SECTION 368 [The Laws that Apply] if an Eruv Became Invalid After having been Established (1-4)

סימן שסח אִם אַחַר שֶׁעֵרְבוּ נִתְקַלְקֵל הָעֵרוּב וּבוֹ ד' סְעִיפִים:

1 [The following rules apply] when an eruv was established and afterwards [the bread with which it was established] became invalidated and[/or] its size was reduced from [the] required measure1 before Shabbos commenced2 and one of the residents of the courtyard sought to correct the matter [by] adding [bread] to [the remaining portion] until [the bread] reached the required measure:3 If [the person] seeks to establish the eruv using the same type [of bread] as [was used] initially, it is not necessary to notify the owners [of the other homes individually]. One may even establish the eruv with their [bread],4 provided he does not take their bread from their homes without their knowledge, and it is given to him by a member of their households.5 Even if the [bread] initially used was entirely consumed and [the person] seeks to establish a new eruv using [bread owned by the other residents of the courtyard], it is not necessary to notify them. [Indeed,] even a person who must be notified when an eruv was first established and could not have been included in an eruv without his consent – e.g., a person whose home opens to two courtyards in which instance, the eruv is not necessarily a benefit for him, as explained in sec. 367[:1]6 – need not be notified when the eruv became invalid and is [then] corrected. [The rationale is that] since [this person] initially consented [to join the eruv], it can be assumed that he also desires [to be part] of it at the present time.

[Different laws apply] if, however, the person seeks to establish the eruv with another type of bread (for example, initially wheat bread was used, and now he seeks to use rice bread).7 If the first type of bread was entirely consumed, [the person establishing the eruv] must notify every person who must be notified when an eruv is initially established. [The rationale is that,] at present, it is as if [the person] is establishing the eruv initially, since the first type [of bread] was consumed entirely and [the other residents] might not desire to participate in [an eruv using] this type [of bread].

The above applies when [the person making the eruv] is using [bread] belonging to the other [residents of the courtyard]. If, however, he grants [the other residents] a share in his own [bread], he need not notify them, even if the first type [of bread] is entirely consumed. [The rationale is that the other residents] will certainly consent to his establishing an eruv on their behalf regardless of the type [of bread] used, since they are not [being asked to] contribute anything [towards the new eruv].

If the first type [of bread] was not entirely consumed, but was merely reduced to less than the required measure before the Shabbos commenced, and [the person] seeks to add [to the bread so that it is once again the required measure], he may add [to it] even [using] another type [of bread] without notifying [the other residents], even when he is establishing the eruv using their [bread].

א עֵרְבוּ, וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְקַלְקֵל הָעֵרוּב וְנִתְמַעֵטא מִשִּׁעוּרוֹב,1 קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת,ג,2 וּבָא אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר לְתַקְּנוֹ לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו עַד כַּשִּׁעוּר3 – אִם בָּא לְעָרֵב מִמִּין הָרִאשׁוֹן, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לָהֶם,ד,3 אֲפִלּוּ מְעָרֵב עֲלֵיהֶם מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם,ה,4 וּבִלְבָד שֶׁלֹּא יִטּוֹל פִּתָּם מִבָּתֵּיהֶם שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתָּם, אֶלָּא בְּנֵי הַבַּיִת יִתְּנוּ לוֹ.ו,5 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כָּלָה הָרִאשׁוֹן לְגַמְרֵי, וּבָא לְעָרֵב מֵחָדָשׁ מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעָם.ז,3 וַאֲפִלּוּ מִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לוֹ בִּתְחִלַּת הָעֵרוּב וְאֵין מְעָרְבִין בַּתְּחִלָּה שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ, כְּגוֹן שֶׁבֵּיתוֹ פָּתוּחַ לִשְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת,ח שֶׁאֵין הָעֵרוּב הַזֶּה זְכוּת לוֹ בְּוַדַּאי, וּכְמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ז6 – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לוֹ כְּשֶׁנִּתְקַלְקֵל וְחוֹזֵר וּמְתַקְּנִים אוֹתוֹ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁכְּבָר נִתְרַצָּה בּוֹ בַּתְּחִלָּה, מִן הַסְּתָם גַּם עַכְשָׁו יִתְרַצֶּה בּוֹ.ט

אֲבָל אִם בָּא לְעָרֵב מִמִּין אַחֵרי (כְּגוֹן שֶׁמִּתְּחִלָּה הָיָה פַּת חִטִּים וְעַכְשָׁו בָּא לַעֲשׂוֹתוֹ מִפַּת אֹרֶזיא)7 – אִם כָּלָה מִין הָרִאשׁוֹן לְגַמְרֵי, צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַיב לְכָל מִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לוֹ בִּתְחִלַּת עֵרוּב,יג,3 שֶׁגַּם עַכְשָׁו הוּא כִּתְחִלַּת עֵרוּב,יד כֵּיוָן שֶׁכָּלָה מִין הָרִאשׁוֹן לְגַמְרֵי, וְשֶׁמָּא לֹא יִתְרַצּוּ בְּמִין זֶה.טו

וְהוּא שֶׁמְּעָרֵב מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם. אֲבָל אִם מְזַכֶּה לָהֶם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ – אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעָם אֲפִלּוּ כָּלָה מִין הָרִאשׁוֹן,טז לְפִי שֶׁבְּוַדַּאי יִתְרַצּוּ שֶׁיְּעָרֵב עֲלֵיהֶם בְּכָל הַמִּינִים שֶׁיִּרְצֶה, כֵּיוָן שֶׁהֵם אֵין נוֹתְנִים כְּלוּם.יז

וְאִם לֹא כָלָה מִין הָרִאשׁוֹן לְגַמְרֵי, אֶלָּא נִתְמַעֵטיח מִשִּׁעוּרוֹ קֹדֶם שֶׁנִּכְנַס הַשַּׁבָּת, וּבָא לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו – יָכוֹל לְהוֹסִיף3 אֲפִלּוּ מִמִּין אַחֵר וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעָם,יט אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמְּעָרֵב מִשֶּׁלָּהֶם:

2 All the above applies when one seeks to add [bread] because the [bread initially contributed] became ruined. If, however, [one] seeks to add [bread] because the number of the courtyard’s residents increased, it is necessary to notify everyone who must be notified when an eruv is first established – e.g., anyone whose home opens to two courtyards.8 [The rationale is that] adding this [bread] establishes the eruv initially for these [new residents],9 and when an eruv is established initially, anyone whose home opens to two courtyards may not be included [in the eruv]without his knowledge. [This applies] even if [the person establishing the eruv] grants [the owner of such a home] a share in his [bread],10 for it is possible that [the owner of such a home] does not want to join in the eruv of this courtyard but [rather] in that of the other [courtyard].11

ב וְכָל זֶה אִם בָּא לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּתְקַלְקֵל. אֲבָל אִם בָּא לְהוֹסִיף מֵחֲמַת שֶׁנִּתּוֹסְפוּ דִיּוּרִין בֶּחָצֵר,כ,3 אֲפִלּוּ אִם מְזַכֶּה לָהֶם מִשֶּׁלּוֹכא – צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לְכָל מִי מֵהֶם שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לוֹ בִּתְחִלַּת עֵרוּב, דְּהַיְנוּ כָּל מִי שֶׁבֵּיתוֹ פָּתוּחַ לִשְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת,כב,8 לְפִי שֶׁהוֹסָפָה זוֹ הִיא תְּחִלַּת עֵרוּב לָהֶם,כג,9 וּבִתְחִלַּת עֵרוּב אֵין מְעָרְבִין שֶׁלֹּא לָדַעַת לְכָל מִי שֶׁבֵּיתוֹ פָּתוּחַ לִשְׁתֵּי חֲצֵרוֹת אֲפִלּוּ אִם מְזַכֶּה לוֹ מִשֶּׁלּוֹ,10 כִּי שֶׁמָּא אֵינוֹ חָפֵץ כְּלָל לְעָרֵב בְּחָצֵר זוֹ אֶלָּא בְּאַחֶרֶת:כד,11

3 What is the [minimum] measure [of bread] required for an eruv when it is first being established?12 When there are eighteen or less [heads of households participating in the eruv], the required measure is a fig-sized portion13 of bread for each one. If there are more than eighteen participants – even if there are a thousand or more [participants] – the required measure is [the amount of] bread [sufficient] for two meals, i.e., eighteen fig-sized portions, which is equivalent to six average egg-sized portions14 of bread. There are authorities who maintain that [sufficient] bread for two meals is eight egg-sized portions.15

All this applies when one is initially [establishing] the eruv. [Different laws apply to] the remnants of an eruv, i.e., [originally,] the eruv was of the required measure and its size was reduced after the first Shabbos commenced. [As long as] even the smallest amount [of bread] remains, [the eruv] is acceptable even for the subsequent Shabbasos.16 [The above applies] even if [the bread] that remains is not a whole loaf, but a portion [of a whole loaf. Our Sages’] statement17 that a portion of a loaf may not be used for an eruv applies only [when] the eruv is first [established. Moreover,] even if [the loaf] was sliced before the commencement of the [first] Shabbos, [the eruv] is valid if it contained the minimum measure before the commencement of Shabbos. [The rationale is that] a whole [loaf] was required only so that strife would not arise.18 Hence, it is sufficient that [the loaf] be whole when it was initially set aside. If, however, [the] size [of the loaf being used for the eruv] was reduced [to less than] the [minimum] measure before the commencement of the [first] Shabbos, [the eruv] is invalid, even if a small, but whole loaf remains. [The rationale is that] the eruv is initially [established] at the commencement of Shabbos.19

ג כַּמָּה הוּא שִׁעוּר הָעֵרוּבכה בִּתְחִלָּתוֹ?12 בִּזְמַן שֶׁהֵם י"ח אוֹ פָּחוֹת – שִׁעוּרָן כִּגְרוֹגֶרֶת13 פַּת לְכָל אֶחָד. וְאִם הֵם יוֹתֵר מִי"ח, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם אֶלֶף אוֹ יוֹתֵר – שִׁעוּרוֹ מְזוֹן ב' סְעֻדּוֹת, שֶׁהֵם י"ח גְּרוֹגָרוֹת,כו שֶׁהֵם כְּשִׁשָּׁה בֵּיצִיםכז בֵּינוֹנִיתכח,14 פַּת.כט וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםל שֶׁב' סְעֻדּוֹת הֵן כִּשְׁמוֹנֶה בֵּיצִים.15

וְכָל זֶה בִּתְחִלַּת הָעֵרוּב.לא,12 אֲבָל שִׁיּוּרֵי עֵרוּב, דְּהַיְנוּ עֵרוּב שֶׁהָיָה בּוֹ כַּשִּׁעוּר וְנִתְמַעֵט אַחַר שֶׁנִּכְנַס שַׁבָּת רִאשׁוֹנָה,לב וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ אֲפִלּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא – כָּשֵׁר אַף לִשְׁאָר שַׁבָּתוֹת.16

וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הַמְּשֻׁיָּר אֵינוֹ כִּכָּר שָׁלֵם אֶלָּא פְּרוּסָה.לג וְלֹא אָמְרוּ17 שֶׁאֵין מְעָרְבִין בִּפְרוּסָה אֶלָּא בִּתְחִלַּת הָעֵרוּב. וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם נִפְרַס קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת – כָּשֵׁר אִם שִׁעוּרוֹ קַיָּם עַד כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי לֹא הִצְרִיכוּ שָׁלֵם אֶלָּא בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת,לד,18 וְאִם כֵּן דַּיּוֹ כְּשֶׁהוּא שָׁלֵם בִּשְׁעַת הַנָּחָתוֹ.לה אֲבָל אִם נִתְמַעֵט מִשִּׁעוּרוֹ קֹדֶם כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת, אַף אִם הַמְּשֻׁיָּר הוּא כִּכָּר קָטָן שָׁלֵם – פָּסוּל, שֶׁתְּחִלַּת הָעֵרוּב הוּא תְּחִלַּת כְּנִיסַת הַשַּׁבָּת:לו,19

4 If the loaf of bread [used] for the eruv became moldy and unfit to eat, it is as if it was destroyed entirely and a new eruv is required. For this reason, it has become customary in these regions to make the eruv on the day preceding Pesach from a loaf of matzah, which will not rapidly become moldy.20 Also, in this way, the eruv can be kept during the days of Pesach21 as well as throughout the year. This is preferable to making an eruv every Friday, because it is possible that on one occasion [the people] will forget to make the eruv.22

This is the reason for the custom. In truth, however, it is preferable to establish an eruv every Friday, because most of the time, the matzah of the eruv will become ruined and moldy over an extended period of time and it will not be fit to be eaten. Therefore, it is as if [the matzah used for the eruv] was entirely consumed.

All those who establish eruvin every Friday should partake of their eruvin on the following day, as will be explained in sec. 394.23

A person who wishes to follow the optimum approach should, [in addition to the eruv made in the synagogue,] make an eruv [individually] every Friday [using] his own [bread]24 and grant the entire congregation a share via another person.25 In this way, there is no concern [even] if the eruv in the synagogue will be ruined.26 [The person] should not recite a blessing over the eruv he sets aside, because there is an eruv in the synagogue, and perhaps it is [still] valid.27 [Nevertheless, the fact that the person does not recite a blessing does not invalidate the eruv, because] the blessing is not an indispensable element [of the mitzvah].28

ד אִם נִתְעַפֵּשׁ פַּת הָעֵרוּב וְנִפְסַל מִלֶּאֱכוֹל – הֲרֵי הוּא כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּלָה לְגַמְרֵי, וְצָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב מֵחָדָשׁ.לז וְלָכֵן נָהֲגוּ בִּמְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת הָעֵרוּב בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח מֵחַלַּת מַצָּה, שֶׁאֵינָהּ מְמַהֶרֶת לְהִתְעַפֵּשׁ,לח,20 וְעוֹד שֶׁיְּכוֹלִין לְשָׁמְרָהּ בִּימֵי הַפֶּסַח21 וִיכוֹלִין לִשְׁמוֹר הָעֵרוּב כָּל הַשָּׁנָה.לט וְזֶה טוֹב יוֹתֵר מִלְּעָרֵב כָּל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, כִּי שֶׁמָּא יִשְׁכְּחוּ מִלְּעָרֵב פַּעַם אַחַת.22 זֶהוּ טַעַם הַמִּנְהָג. אֲבָל בֶּאֱמֶת יוֹתֵר טוֹב לְעָרֵב כָּל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, כִּי רֹב פְּעָמִים מַצָּה שֶׁל עֵרוּב מִתְקַלְקֶלֶת וּמִתְעַפֶּשֶׁת מֵאֹרֶךְ הַזְּמַן וְאֵינָהּ רְאוּיָה לַאֲכִילָה, וַהֲרֵי הִיא כְּמוֹ שֶׁכָּלְתָה לְגַמְרֵי. וְכָל הַמְעָרֵב בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, יֵשׁ לוֹ לֶאֱכוֹל הָעֵרוּב לְמָחָר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ד,מ,23

וְהָרוֹצֶה לַעֲשׂוֹת עַל צַד הַיּוֹתֵר טוֹב – יְעָרֵב מִשֶּׁלּוֹ24 בְּכָל עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, וִיזַכֵּהוּ לְכָל הַקָּהָל עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר,25 וּבְזֶה אֵין חֲשָׁשׁ אִם יִתְקַלְקֵל הָעֵרוּב שֶׁבְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת.מא,26 וְלֹא יְבָרֵךְ עַל שֶׁלּוֹ, כֵּיוָן שֶׁיֵּשׁ עֵרוּב בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וְשֶׁמָּא הוּא כָּשֵׁר,27 וְהַבְּרָכוֹת אֵינָן מְעַכְּבוֹת:מב,28