SECTION 371 [The Laws that Apply] When One of the Residents of a Courtyard Leaves or Dies (1-6)

סימן שעא כְּשֶׁאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חָצֵר נִפְרָד מִשָּׁם אוֹ מֵת וּבוֹ ו' סְעִיפִים:

1 An ownerless dwelling is not [considered] a dwelling [with regard to the laws of eruvin] and [such a dwelling] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden in a courtyard.1 Moreover, it is permitted to carry from this [dwelling] to the courtyard where there are other residents who established an eruv among themselves; it is not considered as taking [an object] from one domain to another.

Accordingly, when one of the residents of a courtyard left his home, departing with his entire household,2 and spent the Shabbos in another courtyard – even one that is next to this courtyard – if [this resident] diverted his attention from his home and did not intend to return there on Shabbos, he does not cause the [other] residents of the courtyard in which his house is located to be forbidden [to carry]3 if they made an eruv among themselves, even though [this resident] did not join in the eruv with [the other residents. Moreover, the other residents] are also permitted to carry from his house to the courtyard.

Even if afterwards [the resident] changed his mind and returned to his home on Shabbos, his [presence] does not cause [carrying in the courtyard] to be forbidden. [The rationale is that] since he diverted his attention [from staying in his home on Shabbos] when Shabbos commenced, [we follow the principle,] since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains and [carrying] is not forbidden, as stated in sec. 362[:6-7].

When does the above apply? When [the person] left his home while it was still day [on Friday]. If, however, [the person] departed [Friday] after nightfall, his return [on that Shabbos] causes [carrying] to be forbidden.4

[The laws that apply] when a non-Jewish [resident of a courtyard] leaves his home [on Shabbos] will be explained in sec. 383[:1].

א דִּירָה בְּלֹא בְעָלִים אֵינָהּ דִּירָהא וְאֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת בְּחָצֵר,1 וְגַם מֻתָּר לְטַלְטֵל מִמֶּנָּה לְחָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ בָּהּ דִּיּוּרִים אֲחֵרִים שֶׁעֵרְבוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, וְאֵינוֹ כְּמוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת לִרְשׁוּת.ב לְפִיכָךְ אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי חָצֵר שֶׁהִנִּיחַ בֵּיתוֹג וְהָלַךְ עִם כָּל בְּנֵי בֵיתוֹד,2 וְשָׁבַת בְּחָצֵר אַחֶרֶת, אֲפִלּוּ הָיְתָה סְמוּכָה לַחֲצֵרוֹ – אִם הִסִּיחַ לִבּוֹ וְאֵין דַּעְתּוֹ לַחֲזוֹר לְבֵיתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,ה הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר עַל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁבֵּיתוֹ שָׁמָּה3 אִם עֵרְבוּ בֵּינֵיהֶם, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא עֵרֵב עִמָּהֶם. וּמֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל גַּם מִבֵּיתוֹ לְחָצֵר.

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם אַחַר כָּךְ נִמְלַךְ וְחָזַר לְבֵיתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת, אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר,ו שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר הִסִּיחַ מִלִּבּוֹ בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, הֲרֵי שַׁבָּת זוֹ – כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה, וְשׁוּב לֹא תֵאָסֵר,ז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ב.ח

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהָלַךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם. אֲבָל אִם הָלַךְ מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה – אוֹסֵר כְּשֶׁחוֹזֵר.ט,4

וְנָכְרִי שֶׁהָלַךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ג:י

2 [The following laws apply when a person] who lives elsewhere5 but owns a house in which he does not live [that is located] in the courtyard [in question] – and hence, did not [join] in the eruv [of the residents of that courtyard] – dies and leaves his property to one of the residents of that courtyard:6 If [the person] died while it was still day [on Friday, the presence of] the [one] who acquired [the property] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden. [The rationale is that his participation] in the eruv because of his own house is also effective for the house he inherited while it was still day [on Friday]. Although the eruv was established before [the heir] inherited the property, nevertheless, the eruv takes effect at the commencement of the Shabbos,and he had already inherited [the property] at that time.

If, however, [the original owner] died after nightfall [on Friday, i.e. after the commencement of Shabbos, the presence of] the person who acquired [the property] causes [all] the residents of the courtyard to be forbidden [to carry] within [the courtyard].7 Moreover, [the heir] himself is forbidden to carry in the courtyard, both from his house and from the house he inherited. Even if [the heir] joined together in the eruv with [the other residents], that is not effective with regard to [the house] he inherited on Shabbos, [since his acquisition took place] after the eruv had already taken effect. [Moreover,] even if the person who acquired [the property] had not yet entered that house to live in it [on Shabbos, the house] is not [considered] an ownerless dwelling.8 [The rationale is that] since [this person] lives in this courtyard and is able to use the house he inherited, it is considered as if he already entered [it] to live in it.

True, the testator was alive at the commencement of the Shabbos and was not living in [the house]. Thus, [the house] was deemed an ownerless dwelling and [the owner’s failure to participate in the eruv] did not cause the residents of the courtyard to be forbidden [to carry. Nevertheless, we] do not [follow the principle] “Since [carrying] was permitted for [this] Shabbos that license remains,” because that [principle] is applied only when, at the time the original license is granted, it is clear that the license will not be rescinded and [carrying will not subsequently] be forbidden; for example, a person left his home while it was still day [on Friday] and diverted his attention from returning until Saturday night. At the time [the person] diverted his attention [from returning to his home on Shabbos], it was clear that he would certainly not return [on Shabbos]. As a result, license [to carry] was granted for the entire Shabbos. For that same reason, it is not rescinded and [carrying does not become] forbidden when the person changed his mind afterwards and returns. In the instance at hand, by contrast, it was not definitely known when Shabbos commenced whether or not the [original] owner would be coming to his house on Shabbos.9[Therefore] we do not say, since [the original owner] did not come at the commencement of the Shabbos, he diverted his attention [from coming,] and [thus, he] certainly will not come on Shabbos.

ב אֶחָד מִן הַשּׁוּקיא,5 שֶׁהָיָה לוֹ בַּיִת בְּחָצֵריב שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה דָר בָּהּ וְלָכֵן לֹא עֵרֵב בָּהּ,יג וּמֵת וְהִנִּיחַ רְשׁוּתוֹ לְאֶחָד מִבְּנֵי אוֹתָהּ חָצֵר6 – אִם מֵת מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, אֵין הַזּוֹכֶה אוֹסֵר, לְפִי שֶׁהָעֵרוּב שֶׁעֵרֵב עַל בַּיִת שֶׁלּוֹ מַתִּיר גַּם בַּיִת שֶׁיָּרַשׁ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,יד שֶׁאַף שֶׁהָעֵרוּב נַעֲשָׂה קֹדֶם הַיְרֻשָּׁה, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הֲרֵי קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב הוּא בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, וְאָז יְרָשׁוֹ כְּבָר.טו,6 אֲבָל אִם מֵת מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה – אוֹסֵרטז הַזּוֹכֶה בּוֹ עַל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר,7 וְגַם הוּא אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל בֶּחָצֵר, בֵּין מִבַּיִת שֶׁלּוֹ בֵּין מִבַּיִת זֶה, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֵרֵב עִמָּהֶם, אֵינוֹ מוֹעִיל לְזֶה שֶׁיָּרַשׁ בְּשַׁבָּתיז אַחַר קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם זֶה הַזּוֹכֶה לֹא נִכְנַס עֲדַיִן בְּבַיִת זֶה לָדוּר בּוֹ, אֵין זוֹ דִירָה בְּלֹא בְעָלִים,8 שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא דָר בְּחָצֵר זוֹ וְרָאוּי לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בְּבַיִת זֶה שֶׁיְּרָשׁוֹ – אָנוּ חוֹשְׁבִין אוֹתוֹ כְּאִלּוּ נִכְנַס לָדוּר בּוֹ.יח

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת כְּשֶׁהָיָה מוֹרִישׁוֹ חַי וְלֹא הָיָה דָר בּוֹ הָיְתָה דִירָה בְּלֹא בְעָלִים, וְלֹא הָיְתָה אוֹסֶרֶת עַל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵריט,8 – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בְּזֶה "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה",כ לְפִי שֶׁאֵין אוֹמְרִים כֵּן אֶלָּא כְּשֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הָיָה הַדָּבָר בָּרוּר שֶׁלֹּא תַחֲזוֹר וְתֵאָסֵר, כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁהָלַךְ מִבֵּיתוֹ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם וְהִסִּיחַ מִלִּבּוֹ שֶׁלֹּא לַחֲזוֹר עַד מוֹצָאֵי שַׁבָּת,8 שֶׁבְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהִסִּיחַ מִלִּבּוֹ הַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ בְּוַדַּאי שֶׁלֹּא יַחֲזוֹר וְהֻתְּרָה אָז לְכָל הַשַּׁבָּת, וְלָכֵן אֵינָהּ חוֹזֶרֶת וְנֶאֱסֶרֶת כְּשֶׁנִּמְלַךְ אַחַר כָּךְ וְחָזַר.כא אֲבָל כַּאן אֵין הַדָּבָר יָדוּעַ בְּוַדַּאי בִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹא בַּעַל הַבַּיִת זֶה לְבֵיתוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,כב,9 וְאֵין אוֹמְרִים שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא בָא בִּכְנִיסַת שַׁבָּת, הִסִּיחַ מִלִּבּוֹ וּבְוַדַּאי לֹא יָבֹא כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת:כג

3 [The following laws apply when] one of the residents of a courtyard died on Shabbos and there were no members of his household in his house: If [the original owner] joined in the eruv, even if his heir is a person who lives elsewhere and the heir comes to live in [the house] on Shabbos, [his presence] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden, even though he [personally] did not join in the eruv for this courtyard. [The rationale is that we apply] the principle that, since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos because of the eruv the testator [joined], that license remains, provided the testator was not in his death throes while it was still day [on Friday], as will be explained.10

[Different laws apply if] the testator did not join in the eruv and his heir is a person who lives elsewhere. As long as [the heir] does not come to dwell in the house, [his ownership of it] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden. If, [however, the heir] comes to dwell in [the house] on Shabbos, [his presence] causes [carrying] to be forbidden. [The principle:] Since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos that license remains, does not apply in this instance, (since [carrying] was not permitted originally.11 Moreover,) the rationale mentioned above12 [is also relevant].

If [the house] was inherited by one of the residents of the courtyard, even if he did not enter [the house] to live in it, [his presence] causes [carrying] to be forbidden because of the rationale mentioned above. Even if [the heir] joined the eruv of the residents of the courtyard with regard to his own home, this eruv is not effective with regard to this house that he inherited on Shabbos after the eruv took effect.

When does the above apply? When the heir lived in another home in this courtyard. If, however, he lived with the testator in his home, and participated in this eruv with his own [loaf of bread] because of this house belonging to the testator, [his participation] is effective, for the members of a person’s household may use their own property to join in an eruv for on behalf of [the person’s] house, as explained in sec. 370[:6].

If the testator died while it was still day [on Friday] and a person who lives elsewhere inherited [his house, and that person] did not join in an eruv with the residents of the courtyard, his [presence] causes [carrying] to be forbidden if he enters [the house] to dwell in it on Shabbos. [This ruling applies] even if the testator joined in the eruv during his lifetime. Since [the testator] died, his [participation in the] eruv is nullified.

ג אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁמֵּת בְּשַׁבָּתכד וְלֹא הִנִּיחַ בְּנֵי בַיִת בְּבֵיתוֹ,6 אִם עֵרֵב, אֲפִלּוּ יְרָשׁוֹ אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הַשּׁוּק וְנִכְנַס לָדוּר בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא לֹא עֵרֵב בְּחָצֵר זוֹ, לְפִי שֶׁשַּׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה בְּעֵרוּב הַמּוֹרִישׁ – הֻתְּרָה,כה וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה הַמּוֹרִישׁ גּוֹסֵס מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.כו,10

וְאִם הַמּוֹרִישׁ לֹא עֵרֵב, וִירָשׁוֹ אֶחָד מִן הַשּׁוּק, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאֵינוֹ בָא לָדוּר בּוֹ – אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר.כז בָּא לָדוּר בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת – אוֹסֵר.7 שֶׁלֹּא שַׁיָּךְ כַּאן "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה" (כֵּיוָן שֶׁלֹּא הֻתְּרָה בִּתְחִלָּתָהּ,כח,11 וְעוֹד) מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.12

וְאִם יְרָשׁוֹ אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר – אוֹסֵר אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא נִכְנַס עֲדַיִן לָדוּר בּוֹ,7 מִטַּעַם שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה.12 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם עֵרֵב עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר בִּשְׁבִיל בַּיִת שֶׁלּוֹ, אֵין עֵרוּב זֶה מוֹעִיל לְבַיִת זֶה שֶׁיְּרָשׁוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת אַחַר קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב.כט

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? כְּשֶׁהַיּוֹרֵשׁ דָּר בְּבַיִת אַחֵר בְּחָצֵר זוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הָיָה דָר בְּבַיִת זֶה עִם הַמּוֹרִישׁ, וְנָתַן לָעֵרוּב מִשֶּׁלּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל בַּיִת זֶה שֶׁל הַמּוֹרִישׁ – הֲרֵי זֶה מוֹעִיל,ל כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ע,לא שֶׁבְּנֵי בֵיתוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם יְכוֹלִים לְעָרֵב מִשֶּׁלָּהֶן בְּעַד בֵּיתוֹ.

וְאִם מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם מֵת הַמּוֹרִישׁ, וִירָשׁוֹ אֶחָד מִן הַשּׁוּקלב שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְעָרֵב עִם בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵרלג – הֲרֵי זֶה אוֹסֵר7 אִם נִכְנַס לָדוּר בּוֹ בְּשַׁבָּת,לד,6 אֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמּוֹרִישׁ עֵרֵב כְּבָר בְּחַיָּיו, לְפִי שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁמֵּת – בָּטֵל עֵרוּבוֹ:לה

4 [The following rules apply when] a [natural-born] Jew and a convert [with no heirs]13 dwelled together in a courtyard and the convert died while it was still day [on Friday], and another Jew took possession of [the convert’s] property,14 even if [the Jew] did not take possession of [the convert’s property] until nightfall:15 [His presence] causes [carrying] to be forbidden [in the courtyard] unless he nullifies his [ownership over] his [new] domain [just] as other heirs may [renounce their ownership], as will be explained in sec. 381[:6].

[This applies] even though when Shabbos commenced, as long as this Jew did not enter the house of the [deceased] convert [its status was that of] a house without an owner, and [the presence of such a house within a courtyard] does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden. [Nevertheless,] we do not apply [the principle]: since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains. [The rationale is that] since [the home] was fit [for a Jew] to take possession of it while it was still day [on Friday, its ownership] was undetermined at that time and at that time, it was unclear whether the license [to carry] would remain throughout the entire Shabbos.16

If, however, the convert died after nightfall, since [carrying] was permitted when Shabbos commenced because of the eruv [in which] the convert [joined], we apply [the principle]: since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains.17 [This ruling applies] provided [the convert] was not in his death throes while it was still day [on Friday],18 as will be explained.19

ד יִשְׂרָאֵל וְגֵר13 שֶׁהָיוּ דָרִים בֶּחָצֵרלו וְעֵרְבוּ יַחַד,לז וּמֵת הַגֵּר מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְהֶחֱזִיק יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֵר בִּנְכָסָיו,14 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הֶחֱזִיק עַד שֶׁחָשֵׁכָה15 – אוֹסֵר עַד שֶׁיְּבַטֵּל רְשׁוּתוֹ14 כִּשְׁאָר יוֹרֵשׁ שֶׁיּוּכַל לְבַטֵּל,לח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"א.לט וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא נִכְנַס יִשְׂרָאֵל זֶה בְּבֵיתוֹ שֶׁל גֵּר, הָיְתָה דִירָה בְּלֹא בְעָלִים וְלֹא הָיְתָה אוֹסֶרֶת – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בָּהּ "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה", הוֹאִיל וְהָיְתָה רְאוּיָה לְהַחֲזִיק בָּהּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, וְהָיְתָה תְּלוּיָה וְעוֹמֶדֶת, וְלֹא הָיָה אָז הֶתֵּרָהּ בָּרוּר שֶׁתְּהֵא מֻתֶּרֶת כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת.מ,16

אֲבָל אִם מִשֶּׁחָשֵׁכָה מֵת הַגֵּר – אֵין הַמַּחֲזִיק אוֹסֵר,מא שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁבִּכְנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת הָיָה מֻתָּר מֵחֲמַת עֵרוּבוֹ שֶׁל גֵּר, אָנוּ אוֹמְרִים "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה".מב,17 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא הָיָה גוֹסֵס מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם,18 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר:19

Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch (Sichos In English)

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5 When one of the residents of the courtyard was in his death throes – even though he will not remain alive [throughout the entire Shabbos] – his presence causes [carrying] to be forbidden20 until [a share] in the bread [of the eruv] is acquired on his behalf and he is included in the eruv.21

If [the person] dies on Shabbos, we do not apply [the principle]: since [carrying] was permitted for this Shabbos, that license remains, since the eruv was not fit to remain valid for the entire Shabbos, since most people in their death throes die [within a short time].22 Therefore, if his heir is one of the residents of the courtyard who did not join in the eruv, [his presence] causes carrying to be forbidden, even if he did not yet enter the [deceased’s] house to dwell in it.23 [The same law applies] if his heir is a person who lives elsewhere and he entered [the home on Shabbos] to dwell in it.

ה אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁהוּא גוֹסֵס, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִחְיוֹת בּוֹ בַיּוֹם – אוֹסֵר20 עַד שֶׁיְּזַכּוּ לוֹ בְּפַת וִיעָרְבוּ עָלָיו.מג,21 וְאִם מֵת בְּשַׁבָּת – אֵין אוֹמְרִים בּוֹ "שַׁבָּת כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֻתְּרָה הֻתְּרָה", כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵין הָעֵרוּב רָאוּי לְהִתְקַיֵּם כָּל הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁרֹב גּוֹסְסִין לְמִיתָה.מד,22 וּלְפִיכָךְ אִם יְרָשׁוֹ אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁלֹּא עֵרֵב עִמָּהֶם, אוֹסֵר אֲפִלּוּ אִם לֹא נִכְנַס עֲדַיִן לָדוּר בּוֹ,23 אוֹ אִם יְרָשׁוֹ אֶחָד מִן הַשּׁוּק וְנִכְנַס לָדוּר בּוֹ:מה,23

6 Similarly, [the presence of] an infant [who inherits a home in a courtyard] causes carrying to be forbidden,24 even though he cannot eat an olive-sized portion [of bread].25 By contrast, [the presence of] a guest does not cause [carrying] to be forbidden, as explained in sec. 370[:9].

ו וְכֵן קָטָן אוֹסֵר,24 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱכוֹל כְּזַיִת.מו,25

אֲבָל אוֹרֵחַ אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר,מז כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ע:מח