁיַּחְפּוֹר בַּדֶּקֶר,קלו שֶׁאָז אִי אֶפְשָׁר לְנָטְלוֹ מִשָּׁם בְּשַׁבָּת.79 אֲבָל אִם הַטִּיט מֻנָּח כָּךְ עַל אָגְנָיו הַכְּפוּיִים לָאָרֶץ – מֻתָּר לִטְּלוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,קלז,70 שֶׁלֹּא נַעֲשֵׂית בָּסִיס לְדָבָר הָאָסוּר,קלח,80 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין כַּוָּנָתוֹ שֶׁיְּהֵא הַסֵּפֶל מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְהַטִּיט אֶלָּא הַטִּיט מְשַׁמֵּשׁ לְהַסֵּפֶל81 לְחַבְּרוֹ לָאָרֶץ;קלט וְכָל דָּבָר הַנִּטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ מְמַעֵט,קמ שֶׁכְּנָטוּל הוּא.קמא,82

בָּנָה אִצְטְבָא עַל אִצְטְבָא, אִם יֵשׁ בַּתַּחְתּוֹנָה ד' עַל ד', אוֹ אֵין בָּהּ ד' וְיֵשׁ בָּעֶלְיוֹנָה ד' עַל ד', וְאֵין בֵּין זוֹ לְזוֹ ג' טְפָחִים – הֲרֵי הֵן כְּאִצְטְבָא אַחַתקמב,70 שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ ד' עַל ד' מִלְמַעְלָה, שֶׁמּוֹעֶלֶת לְהַתִּיר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בַּכֹּתֶל, אֲבָל לֹא לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּתַח לְעָרֵב יַחַד:קמג,83

15 When a projection four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths] emerges from a wall, [this projection is] less than ten handbreadths from the top [of the wall], and one leans a ladder of any width – [even] less than four [handbreadths] – against it, [the projection and the ladder] are effective in allowing [a person] to use [the top of] the wall,84 for it is easy for him to ascend the ladder85 and stand on the projection and [thereby] use [the top of] the wall. Nevertheless [the projection] is not effective with regard to [enabling it and the ladder] to be considered as an entrance, [thus making it possible] to establish an eruv [with an adjoining courtyard], unless the projection is less than three handbreadths from the top of the wall.86

[The above] applies provided the bottom rung of the ladder is less than three handbreadths above the ground, and the [space] between each of the [ladder’s] rungs is less than three handbreadths. In such an instance, the projection and all the rungs [of the ladder] are considered as a single [entity] that is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area] at its highest level. Thus, [the projection and the ladder] are comparable to a ledge that is four [handbreadths] by four [handbreadths in area] at its highest level, which enables [the top of] the wall to be used, even though it is narrower on its lower levels.87

The above applies provided the top of the ladder is actually leaning against the projection. If, however, it is leaning against the wall next to the projection, the ladder is not considered as step[s] leading to the projection, and [the two] are not considered a single entity.

As long as the wall is less than twenty handbreadths high, it is sufficient to have one projection positioned in the middle. Thus there will be less than ten [handbreadths from the ground] until the projection, and less than ten handbreadths between the projection and the top of the wall. If [the wall] is twenty [handbreadths] high, two projections are required: one within the lower ten [handbreadths] and one within the upper ten [handbreadths, which is also] within ten handbreadths of the lower [projection]. For were the projection to be more than ten handbreadths from the ground, [or] were the upper [projection to be] more than ten handbreadths from the lower one, a [narrow] ladder that is less than four [handbreadths] wide would not suffice.

[The above] applies provided the projections are not aligned directly under each other, [but] rather they are positioned at an angle so that it would be possible to lean a ladder from one to the other. The ladder leading from the lower projection to the upper one should rest on the upper [projection] itself and not on the wall next to it.

טו זִיז הַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַכֹּתֶלקמד בְּפָחוֹת מִי' טְפָחִים מֵרֹאשׁוֹקמה וְיֵשׁ בּוֹ ד' עַל ד', וְסָמַךְ לוֹ סֻלָּם כָּל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁאֵין בְּרָחְבּוֹ ד'קמו – מוֹעִיל לְהַתִּיר לוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַכֹּתֶל,84 לְפִי שֶׁנּוֹחַ לוֹ לַעֲלוֹת בְּסֻלָּם85 וְלַעֲמוֹד עַל הַזִּיז וּלְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ עַל הַכֹּתֶל. אֲבָל לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ פֶּתַח לְעָרֵב יַחַד אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הַזִּיז הוּא בְּפָחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים לְרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל.קמז,86

וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא תְהֵא שְׁלִיבָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנָה גָּבוֹהַּ מִן הָאָרֶץ ג' טְפָחִים, וְלֹא יְהֵא בֵּין שְׁלִיבָה לִשְׁלִיבָה ג' טְפָחִים,קמח שֶׁאָז נַעֲשָׂה הַזִּיז עִם כָּל הַשְּׁלִיבוֹת הַכֹּל אֶחָד,קמט וַהֲרֵי יֵשׁ ד' עַל ד' מִלְמַעְלָה, וּכְאִלּוּ הִיא אִצְטְבָא אַחַת שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ ד' עַל ד' מִלְמַעְלָה, שֶׁמּוֹעֶלֶת לְהַתִּיר תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַכֹּתֶל אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקְּצָרָה מִלְּמַטָּה.87

וְהוּא שֶׁסָּמַךְ רֹאשׁ הַסֻּלָּם בַּזִּיז מַמָּשׁ. אֲבָל אִם סְמָכוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל אֵצֶל הַזִּיז – אֵין סֻלָּם זֶה מַדְרֵגָה לַזִּיז, וְלֹא נַעֲשׂוּ הַכֹּל אֶחָד.קנ,84

וְכָל זְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ גָבוֹהַּ הַכֹּתֶל כ' טְפָחִים – דַּי לוֹ בְּזִיז אֶחָד שֶׁמַּנִּיחוֹ בָּאֶמְצַע,קנא,84 שֶׁהֲרֵי אֵין גָּבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה עַד הַזִּיז, וְלֹא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה מִמֶּנּוּ עַד רֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל.קנב וְאִם הוּא גָבוֹהַּ כ' – צָרִיךְ שְׁנֵי זִיזִין,קנג,84 אֶחָד בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה הַתַּחְתּוֹנִים וְאֶחָד בְּתוֹךְ עֲשָׂרָה הָעֶלְיוֹנִים בְּפָחוֹת מִי' טְפָחִים לַתַּחְתּוֹן, שֶׁאִם הָיָה הַזִּיז גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה מֵהָאָרֶץ וְכֵן אִם הָעֶלְיוֹן גָּבוֹהַּ י' טְפָחִים מֵהַתַּחְתּוֹן – לֹא דַי לוֹ בְּסֻלָּם כָּל שֶׁהוּא שֶׁאֵין בְּרָחְבּוֹ ד'.קנד

וְהוּא שֶׁלֹּא יִהְיוּ הַזִּיזִין מְכֻוָּנִים זֶה תַּחַת זֶה אֶלָּא יִהְיוּ מְשׁוּכִים זֶה מִכְּנֶגֶד זֶה,קנה,84 כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא רָאוּי לְהַעֲמִיד סֻלָּם מִזֶּה לְזֶה,קנו שֶׁהַסֻּלָּם שֶׁיַּעֲמִיד מֵהַתַּחְתּוֹן לְהָעֶלְיוֹן יְהֵא סָמוּךְ בָּעֶלְיוֹן מַמָּשׁ וְלֹא אֶצְלוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל:

16 If one erected two ladders next to each other, but their combined width was less than four [handbreadths, even though] he separated [the ladders] so that their combined width [with the space between them] would reach that size, and [he] filled the space between [the ladders] with straw, which he arranged as steps, it is not effective, neither to permit him to use [the top of] the wall, nor to enable an eruv to be established [between the two courtyards. The rationale is that] one always places his feet in the middle of the ladder, and in this instance, it is unsuitable to ascend via the straw.

If one erected a [narrow] ladder in the center and placed straw on its sides, it is effective both to permit him to use [the top of] the wall as well as to [enable] an eruv to be established [between the two courtyards], provided the ladder reaches within three handbreadths of the top of the wall and [the residents of] the second courtyard did the same. [The rationale is that] the person will ascend [by placing] his feet on the ladder, and the straw on the side [of the ladder] is fit for him to hold onto [as he] ascends.

טז הֶעֱמִיד ב' סֻלָּמוֹת זֶה בְּצַד זֶהקנז וְלֹא הָיָה בְּמֶשֶׁךְ שְׁנֵיהֶם רֹחַב ד', וְהִרְחִיקָם זֶה מִזֶּה כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא בִּשְׁנֵיהֶם ד', וּמִלֵּא הָאֲוִיר שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶם בְּקַשׁ, שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן כְּעֵין שְׁלִיבוֹתקנח – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל84 לֹא לְהַתִּיר תַּשְׁמִישׁ בַּכֹּתֶל וְלֹא לְעָרֵב יַחַד,קנט לְפִי שֶׁמְּקוֹם מַעֲמַד הָרַגְלַיִם הוּא לְעוֹלָם בְּאֶמְצַע הַסֻּלָּם, וְכַאן אֵין רָאוּי לַעֲלוֹת בְּקַשׁ.קס

וְאִם הֶעֱמִיד הַסֻּלָּם בָּאֶמְצַע וְהַקַּשׁ מִן הַצַּד – מוֹעִיל,קסא,84 בֵּין לְהַתִּיר לוֹ תַּשְׁמִישׁ הַכֹּתֶל בֵּין לְעָרֵב יַחַד,קסב אִם מַגִּיעַ לְפָחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים לְרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶלקסג וְעָשָׂה כֵּן גַּם בְּחָצֵר הַשֵּׁנִית, לְפִי שֶׁכַּף הָרֶגֶל עוֹלֶה בְּסֻלָּם וְהַקַּשׁ שֶׁמִּן הַצַּד רָאוּי לְהַחֲזִיק בּוֹ בְּיָדָיו וְלַעֲלוֹת:קסד

17 When a ladder was less than four handbreadths wide, and one stood it upright against the wall,88 while hewing out [holes] in the wall next to [the ladder] on either side to reach the width of four [handbreadths] – i.e., the wall is thick and juts out on either side of the ladder – it is sufficient for [the person] to hew out holes to a height of ten [handbreadths],89 for that is the [minimum required] height of an entrance.90 Even though the wall is much higher and the ladder is less than four [handbreadths] wide [in this higher section], this is of no consequence, because it is possible for a person to ascend to the top of a wall on a ladder even if it is not four [handbreadths] wide.91

However, if one did not erect a ladder at all, but rather hewed out steps in the wall by which to ascend, he must hew [steps] that are four [handbreadths] wide for the entire height of the wall.92 In such an instance, doing so is effective both to permit [the person] to use [the top of] the wall and to enable an eruv to be established [between the two courtyards,] provided [the residents of] the other courtyard did the same.

יז אֵין הַסֻּלָּם רָחָב ד', וּזְקָפוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל בְּיֹשֶׁר,קסה,88 וְחָקַק אֶצְלוֹ בַּכֹּתֶל מִכַּאן וּמִכַּאן לְהַשְׁלִים רָחְבּוֹ לְד',קסו כְּגוֹן שֶׁהַכֹּתֶל עָב וּבוֹלֵט מִצַּד הַסֻּלָּםקסז – דַּי לוֹ (שׁיחזיק) [שֶׁיָּחֹק] בְּגֹבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה,89 שֶׁזֶּהוּ שִׁעוּר גֹּבַהּ פֶּתַח.90 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַכֹּתֶל גָּבוֹהַּ הַרְבֵּה,קסח וְשָׁם אֵין הַסֻּלָּם רָחָב ד' – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁהֲרֵי יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת לְרֹאשׁ הַכֹּתֶל בְּסֻלָּם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּרָחְבּוֹ ד'.קסט,91

אֲבָל אִם לֹא הֶעֱמִיד סֻלָּם כְּלָל, אֶלָּא חָקַק בַּכֹּתֶל כְּמִין שְׁלִיבוֹת לַעֲלוֹת בָּהֶם – צָרִיךְ שֶׁיָּחֹק בְּרֹחַב ד' בְּכָל גֹּבַהּ הַכֹּתֶל,קע,92 וְאָז מוֹעִיל89 בֵּין לְהַתִּיר תַּשְׁמִישׁ בֵּין לְעָרֵב יַחַד אִם עָשָׂה כֵּן גַּם בְּחָצֵר הַשֵּׁנִית:קעא

18 [Even though it is forbidden to ascend a tree on Shabbos,]93 if there was a tree next to the wall and it was made into a ladder [to enable people to ascend to the top of] the wall, it is effective in allowing an eruv to be established [between the two courtyards]. If, however, one made a ladder to ascend to [the top of the] wall from the wood of an asherah tree,94 it is not effective, because it is forbidden to ascend [a ladder made from the wood of an asherah tree] according to Scriptural Law, for it is forbidden to benefit from such a tree.95 By contrast, the prohibition against ascending other trees on Shabbos is only a Rabbinic prohibition. During bein hashmashos, which is the time when one acquires [a share in] an eruv,96 [our Sages] did not enforce a decreeconcerning activities forbidden as a shvus when their performance is necessary for the sake of a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 261[:2,97 and establishing] an eruvei chatzeiros is also deemed an act performed for the sake of a mitzvah, as stated in sec. 366[:18].98

יח הָיָה אִילָן בְּצַד הַכֹּתֶל וְעָשָׂהוּ סֻלָּם לַכֹּתֶל – מוֹעִיל לְעָרֵב יַחַד.89 אֲבָל אִם עָשָׂה מֵעֲצֵי אֲשֵׁרָה94 סֻלָּם לַכֹּתֶל – אֵינָהּ מוֹעֶלֶת,קעב,89 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאָסוּר לַעֲלוֹת עָלֶיהָ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, שֶׁהֲרֵי אֲסוּרָה בַּהֲנָאָה.95 מַה שֶּׁאֵין כֵּן שְׁאָר אִילָן, שֶׁאֵין אִסּוּר לַעֲלוֹת בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,93 וּבְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת שֶׁהוּא שְׁעַת קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּבקעג,96 לֹא גָזְרוּ עַל שְׁבוּת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶםקעד לְצֹרֶךְ מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן רס"א,קעה,97 וְעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת הוּא גַם כֵּן דְּבַר מִצְוָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ו:קעו,98

19 If there is a trench ten [handbreadths] deep and four [handbreadths] wide between two courtyards, [the residents of the two courtyards] may not establish an eruv together. [This ruling applies] even if [the trench] is filled with hay or straw, as long as [these substances] were not considered to have been placed there for an undefined period of time.99 ([The rationale is that hay and straw] are articles that may be moved on Shabbos100and any object that may be moved on Shabbos does not reduce the depth [of a trench] from ten [handbreadths].101 If, however, [the depth of the trench] is reduced to less than ten [handbreadths] with an article that may not be moved on Shabbos, it is effective in creating an “entrance” that makes it possible for an eruv to be established [between the two courtyards] if [the residents of both courtyards] desire this, as stated above102 with regard to a ladder and an overturned basin. [This ruling] applies even if the article was not placed [in the trench] permanently, and it will be removed from there after Shabbos.103 Nevertheless, [the presence of this article] does not nullify the walls of the trench entirely,104 [which would result in] requiring [the residents of the courtyard] to make an eruv together. Instead, if they so desire, [the residents of] each [courtyard] may make their [own] separate eruv. The same laws apply if an object that may be moved [was placed in the trench], but was explicitly designated as having been placed there for this [entire] Shabbos – i.e., that [the object] would not be removed from [the trench] until Saturday night. For even designating an article [as having been placed in a specific location] for only one [entire] Shabbos is effective in enabling it to be considered as an entrance.)

If [the depth of the trench] was reduced to less than ten [handbreadths] because earth and stones105 fell into it, even if they were left there without any specific intent, i.e., it was not intended [that the earth and stones] remain [in the trench] permanently, [the residents of the two courtyards] must make a single eruv106 because it can be assumed the earth and stones in a trench will be left [there]107 permanently. Thus the partitions [of the trench] will have been nullified. If, however, [the earth and stones] will be removed in the future, even though they will remain part [of the trench] for a certain period of time, they do not nullify the walls of the trench,108 and [the residents of each of the courtyards] may each make an eruv for themselves alone.

(True, there are authorities who maintain that even leaving an object as part of [a domain] for [but] one Shabbos is sufficient to nullify the partitions of that [domain], as explained in sec. 358[:9]. Nevertheless, [since] the matter concerns a Rabbinic decree, the more lenient opinion may be followed and one may rely on the authorities who maintain that a partition is not nullified unless the object is left there permanently, as explained [in the] above [source].)

יט חָרִיץ שֶׁבֵּין שְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת, עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה וְרָחָב ד' – אֵין יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד89 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא מָלֵא קַשׁ וְתֶבֶן,קעז כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא בִטְּלָם99 שָׁםקעח (לְפִי שֶׁהוּא דָבָר הַנִּטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת,קעט,100 וְכָל דָּבָר הַנִּטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינוֹ מְמַעֵט מִגֹּבַהּ עֲשָׂרָה.קפ,101 אֲבָל אִם נִתְמַעֵט מֵעֲשָׂרָה בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא בִטְּלוֹ שָׁם וְעוֹמֵד לְפַנּוֹתוֹ אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת103 – מוֹעִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּתַח לְעָרֵב יַחַד אִם יִרְצוּ,קפא כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה102 בְּסֻלָּמוֹתקפב וְסֵפֶל כָּפוּי,קפג אֲבָל אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לְבַטֵּל מְחִצּוֹת הֶחָרִיץ לְגַמְרֵי,104 שֶׁיִּהְיוּ צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד, אֶלָּא אִם רָצוּ מְעָרְבִים כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ. וְכֵן הַדִּין אֲפִלּוּ בְּדָבָר הַנִּטָּל בְּשַׁבָּת אֶלָּא שֶׁבִּטְּלוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁקפד לְשַׁבָּת זוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יִטְּלֶנּוּ מִכַּאן עַד לְמוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת, שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּטֵּל לְשַׁבָּת אַחַת בִּלְבָד – מוֹעִיל לַעֲשׂוֹת פֶּתַחקפה).

וְאִם נִתְמַעֵט מֵעֲשָׂרָהקפו בְּעָפָר וּצְרוֹרוֹתקפז,105 שֶׁנָּפְלוּ בּוֹ,89 אֲפִלּוּ בִּסְתָם,קפח שֶׁלֹּא בִטְּלָם שָׁם – צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד,קפט,106 שֶׁסְּתָם עָפָר וּצְרוֹרוֹת שֶׁבֶּחָרִיץ מְבֻטָּלִין הֵן,קצ,107 וְנִתְבַּטְּלוּ מְחִצּוֹתָיו. אֲבָל אִם עָתִיד לְפַנּוֹתָם מִמֶּנּוּ לְאַחַר זְמַן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּטְּלָם99 לְאֵיזֶה זְמַן – אֵינָם מְבַטְּלִים מְחִצּוֹת הֶחָרִיץ,108 וִיכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ (וְאַף שֶׁיֵּשׁ אוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֲפִלּוּ בִּטּוּל89 לְשַׁבָּת אַחַת מוֹעִיל לְבַטֵּל מְחִצָּה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ח,קצא מִכָּל מָקוֹם בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים הַלֵּךְ אַחַר הַמֵּקֵל,קצב וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵי הָאוֹמְרִים שֶׁאֵין מְחִצָּה מִתְבַּטֶּלֶתקצג אֶלָּא בְּדָבָר שֶׁמְּבַטְּלוֹ שָׁם לְעוֹלָם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר שָׁם):

20 When a board was placed over the width of a trench, [extending] from one edge to the other, [serving] like a bridge, the board is considered like an entrance if it is four [handbreadths] wide,109 and [the residents of the two courtyards] may make an eruv together if they desire.110

The same law applies if [the residents of the courtyards] made something resembling a bridge four [handbreadths] wide by filling [the trench] with a substance that they intend to leave there (even [if only] for one Shabbos,or [the trench was filled with] an object that may not be moved on Shabbos).111

If one places the board over [a portion of] the length of the trench, [the board] is considered as an “entrance” even if it is of the smallest width, since it reduced the width of the trench to less than four [handbreadths.112 This applies] provided the length of [the board that creates] the “entrance” is at least four [handbreadths], so that the width of the “entrance” [created by the board] is at least four [handbreadths].113

If the length [of the board] is more than ten cubits, [the residents of the two courtyards] may not make separate eruvin. Instead, [the residents of the two courtyards] must make a common eruv [if they desire to carry within their courtyards. The rationale is that] the two courtyards are open to each other for a distance of more than ten [cubits],114 since the trench is less than four [handbreadths] wide over the measure of [the] length of this board. ([The above applies] provided [the person’s] intent is not to remove the board from its place after some time. [Otherwise,] the stringent opinion [mentioned in the previous subsection is followed], for if one does not intend to have [the board] positioned [over the trench] for an undefined time, it does not nullify an [existing] partition).115

כ נָתַן עָלָיו נֶסֶרקצד כְּמִין גֶּשֶׁר מִשְּׂפַת הֶחָרִיץ אֶל שְׂפָתוֹקצה לְרָחְבּוֹ,קצו אִם הַנֶּסֶר הוּא רָחָב ד' – חָשׁוּב כְּפֶתַח,109 וִיכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד אִם יִרְצוּ.110

וְהוּא הַדִּין אִם מִלְּאוֹ כְּמִין גֶּשֶׁר רָחָב ד' בְּדָבָר הַמְבַטְּלו שָׁםקצז (אֲפִלּוּ לְשַׁבָּת אַחַת אוֹ בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ נִטָּל בְּשַׁבָּתקצח).111

וְאִם נָתַן הַנֶּסֶר לְאֹרֶךְ הֶחָרִיץ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵין בּוֹ אֶלָּא כָּל שֶׁהוּא – חָשׁוּב כְּפֶתַח שֶׁהֲרֵי מִעֵט רֹחַב הֶחָרִיץ מִד',קצט,112 וְהוּא שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּאֹרֶךְ נֶסֶר זֶה ד',ר כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא רֹחַב הַפֶּתַח ד'.רא,113

וְאִם יֵשׁ בְּאָרְכּוֹ יוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר אַמּוֹת – אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב כָּל אַחַת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ אֶלָּא צְרִיכוֹת לְעָרֵב יַחַד,רב שֶׁהֲרֵי הֵן פְּתוּחוֹת זוֹ לְזוֹ בְּיוֹתֵר מֵעֶשֶׂר,רג,114 כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בְּרֹחַב הֶחָרִיץ ד' בִּכְשִׁעוּר אָרְכּוֹ שֶׁל נֶסֶר זֶה (וְהוּא שֶׁאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לִטּוֹל הַנֶּסֶר מִכַּאן לְאַחַר זְמַן, שֶׁכָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְבַטְּלוֹ כַּאן לְעוֹלָם אֵינוֹ מְבַטֵּל מְחִצָּה לְהַחֲמִיררד):115


Fig. 89: A board placed over a trench that connects two courtyards. a) A courtyard; b) A trench, 10 handbreadths deep and 4 handbreadths wide; c) A board that reduces the width of the trench, at least 4 handbreadths long
Fig. 89: A board placed over a trench that connects two courtyards. a) A courtyard; b) A trench, 10 handbreadths deep and 4 handbreadths wide; c) A board that reduces the width of the trench, at least 4 handbreadths long

21 If the trench was ten [handbreadths] deep for [the residents of] one [courtyard], but less than [that depth] for [the residents of] the other [courtyard],116 or if [the trench] is the same [depth] for [the residents of] both [courtyards], the same laws that apply to a wall [under similar circumstances]117 apply in these situations.

כא אִם הֶחָרִיץ עָמֹק לְאֶחָד עֲשָׂרָה וְלַשֵּׁנִי אֵינוֹ עָמֹק עֲשָׂרָה,רה,116 אוֹ שֶׁהוּא שָׁוֶה לִשְׁתֵּיהֶןרו –דִּינוֹ כְּכֹתֶל:117

22 [The following laws apply when] there is a haystack between two courtyards that are not [separated by] a partition:118 If [the haystack] is ten [handbreadths] high over the [entire] length of the courtyards, thus intervening between them, [their residents] may not establish an eruv together.119 Instead, [the residents of] each [courtyard] must establish a separate eruv. If [the haystack’s height] was reduced to less than ten [handbreadths] during the week, [the residents of the two courtyards] must establish a common eruv.120 If [the residents of] each [courtyard] established a separate eruv, they cause each other to be forbidden [to carry], since [the courtyards] are not separated by a partition ten [handbreadths] high, and [the residents of the courtyards] did not establish an eruv with each other. If [the haystack’s height] was reduced on Shabbos, [the residents of the courtyards] do not cause each other to be forbidden [to carry. Instead, we apply the principle,] “Since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains,” as will be explained in sec. 374[:1-2].

[Nevertheless,] as long as [the height of the haystack] was not reduced – or if it was reduced on Shabbos, and not while it was still day [on Friday]121 – it is forbidden for any of [the residents] to [take] hay from the stack [and] place it in his basket to feed his animal.122 [The rationale is that all] the hay that is lower than ten [handbreadths] high was set aside from the preceding day123 [to serve] as a partition – as reflected by the fact that [the residents of] each [courtyard] made a separate eruv relying on the haystack as the divider between [the courtyards], and they carry in their [respective] courtyards on this basis. (Hence, they have diverted their attention entirely from using [the hay] on Shabbos.) It is as if [the residents of the courtyards] set [the hay in the stack] aside through a conscious act.124 Even though [the residents of the courtyards] changed their minds afterwards, it is of no consequence. (Since [the hay was deemed as muktzeh during bein hashmashos [on Friday], it is categorized as muktzeh for the entire Shabbos).

(Moreover, since [the residents of the courtyards] relied on [the haystack] as a partition to permit them to carry [in their respective courtyards], there is a Rabbinic prohibition against taking down [the partition],125 as stated in sec. 315[:3].126 Since [the hay] was set aside [during] bein hashmashos [on Friday] due to the prohibition against taking down [a partition], it is categorized as muktzeh for the entire Shabbos.)[Hence,] It is forbidden to take [hay from the stack] by hand.

Furthermore, [our Sages issued a] decree, [forbidding taking hay from the portion of the haystack] that is above ten [handbreadths,127 as a safeguard] lest [one] begin taking [from the hay that is above ten handbreadths high and] continue to do so, [also taking hay] that is lower than ten [handbreadths high].128 It is even forbidden [for a person] to have his animal stand [near the haystack] so that it will eat on its own initiative, just as it is forbidden to cause [an animal] to stand near any [produce] that was set aside [and not meant to be used on that Shabbos]. [This is] a decree, [imposed as a safeguard] lest one take some of [the produce] by hand and feed it to [the animal]. One may, however, stand in front of [the animal] so that it will have no other place to turn but towards [the haystack and then the animal] will eat from [the haystack] on its own initiative, as stated in sec. 324[:10].

To what does the above apply? To a haystack positioned between two courtyards. [Different rules apply to] a haystack that is situated between two houses.129 For example, there was a building located between two courtyards that was open to both of them. In the center [of the building], there was a haystack that divided [the building] in half. [The residents of] each of the courtyards make use of that half of the building which is open to it. Although [the residents of] the courtyards did not establish an eruv together, they do not cause each other to be forbidden [to use] the building [located] between them, because the haystack [acts as] a wall between them. Nevertheless, [the residents of both courtyards] are permitted to take from the haystack and feed their animals by hand [from their respective sides of the pile], taking from [the part of] the haystack that is (close to the ceiling) (above ten [handbreadths high]).130 There is no concern that one will begin taking [from the haystack and] continue to do so, [also taking from that part of the stack] that (is lower than ten [handbreadths,]) (which will cause the haystack to be more than three handbreadths [from the ceiling]), [and thus cause it to cease serving as a partition. The rationale is that] since the haystack is in a building with a ceiling, it is very apparent when the height of the pile is being reduced.

There are authorities who maintain that taking the hay does not [violate the prohibition] against muktzeh, nor [does it violate the prohibition] against taking down a partition, since [the hay] was not originally placed there [to serve] as a partition. Instead, [our Sages] forbade taking from a haystack between two courtyards [as a safeguard] lest [the height of the haystack] be reduced to less than ten [handbreadths], thus nullifying the partition, and [unknowingly,] people will continue to carry in the courtyard just as they did until then. There is no concern that [the height of the haystack] will be reduced to less than ten [handbreadths] on Shabbos, for [even were that to happen, we follow the principle:] Since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains. Instead, [our Sages] forbade taking baskets [of straw] from [the haystack] at all times, whether on Shabbos or during the week, [forbidding this as a safeguard], lest [the height of the haystack] be reduced to less than ten [handbreadths] on Friday close to [the commencement of Shabbos. The residents of the courtyards may] not become aware of this occurrence and carry [in the space they share], though it is forbidden to do so. Instead, one must remove the entire [haystack] at one time.

Following this reasoning, [the Sages] also forbade having one’s animal stand [next to the haystack] even though there is no concern that the animal will eat enough to reduce the height [of the pile] below ten handbreadths, since it is not common for an animal to eat that much at one time. Nevertheless [the Sages enacted] a decree [as a safeguard,] lest one feed [his animal] from a basket.131

However, when the haystack is located [in a building] {between two houses} [our Sages] did not enforce a decree, even on Shabbos, for the reason explained [above].132 (Fundamentally, the halachah follows the first opinion.)

כב גָּדִישׁ שֶׁל תֶּבֶן שֶׁבֵּין ב' חֲצֵרוֹתרז שֶׁאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן מְחִצָּה,118 אִם הוּא גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה בְּכָל מֶשֶׁךְ אֹרֶךְ הַחֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁמַּפְסִיק בֵּינֵיהֶןרח – אֵינָן יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב יַחַד,119 אֶלָּא כָּל אַחַת מְעָרֶבֶת לְעַצְמָהּ. נִתְמַעֵט מֵעֲשָׂרָהרט בְּחֹלרי – צְרִיכוֹת לְעָרֵב יַחַד,120 וְאִם עֵרְבָ[ה] כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ, אוֹסְרוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין בֵּינֵיהֶן מְחִצָּה גָבוֹהַּ עֲשָׂרָה וְלֹא עֵרְבוּ זוֹ עִם זוֹ. וְאִם נִתְמַעֵט בְּשַׁבָּת אֵינָן אוֹסְרוֹת, שֶׁשַּׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה – הֻתְּרָה,ריא וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ד.ריב

וּבְעוֹד שֶׁלֹּא נִתְמַעֵט,ריג וְכֵן אִם נִתְמַעֵט בְּשַׁבָּת וְלֹא מִבְּעוֹד יוֹםריד,121 – אָסוּר לְשׁוּם אֶחָד מֵהֶם לִתֵּן מִן הַתֶּבֶן לְתוֹךְ קֻפָּתוֹ לְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֶמְתּוֹ,רטו,122 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַתֶּבֶן שֶׁלְּמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה הֻקְצָה מֵאֶתְמוֹל123 לִמְחִצָּה,רטז שֶׁהֲרֵי עֵרְבָה כָּל אַחַת לְעַצְמָהּ עַל סְמַךְ שֶׁהַגָּדִישׁ הוּא מְחִצָּה בֵּינֵיהֶם, וּמְטַלְטְלִין בֶּחָצֵר עַל סְמַךְ זֶה (אִם כֵּן הִסִּיחוּ דַעְתָּן מִמֶּנּוּ לְגַמְרֵי מִלְּהִסְתַּפֵּק בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת) וּכְאִלּוּ הִקְצָהוּ בְּיָדַיִם.ריז,124 וְאַף שֶׁנִּמְלְכוּ אַחַר כָּךְ – אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל כְּלוּם (שֶׁמִּתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת, הֻקְצָה לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּתריח) (וְעוֹד, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁסָּמְכוּ עָלָיו לִמְחִצָּה לְהַתִּיר טִלְטוּל, יֵשׁ אִסּוּר בִּסְתִירָתוֹ מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים,ריט,125 כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שט"ו.רכ,126 וּמִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהֻקְצָה בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת מֵחֲמַת אִסּוּר סְתִירָה, הֻקְצָה לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת), וְאָסוּר לִטְּלוֹ בְּיָדַיִם. וְגָזְרוּ גַּם עַל מַה שֶּׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָה,127 שֶׁמָּא יְהֵא נִטָּל וְהוֹלֵךְ עַד לְמַטָּה מֵעֲשָׂרָה.רכא,128 וַאֲפִלּוּ לְהַעֲמִיד שָׁם הַבְּהֵמָה שֶׁתֹּאכַל מֵעַצְמָהּ אָסוּר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁאָסוּר לְהַעֲמִידָהּ עַל כָּל מֻקְצֶה,רכב,122 מִשּׁוּם גְּזֵרָה שֶׁמָּא יִטּוֹל בְּיָדָיו וְיַאֲכִילֶנָּה.רכג אֲבָל יָכוֹל לַעֲמוֹד בְּפָנֶיהָ כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא לָהּ דֶּרֶךְ לִנְטוֹת אֶלָּא דֶּרֶךְ שָׁם וְתֹאכַל מֵעַצְמָהּ,רכד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שכ"ד.רכה

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּגָדִישׁ שֶׁבֵּין ב' חֲצֵרוֹת. אֲבָל בְּגָדִישׁ שֶׁבֵּין ב' בָּתִּים,רכו,129 כְּגוֹן בַּיִת שֶׁבֵּין ב' חֲצֵרוֹת וּשְׁתֵּיהֶן פְּתוּחוֹת לוֹ וְיֵשׁ גָּדִישׁ שֶׁל תֶּבֶן בְּאֶמְצָעִיתָן, וְחוֹלְקוֹת לִשְׁנַיִם וְכָל חָצֵר מִשְׁתַּמֶּשֶׁת בַּחֲצִי בַיִת הַפָּתוּחַ לָהּ,רכז,122 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַחֲצֵרוֹת לֹא עֵרְבוּ יַחַד – אֵינָן אוֹסְרוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ בַּבַּיִת שֶׁבֵּינֵיהֶן, לְפִי שֶׁהַגָּדִישׁ הוּא מְחִצָּה בֵּינֵיהֶן, וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּרִים לִטּוֹל וּלְהַאֲכִיל לִבְהֶמְתָּם בְּיָדַיִם אֵלּוּ מִכַּאן וְאֵלּוּ מִכַּאן מִן הַתֶּבֶן (הַסָּמוּךְ לַתִּקְרָהרכח) (שֶׁלְּמַעְלָה מֵעֲשָׂרָהרכט),130 וְאֵין חוֹשְׁשִׁין שֶׁמָּא יִהְיוּ נוֹטְלִין וְהוֹלְכִין עַד (לְמַטָּה מִי') (שֶׁיִּפְחוֹת מִג' טְפָחִים),130 לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהַגָּדִישׁ הוּא בְּבַיִת שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ תִּקְרָה, נִכָּר הַדָּבָר הַרְבֵּה כְּשֶׁהוּא נִפְחָת וְהוֹלֵךְ.רל,122

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםרלא שֶׁבִּנְטִילַת הַתֶּבֶן אֵין בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם מֻקְצֶה וְלֹא מִשּׁוּם סְתִירַת מְחִצָּה, הוֹאִיל וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה מִתְּחִלָּה לְשֵׁם מְחִצָּה,רלב אֶלָּא מַה שֶּׁאָסְרוּ לִטּוֹל מִגָּדִישׁ שֶׁבֵּין ב' חֲצֵרוֹת הוּא מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִטּוֹל וְיֵלֵךְ עַד שֶׁיִּתְמַעֵט מֵעֲשָׂרָה וְתִתְבַּטֵּל הַמְּחִצָּה וִיטַלְטְלוּ בֶּחָצֵר כְּמִתְּחִלָּה.רלג וְאֵין הַחֲשָׁשׁ שֶׁמָּא יִפָּחֵת מֵעֲשָׂרָה בְּשַׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה – הֻתְּרָה,רלד אֶלָּא אָסְרוּ לִטּוֹל מִמֶּנּוּ בְּקֻפָּה לְעוֹלָם, בֵּין בְּשַׁבָּת בֵּין בְּחֹל,רלה מִשּׁוּם שֶׁמָּא יִפָּחֵת מֵעֲשָׂרָה בְּעֶרֶב שַׁבָּת סָמוּךְ לְבֵין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת וְלֹא יַרְגִּישׁ בַּדָּבָר וִיטַלְטְלוּ בְּשַׁבָּת בְּאִסּוּר,רלו אֶלָּא יְסַלְּקֶנּוּ כֻּלּוֹ בְּבַת אַחַת. וְלָכֵן אָסְרוּ גַם כֵּן לְהַעֲמִיד הַבְּהֵמָה שָׁם אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבַּאֲכִילַת הַבְּהֵמָה אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְזֶה, שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכָּהּ לֶאֱכוֹל הַרְבֵּה כָּל כָּךְ בְּפַעַם אַחַת עַד שֶׁיִּתְמַעֵט מֵעֲשָׂרָה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם גָּזְרוּ שֶׁמָּא יַאֲכִיל בְּקֻפָּה.רלז,131 אֲבָל בְּגָדִישׁ [שֶׁבֵּין ב' בָּתִּים]130 לֹא גָזְרוּ כְּלָל אֲפִלּוּ בְּשַׁבָּת מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר132 (וְהָעִקָּר כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהרלח):