SECTION 366 The Laws Governing the Establishment of an Eruv for a Courtyard With Many Residents (1-18)

סימן שסו דִּין עֵרוּב לְחָצֵר שֶׁהַרְבֵּה בְּנֵי אָדָם דָּרִים בְּתוֹכוֹ וּבוֹ י"ח סְעִיפִים:

1 When many homes open up to a [shared] courtyard, according to Scriptural Law, [the residents] are permitted to carry in the entire courtyard, and from their homes to the courtyard,1 for it is a private domain in a complete sense.2 Nevertheless, the Sages3 prohibited carrying from the homes to the courtyard until [the residents] establish an eruv. [The rationale is that] each home is the exclusive property of its [owner], while the courtyard is jointly owned by them all. Thus, [the courtyard] somewhat resembles a public domain. If [the people] were [to be permitted to] transfer articles from their homes to the courtyard, they [might] say that it is permitted to transfer articles from a private domain to a public domain. Nevertheless, [the Sages] permitted [carrying in the courtyard and between the homes and the courtyard] via the [establishment] of an eruv.

[An eruv is established] by collecting bread from every home [in the courtyard] and placing [all the pieces of bread] in one of the homes in the courtyard.4 As a result, it is considered as though all [the residents of the courtyard] dwell in the same house,5 since a person’s focus and his dwelling are where his food is located.6 [Thus,] it is as if the entire courtyard is designated for that home. [Hence, the courtyard] does not resemble a public domain.

[Moreover,] it is even forbidden to transfer articles from house to house without [even entering] the courtyard7 if there is no eruv, for [the Sages] “made a fence around the Torah8 to insure [that people] would not transfer from one person’s domain to another’s – even though they are both private domains – so that [people] would not come to transfer from a private domain to a public domain. Nonetheless, when [the bread for] an eruv was deposited in one of the homes, it is considered as if all [the residents of the courtyard] dwell in that home. Thus, it is [as if] there is only one home and all the other homes are like rooms of that one home. Thus, the entire [courtyard] is one domain.

The same law and the same reasoning9 apply [regarding] carrying articles that were in a home at the onset of the Shabbos from one courtyard to an adjacent one, as will be explained in sec. 372[:1].

א חָצֵר שֶׁהַרְבֵּה בָּתִּים פְּתוּחִים לְתוֹכָהּא – מִן הַתּוֹרָה מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בְּכָל הֶחָצֵר וּמִבָּתֵּיהֶם לֶחָצֵר,1 שֶׁהֲרֵי רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד גְּמוּרָה הִיא.ב,2 אֲבָל חֲכָמִים אָסְרוּ לְטַלְטֵל מִבָּתֵּיהֶם לֶחָצֵר עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ,ג,3 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַבָּתִּים הֵם רְשֻׁיּוֹת מְיֻחָדוֹת, לְכָל אֶחָד שֶׁלּוֹ, וְהֶחָצֵר הִיא רְשׁוּת מְשֻׁתֶּפֶת לְכֻלָּם וְדוֹמֶה קְצָת לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים, וְאִם הָיוּ מוֹצִיאִים מֵהַבָּתִּים לֶחָצֵר, יֹאמְרוּ שֶׁמֻּתָּר לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים. אֲבָל הִתִּירוּ עַל יְדֵי עֵרוּב,ד שֶׁגּוֹבִין פַּת מִכָּל בַּיִת וּבַיִת וְנוֹתְנִים אוֹתָם בְּאֶחָד מִבָּתֵּי הֶחָצֵר,4 שֶׁעַתָּה אָנוּ רוֹאִים כְּאִלּוּ כֻּלָּם דָּרִים בְּאוֹתוֹ בַיִת,ה,5 לְפִי שֶׁדַּעְתּוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם וְדִירָתוֹ בִּמְקוֹם מְזוֹנוֹתָיו הִיא,ו,6 וּכְאִלּוּ כָּל הֶחָצֵר מְיֻחֶדֶת לְאוֹתוֹ בַיִת,ז וְאֵינָהּ דּוֹמָה לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.ח

וַאֲפִלּוּ מִבַּיִת לְבַיִת שֶׁלֹּא בְּדֶרֶךְ הֶחָצֵר אָסוּר לְטַלְטֵל7 בְּלִי עֵרוּב,ט שֶׁעָשׂוּ סְיָג לַתּוֹרָה8 לְהַרְחִיק, שֶׁלֹּא לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת שֶׁל זֶה לִרְשׁוּת שֶׁל זֶה אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁשְׁתֵּיהֶן רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד,י כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לְהוֹצִיא מֵרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד לִרְשׁוּת הָרַבִּים.יא אֲבָל כְּשֶׁהִנִּיחוּ עֵרוּב בְּאַחַד הַבָּתִּים, וְנַעֲשׂוּ כְּאִלּוּ כֻּלָּם דָּרִים בְּאוֹתוֹ בַיִת בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת – הֲרֵי אֵין כַּאן אֶלָּא דִּירָה אַחַת, וּשְׁאָר הַבָּתִּים הֵם כְּחַדְרֵי דִירָה זוֹ, וְהַכֹּל רְשׁוּת אַחַת.

וְהוּא הַדִּין וְהוּא הַטַּעַם9 בְּטִלְטוּל מֵחָצֵר לְחָצֵר שֶׁאֶצְלָהּ לְעִנְיַן כֵּלִים שֶׁשָּׁבְתוּ בַּבַּיִת, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ב:

2 [Similarly,] people who dwell in tents, in booths,10 or in an encampment that is surrounded by a partition,11 may not carry from tent to tent until they all join together in an eruv. [There is an] exception: [a camp established when soldiers] set out to war.12 In such situations, the Sages exempted [the soldiers] from the obligations of making eruvin for courtyards and the ritual washing of hands.13 (This [rule] even applies to a voluntary war.)14

When does the [stringency mentioned in the first clause] apply? In a [semi-]permanent camp that stands for [several] days. [When,] however, a convoy travels on its way and rests in [a given place] because of the Shabbos, [the wayfarers] are exempt from making an eruv,15because these tents [that they pitch] there are not permanent dwellings for them and it is as if they were joined together in an eruv.16

ב יוֹשְׁבֵי אֹהָלִים אוֹ סֻכּוֹת,10 וְכֵן מַחֲנֶה שֶׁהִקִּיפוּהוּ מְחִצָּה,11 אֵין מְטַלְטְלִין מֵאֹהֶל לְאֹהֶל עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ כֻלָּם,יב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הוֹלְכִים לַמִּלְחָמָה,יג,12 שֶׁאָז פְּטָרוּם חֲכָמִים מֵעֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת וּמִנְּטִילַת יָדַיִםיד,13 (וַאֲפִלּוּ הִיא מִלְחֶמֶת הָרְשׁוּתטו).14

בַּמֶּה דְּבָרִים אֲמוּרִים? בְּמַחֲנֶה הַקָּבוּעַ וְעוֹמֵד שָׁם יָמִים. אֲבָל שַׁיָּרָאטז הַהוֹלֶכֶת לְדַרְכָּהּ, וְנָחוּ שָׁם מִפְּנֵי הַשַּׁבָּתיז – פְּטוּרִים מִלְּעָרֵב,15 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין אוֹתָם אֹהָלִים קְבוּעִים לָהֶם שָׁם וְכִמְעֹרָבִים הֵם:16

3 [People living in separate] cabins on a ship require an eruv even though the ship has walls [around it] and is a private domain.17 [Those travelers] who do not have [cabins] of their own [and sleep on the deck] are considered as if they abide in one courtyard and do not require an eruv. (Similarly, [these people] do not cause a person who dwells in the ship’s cabin to be forbidden [to carry]; they do not have to join in an eruv unless there are two people abiding in two cabins. In such an instance, each of them causes the other to be forbidden [to carry unless] an eruv [is established].)

When [exactly] a ship is defined as a private domain, and the laws governing transferring [items] from it to the sea, are explained in sec. 355[:2-11].18

ג בָּתִּים שֶׁבִּסְפִינָה צְרִיכִים עֵרוּב, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ לַסְּפִינָה מְחִצּוֹת וּרְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד הִיא.יח,17 אֲבָל אוֹתָם שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם בָּתִּים, הֲרֵי הֵם כִּשְׁרוּיִים בְּחָצֵר אַחַת וְאֵינָם צְרִיכִים עֵרוּביט (וְכֵן אֵינָם אוֹסְרִים עַל הַדָּר בַּבַּיִת שֶׁבַּסְּפִינָה, וְאֵין צָרִיךְ לְעָרֵב אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הֵם שְׁנַיִם בִּשְׁנֵי בָתִּים, שֶׁאָז הֵם אוֹסְרִים זֶה עַל זֶה בְּלִי עֵרוּבכ).

וְאֵימָתַי הַסְּפִינָה הִיא רְשׁוּת הַיָּחִיד, וְדִין הַטִּלְטוּל מִמֶּנָּה לַיָּם – נִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שנ"ה:18

4 [The residents of] the home in which [the bread for] the eruv is placed do not have to contribute bread [for the eruv.19 The rationale is that the purpose of] the eruv is to cause all [the people who contribute to it] to be considered as dwelling in [the home where it is placed]. The owner of that home [does not require this measure, since he actually] lives there.

The [contribution to the] eruv need not be worth a perutah20so that [by giving] it [to the owner of the home, the others] will acquire [a portion of] the home to dwell within. Instead, it is sufficient for [the partners in the eruv] to be considered as dwelling within [the home], even though they have not [formally] acquired [a place in the home in which] to dwell.

For this reason, [the bread for] the eruv [may] even [be] placed in the home of a minor even though a minor does not have [the intellectual maturity to conduct a formal] transaction21 [and transfer a place in] his home to [the other partners in the eruv].22 Similarly, a minor may collect [the bread for] the eruv, gather it [from the others], and place it in [his] home.23 Although the actions of a minor are not halachically significant [in many contexts], nevertheless, the eruv is established as a matter of course, [as it were], when it is placed in the home,24 even when [the bread] was not deposited there for the sake of an eruv, as will be explained.25

Nevertheless, as an initial preference, it is forbidden to collect [the bread for an eruv] via a non-Jew (for a non-Jew is not considered trustworthy in this regard).

ד הַבַּיִת שֶׁמַּנִּיחַ בּוֹ הָעֵרוּב אֵין צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן פַּת,כא,19 שֶׁהֲרֵי הָעֵרוּב אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא שֶׁנֶּחְשָׁבִים כְּאִלּוּ כֻּלָּם דָּרִים שָׁם,כב וַהֲרֵי בַּעַל הַבַּיִת זֶה דָּר שָׁם.כג

וְאֵין צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּהְיֶה בָּעֵרוּב שָׁוֶה פְּרוּטָהכד,20 כְּדֵי שֶׁעַל יָדוֹ יִהְיֶה נִקְנֶה לָהֶם בַּיִת זֶה לָדוּר בּוֹ, אֶלָּא דַּי בְּמַה שֶּׁנֶּחְשָׁבִים שֶׁהֵם דָּרִים בּוֹ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינוֹ קָנוּי לָהֶם לָדוּר בּוֹ.

וּלְפִיכָךְ מַנִּיחִין עֵרוּב אֲפִלּוּ בְּבַיִת שֶׁל קָטָן,כה,19 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַקָּטָן אֵין לוֹ דַעַת לְהַקְנוֹת21 לָהֶם בֵּיתוֹ,כו,22 וְכֵן קָטָן יָכוֹל לִגְבּוֹת הָעֵרוּב וּלְקַבְּצוֹ וּלְהַנִּיחוֹ בַּבַּיִת.כז,23 וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין בְּמַעֲשֵׂה הַקָּטָן כְּלוּם, מִכָּל מָקוֹם הָעֵרוּב נַעֲשֶׂה מֵאֵלָיו כְּשֶׁהֻנַּח בַּבַּיִת,כח וַאֲפִלּוּ הֻנַּח שֶׁלֹּא לְשֵׁם עֵרוּב,24 כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר.כט,25

וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם עַל יְדֵי נָכְרִי אָסוּר לְקַבְּצוֹ לְכַתְּחִלָּהל (שֶׁהַנָּכְרִי אֵינוֹ נֶאֱמָן עָלָיו):

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5 Since an eruv is [effective because it is as if the others all] dwell [in the home where it is deposited],26 it may only be deposited in a building fit to dwell in, but not in an exedra,27 nor in a porch, nor in a gatehouse.28 Although [a gatehouse] is a building in a complete sense, it is not fit to dwell in because of the [large amount] of human traffic that passes through it.

[Similarly, the bread for the eruv may] not [be deposited] in a house that is less than four cubits by four cubits [in area],29 for such [a small] dwelling is not considered a dwelling. (Even if [the house] is very long, it is not considered a dwelling unless it is four cubits wide, as stated in Yoreh Deah, sec. 286.)30 Therefore, [the residents of such a structure] do not cause [carrying] to be forbidden in a courtyard or in a lane even though they did not join in the eruv [with the other residents].31

ה הוֹאִיל וְהָעֵרוּב הוּא מִשּׁוּם דִּירָה,26 אֵין מַנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ אֶלָּא בְּבַיִת הָרָאוּי לְדִירָה,לא אֲבָל לֹא בְּאַכְסַדְרָה27 וּמִרְפֶּסֶת וְלֹא בְּבֵית שַׁעַר,לב,28 שֶׁאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא בַּיִת גָּמוּר, אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְדִירָה מִפְּנֵי הָעוֹבְרִים דֶּרֶךְ עָלָיו.לג

וְלֹא בְּבַיִת שֶׁאֵין בּוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת עַל ד' אַמּוֹת,29 שֶׁאֵין דִּירָתוֹ חֲשׁוּבָה דִירָהלד (וַאֲפִלּוּ הוּא אָרֹךְ הַרְבֵּה, אִם אֵין בְּרָחְבּוֹ ד' אַמּוֹת – אֵינוֹ חָשׁוּב דִּירָה,לה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּיוֹרֶה דֵעָה סִמָּן רפ"ו 30). וְלָכֵן אֵינוֹ אוֹסֵר בֶּחָצֵר וּבַמָּבוֹי, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרֵב עִמָּהֶם:לו,31

6 In the present era, the custom is to deposit [the bread for] the eruv in the synagogue32 even though it is not fit to dwell in the synagogue because of its holiness. Although [a synagogue] is a structure in a full sense, [it is not considered a dwelling], because a dwelling is the place where one eats, and it is forbidden to eat in a synagogue except for the scholars who study there, as explained in sec. 151.33

There are authorities who justify this custom, explaining that our eruvin are governed by the laws pertaining to shitufei mevo’os, i.e., [the residents of] all the courtyards and homes in the lane join together in this eruv,34and it is not necessary to deposit [the food for] shituf mevo’os in a dwelling. All that is necessary is for it to be deposited in a secure location, as will be explained in sec. 386[:1].

In places that do not have a lechi or a beam over their alleys, or where the synagogue is not located in a lane that was modified with a lechi or a beam [and hence,] the eruv should not be deposited in the synagogue, as explained in sec. 365[:10, the community] is, nevertheless, permitted to carry in the synagogue. ([Similarly, the people may carry from the synagogue] to [its] courtyard even if there is a dwelling in the courtyard35 of the synagogue. If, by contrast, there are two dwellings [in the synagogue courtyard, the residents of one home] cause the [residents of the] other [home] to be forbidden [to carry] there unless they establish an eruv among themselves. [Hence,] if [the residents of the two dwellings] did not establish an eruv among themselves, all other people are [also] forbidden to carry in the synagogue courtyard.

When, however, there is only one dwelling [there], the entire [courtyard] is allotted to it.) The people [who frequent] the synagogue do not cause [carrying] to be forbidden inside of [the courtyard. The rationale is that] the synagogue is not a dwelling ([and only when a structure is a dwelling do the people who frequent it cause carrying to be forbidden in the same courtyard], as will be explained in sec. 376[:3] with regard to a ruin near a dwelling.)36 All the residents of the town are considered as guests [of the owner] of [the] dwelling [in the synagogue courtyard].37 They are also permitted to carry from the [synagogue’s] courtyard to the synagogue and to this dwelling, just as people are permitted to carry in other courtyards in which only one home is located.

ו וְהַמִּנְהָג בִּזְמַן הַזֶּה לְהַנִּיחַ הָעֵרוּב בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,לז,32 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵינוֹ רָאוּי לְדִירָהלח מִפְּנֵי קְדֻשָּׁתוֹ,לט אַף שֶׁהוּא בַּיִת גָּמוּר, שֶׁהֲרֵי הַדִּירָה הוּא מְקוֹם הָאֲכִילָה, וְאָסוּר לֶאֱכוֹל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתמ אִם לֹא הַלּוֹמְדִים שָׁם, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קנ"א.מא,33

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁנָּתְנוּ טַעַם לַמִּנְהָג,מב לְפִי שֶׁעֵרוּבִין שֶׁלָּנוּ יֵשׁ לָהֶם דִּין שִׁתּוּף מְבוֹאוֹת, דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁכָּל הַחֲצֵרוֹת וְהַבָּתִּים שֶׁבַּמָּבוֹי מִשְׁתַּתְּפִין יַחַד בְּעֵרוּב זֶה, וְשִׁתּוּפֵי מְבוֹאוֹת אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהַנִּיחוֹ כְּלָל בְּבֵית דִּירָה, רַק שֶׁיְּהֵא בְּמָקוֹם הַמִּשְׁתַּמֵּר בִּלְבָד, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שפ"ו.מג,34

וּמְקוֹמוֹת שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם לֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה לִמְבוֹאוֹתֵיהֶם, אוֹ שֶׁבֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵינוֹ בְּמָבוֹי הַמְּתֻקָּן בְּלֶחִי אוֹ קוֹרָה, שֶׁאֵין מַנִּיחִים שָׁם עֵרוּב בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת,מד כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"המה – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶתמו (וּמִמֶּנּוּ לַחֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת, וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם יֵשׁ שָׁם דִּירָה אַחַת בַּחֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת,35 אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן יֵשׁ בָּהּ שְׁתֵּי דִירוֹת, שֶׁאָז הֵן אוֹסְרוֹת זוֹ עַל זוֹ עַד שֶׁיְּעָרְבוּ בֵּינֵיהֶן, וְאִם לֹא עֵרְבוּ – אָסוּר לְכָל אָדָם לְטַלְטֵל בַּחֲצַר בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת.מז אֲבָל אִם אֵין בָּהּ אֶלָּא דִּירָה אַחַת – נִתְּנֵית כֻּלָּהּ לְדִירָה זוֹ), וְאֵין אַנְשֵׁי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת אוֹסְרִים עָלֶיהָ, הוֹאִיל וּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת אֵינָהּ בֵּית דִּירָה (וּכְמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שע"ומח גַּבֵּי חֻרְבָּה שֶׁאֵצֶל בֵּית דִּירָהמט),36 וְכָל בְּנֵי הָעִיר נַעֲשׂוּ כְּאוֹרְחִים לְגַבֵּי דִּירָה זוֹ,נ,37 וּמֻתָּרִים גַּם כֵּן לְטַלְטֵל מֵחָצֵר לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת וּלְדִירָה זוֹ כְּמוֹ שֶׁמֻּתָּרִים בִּשְׁאָר חֲצֵרוֹת שֶׁאֵין בָּהֶם אֶלָּא בַּיִת אֶחָד:

7 If [the residents of a courtyard] are accustomed to always place [the bread for their] eruv in a given house, they should not change [their practice] and place it in another house, [as an expression of] the ways of peace. The place [where the bread for the eruv is placed]should not be changed, even if there is a somewhat convincing reason to change [its location]. If, however, there is a significant reason to change its place, [the location of the bread for the eruv] may be changed. If a stipulation was initially made – at the time [the bread] was placed in that location – that [the location of the eruv]might be changed, [the partners in the eruv] are permitted to change [its location].

A change [in location] is not made even if the owner of the house [where the eruv was kept] dies or he sells his house to another person, unless a stipulation was made [initially. The rationale is that the meaning of the term] “the ways of peace” [in this situation] is that it is possible that a suspicion might arise,38 [i.e.,] people might think that this householder was stealing bread from the eruv and therefore the eruv is being removed from his [house] and [placed] in another home.39 This might cause [this homeowner] to quarrel with [the other homeowners]. This [suspicion] is also relevant with regard to one who purchased the home or an heir.

All the above applies with regard to an eruv that is placed in a home without charge and the like. If, however, money must be paid to [the owner of the home to have him keep the eruv], it is possible to change [the house where the eruv is kept] and give it to another person.

In all instances, if [the people] did not follow [this directive] and placed [the bread] in another home, it should not be removed from [the second home].

ז אִם רְגִילִין לִתֵּן תָּמִיד אֶת הָעֵרוּב בְּבַיִת יָדוּעַ – אֵין לָהֶם לְשַׁנּוֹתוֹ וְלִתְּנוֹ בְּבַיִת אַחֵר, מִפְּנֵי דַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם.נא וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ קְצָת טַעַם לְשַׁנּוֹתוֹ, אֵין מְשַׁנִּין.נב אֲבָל אִם יֵשׁ טַעַם גָּדוֹל – מְשַׁנִּין.נג וְאִם בִּתְחִלַּת הַנָּחָתוֹ שָׁם הִתְנוּ לְשַׁנּוֹת, מֻתָּרִים לְשַׁנּוֹת.נד

וְאִם מֵת בַּעַל הַבַּיִת זֶה, אוֹ שֶׁמָּכַר בֵּיתוֹ לְאַחֵר – אַף עַל פִּי כֵן אֵין מְשַׁנִּין כְּשֶׁלֹּא הִתְנוּ,נה מִפְּנֵי שֶׁעִנְיַן הַדַּרְכֵי שָׁלוֹם בְּכַאן הוּא מִשּׁוּם חֲשָׁד,נו,38 שֶׁלֹּא יִסְבְּרוּ שֶׁחוֹשְׁדִין בַּעַל הַבַּיִת זֶה שֶׁגּוֹנֵב פַּת מִן הָעֵרוּב וּלְכָךְ מוֹצִיאִין אוֹתוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ לְבַיִת אַחֵר,נז,39 וְשֶׁמָּא מִתּוֹךְ כָּךְ יָבֹא לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת עִמָּהֶם. וְלָזֶה יֵשׁ לָחוּשׁ גַּם בְּלוֹקֵחַ וְיוֹרֵשׁ.נח

וְכָל זֶה בְּעֵרוּב שֶׁמַּנִּיחִין אוֹתוֹ בַּבַּיִת בְּחִנָּם, וְכֵן כָּל כַּיּוֹצֵא בָזֶה.נט אֲבָל דָּבָר שֶׁצְּרִיכִין לִתֵּן מָעוֹת לְזֶה – יְכוֹלִין לְשַׁנּוֹת לִתֵּן לְאַחֵר.ס

וּבְכֻלָּן, אִם עָבְרוּ וְנָתְנוּ בְּבַיִת אַחֵר – אֵין מוֹצִיאִין מִמֶּנּוּ:סא

8 It is necessary that every one [of the residents of the courtyard] not object if another one [of the residents] partakes of his [portion of the bread used for] the eruv, for if he would object, the eruv would not be valid. For what is the term used [for this commingling]? Eruv,40[a term that implies] that all [the parties] are joined together and pleased [with the common bond they established]; that one would not object to the other, but rather, they are joined in a comfortable and pleasant partnership.41

For this reason, care must be taken not to make an eruv with [bread] prepared for one’s Shabbos needs, for [in such an instance] if another person will ask him for [some of the bread], he will not give it to [the other person].42

ח צָרִיךְ שֶׁלֹּא יַקְפִּיד שׁוּם אֶחָד מֵהֶם עַל עֵרוּבוֹ אִם יֹאכְלֶנּוּ חֲבֵרוֹ. וְאִם מַקְפִּיד – אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב, כִּי מַה שְּׁמוֹ? "עֵרוּב" שְׁמוֹ,סב,40 שֶׁיִּהְיוּ כֻלָּם מְעֹרָבִים וּמְרֻצִּים בּוֹ, שֶׁלֹּא יִמְחֶה אֶחָד בַּחֲבֵרוֹ אֶלָּא שֻׁתָּפוּת נוֹחָה וַעֲרֵבָה.סג,41

וְלָכֵן צָרִיךְ לִזָּהֵר שֶׁלֹּא לְעָרֵב בְּדָבָר שֶׁתִּקֵּן לְצֹרֶךְ הַשַּׁבָּת, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִם יְבַקְשֶׁנּוּ חֲבֵרוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ – לֹא יִתְּנֶנּוּ לוֹ:סד,42

9 All [the bread for] the eruv must be placed in one container; if [the bread] is placed in two containers, it is not a [valid] eruv. [This law is also derived from the meaning of] the term eruv, that [all the parties] joined together.

[The above applies when the bread] was intentionally divided for whatever reason. If, however, the initial container became full, the remainder [of the bread] may be placed in another container, provided the two containers are kept in the same house.43

ט צָרִיךְ לִתֵּן כָּל הָעֵרוּב בִּכְלִי אֶחָד, וְאִם חִלְּקוֹ וּנְתָנוֹ בִּשְׁנֵי כֵלִים – אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב,סה שֶׁהֲרֵי "עֵרוּב" שְׁמוֹ, שֶׁיִּהְיוּ מְעֹרָבִים.סו,40 וְהוּא שֶׁחִלְּקוֹ מִדַּעַת, מֵאֵיזֶה טַעַם שֶׁיִּהְיֶה.סז אֲבָל אִם נִתְמַלֵּא כְּלִי הָאֶחָד, יָכוֹל לִתֵּן הַמּוֹתָר בִּכְלִי שֵׁנִי,סח,40 וְהוּא שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שְׁנֵי כֵלִים בְּבַיִת אֶחָד:סט,43

10 An eruv may not be made with a portion of a loaf, even if it is very large,44 lest this lead to a dispute,45 i.e., one person will give a whole [loaf] and then protest, “I contributed a whole [loaf] and you contributed only a portion [of a loaf].” [Such a situation would be contrary to the spirit of] an eruv, which must involve a comfortable and pleasant partnership.46 Even if all [the people joining in the eruv] want to contribute sliced [loaves], it is forbidden [to establish an eruv in this manner,] lest the matter revert to the [original undesirable situation] where one contributes a whole loaf and this lead to a dispute.

However, an eruv may be made even with a very small [loaf], provided there are many loaves so that [the eruv] will contain the required measure that will be stated in sec. 368[:3].

[A slight leniency is granted in the following situation:] If only a portion equivalent to the measure that a baker must separate as challah, 1/48 of the loaf, was taken from [a loaf, the loaf] may be used for an eruv. [This leniency applies] even if [the status of the loaf] was not tevel47with regard to [the mitzvah of] challah when this portion was taken. [The rationale is that] the neighbors will not know that [the status of the loaf] was not tevel with regard to [the mitzvah of] challah, and will think that [the reason the loaf is not whole is that it was tevel and] challah was taken from it. Hence, a dispute will not arise.

[The following rule applies] if a loaf was sliced and then the pieces were joined together with a sliver of wood, i.e., one end [of the sliver] was inserted into the [larger portion of the] loaf and the other into the piece cut from it: If [the two pieces were attached in a manner where] it is not apparent that [the loaf] was sliced, it may be used for an eruv. (Even though [the loaf] is not considered as whole in a complete sense, as stated in sec. 168[:3],48 nevertheless, [in this instance,] since [it] is not apparent to the neighbors [that the loaf is not whole], a dispute will not arise.)

If one [of the residents of the courtyard makes the eruv on behalf of all of the residents], granting them all [a share in] his [bread that he set aside for the eruv],49 he may make the eruv with a portion [of a loaf], because there is no concern that a dispute will arise in this instance.

There are Rabbis who explain that [our Sages’] statement that an eruv may be made only with a whole [loaf] means that the entire eruv together should constitute [one] whole loaf (even though each [household] did not contribute a whole [loaf]). Therefore, it has become customary to collect a small amount of flour from every household and then one whole challah50is made and is used for the eruv. The synagogue attendant51 should be directed to take care that the challah is of the measure that will be stated in sec. 368[:3].

It is no consequence if some of the flour remains and the entire amount [that was collected was not used] to make the challah, for at the outset, when [the participants] contributed their flour, they had in mind [the possibility] that all the flour would not be used. Thus, it is as if each one gave his flour to the others as a present with the stipulation that if the challah will be made using his flour, the entire congregation would receive a portion in it, for it is impossible to make an eruv in another manner.

[One might raise a question regarding the acceptability of such an eruv since] when a person grants others a portion in his eruv, he must grant this portion to him using another person as an intermediary, as will be explained.52 Nevertheless, in this instance, when everyone gives his flour to the synagogue attendant to make an eruv, it is considered as if they [all] gave [the flour] to [the synagogue attendant] with the intent that he take possession of it for the sake of all the others.53 Hence, it is not necessary for the synagogue attendant to grant them a portion using another person as an intermediary (or [even] by making an explicit [statement to that effect] himself).

There is an authority who maintains that the eruv is not valid if the synagogue attendant did not grant [the others] a portion using another person as an intermediary (or by making an explicit [statement to that effect] himself). It is desirable to give weight to his words [and accept that stringency] as an initial preference.54 In particular, [this is true] when the synagogue attendant makes the challah from his own flour (and takes the flour [contributed by] the congregation for himself). This [has become] the common practice: The synagogue attendant gives the [challah to be used as the] eruv to the Rav so that he will take possession of it on behalf of the entire congregation.

It is customary to make the eruv with matzah on the day preceding Pesach55 [and use it] for the entire year, for the reason to be explained in sec. 368[:4].56

If night57 of the [Pesach] festival has already fallen58 without [the congregation] having been granted a share in [the matzah set aside for] the eruv, it is forbidden to grant [the congregation] a share [in the eruv]except by using a stipulation, as will be explained in sec. 393[:1].59 If Shabbos does not follow directly after the [Pesach] festival, the others should not be granted a share in the eruv using [such] a stipulation.60 Instead, [the synagogue attendant] should wait until Friday [and make the eruv then].

If [the synagogue attendant] forgot to grant [the congregants] a share [in the eruv]until after the onset of Shabbos, the [town’s residents] are [nevertheless] permitted to carry. [The rationale is that,] after the fact, one may rely on the first opinion.61 (Even so, after Shabbos, one should grant the town’s residents a share in the eruv, [but]without reciting a blessing [before doing so].)62

י אֵין מְעָרְבִין בִּפְרוּסָה, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא גְדוֹלָה הַרְבֵּה,ע,44 שֶׁמָּא יָבֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת,עא,45 שֶׁאֶחָד יִתֵּן שְׁלֵמָה וְיֹאמַר "אֲנִי נוֹתֵן שְׁלֵמָה וְאַתָּה פְּרוּסָה",עב וְהָעֵרוּב צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת שֻׁתָּפוּת נוֹחָה וַעֲרֵבָה.עג,46 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם כֻּלָּם יִרְצוּ לִתֵּן פְּרוּסוֹת – אָסוּר, שֶׁמָּא יַחֲזוֹר הַדָּבָר לְקִלְקוּלוֹ,עד,44 שֶׁאֶחָד יִתֵּן שְׁלֵמָהעה וְיָבֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת.

אֲבָל בִּשְׁלֵמָה מְעָרְבִין אֲפִלּוּ הִיא קְטַנָּה מְאֹד,עו וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּהְיוּ שָׁם כִּכָּרוֹת הַרְבֵּה, שֶׁיְּהֵא בָהֶן כַּשִּׁעוּרעז שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ח.

וְאִם לֹא נִטַּל מִמֶּנָּה אֶלָּא כְּדֵי חַלַּת נַחְתּוֹם, שֶׁהוּא חֵלֶק א' מִמ"ח – מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ,עח,45 אֲפִלּוּ לֹא הָיְתָה טְבוּלָה47 לְחַלָּה כְּשֶׁנִּטַּל מִמֶּנָּה חֵלֶק זֶה,עט לְפִי שֶׁהַשְּׁכֵנִים אֵינָם יוֹדְעִים שֶׁלֹּא הָיְתָה טְבוּלָה לְחַלָּה, וְיִסְבְּרוּ שֶׁחַלָּתָהּ הִיא שֶׁנִּטְּלָה מִמֶּנָּה, וְלֹא יָבֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶת.פ

וְאִם נִפְרְסָה וְחִבְּרָהּ בְּקִיסָם, שֶׁהִכְנִיס קָצֶה אֶחָד בַּפַּת וְקָצֶה הַשֵּׁנִי בַּפְּרוּסָה,פא אִם אֵינָהּ נִכֶּרֶת שֶׁנִּפְרְסָהפב – מְעָרְבִין בָּהּ (וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵינָהּ כִּשְׁלֵמָה גְמוּרָה, כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן קס"ח,פג,48 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינָהּ נִכֶּרֶת לַשְּׁכֵנִים, לֹא יָבֹאוּ לִידֵי מַחֲלֹקֶתפד).

וְאִם אֶחָד מְזַכֶּה לְכֻלָּם מִשֶּׁלּוֹ49 – יָכוֹל לְעָרֵב אֲפִלּוּ בִּפְרוּסָה, שֶׁכַּאן אֵין לָחוּשׁ לְמַחֲלֹקֶת.פה

וְיֵשׁ שֶׁפֵּרְשׁוּ מַה שֶּׁאָמְרוּ44 "אֵין מְעָרְבִין אֶלָּא בִּשְׁלֵמָה" שֶׁזֶּהוּ כָּל הָעֵרוּב בְּיַחַד, שֶׁיִּהְיֶה פַּת שְׁלֵמָה (אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל אֶחָד לֹא נָתַן שְׁלֵמָה), וְלָכֵן נָהֲגוּ לְקַבֵּץ מִכָּל בַּיִת וּבַיִת מְעַט קֶמַח וְעוֹשִׂין חַלָּה50 אַחַת שְׁלֵמָה וּמְעָרְבִין בָּהּ.פו וְצָרִיךְ לְהַזְהִיר לְהַשַּׁמָּשׁ51 שֶׁיְּהֵא בַּחַלָּה כַּשִּׁעוּרפז שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ח.

וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּיֵּר מִן הַקֶּמַח וְלֹא נַעֲשָׂה מִכֻּלּוֹ חַלָּה – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, לְפִי שֶׁעַל דַּעַת כֵּן נָתְנוּ קִמְחָם מִתְּחִלָּה, שֶׁלֹּא תֵעָשֶׂה הַחַלָּה מִכָּל הַקֶּמַח,פח וַהֲרֵי זֶה כְּאִלּוּ נָתְנוּ כָּל אֶחָד קִמְחוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה, שֶׁאִם תֵּעָשֶׂה הַחַלָּה מִקִּמְחוֹ יִזְכֶּה בָּהּ כָּל הַקָּהָל, שֶׁהֲרֵי אִי אֶפְשָׁר שֶׁיִּהְיֶה עֵרוּב בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַנּוֹתֵן עֵרוּב בְּעַד חֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת לוֹ עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר,52 מִכָּל מָקוֹם כַּאן כְּשֶׁנּוֹתֵן כָּל אֶחָד קִמְחוֹ לְהַשַּׁמָּשׁ לְעָרֵב בּוֹ – אָנוּ חוֹשְׁבִין כְּאִלּוּ נוֹתְנִים לוֹ שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה בּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל כֻּלָּם, וְאֵין הַשַּׁמָּשׁ צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת לָהֶםפט עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר (אוֹ עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ).

וְיֵשׁ מִי שֶׁאוֹמֵרצ שֶׁאִם לֹא זִכָּה הַשַּׁמָּשׁ לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר (אוֹ עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ בְּפֵרוּשׁ) – אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב. וְטוֹב לָחוּשׁ לִדְבָרָיו לְכַתְּחִלָּה,54 וּבִפְרָט אִם הַשַּׁמָּשׁ עָשָׂהוּ מִקֶּמַח שֶׁלּוֹצא (וְנָטַל קֶמַח הַקָּהָל לְעַצְמוֹ). וְכֵן נוֹהֲגִין, שֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ נוֹתֵן הָעֵרוּב לְהָרַב, שֶׁיִּזְכֶּה בּוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל כָּל הַקָּהָל.צב

וְנוֹהֲגִין לַעֲשׂוֹת הָעֵרוּב בְּמַצָּה בְּעֶרֶב פֶּסַח55 לְכָל הַשָּׁנָה,צג מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ח.צד,56

וְאִם חָשְׁכָה57 לֵיל יוֹם טוֹב58 וְלֹא זִכָּה לָהֶם – אָסוּר לְזַכּוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב אֶלָּא עַל תְּנַאי, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ג.צה,59 וְאִם יוֹם טוֹב אֵינוֹ סָמוּךְ לְשַׁבָּת, אֵין לְזַכּוֹתוֹ בְּיוֹם טוֹב עַל תְּנַאי,60 אֶלָּא יַמְתִּין עַד עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת. וְאִם שָׁכַח לְזַכּוֹתוֹ עַד שַׁבָּת, מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל בָּעִיר, שֶׁבְּדִיעֲבַד יֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל סְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָהצו,61 (וּמִכָּל מָקוֹם אַחַר הַשַּׁבָּת יְזַכֶּנּוּ לָהֶם בְּלֹא בְרָכָה):62

11 An eruv chatzeiros may only be established with bread.63 An eruv may be established even with bread made from rice or from lentils, but not with bread made from millet.64

יא אֵין מְעָרְבִין עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת אֶלָּא בְּפַת.צז,63 וּמְעָרְבִין אֲפִלּוּ בְּפַת שֶׁל אֹרֶזצח אוֹ עֲדָשִׁים,צט אֲבָל לֹא בְּפַת דֹּחַן:ק,64

12 One of the residents of the courtyard may contribute bread on behalf of all [the other residents, doing so]65 even outside their presence, provided he grants them a share via another person.66 This means that the other person lifts up [the bread] with the intention that all of [the residents of the courtyard] acquire a share in it through his act.67 Thus, it is as if [the other residents of the courtyard] lifted up [the bread] themselves, for [the actions of] a person’s agent are considered as his own.68 Even though [the residents of the courtyard] did not [explicitly] appoint [this person] as an agent, [he is still considered as such,69 because] a benefit can be acquired on behalf of a person without his knowledge.70 [The person setting aside the eruv] may not, however, grant [the other residents of the courtyard] a share by himself, for [the bread] does not leave his ownership as long as it is in his hand.71

How high should [the person] lift [the bread]? A handbreadth.72 Even if [the bread] was placed in [the person’s] hand while it was [already] lifted and suspended in the air, he must raise his hand [an additional] handbreadth.

If one is well versed in Torah Law,73 when he grants others [a share in the loaf], he must grant a portion to all the residents of the courtyard or lane, and to all those who will be included among them from this day onward.74 If this is not done, there are times when the number of residents will increase75 and [their presence] will cause [carrying] to be forbidden.76

There are other authorities who maintain that in the present age, [when it is customary to] make an eruv at the beginning of the year for all the Shabbasos of the year, it is not necessary to add [bread] to the eruv on behalf of [any new] residents. [Instead,] at the outset, the intent is to grant [a share in the eruv] to all who [take up residence in the courtyard]. Even though [the new residents of the courtyard] are not explicitly [granted a share in the eruv], the [Rabbinic] Court77 had [them] in mind and stipulated [that they be included in the eruv]. (After the fact, one may rely on their words and rule leniently [because the matter involves a point of] Rabbinic Law.)

If the number of residents increased after [the amount of bread set aside for] the eruv diminished and became less than its required measure, more [bread] must be added for [them]. True, an eruv is valid as long as the smallest amount [of bread] remains, for even a minimal amount [of bread] is [enough for a] valid [eruv], for even the smallest remnants of [the bread used for] an eruv suffice [to maintain its validity]; the required measure is necessary only initially, as will be explained in sec. 368[:3]. Nevertheless, [in this instance, where new residents joined the courtyard,] it is necessary to add [bread] to [the eruv], because this constitutes the initial establishment of an eruv for [the new residents].

[This ruling applies] even if [the new residents of the courtyard] were explicitly given a share [in the bread used for the eruv]at the outset. Nevertheless, as long as they were not [actually] dwelling in [the lane or courtyard], they did not have [a share] in the eruv at all, for an eruv [wholly] depends on residency.78

יב אֶחָד מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר יָכוֹל לִתֵּן פַּת בִּשְׁבִיל כֻּלָּםקא,65 אֲפִלּוּ שֶׁלֹּא בִּפְנֵיהֶם,קב וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיְּזַכֶּנּוּ לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר,קג,66 דְּהַיְנוּ שֶׁהָאַחֵר יַגְבִּיהֶנּוּ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּזְכּוּ בּוֹ כֻּלָּם בְּהַגְבָּהָה זוֹקד,67 כְּאִלּוּ הִגְבִּיהוּהוּ בְּעַצְמָן, שֶׁשְּׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ.קה,68 וְאַף שֶׁהֵם לֹא עֲשָׂאוּהוּ שָׁלִיחַ,69 מִכָּל מָקוֹם זָכִין לְאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא בְּפָנָיו.קו,70 אֲבָל עַל יְדֵי עַצְמוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹתוֹ לָהֶם, שֶׁכָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא בְּיָדוֹ לֹא יָצָא מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ.קז,71

וְכַמָּה יַגְבִּיהֶנּוּ? טֶפַח.קח,72 וַאֲפִלּוּ אִם הִנִּיחוּ לוֹ עַל יָדוֹ הַמֻּגְבַּהַת וּתְלוּיָה בָּאֲוִיר, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיַּגְבִּיהַּ יָדוֹ טֶפַח.קט

וּכְשֶׁהוּא מְזַכֶּה, אִם בָּקִי בַּהֲלָכָה הוּא73 – צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹתוֹ לְכָל בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר אוֹ הַמָּבוֹי וּלְכָל מִי שֶׁיִּתּוֹסֵף עֲלֵיהֶםקי מִיּוֹם זֶה וְאֵילַךְ,74 שֶׁאִם לֹא כֵן פְּעָמִים שֶׁיִּתּוֹסְפוּ דִּיּוּרִין75 וְיַאַסְרוּ עֲלֵיהֶם.76 וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקיא שֶׁעַכְשָׁו שֶׁמְּעָרְבִין בִּתְחִלַּת שָׁנָה לְכָל שַׁבְּתוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁנִּתּוֹסְפוּ דִיּוּרִים אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹסִיף בָּעֵרוּב בִּשְׁבִילָם, שֶׁבִּתְחִלָּה מִתְכַּוְּנִים לְזַכּוֹתוֹ לְכָל הַבָּא. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין מְזַכִּין לָהֶם בְּפֵרוּשׁ, לֵב בֵּית דִּין77 מַתְנֶה עֲלֵיהֶם (וְיֵשׁ לִסְמוֹךְ עַל דִּבְרֵיהֶם בְּדִיעֲבַד לְהָקֵל בְּדִבְרֵי סוֹפְרִיםקיב).

וְאִם נִתּוֹסְפוּ דִיּוּרִין אַחַר שֶׁנִּתְמַעֵט הָעֵרוּב מִשִּׁעוּרוֹ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁכָּל שֶׁנִּשְׁתַּיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ כָּל שֶׁהוּא, כָּשֵׁר הוּא, שֶׁשִּׁיּוּרֵי עֵרוּב כָּל שֶׁהוּא וְאֵין צָרִיךְ שִׁעוּר אֶלָּא בִּתְחִלָּתוֹ, כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ח – מִכָּל מָקוֹם צָרִיךְ לְהוֹסִיף עָלָיו מֵחֲמַת הַדִּיּוּרִין שֶׁנִּתּוֹסְפוּ עַתָּה, שֶׁלָּהֶם הוּא תְּחִלַּת עֵרוּב.קיג וַאֲפִלּוּ זִכּוּהוּ לָהֶם בְּפֵרוּשׁ בִּתְחִלָּתוֹ,קיד מִכָּל מָקוֹם כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הָיוּ דָרִים כַּאן לֹא הָיָה לָהֶם עֵרוּב כְּלָל, שֶׁעֵרוּב הוּא מִשּׁוּם דִּירָה:קטו,78

13 When a person grants [others a share in the bread of an eruv], he should not do so via his sons and daughters who are below the age of majority,79 even when they do not eat at his table,80 nor via his Canaanite bondmen and maidservants,81 because they do not have any independent financial capacity.82 Thus, [the bread for] the eruv will never have departed from [this person’s] ownership.

[One] may, however, grant others a share [in the bread used for the eruv]via his sons and daughters that are over the age of majority, even though they eat at his table. Although with regard to [the acquisition of an ownerless[ lost object, what [children who have reached majority and eat at their father’s table] find belongs to their father, that is merely [a Rabbinic ordinance instituted to prevent] strife [from arising.83 Our Sages wanted to insure that a father] would not withhold sustenance [from his children] because they were given the right to the [ownerless] lost object they discover. Even so, when the father desires to grant others [a share in his bread], his children [over the age of majority] may acquire it on their behalf like any others.84

[Similarly, one may grant a share in the eruv to others] via his Jewish servants85 or maidservants,86 even if they are minors; for a minor may acquire property – even for others – in matters governed by Rabbinic Law.87 [And one may also grant a share in the eruv to others] via his wife, even though he grants her sustenance, the [ownerless] lost objects she discovers and [the fruits of] her labor belong to him,88 and she does not have an independent financial capacity.89 Nevertheless, since she may acquire [property] given to her by another person on the [explicit] condition that her husband have no control over it,90 [she may acquire property on behalf of others] when her husband himself desires to grant it [to them] via her agency.

There are authorities who maintain that [a man] may not grant [a share in an eruv to others] via his sons and daughters who eat at his table even when they are past the age of majority, because [ownerless] lost objects they discover belong to him and their financial capacity is one with his. Nor may one do so via his daughter until she reaches the age of bagrus,91 even if she does not eat at his table, for [until then,] an [ownerless] lost object she discovers is granted to him.92 [The girl’s father is given this privilege to prevent] strife, so that he not give her [in marriage]93 to a despicable person or a person afflicted with boils. Nor may [a man grant another person a share in an eruv] via his wife, because he supports her – or he made an arrangement with her that she support herself through her work94 – and an [ownerless] lost object she discovers belongs to him.

[This applies] even if [the woman] has a house of her own in this courtyard or lane. It is not said: Since she acquires [a share in] this eruv for her own house, she [can] acquire [a share in the eruv] on behalf of the others. [The rationale is that] she does not acquire [a share] in [the eruv] for herself at all, because it is unnecessary that she do so; since [her husband] is granting rights to his [bread that has been designated for an eruv] to others, the eruv will certainly be placed in his house. In such a situation, [his wife’s ownership of a home in the courtyard] does not cause her husband to be forbidden to carry even though she did not join in an eruv with him, as will be explained in sec. 370[:7].95

[According to this view, a man] may, however, grant [a share in an eruv to others] via his son who does not eat at his table, even if [the son] is a minor, since an [ownerless] lost object [the son] discovers belongs to [the son. Similarly, a man may grant a share in an eruv to others] via his daughter who has reached the age of bagrus and does not eat at his table, or via his wife whom he does not support,96 even if she does not have a [separate] home in this courtyard, since an [ownerless] lost object she discovers belongs to her.

With regard to the actual halachic ruling, when possible, it is desirable to give weight to both opinions and follow the stringencies [resulting from both positions]. Thus, [one should refrain from granting others a share in an eruv] via his son who is a minor, even if [the boy] does not eat at his [father’s] table, as the first opinion maintains, and via his sons who have attained majority, his daughters who have attained bagrus who eat at his table, via [his daughter who is] a naarah97 even if she does not eat at his table, and via his wife if he supports her, as maintained by the second opinion.

All the above applies as an initial and desired option. After the fact, one may rely on the lenient view with regard to eruvin.98(Moreover, in a place where there is no alternative, one may initially adopt the leniencies of the first opinion, because primarily, [the halachah follows that view].)

יג כְּשֶׁמְּזַכֶּה לָהֶם עַל יְדֵי אַחֵר, לֹא יְזַכֶּה עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַקְּטַנִּיםקטז,79 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָם סְמוּכִים עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ,קיז,80 וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ הַכְּנַעֲנִים,81 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁיָּדָן כְּיָדוֹקיח,82 וְלֹא יָצָא הָעֵרוּב מֵרְשׁוּתוֹ.קיט אֲבָל מְזַכֶּה הוּא עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַגְּדוֹלִים אֲפִלּוּ הֵם סְמוּכִים עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ.קכ וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּדָן כְּיָדוֹ לְעִנְיַן מְצִיאָה – שֶׁמְּצִיאָתָן לַאֲבִיהֶםקכא – זֶה אֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם אֵיבָה,קכב,83 שֶׁלֹּא יִמְנַע מֵהֶם מְזוֹנוֹת אִם תְּהֵא מְצִיאָתָן לְעַצְמָן,קכג אֲבָל בְּמַה שֶּׁהָאָב רוֹצֶה לְזַכּוֹת לַאֲחֵרִים עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ, זוֹכִים הֵם לַאֲחֵרִים כִּשְׁאָר כָּל אָדָם.קכד,84 וְעַל יְדֵי עַבְדּוֹ וְשִׁפְחָתוֹ86 הָעִבְרִים,קכה,85 אֲפִלּוּ הֵם קְטַנִּים,79 שֶׁהַקָּטָן זוֹכֶה אֲפִלּוּ לַאֲחֵרִים בְּדָבָר שֶׁאֵינוֹ אֶלָּא מִדִּבְרֵי סוֹפְרִים.קכו,87 וְעַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ,קכז,79 אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמַּעֲלֶה לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת,קכח שֶׁמְּצִיאָתָהּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיהָ שֶׁלּוֹקכט,88 וְיָדָהּ כְּיָדוֹקל,89 – מִכָּל מָקוֹם, כֵּיוָן שֶׁאִם נָתַן לָהּ אָדָם אַחֵר מַתָּנָה עַל מְנָת שֶׁאֵין לְבַעְלָהּ רְשׁוּת בָּהּ, זָכְתָה בָּהּ,קלא,90 הוּא הַדִּין שֶׁבַּעְלָהּ עַצְמוֹ יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹת עַל יָדָהּ.קלב,89

וְיֵשׁ אוֹמְרִיםקלג שֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזַכֶּה עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ וּבִתּוֹ הַסְּמוּכִים עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ אֲפִלּוּ הֵם גְּדוֹלִים, הוֹאִיל וּמְצִיאָתָם שֶׁלּוֹ וְיָדָם כְּיָדָוֹ. וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי בִּתּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ סְמוּכָה עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁלֹּא בָגְרָה,91 שֶׁמְּצִיאָתָהּ גַּם כֵּן שֶׁלּוֹקלד,92 מִשּׁוּם אֵיבָה,קלה שֶׁלֹּא יִמְסְרֶנָּה93 לִמְנֻוָּל וּמֻכֵּה שְׁחִין.קלו וְלֹא עַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁמַּעֲלֶה לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת אוֹ שֶׁאָמַר לָהּ "צְאִי מַעֲשֵׂה יָדַיִךְ בִּמְזוֹנוֹתַיִךְ",94 שֶׁמְּצִיאָתָהּ גַּם כֵּן שֶׁלּוֹ. וַאֲפִלּוּ יֵשׁ לָהּ בַּיִת בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָהּ בְּחָצֵר זוֹ אוֹ בְּמָבוֹי זֶה, אֵין אוֹמְרִים: מִתּוֹךְ שֶׁהִיא זוֹכָה בְּעֵרוּב זֶה לְעַצְמָהּ בִּשְׁבִיל בֵּיתָהּ, זוֹכָה הִיא גַּם כֵּן לַאֲחֵרִים,קלז לְפִי שֶׁהִיא אֵינָהּ זוֹכָה בּוֹ כְּלָל לְעַצְמָהּ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵינָהּ צְרִיכָה לוֹ כְּלָל, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁהוּא מְזַכֶּה מִשֶּׁלּוֹ לַאֲחֵרִים – בְּוַדַּאי הָעֵרוּב יְהֵא מֻנָּח בְּבֵיתוֹ, וְאִם כֵּן אֵינָהּ אוֹסֶרֶת עַל בַּעְלָהּ אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא עֵרְבָה עִמּוֹ,קלח כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן ש"ע.קלט,95 אֲבָל מְזַכֶּה הוּא עַל יְדֵי בְּנוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ סָמוּךְ עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ הוּא קָטָן, כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּצִיאָתוֹ שֶׁלּוֹ, וְעַל יְדֵי בִּתּוֹ שֶׁבָּגְרָה וְאֵינָהּ סְמוּכָה עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, וְעַל יְדֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַעֲלֶה לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת,96 וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵין לָהּ בַּיִת בֶּחָצֵר,קמ כֵּיוָן שֶׁמְּצִיאָתָהּ שֶׁלָּהּ.קמא

וּלְעִנְיַן הֲלָכָה, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר טוֹב לָחוּשׁ לְדִבְרֵי שְׁנֵיהֶם, לְהַחֲמִיר בִּבְנוֹ קָטָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ סָמוּךְ עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, וּבִבְנוֹ גָדוֹל וּבִתּוֹ בּוֹגֶרֶת הַסְּמוּכוֹת עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, וּבְנַעֲרָה97 אֲפִלּוּ אֵינָהּ סְמוּכָה עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, וּבְאִשְׁתּוֹ שֶׁמַּעֲלֶה לָהּ מְזוֹנוֹת כִּסְבָרָא הָאַחֲרוֹנָה.קמב וְכָל זֶה לְכַתְּחִלָּה, אֲבָל בְּדִיעֲבַד סוֹמְכִין עַל דִּבְרֵי הַמֵּקֵל בְּעֵרוּבקמג,98 (וַאֲפִלּוּ לְכַתְּחִלָּה, בְּמָקוֹם שֶׁאִי אֶפְשָׁר בְּעִנְיָן אַחֵר יֵשׁ לְהָקֵל כִּסְבָרָא הָרִאשׁוֹנָה, שֶׁהוּא עִקָּרקמד):

14 According to all authorities, a youth who is married has an independent financial capacity [aside from that of his father] even though he eats at his father’s table. [Hence, a father] can grant [others a share in an eruv]via [a married son who eats at his table, even] as an initial preference. Similarly, all authorities agree that one may grant others [a share in an eruv] via the agency of another person who eats at his table, for example, an orphan whom one raises in his home. [The rationale is that this person] has an independent financial capacity aside from that of the householder, and an [ownerless] lost object that [this person] finds belongs to him, for the reasons that will be explained in Choshen Mishpat, sec. 270.99

יד וּלְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל גָּדוֹל שֶׁיֵּשׁ לוֹ אִשָּׁה אֵין יָדוֹ כְּיַד אָבִיו, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁסָּמוּךְ עַל שֻׁלְחַן אָבִיו, יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹת לְכַתְּחִלָּה עַל יָדוֹ.קמה וְכֵן אַחֵר הַסָּמוּךְ עַל שֻׁלְחָנוֹ, כְּגוֹן מִי שֶׁמְּגַדֵּל יָתוֹם בְּבֵיתוֹ, יָכוֹל לְזַכּוֹת עַל יָדוֹ לְדִבְרֵי הַכֹּל, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֵין יָדוֹ כְּיַד בַּעַל הַבַּיִת וּמְצִיאָתוֹ שֶׁלּוֹקמו מִטַּעַם שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּחֹשֶׁן מִשְׁפָּט סִמָּן ע"ר:קמז,99

15 When a person grants others [a share in an eruv made with his bread], he need not notify them before Shabbos that he established an eruv on their behalf. [The person] may notify [the others] on Shabbos, and they are permitted to carry [in the courtyard]. Even though at the time [the people] acquire their share in the eruv, i.e., bein hashmashos (as will be explained in sec. 393[:3]), they were not aware of the matter at all, it is of no consequence. [The rationale is that] acquiring a share in the eruv is a benefit for a person and a benefit can be acquired on behalf of a person without his knowledge.100

טו הַמְזַכֶּה לַאֲחֵרִים מִשֶּׁלּוֹ אֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ לָהֶם קֹדֶם הַשַּׁבָּת שֶׁעֵרֵב עֲלֵיהֶם, אֶלָּא מוֹדִיעָם בְּשַׁבָּת וְהֵם מֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁבִּשְׁעַת קְנִיַּת הָעֵרוּב, שֶׁהוּא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹת (כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"[ג]קמח), לֹא יָדְעוּ מִמֶּנּוּ כְּלָל – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם, שֶׁקְּנִיַּת עֵרוּב זֶה זְכוּת הוּא לָהֶם, וְזָכִין לְאָדָם שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ:קמט,100

16 When the residents of a courtyard were sharing a meal together in one house [on Friday afternoon] and Shabbos arrived, they may rely on the bread on the table [before them] for the eruv.101[This applies] even when the bread belongs to the owner of the house alone. True, when one makes an eruv with his own [bread], he must grant [a portion of it to the others. Nevertheless, in this instance,] we can assume that such a provision was made, for anyone who invites others to eat at his table grants them [a portion] in all [the food he serves]. The fact that the loaf of bread was not [explicitly] placed on the table for the sake of the eruv is not of consequence.

The above applies when [the people] are dining in a house, where it is fit to deposit [the bread for] the eruv. If, however, they are dining in the courtyard, the eruv is not valid, because an eruv must be deposited in a home.102

So, too, if the residents of the courtyard own bread as part of a business partnership, it is not necessary for them to make an eruv at all, provided the [jointly-owned] bread is stored in a dwelling. [This applies] even if it was not deposited there for the sake of an eruv at all.103

טז בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁהָיוּ מְסֻבִּים לֶאֱכוֹל בְּבֵית אֶחָד מֵהֶם וְקִדֵּשׁ עֲלֵיהֶם הַיּוֹם – הַפַּת שֶׁעַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן סוֹמְכִין עָלָיו מִשּׁוּם עֵרוּב,קנ,101 אֲפִלּוּ הוּא פַּת שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת לְבַדּוֹ. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהַמְעָרֵב מִשֶּׁלּוֹ צָרִיךְ לְזַכּוֹת, בְּכַאן סְתָמוֹ כְּפֵרוּשׁוֹ, שֶׁכֹּל שֶׁזִּמֵּן לֶאֱכוֹל עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן הֲרֵי זִכָּה לָהֶם אֶת הַכֹּל. וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֻנַּח הַפַּת עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן לְשֵׁם עֵרוּב – אֵין בְּכָךְ כְּלוּם.קנא

וְהוּא שֶׁמְּסֻבִּין בַּבַּיִת, שֶׁהוּא מָקוֹם הָרָאוּי לְהַנָּחַת עֵרוּב. אֲבָל אִם מְסֻבִּין בֶּחָצֵר – אֵינוֹ עֵרוּב, שֶׁהֲרֵי הָעֵרוּב צָרִיךְ לִהְיוֹת בְּבֵית דִּירָה.קנב,102

וְכֵן בְּנֵי הֶחָצֵר שֶׁיֵּשׁ לָהֶם פַּת בְּשֻׁתָּפוּת לִסְחוֹרָה אֵינָם צְרִיכִים לְעָרֵב כְּלָל אִם הַפַּת מֻנָּח בְּבֵית דִּירָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא הֻנַּח שָׁם לְשֵׁם עֵרוּב כְּלָל:קנג,103

17 A minor’s guardian may establish an eruv for the sake of the minor [for whom he cares], even through he makes use of the minor’s property without his knowledge. [The rationale is that the guardian] is considered as a member of [the minor’s] household and [a member of the household] may make an eruv for the homeowner without his knowledge, as will be explained in sec. 367[:1].

יז אַפּוֹטְרוֹפּוֹס שֶׁל קָטָן יָכוֹל לְעָרֵב בְּעַד הַקָּטָן אֲפִלּוּ מִשֶּׁל הַקָּטָןקנד שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא לוֹ כְּבֶן בַּיִת, שֶׁיָּכוֹל לְעָרֵב מִשֶּׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁלֹּא מִדַּעְתּוֹ,קנה כְּמוֹ שֶׁיִּתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שס"ז:

18 It is a mitzvah to seek to make eruvin in courtyards so that [people] will not transgress and carry.104

[Before establishing an eruv,] one should recite a blessing, [praising G‑d] “Who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the mitzvah of eruv,” just as one must recite a blessing over all Rabbinic commandments.105

He should [then] say: “Via this eruv, it shall be permissible for us to take out and bring in from [these] houses to the courtyard and from the courtyard to [these] houses and from house to house, for all the houses in the courtyard.” The wording that we use will be explained in sec. 395[:1].106

When should the blessing be recited? [Either] when one collects [the bread] from the residents of the courtyard or when one grants them a share [in one’s own bread], because the blessing for all the mitzvos should be recited before performing them.107

[As mentioned,]108 the custom in these countries is that the synagogue attendant makes the eruv with a challah109that he bakes from the flour that he collected [from all the residents]. If [the synagogue attendant] does not grant [everyone] a share, [he will be reciting] the blessing after the eruv came into being as a matter of course when the challah was baked.110 Nevertheless, he is [considered to be reciting the blessing] before the performance [of the mitzvah], since until Shabbos falls [the people] are not considered to have acquired the eruv, for an eruv is acquired bein hashmashos.111

(According to this [understanding], a person who does not dwell in this city may not recite this blessing. Since he has no portion in this eruv, for what purpose will he be reciting the blessing? [This situation] does not resemble other situations where a person performing a mitzvah on behalf of others may recite a blessing for them,112 because [in those instances,] he is performing [the mitzvah] for them. In this instance, however, [the person] is not doing anything, because the eruv was already established as a matter of course.) Fundamentally, however, [the following approach should be followed]: As explained above, the synagogue attendant should grant [everyone a share in] the eruv and he – or the person acquiring [the eruv]on their behalf – should recite the blessing when he grants them [a share]. ([One may acquire a share in the eruv and recite the blessing on behalf of the residents] even if he does not dwell in the city.)113

If [bread for] the eruv was collected but a blessing was not recited over it, nor was any declaration made, it is permissible to transfer from the houses to the courtyard, because the blessing and the declaration are not indispensable [to the validity of the eruv].114

יח מִצְוָה לַחֲזוֹר אַחַר עֵרוּבֵי חֲצֵרוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יָבֹאוּ לְטַלְטֵל בְּאִסּוּר.קנו,104

וְצָרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עָלָיו "אֲשֶׁר קִדְּשָׁנוּ בְּמִצְוֹתָיו וְצִוָּנוּ עַל מִצְוַת עֵרוּב",קנז כְּמוֹ שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְבָרֵךְ עַל כָּל מִצְוֹת שֶׁל דִּבְרֵיהֶם.קנח,105

וְאוֹמֵר "בְּדֵין עֵרוּבָא יְהֵא שָׁרָא לָנָא לְאַפּוּקֵי וּלְעַיּוּלֵי מִן הַבָּתִּים לְחָצֵר וּמִן הֶחָצֵר לְבָתִּים וּמִבַּיִת לְבַיִתקנט לְכָל הַבָּתִּים שֶׁבֶּחָצֵר".קס וְנוּסַח שֶׁלָּנוּ יִתְבָּאֵר בְּסִמָּן שצ"ה.106

וְאֵימָתַי מְבָרֵךְ? בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּקַבֵּץ אוֹתוֹ מִבְּנֵי הֶחָצֵרקסא אוֹ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּזַכֶּה לָהֶם,קסב מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל הַמִּצְוֹת מְבָרֵךְ עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן.קסג,107

וּלְמִנְהַג מְדִינוֹת אֵלּוּסד,108 שֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ עוֹשֶׂה הָעֵרוּב בְּחַלָּה109 שֶׁאוֹפֶה מֵהַקֶּמַח שֶׁקִּבֵּץ,קסה אִם אֵינוֹ מְזַכֶּה לָהֶם הֲרֵי הַבְּרָכָה הִיא אַחַר שֶׁנַּעֲשָׂה הָעֵרוּב מִמֵּילָא כְּשֶׁנֶּאֱפָה הַחַלָּה,110 וְאַף עַל פִּי כֵן הִיא עוֹבֵר לַעֲשִׂיָּתָן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּל שֶׁלֹּא נִכְנַס שַׁבָּת עֲדַיִן לֹא קָנָה עֵרוּב, שֶׁקְּנִיַּת עֵרוּב הִיא בֵּין הַשְּׁמָשׁוֹתקסו,111 (וּלְפִי זֶה אָדָם אַחֵר שֶׁאֵינוֹ דָר בְּעִיר זוֹ אֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ בְּרָכָה זוֹ, שֶׁכֵּיוָן שֶׁאֵינוֹ שַׁיָּךְ בְּעֵרוּב זֶה – עַל מָה יְבָרֵךְ? וְאֵינוֹ דוֹמֶה לִשְׁאָר מִצְוֹת, שֶׁהָעוֹשֶׂה מִצְוָה לַאֲחֵרִים יָכוֹל לְבָרֵךְ עַל עֲשִׂיָּתָהּקסז,112 מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה אוֹתָהּ לָהֶם, אֲבָל כַּאן אֵינוֹ עוֹשֶׂה כְּלוּם, שֶׁהָעֵרוּב נַעֲשָׂה כְּבָר מִמֵּילָא). אֲבָל הָעִקָּר כְּמוֹ שֶׁנִּתְבָּאֵר לְמַעְלָה,108 שֶׁהַשַּׁמָּשׁ יְזַכֶּה לָהֶם הָעֵרוּב, וִיבָרֵךְ בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁמְּזַכֶּה אוֹ הוּא אוֹ הַזּוֹכֶה לָהֶם (וַאֲפִלּוּ אֵינוֹ דָר בְּעִיר זוֹ).113

וְאִם גָּבוּ הָעֵרוּב וְלֹא בֵרְכוּ עָלָיוקסח וְלֹא אָמְרוּ עָלָיו כְּלוּםקסט – אֵין הַבְּרָכָה וְהָאֲמִירָה מְעַכֶּבֶת, וּמֻתָּרִים לְטַלְטֵל מִבָּתִּים לֶחָצֵר:קע,114